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Kwek Yan Chong, Hugh T. W. Tan and Richard T. Corlett

Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research National University of Singapore Singapore 2009



Kwek Yan Chong Hugh T. W. Tan
Plant Systematics Laboratory Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 Email:;

Richard T. Corlett
Terrestrial Ecology Laboratory Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore 14 Science Drive 4, Singapore 117543 Email:

Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research National University of Singapore Singapore 2009

A Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore: Native, Naturalised and Cultivated Species by K. Y. Chong, H. T. W. Tan and R. T. Corlett is published by the: Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research and Department of Biological Sciences Faculty of Science National University of Singapore Blk S6, #03-01, Science Drive 2 Singapore 117546 Republic Of Singapore Website: Email: Editor: Typesetter: Hugh T. W. Tan Chua Keng Soon

Cover photograph by Hugh T. W. Tan. Flowers of the Singapore kopsia (Kopsia singapurensis), a species endemic to Singapore and Peninsular Malaysia, which is nationally critically endangered in Singapore. Singapore populations consist of only a few individuals in the Nee Soon Swamp Forest.

ISBN 978-981-08-4030-3 (online)

© 2009 Raffles Museum of Biodiversity Research All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form, or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording or otherwise, without the prior permission of the copyright holder. For information regarding permission(s) please write to:

CONTENTS Singapore ............................................................................................................................................. 1 Floristic Changes.................................................................................................................................. 2 Reference Sources................................................................................................................................ 3 General Statistics.................................................................................................................................. 5 Acknowledgements.............................................................................................................................. 6 Citation of this Book ............................................................................................................................ 6 Literature Cited .................................................................................................................................... 6 Part 1: Species List in Alphabetical Order......................................................................................... 10 Part 2: Species List by Phyla and Families ........................................................................................ 92 Part 3: Species List by Status .......................................................................................................... 186

SINGAPORE The Republic of Singapore consists of a group of 59 islands located at latitude 1o N and longitude 104o E, off the southernmost tip of continental Asia, separated by the Straits of Johore from Peninsular Malaysia in the north. The country has a combined land area of 710 km2 as at 2008, and coupled with a mid-year estimate population of 4,987,600 has a population density of 6,814 per km2 for 2008 (Singapore Department of Statistics, 2009), so making Singapore the second most densely populated country after Monaco (United Nations Population Division, 2009). Singapore has a typical equatorial climate, where temperature varies little between months of the year. Mean daily minimum and maximum temperatures are 23.9 and 32.3oC, respectively, with an average annual rainfall of 2,191 mm (Meteorological Services Division, 2009). Rainfall generally falls throughout the year, but the northeast monsoon winds from Dec. to early Mar. bring significantly heavier rainfall than the drier southeast monsoon from Jun.–Sep. (Meteorological Services Division, 2009). Topographically, Singapore is rather flat and has only small hills, with the highest at 163 m being the summit of Bukit Timah (Malay, tin hill) (MICA, 2009). Singapore gained its independence from the British in 1959, and in 1965 became a sovereign, independent and democratic nation after its separation from Malaysia. Despite very limited natural resources, it achieved much development quickly, prompting its description as an economic miracle (MICA, 2009). Singapore today is a modern metropolis in the heart of tropical Asia with core industries in electronics, chemicals, financial services, oil drilling equipment, petroleum refining, rubber processing and products, processed food and beverages, ship repair, offshore platform construction, life sciences, and entrepôt trade (MICA, 2009). It possesses one of the world’s busiest seaports―in 2007 it handled the most 20-foot container equivalent units, and handled the second highest tonnage of cargo (American Association of Port Authorities, 2009). Singapore’s threeterminal airport, Changi Airport serves more than 80 airlines flying to over 190 cities in 60 countries, so is a major aviation hub for the Asia Pacific region (Changi Airport Group, 2009). The airport handles more than 37 million passengers per year, and for the period 2004–2008, averaged 1.85 million tonnes of air freight (Changi Airport Group, 2009). Singapore has a large tourist industry with 10.2 million tourist arrivals in 2008, 10.3 million in 2007, and 9.8 million in 2006 (Singapore Tourism Board, 2007, 2008). Present-day Singapore is also a garden city, the result of decades of work to implement then Prime Minister Lee Kuan Yew’s vision of integrating the environment with development, a “clean and green” approach starting with the first tree planting campaign in 1963 (National Parks Board, 2009a). Going beyond this, current Prime Minister Lee Hsien Loong envisions Singapore as a city of “gardens and water” by integrating parks with the water bodies (Leong, 2007). Visitors today 1

then along its coasts. redirected.2 km2 of 2008 (Singapore Department of Statistics. Secondary forests. 1901). Few.1 km2 (Tan et al. the natural biome of Singapore―the tropical rainforest―would have covered all land areas. and further upstream along streams and rivers.015 ha (National Parks Board. with a small component of beach vegetation along the narrow sandy beaches (Corlett. 2009). and Pandan Reservoirs (Wee & Corlett.. 2 . Punggol and Serangoon Reservoirs. FLORISTIC CHANGES Before the arrival of humans. and creeks by mangrove forests (13%). N.358 ha―the Bukit Timah. 1884). regrowth mangrove forests. Thus most of the original forest cover had been felled by the time of the arrival of H. Tan et al. gardens and other managed vegetation (Corlett. replete with neatly planted streetscapes covering 2. Murton. or dammed to form the Kranji. and most of the mangrove forests were very degraded because of over-exploitation (Cantley. H. 1986). Coastal areas were transformed by land reclamation of numerous reefs and subtidal habitats which increased land area from an estimated 578. Lower Seletar. truly appreciate the immense diversity of plants that this country holds for its tiny size. would note the bustling streets and high-rise commercial buildings and public housing residential apartments or private condominiums. Central Catchment and Labrador Nature Reserves. Superintendent of the Singapore Botanic Gardens. 2007). 2009b). 2007) as well as the newly constructed or soon to be completed Marina. Today. patches of low secondary forest and scrub. the National Parks Board (NParks) (Wee & Corlett.Chong et al. an increase of 22. freshwater swamp forest (about 5%). first director of the Singapore Botanic Gardens in 1888 (Holttum. Occupation by the British led to deforestation and the introduction of cash crops and plantation agriculture by mostly Chinese smallholder farmers. With the rapid industrialisation from the 1960s onwards that followed a self-governed Singapore came another series of successive redevelopments for higher intensity land use. there was only a small population of about 150 mostly living at the mouth of the Singapore River. wasteland. 1992. so Singapore’s more visible plants are a mixture of both wild and cultivated species. Ridley included the records of his predecessors. and made into concretized canals and ditches for water catchment and drainage. J. 1986). Singapore’s vascular plants grow in a mosaic of surviving primary forest and tall secondary forest nature reserves. 1957) and his first compilation of the Singapore flora (Ridley. A second wave of exotic plant introductions came through ornamentals that were used for streetscapes or landscaping the built-up areas as implemented by the then Parks and Recreation Department and then in its present form. However. Ridley. 25 park connectors as well as open spaces covering of 2. lawns. and 56 regional and 242 neighbourhood parks. Some of these exotic agricultural crops such as rubber (Hevea brasiliensis) or gambier (Uncaria gambir) still survive today as part of the flora in secondary or wasteland vegetation. as well as Sungei Buloh Wetland Reserve (National Parks Board. so that by the time of the first forest survey in 1883 by Nathaniel Cantley. Nathaniel Wallich from 1822. for his compilation.. agricultural land. and Nathaniel Cantley. including 30 Chinese who cultivated gambier (Uncaria gambir). the crop that would ultimately devastate the natural landscape irreversibly (Wee & Corlett. and the greenery of parks. 2007) to 710. and wasteland were cleared to build factories or public housing. It is estimated that the primeval Singapore Island was mostly covered in dipterocarp forest (82%). 2009b).. 1991).517 ha. estuaries. 1986. including those of William Jack from 1819.1819. When modern Singapore’s founder. 1900. Many residents have also hiked through the forests of its four nature reserves covering 3. however.9%! Drainage patterns were drastically changed as rivers and streams were straightened. only 7% of primary dry-land forest remained because of agriculture. Tan et al. Sir Stamford Raffles landed in Singapore on the morning of 29 Jan.

1994.. Turner. once-rich heritage. so previous compilations have either confined themselves to the wild or cultivated species. were placed in a category called ‘weed of uncertain origin’ (WUO). Keng. 1997). Lastly. and a planting list from HortPark. if not all. the Flora of Syonan was compiled by the staff of the Singapore Botanic Gardens Herbarium. Turner et al. Ibrahim et al. 1974a. naturalised or escaped but were listed as cultivated were included in the list as exotics that are ‘cultivated only’. 1993). (2006). and Turner (1993). a ‘Gardening Hub’ administered by the NParks. (2004) as modified by us (Table 2). 2008) updated the conservation status categories of the threatened native plant species. Turner (1993).Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore RECORDS OF WILD AND CULTIVATED VASCULAR PLANT SPECIES Singapore’s ‘Garden City’ label tends to make one overlook the remnant plant species of its wild. The checklists and floras of vascular plant species made in the 1990s such as Turner et al. REFERENCE SOURCES A list of vascular plant species was compiled from the checklists of Turner et al. 3 . while floristic records compiled by Singapore botanists have correspondingly ignored the cultivated and horticultural species that dominate its present landscape. 1974b. 1985–1987)]. (2006). [It must be noted that Keng (1990) is a compilation of H.g. and updated using recent revisions and additions (e. the cultivated species in Singapore. the 2nd Edition of the Singapore Red Data Book (Davison et al. Keng et al. (1990). (1990). 1983. but not combined them both. 1973. during the Japanese occupation of Singapore during World War II (Turner.g. The only fairly complete cultivated plant species list is that of Boo et al. Keng’s Annotated lists of seed plants of Singapore I–XI (Keng. 1997. The number of species in each list is given in Table 1. This list of native species and spontaneous exotic species was then cross-checked with the lists of locally cultivated plants by Boo et al. 1978. 1976. 1980. 1990. (1998) included mainly native species. 1995a. The first Singapore plant checklist was that of Ridley (1900. Cultivated varieties (cultivars) and taxa not identified to species were excluded from this list. and Keng et al. Species that were locally only found in open. the PRIME list from the NParks which captures records of all plants cultivated within Singapore (including the Singapore Botanic Gardens). The reference sources may have already classified the listed plant species as native.. Only a few of the more common cultivated species were included in some of the lists (e. 1998). Plants that were not previously found to be native. 1901). the NParks have developed a database of species already cultivated in Singapore for their selection of candidates for streetscape planting (the PRIME list). disturbed or man-made habitats that did not occur in primeval Singapore. Subsequently.. or naturalised (naturalised alien species). 1994. The inclusion of the spontaneous exotic species of most of these previous lists were built upon the list by Corlett (1988).We would expect that these sources should cover most. we have prepared a checklist of the wild and cultivated vascular plants of Singapore. Based on all these developments. Flora of Syonan. escaped. Wild plant species lists have been more frequently compiled. but their classification was reviewed and standardised by us to adopt the definitions of Pyšek et al. 1982. From that.. Keng (1990). but do not have strong enough biogeographic or historical information for us to consider them as exotics..

native. (1998) Boo et al. included many cultivars and unidentified species Cultivated plants. 2007) HortPark planting list (as at Jun.Naturalised 2. (2008). exotic. native and exotic. casual and naturalised Monocots. native. and those classified as nationally extinct are those non-endemic species which have not been seen in or collected from the wild in the last 30 years. Classification system for vascular plant species used in this study. Species with more than 1. naturalised and cultivated Cultivated plants. 2008). 2.Extinct 1.1.2. usually sexuallyreproducing populations. Table 1. or a weed of uncertain origin. (2006) PRIME list (as at May.1. Primary reference sources from which the total vascular flora of Singapore was compiled. Exotic species that form self-replacing.1. 2004) Species that have originated in a given area without human involvement or have arrived there without intentional or unintentional intervention of humans from an area in which they are native. Native species classified as critically endangered. Each species is first classified as either native. included many cutivars Cultivated plants. Exotic species that can only be found in cultivation or under direct human care.2. included many cultivars and unidentified species Table 2. Species whose presence is a result of either intentional or unintentional human involvement. endangered. (1990) Turner (1993) Keng et al. Native species classified as globally extinct are species endemic to Singapore and not seen in or collected from the wild in the last 30 years.Chong et al. Cultivated varieties (cultivars) and taxa not identified to species level were excluded from this list. naturalised and cultivated Vascular plants.Extant 2. Both these lists are unpublished. Status 1.Spontaneous 2.1. Species without biogeographical or historical evidence of being non-native. 2nd Edition (Davison. Source Keng (1990) Turner et al. while the HortPark planting list provided the species of plants that were cultivated there.Weed of Uncertain Origin (WUO) 4 . Natives are then categorised as either extinct or extant as defined in the Singapore Red Data Book. 1. native and exotic. The PRIME list is a database of plant species that have been recorded in cultivation by the NParks.2009) No. but are restricted to only human-modified or humandisturbed habitats. of Species 1285 2520 2505 595 1900+ 2610 636 Kinds of Plant Species Documented Dicots and gymnosperms. Exotics are categorised as either spontaneous or cultivated only. Each reference source may deal with specific plant groups and was not comprehensive on its own. Exotic species that do not form self-replacing populations and rely on repeated introductions or limited asexual reproduction for persistence.Exotic 2. native and exotic. Casuals and naturalised exotic species are sub-categories of spontaneous exotics. or vulnerable are are as defined by Davison (2008).1.000 mature individuals are considered common.Cultivated Only 3. Our categories for each of the threatened species include additions and corrections to those of Tan et al.2.Native Categories Definitions (adapted from Pyšek et al. native and naturalised Vascular plants. native.Casual Exotic species that survive outside cultivation or without direct human care..

2%) are still extant and 639 (29. 2008).0%. there are bound to be some errors and omissions. and Turner (1995b). Kew World Checklists (World Checklist of Selected Plant Families.580 genera.) Hawkes. and Gnetophyta with a combined total of 40 species) make up 1. all of which are angiosperms. 2008) and the e-PROSEA (e-PROSEA. 2001 onwards).3%) are native and 1826 (43. Life forms of Raunkjaer (1936) used in the Kew World Checklists are adapted thus: ‘hydrophytes’. The other three are considered globally extinct. Synonyms used by the more recent literature are indicated for ease of reference. Of the natives. the Kew World Checklists. Additionally. Spatholobus ridleyi King. Flickingeria laciniosa (Ridl. as reflected in the lists in Parts 1–3. 243 families and six phyla (Lycophyta. the total number of taxa is 4. are the dominant phylum.3% of the total). ARS. the total vascular plant flora of Singapore consists of 4. the PIER database (US Forest Service. Family assignations of the angiosperms.3%) can be found only in cultivation. Cycadophyta. Pacific Island Ecosystems at Risk. ‘nanophanerophytes’ were considered shrubs and ‘phanerophytes’. The investigation by Kiew & Turner (2003) into recorded claims of endemic plant taxa concluded that only four species. Wherever available. The remaining 209 (5.506 species (70. National Genetic Resources Program. followed by the ferns and fern allies (Filicinophyta and Lycophyta with a combined total of 199 species) making up 4. In such a large list.180 species from 1. 1.0%) species are classified as weeds of uncertain origin (WUO).8%. We welcome feedback from readers to update and improve the accuracy of this checklist. the life forms provided in the checklists of Turner (1995b) were used. the gymnosperms (Pinophyta. can be considered strictly endemic to Singapore. If all these are included.145 species (51.941 species (94. GENERAL STATISTICS From this study. LegumeWeb (International Legume Database & Information Service. consisting of 3. and Thunbergia dasychlamys Bremek. the vascular flora of Singapore continues to be in flux. 323 species (17. respectively. Flora Malesiana Series II. The remainder. The angiosperms (Magnoliophyta). Of these.7%) occur spontaneously in the wild.8%) are globally or nationally extinct. undated) were also referred to.7%) are exotic species. 2008) or specific family or generic taxonomic revisions. The Royal Botanic Gardens.503 (82. with continual introduction and naturalisation of exotics. and Magnoliophyta).Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore Specific names and naming authorities follow the information provided by the International Plant Names Index (2004–2009) and the latest revisions found in the Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) (USDA. ‘geophytes’ and ‘hemicryptophytes’ were treated as herbs.192. 2005). Pinophyta. Gnetophyta. Cycadophyta. This checklist is the most complete compilation of the vascular plant species of Singapore to date. as well as decline and extinction of native species. 5 . and the remaining vascular plant groups follow those of the Angiosperm Phylogeny Website (Stevens. ferns. Spatholobus ridleyi was recently collected in 1997. 2. Strychnos ridleyi King & Gamble. Of the exotics. Life forms and growth habits in the LegumeWeb database. Future editions of this checklist will correct errors and update the information. There are eight species consisting of two subspecific taxa (varieties or subspecies) and two species consisting of three varieites. as trees. Filicinophyta. outside of human cultivation while the remaining 1.

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Fabaceae. Fabaceae. weed of uncertain origin Abutilon pictum (Gillies ex Hook. Muell. Acanthaceae. cultivated only Acacia kekapur I.) Müll. extinct Acroceras munroanum (Balansa) Henr. Orchidaceae. weed of uncertain origin Acoelorraphe wrightii (Griseb.. naturalised Acacia cincinnata F. 9. ex Benth. Euphorbiaceae. 7.) Fosberg. Kew. Amaranthaceae. var.) Müll. Don. Cunn. & H. Euphorbiaceae.. Pteridaceae. (Accessed Oct. Euphorbiaceae. Pteridaceae. Arg. casual Acalypha variegata Rusby. World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. Konig) Retz. ex Becc. weed of uncertain origin Acmella uliginosa (Sw. 2. 18. extinct Acacia mangium Willd.2007–Feb. 20... 5.) P. Malvaceae. ex Gage. Fabaceae. 15. Sapindaceae.. 13. cultivated only Acalypha hispida Burm. 34. Asteraceae.. 5) then national status in Singapore based on Table 2 (p.Arg. 30. 26. 29.. cultivated only Achyranthes aspera L. 4). Fabaceae. Malvaceae.. cultivated only Acacia concinna (Willd. Poaceae.. author name(s).. 4. vulnerable Acanthus ilicifolius L.) Kuntze.. cultivated only Acacia holosericea A. Malvaceae. vulnerable Acer palmatum Thunb. common Acrostichum speciosum Willd. Abelmoschus esculentus (L.. 11. 2008. 33. weed of uncertain origin Acalypha siamensis Oliv. common Acanthus volubilis Wall. based on information sources indicated under Reference Sources (pp. http://apps. 8. Malvaceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore World Checklist of Selected Plant Families. naturalised Acacia nilotica (L. 37. cultivated only Acalypha amentacea Roxb. Fabaceae. cultivated only Acriopsis liliifolia (J. Orchidaceae. 21... 17. Asteraceae. Acanthaceae. casual Acrostichum aureum L. & H.. ex G. casual Abrus precatorius L. Fabaceae. extinct Acacia confusa Merr. Acoraceae. Arecaceae. 36. 3. f. ssp.) Walp. 12. Acanthaceae. Wendl. f... Niels. javanica (Miq. cultivated only Acorus gramineus Sol.. 19. critically endangered Acriopsis ridleyi Hook. 14. Cunn. naturalised Abutilon indicum (L. & Arn. 3.) Cass.) Arg. cultivated only Acalypha indica L. Euphorbiaceae. A 1. extinct 9 .. Fabaceae. cultivated only Acalypha chamaedrifolia (Lam. Fabaceae. 23. Euphorbiaceae. The Board of Trustees of the Royal Botanic Gardens. naturalised Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. Fabaceae. weed of uncertain origin Acalypha lanceolata Willd. and family. Euphorbiaceae. 31.. Wendl.. 32. 28. cultivated only Acacia auriculiformis A.kew. wilkesiana (Müll. cultivated only Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. PART 1 SPECIES LIST IN ALPHABETICAL ORDER Each entry consists firstly of the species name. 6.) H. 22. common Actephila excelsa (Dalz. 25. cultivated only Abelmoschus moschatus critically endangered Actinodaphne macrophylla (Blume) Nees.) Moench. 27.2008).) DC. 24.. Euphorbiaceae.) Delile. 16. 35. Phyllanthaceae.. vulnerable Actinodaphne glomerata (Blume) Nees. Lauraceae. 10. Lauraceae.

extinct Adenosma indicum (Lour. cultivated only Aeschynanthus albidus (Blume) Steud. Adiantaceae. Page.. 67. & Schult. Pentaphylacaceae. Agavaceae. 56. 43. Bromeliaceae. Fabaceae.) Goetgh. endangered Actinorhytis calapparia (Blume) H. Bromeliaceae. 78. Br.) C. cultivated only Aganope heptaphylla (L. Plantaginaceae.. 83. Agavaceae. Muell. 54.J.. extinct Aeschynanthus speciosus Hook. Rutaceae. cultivated only Adenoncos major Ridl. 69. Fabaceae. R. cultivated only Aechmea chantinii (Carriere) Baker. endangered Adiantum fructuosum Spreng.) Baker. cultivated only Agave tequilana F. extinct Adiantum trapeziforme L. singaporeana (Wall. cultivated only Aegiceras corniculatum (L.. cultivated only Adiantum stenochlamys Baker. weed of uncertain origin Adenosma javanicum (Blume) Koord. 71. vulnerable Adenanthera pavonina L. & D. Pentaphylacaceae. Wendl. Bromeliaceae. endangered Actinodaphne pruinosa Nees. Sm. Plantaginaceae. cultivated only Aechmea fulgens Brongn.. Adiantaceae. weed of uncertain origin Adenosma inopinatum Prain... Araucariaceae. 76.) F. common Adinandra integerrima T. Gesneriaceae.) Polhill. Fabaceae. Weber. 57. cultivated only Actinoscirpus grossus (L. cultivated only Adenanthera malayana Kosterm.. 84. vulnerable Agathis borneensis Warb. 40.. Araucariaceae. 75. 45. Arecaceae. Podocarpaceae. Fabaceae.. Fabaceae.C. 73. cultivated only Agave attenuata Salm-Dyck. 60. A. weed of uncertain origin Adiantum flabellulatum L. extinct Adiantum latifolium Lam. 47.. cultivated only Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib.. Gesneriaceae. Orchidaceae.) Polhill. Cyperaceae. Lauraceae. 50. 65. 86. Forst. critically endangered Aeschynomene americana L. cultivated only Agathis dammara (Lamb.) Becc. Myrsinaceae. Simpson. Actinodaphne malaccensis Hook.. ex Dyer. 70. extinct Adonidia merrillii (Becc. var. naturalised Adiantum raddianum C. Adiantaceae. 68.. & Drude.. Malvaceae. 59. cultivated only Afzelia quanzensis Welw. 53. 41. Plantaginaceae.. Adiantaceae. N. Adiantaceae. M.. 82.. 42. 64.. Pentaphylacaceae. Gesneriaceae. ex G. 58. common Adenostemma viscosum J.) Correa. common Adansonia digitata L. Asteraceae. 48. endangered Aegle marmelos (L. & G. naturalised Adiantum hispidulum Sw. Apocynaceae. naturalised Afgekia sericea Craib.) Merr.. critically endangered Aeschynanthus parvifolius R. 52. Fabaceae. cultivated only Agave americana L.. cultivated only 10 . cultivated only Afrocarpus gracilior (Pilg. critically endangered Adinandra dumosa Jack.) Blanco. Fabaceae. Passifloraceae. Presl. extinct Aeschynanthus radicans Jack. 77. f. Lauraceae. Agavaceae. Bailey.A. 62. Adiantaceae.. 87. 74. cultivated only Agave angustifolia Haw. extinct Adenoncos sumatrana J. 88. 79. 72. cultivated only Agathis robusta (C. 46. 44. Gesneriaceae. 49. naturalised Aeschynomene indica L.. Forst. vulnerable Adenium obesum (Forssk. Araucariaceae. critically endangered Aganope thyrsiflora (Benth. Gesneriaceae.Chong et al. f. Fabaceae. Fabaceae.) Roem. Don) de Wilde.) Rich. cultivated only Adinandra acuminata Korth. 85... 66. 51. cultivated only Aeschynanthus wallichii Benn. 61. 63. naturalised Adenia macrophylla (Blume) Koord.. Arecaceae. Moore ex F. 38. Anders.. 39. 55.. Orchidaceae. Agavaceae. 81. cultivated only Aechmea fasciata (Lindl. Adiantaceae. 80.

extinct Aglaodorum griffithii (Schott) Schott. critically endangered Aglaia duperreana Pierre. cultivated only Aglaia elliptica Blume. ebenaceum (C. 115. critically endangered Alangium uniloculare (Griff. extinct Aidia auriculata (Wall. critically endangered Aglaia formosana Hayata. 131. Br. 106. cultivated only Aglaonema nebulosum N. ssp. Araceae. extinct Agrostophyllum stipulatum (Griff. Meliaceae. extinct Agrostophyllum majus Hook. f. vulnerable Aglaonema nitidum (Jack) Kunth. 103. Meliaceae. Meliaceae. Meliaceae. extinct Aglaomorpha speciosa (Blume) Roos. 94. 122. extinct Aglaia tomentosa Teijsm.. S. 95. 121. 93. Rubiaceae. Meliaceae. 100. 132. Polypodiaceae.) Harms. 120.. 133. critically endangered Aglaia spectabilis (Miq. 136.) Schuit.. f. 97. 138. Araceae. f. Meliaceae. critically endangered Aglaia sexipetala Griff.B. Orchidaceae. Meliaceae. cultivated only Aidia densiflora (Wall...) Pellegrin. Meliaceae. 101. cultivated only Albizia pedicellata Baker ex Benth. Meliaceae.B.) Schltr. critically endangered 11 . 124. Cornaceae. 92.. 99.) Wang.Sm. Meliaceae. Meliaceae. Araceae.. 135. critically endangered Aglaia rufinervis (Blume) Bentv.. 90. Asteraceae. Meliaceae. critically endangered Ajuga reptans L. cultivated only Alangium javanicum (Blume) Wangerin var.) Masam.) Schltr.. Meliaceae. Araceae.E.) Pannell. 109. Fabaceae. 102. 96. extinct Aglaia exstipulata (Griff. 116. Euphorbiaceae. Connaraceae. common Agrostistachys gaudichaudii Müll. Meliaceae. 98. extinct Aglaia palembanica Miq. Cornaceae.) King. critically endangered Aglaia leucophylla King. cultivated only Aglaia odoratissima Blume. Rubiaceae. Meliaceae.. critically endangered Aglaia multinervis Pannell. 113. 105. Cornaceae.) S. casual Aglaonema costatum N. critically endangered Aglaia simplicifolia (Bedd.) W.Clarke) Berhaman. 119. & Binn. critically endangered Aglaia oligophylla Miq.) Ridsdale. common Aglaonema tenuipes Engl. Clarke) Harms. Fabaceae. Fabaceae. Meliaceae. 127. cultivated only Aglaia leptantha Miq. Br. critically endangered Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. Meliaceae. critically endangered Aglaia tenuicaulis Hiern. naturalised Aglaia cucullata (Roxb. costatum. extinct Aglaia odorata Lour.. vulnerable Agelaea macrophylla (Zoll. critically endangered Alangium ridleyi King.. bicuspidatum (J. Arg. 126. 137. 110. Jain & Bennet. critically endangered Ageratum conyzoides L.. Agelaea borneensis (Hook.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 89. f.. 130. 104. Orchidaceae.. 118.. 114.. Meliaceae.. Theob.) Pannell.) Merr.) Leenh. critically endangered Alangium nobile (C. 111. Connaraceae. critically endangered Aidia cochinchinensis Lour. Orchidaceae. Meliaceae. 123. Araceae. cultivated only Albizia lebbeck (L. extinct Aglaonema commutatum Schott.) Benth... extinct Agrostophyllum stipulatum (Griff.J.. 128. extinct Alangium salviifolium (L. Euphorbiaceae. Rubiaceae. 129... Meliaceae. vulnerable Ailanthus integrifolia Lam. Araceae. Meliaceae. 125. extinct Aglaia malaccensis (Ridl. 117. vulnerable Aglaonema simplex Blume.. Araceae. Cornaceae. 108.E. 107. 91. 112. extinct Aglaia rubiginosa (Hiern) Pannell. Simaroubaceae. 134. Cornaceae. critically endangered Aglaia macrocarpa (Miq.. cultivated only Agrostistachys borneensis (Wight) Benth. Lamiaceae..

extinct Alstonia angustifolia Wall.) G. Apocynaceae.. Schum. Asphodelaceae. 142. 153. Lauraceae. Br. 144. Apocynaceae... Amaranthaceae. DC. 162. Amaranthaceae. Euphorbiaceae. Don. naturalised Aloe variegata L. DC. cultivated only Alocasia cucullata (Lour. 161. weed of uncertain origin Alloxylon flammeum P. 163. cultivated only Allmania nodiflora R... 170. Proteaceae.. Apocynaceae. Arg. ex G. Apocynaceae. 154.) Müll. extinct Albizia saman (Jacq. Apocynaceae. Araceae. Arecaceae. f. DC. cultivated only Alpinia rafflesiana Wall. Fabaceae. St.. 182. 143. L. 139. 172. extinct Alpinia galanga (L. 174. Amaranthaceae. naturalised Amblygonocarpus andongensis (Welw. Annonaceae. 148. cultivated only 12 . 180. 176. Amaranthaceae.. critically endangered Alpinia conchigera Griff. Zingiberaceae. cultivated only Amesiodendron chinense (Merr. cultivated only Alternanthera paronychioides A. Alliaceae.) R.Chong et al. naturalised Amaranthus spinosus L. Fabaceae. 186. naturalised Alternanthera ficoidea (L. 184. critically endangered Alstonia scholaris (L. den Berger. Lauraceae. Sapindaceae. 190. 156. 158. 169. Fabaceae. cultivated only Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. 160. 157. 179. Fabaceae. cultivated only Allamanda blanchetii A. 164. & Thoms. common Alstonia angustiloba Miq. common Amaranthus blitum L.) Griseb. 175. Apocynaceae. ex A. Amaranthaceae.) Burm.. critically endangered Alseodaphne nigrescens (Gamble) Kostermans.. 167. Br.. 151.) P. extinct Alpinia vittata W. ex Wight.. casual Allamanda oenotherifolia Pohl. vulnerable Alstonia spectabilis R.. common Alstonia macrophylla Wall.) Stapf. Apocynaceae. 166.) R.G. ssp. naturalised Alternanthera sessilis (L.) B. 149.) Exell & Torre. 181. 177. 165. 150. Euphorbiaceae. 188.. ex L. naturalised Alstonia pneumatophora Back. in Baker. common Alocasia macrorrhizos (L. Bull.) G. critically endangered Aleurites moluccana (L. extinct Alchornea villosa (Benth. Sapindaceae. cultivated only Alocasia longiloba Miq.. weed of uncertain origin Alysicarpus vaginalis (L. Beauv. Zingiberaceae.) Sw.. cultivated only Alseodaphne bancana Miq.. Amaranthaceae. Lauraceae. 173. Araceae. cultivated only Allamanda cathartica L. H. Zingiberaceae. cultivated only Alpinia zerumbet (Pers. Araceae. oleraceus (L.. M. 187.) Willd. ex Oliv.) Merr. Zingiberaceae. 146.. weed of uncertain origin Alyxia pilosa Miq. 155.) K. cultivated only Allamanda schottii Pohl. cultivated only Aloe vera (L.. Apocynaceae.. Zingiberaceae..) Roscoe. cultivated only Allium sativum L. Euphorbiaceae. Br. casual Allagoptera campestris (Mart.) DC. 147.) Reausch. Nicholson. cultivated only Alphonsea maingayi Hook..) Costea. Zingiberaceae.-Hil. 159. 152. 145. f.) Hu. cultivated only Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) G. Zingiberaceae. Fabaceae. endangered Alchornea rugosa (Lour.. extinct Alpinia purpurata (Vieill. 140.. Amaranthaceae. 185. Arg. Don. critically endangered Alseodaphne intermedia Kostermans. 171. ex DC. 189.. Amaranthaceae. Weston & Crisp. extinct Alyxia reinwardtii Blume. Sm. Albizia retusa Benth. Asphodelaceae. common Allophylus cobbe (L. 183. Apocynaceae. Apocynaceae..... Apocynaceae. 168. critically endangered Alpinia aquatica (Retz. Apocynaceae. 141. common Alloteropsis cimicina (L. Poaceae. Br.) Kuntze.. casual Albizia splendens Miq. Apocynaceae.) Müll. Burtt & R. 178. Zingiberaceae. casual Alpinia mutica Roxb. cultivated only Alstonia spathulata Blume.

Apocynaceae.. Vitaceae. critically endangered Ampelocissus thyrsiflora (Blume) Planch. striatus M. 224.. Orchidaceae. 225. endangered Amylotheca duthieana (King) Danser..) Merr.) Nicolson. common Anisophyllea griffithii Oliv. 219. Lamiaceae. Acanthaceae. Turner.) Planch. 220.. cultivated only Anisoptera laevis Ridl. Annonaceae. 199. Thelypteridaceae. 206. 198. 236.. Araceae.) Hoffm.. critically endangered Anisoptera costata Korth.B. casual Ananas nanus (L.. endangered Ampelocissus polystachya (Wall. Amherstia nobilis Wall. cultivated only Ananas comosus (L. Dipterocarpaceae.) Schult. var. Plantaginaceae... & M. cultivated only 13 . 227. vulnerable Aniseia martinicensis (Jacq. cultivated only Angelonia salicariifolia Bonpl. cultivated only Anodendron candolleanum Wight..) Wall. Araceae. extinct Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex Andre. Vitaceae. Annonaceae. 233. Bignoniaceae. endangered Ampelocissus gracilis (Wall. cultivated only Annona muricata L.. extinct Ananas bracteatus (Lindl. Anisophyllaceae. Thelypteridaceae. naturalised Amomum hastilabium Ridl. 213. Ancistrocladaceae.) Holttum. Fabaceae. 212.) L. 229. casual Anacolosa frutescens (Blume) Blume. cultivated only Anathallis acuminata (Kunth) Pridgeon & M. Anisophyllaceae. Dipterocarpaceae. Foster. extinct Anacardium occidentale L. critically endangered Anisoptera megistocarpa Slooten.. weed of uncertain origin Anisophyllea corneri Ding Hou.Chase. Sm. 203.W. extinct Anisoptera curtisii Dyer ex King. Vitaceae. critically endangered Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst. f. Vitaceae.. 216. 200. cultivated only Amorphophallus prainii Hook. Dipterocarpaceae. critically endangered Anoectochilus geniculatus Ridl. ex Nees.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 191.. 240.. Anacardiaceae. & Schult. Vitaceae.. Marattiaceae. critically endangered Andira inermis (W. Bromeliaceae. critically endangered Anisoptera scaphula Pierre. Schum. Anisophyllaceae. Loranthaceae. 237. cultivated only Angelonia biflora Benth. endangered Amphineuron terminans (Hook.. 230. 208.) Choisy. extinct Ampelocissus elegans (Kurz) Gegnep. naturalised Anisomeles indica (L. cultivated only Annona reticulata L. cultivated only Ampelocissus ascendiflora Latiff. 218. Zingiberaceae. Orchidaceae. f. extinct Anaxagorea javanica Blume. 228.. casual Annona squamosa L.. critically endangered Ancistrocladus tectorius (Lour. cultivated only Amydrium medium (Z. 202. 201.. 194. critically endangered Ammannia baccifera L. Araceae. 204. 205. 209. 214. cultivated only Anisophyllea disticha (Jack) Baill. 238. Araceae. f. 222. Commelinaceae. 196. Annonaceae. Fabaceae. 195. extinct Amomum xanthophlebium Baker. Bromeliaceae. 211. extinct Amphineuron opulentum (Kaulf. extinct Ampelocissus cinnamomea (Wall.) Holttum. naturalised Anemopaegma chamberlaynii (Sims) Bureau & K. Dipterocarpaceae. Bromeliaceae... Plantaginaceae. 231.) Nicholson. Dipterocarpaceae. 241. B. Sm. Commelinaceae. cultivated only Angiopteris evecta (Forst. common Amischotolype mollissima Hassk.) I. casual Andrographis paniculata (Burm. 226.. Convolvulaceae.) Merr. 235. Annonaceae. 193.) Planch. 217. 207.) Planch.. cultivated only Amischotolype gracilis (Ridl. B. 210. Wright) Kunth ex DC. Zingiberaceae.. 215. common Amsonia tabernaemontana Walter. critically endangered Amorphophallus variabilis Blume. Olacaceae. 232. Apocynaceae. 223. Annonaceae..) Kuntze. 192. Lythraceae. 221. cultivated only Annona cherimola Mill. 239.. Araceae. Vitaceae.M.. 234. 197..

251. casual Antidesma coriaceum Tul.. Aizoaceae. Arg. Arg. 254. Phyllanthaceae. Cunn. Br. Phyllanthaceae. Moraceae.) Gage.. Phyllanthaceae.. cultivated only Araucaria heterophylla (Salisb. C. extinct Appendicula uncata Ridl. f. Greg.. extinct Appendicula cornuta Blume. Orchidaceae. & de Vr. Phyllanthaceae. Acanthaceae. cultivated only Araucaria columnaris (G.. cultivated only Aphyllorchis pallida Blume. 272.. cultivated only Anthurium plowmanii Croat. Phyllanthaceae. extinct Appendicula lucida Ridl. f. 285. critically endangered Archidendron clypearia (Jack) I. Phyllanthaceae. 262. 257. Phyllanthaceae. 253. Nielsen.) Seem. endangered Aphanamixis sumatrana (Miq. critically endangered Aporosa microstachya (Tul. common Archidendron contortum (Mart. 281. 275.. 246. lucida. cultivated only Araucaria hunsteinii K. Phyllanthaceae. 283. 268. Vittariaceae. 267. 255. Araceae. glabra N. critically endangered Antidesma bunius (L. endangered Aporosa penangensis (Ridl. Phyllanthaceae. Meliaceae. Araucariaceae. Nielsen. Phyllanthaceae.. endangered Antidesma velutinosum Blume.. cultivated only Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. critically endangered Aralia elata (Miq. & W. vulnerable Aporosa subcaudata Merr. Anthurium crystallinum Linden & Andre. Phyllanthaceae. vulnerable Antidesma cuspidatum Müll. 293.) Hook. 250.. Araceae. Araceae. Phyllanthaceae.. Araucariaceae. endangered Aporosa nervosa Hook.) Airy Shaw var. common Aporosa lucida (Miq. Thymelaeaceae.) Schltr. 263. 274. endangered Aporosa symplocoides (Hook.. 252.) Müll. cultivated only Arachis pintoi Krapov. common Apostasia nuda R. 266. 276. 277. 288.) Schwantes. Vittariaceae. vulnerable Aporosa nigricans Hook... 247. Acanthaceae. 289. f. Phyllanthaceae. extinct Aporosa benthamiana Hook. 290. Phyllanthaceae. critically endangered Arachis hypogaea L. critically endangered Antrophyum parvulum Blume. 256. extinct Araucaria bidwillii Hook. 291. Orchidaceae. extinct Aptenia cordifolia (L. 264. C. Araliaceae. cultivated only Archidendron bubalinum (Jack) I. critically endangered Aporosa falcifera Hook. f. vulnerable 14 .. common Antidesma neurocarpum Miq. 273. Torricelliaceae. endangered Antigonon leptopus Hook. critically endangered Appendicula anceps Blume. 279.. 284. 259. 287. Araucariaceae.. casual Antrophyum callifolium Blume. 269.. f. cultivated only Arachnis hookeriana (Hook. Thymelaeaceae. Araucariaceae. 292. C. Meliaceae. cultivated only Aphelandra squarrosa Nees. cultivated only Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall. f. Orchidaceae. f. Orchidaceae.Chong et al. cultivated only Aquilaria hirta Ridl. 261. Phyllanthaceae.) Miq. Phyllanthaceae.. 248.) Franco. Orchidaceae. Phyllanthaceae.... extinct Aporosa prainiana King ex Gage. 244. 278. vulnerable Aporosa confusa Gage. E. cultivated only Araucaria cunninghamiana Aiton ex A.) Kurz. extinct Aphelandra sinclairiana Nees. 249. Araucariaceae. Orchidaceae.. Thymelaeaceae. 245. & Arn. cultivated only Aralidium pinnatifidum (Jungh. Forst. 258. 286. 243. 280. Fabaceae. Fabaceae.) Nielsen.) Parker.. vulnerable Aquilaria microcarpa Baill. extinct Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk.. 270. 271. 282. Polygonaceae. Fabaceae. Br. critically endangered Aporosa lunata (Miq. Phyllanthaceae.) Spreng.) Ridl. 260.) Airy Shaw. Fabaceae.. critically endangered Aporosa frutescens Blume.. Schum... extinct Anubias barteri Schott var. Fabaceae. Orchidaceae. 242. 265.

cultivated only Areca macrocarpa Becc. extinct Ardisia singaporensis Ridl. Arecaceae.. f.) H. 340. Arecaceae.) Sandwith. 318. 317. f.. 301. cultivated only Archidendron microcarpum (Benth. 338. cultivated only Areca guppyana Becc. Myrsinaceae. 321.. Convolvulaceae. 334. D.. 339. 335.) Wendl.. cultivated only Arenga westerhoutii Griff. cultivated only Areca vestiaria Giseke. cultivated only Ardisia crassa C. Hill ex F. Sapindaceae. Arecaceae. Wendl. cultivated only Aristolochia ringens Vahl. 336. Aristolochiaceae. critically endangered Ardisia wallichii A. cultivated only Archontophoenix cunninghamiana (Wendl. cultivated only Ardisia colorata Roxb. 310. 324. 299. cultivated only Areca ipot Becc.. 297. Aristolochiaceae. Arecaceae. critically endangered Ardisia villosa Roxb. cultivated only Arenga brevipes Becc. f. 345. 295.. & Drude. 330. 316. endangered Archidendron ramiflorum (F. 308. critically endangered Artabotrys hexapetalus (L. Convolvulaceae. Arecaceae.. endangered Ardisia tuberculata Wall. critically endangered Aristolochia acuminata Lam. Arecaceae. Fabaceae. Myrsinaceae...) Bhandari. Myrsinaceae. ex A. Fabaceae. Annonaceae. extinct Ardisia teysmanniana Scheff. Aristolochiaceae. cultivated only Archidendron lucyi F.. vulnerable Archidendron lucidum (Benth. Fabaceae.. Fabaceae. cultivated only Archontophoenix alexandrae (F. Aristolochiaceae. B.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 294. critically endangered Ardisia ridleyi King & Gamble. extinct Ardisia crenata Sims. Myrsinaceae. Myrsinaceae. cultivated only Aristolochia elegans Mast.) Kosterm. Bignoniaceae.. critically endangered Ardisia elliptica Thunb. Myrsinaceae. Annonaceae.) I. Nielsen.... common Ardisia comosa (de Wit) Taton. Myrsinaceae. 322. Arecaceae.-Ham. Muell. 320. 325. 327.. C. 300. Myrsinaceae. cultivated only Arenga hookeriana (Becc. cultivated only Areca triandra Roxb. Arecaceae. 343. casual Areca concinna Thwaites. extinct Ardisia sessilis Scheff... C. Muell. 296. vulnerable Archidendron globosum (Blume) Nielsen. Archidendron ellipticum (Blume) Nielsen.. Myrsinaceae. & Thoms. Myrsinaceae. cultivated only Ardisia lanceolata Roxb. 312. 331. cultivated only Arenga microcarpa Becc. & Zucc. Arecaceae. 337. 298. 319. 341. naturalised Arfeuillea arborescens Pierre. 305. Annonaceae. Myrsinaceae. 309. cultivated only Areca alicae W. Arecaceae.) Nielsen. cultivated only Arenga tremula (Blanco) Becc. 342.) Whitmore. Aristolochiaceae. 311. cultivated only 15 .) Bojer. Myrsinaceae. critically endangered Ardisia miqueliana Scheff.. Fabaceae.. cultivated only Argyreia nervosa (Burm. extinct Aristolochia labiata Willd. Myrsinaceae. 303. cultivated only Artabotrys costatus King. cultivated only Argyreia ridleyi Prain. cultivated only Aristolochia jackii Steud. Muell. cultivated only Arrabidaea corallina (Jacq... Muell. ex Oostr. 326. Arecaceae. Arecaceae. Arecaceae. cultivated only Aristolochia gigantea Mart.. & Drude. Fabaceae. 315. ex Buch. Arecaceae. 333. critically endangered Archidendron jiringa (Jack) Nielsen.. cultivated only Arenga undulatifolia Becc.. Arecaceae. Myrsinaceae. Clarke. 307. 304. 329. endangered Ardisia humilis Vahl. 344.. cultivated only Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr. 313. 302.. cultivated only Areca catechu L. Arecaceae. DC. Fabaceae. vulnerable Artabotrys crassifolius Hook. 332. 323... Arecaceae. 314. Myrsinaceae. Aristolochiaceae. 306. 328.

377. Ruscaceae. 393. endangered Asplenium batuense Alderw. Moraceae. casual Artocarpus kemando Miq. 382. critically endangered Artocarpus integer (Thunb. Artabotrys maingayi Hook. extinct Asplenium phyllitidis D. 365...) Makino. naturalised Asystasia gangetica (L.. ex Trec. Moraceae. Apocynaceae. 346. casual Artocarpus hispidus Jarrett. Annonaceae. Moraceae. cultivated only Arundo donax L. Aspleniaceae. Aspleniaceae. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu. Aspleniaceae. 372. Araliaceae. 373. vulnerable Asplenium thunbergii Kunze... casual Artocarpus anisophyllus Miq. 378. Aspleniaceae. Muell. Malpighiaceae. cultivated only Asparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Jessop. cultivated only Artemisia vulgaris L. cultivated only Asteromyrtus symphyocarpa (F.) Merr. Palmer & Steyerm. 350. 352. Aspleniaceae. Anderson ssp. Wendl.. critically endangered Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. 369. cultivated only Arytera divaricata F. ex Blume. Myrtaceae. Aspleniaceae. Arecaceae. Moraceae. Acanthaceae.. 366. Moraceae. Don. 389. cultivated only Arytera littoralis Blume. & Thoms. ex Drude. endangered Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. Acanthaceae. 385.. Moraceae. Asteraceae. gangetica. common Arundinaria variegata (Siebold ex. & Kit. common Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg.. endangered Asplenium longissimum Blume. cultivated only Arthrophyllum diversifolium Blume. Moraceae. naturalised Asclepias syriaca L.. Moraceae. Moraceae. Annonaceae. 355.. 371. 375. 374.) T. Asparagaceae. 360. Acanthaceae. cultivated only Aspidistra elatior Blume. Poaceae.Chong et al. Annonaceae. critically endangered Artocarpus maingayi King. 388. Poaceae. 357.. ssp. 376. endangered Artemisia lactiflora Wall. common Asplenium nitidum Sw. 347. 392. 356.) T. vulnerable Arundina graminifolia (Don) Hochr. cultivated only Aspidistra lurida Ker Gawl. 380. endangered Artocarpus camansi Blanco. common Artocarpus fulvicortex Jarrett.. cultivated only Asystasia chelonoides Nees. Orchidaceae. 363. critically endangered Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam. var. critically endangered Artocarpus lowii King. Aspleniaceae. cultivated only Artocarpus rigidus Blume. 391. Moraceae. 381.. 368. extinct Asplenium nidus L. Moraceae. critically endangered Asclepias curassavica L. Sapindaceae.. Asteraceae. Moraceae. common Asplenium macrophyllum Sw. Asparagaceae. Aspleniaceae. 386. Asteraceae. 383. 387. endangered Asplenium tenerum Forst. Moraceae. endangered Artabotrys wrayi King. f. Miq. cultivated only Asterogyne martiana H. 353. 390. kansana (Vail) E. 394... 358. ex DC.) Craven. endangered Artocarpus lanceifolius Roxb. Anderson ssp.. cultivated only Artocarpus dadah Miq. 354. cultivated only Asparagus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop. Moraceae. Moraceae... 370. 351. 359.J. Moraceae. Muell. extinct Artocarpus nitidus Trec. critically endangered Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco. 364.. Ruscaceae. 362. cultivated only Artemisia scoparia Waldst. Apocynaceae.) Juss. Sapindaceae. cultivated only Aspidopterys concava (Wall. critically endangered Artabotrys suaveolens (Blume) Blume. 379.. cultivated only Asystasia gangetica (L. 361.. 348. 384. 367. 349. griffithii (King) Jarrett. naturalised 16 . Moraceae.

cultivated only Bambusa multiplex (Lour. casual 402. critically endangered Baccaurea sumatrana (Miq. casual 403. f. Myrtaceae. et al. cultivated only Bacopa monnieri (L. Austrobuxus nitidus Miq. Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kulm. cultivated only 396. 434. ex J.. critically endangered Baccaurea minor Hook.) Müll. casual 411. endangered Baccaurea pubera (Miq.. Arg.Br. cultivated only Bambusa tuldoides Munro.. extinct Baccaurea maingayi Hook.) Müll.. cultivated only Bambusa ventricosa McClure.. Phyllanthaceae. 437. 440. Poaceae. C. Juss. Avicennia officinalis L. 414. marina. Rob. 430. S. Phyllanthaceae. cultivated only 398.. Poaceae.. ex Schult & Schult.M. 419.. Baccaurea bracteata Müll.) Raeusch. Plantaginaceae.. Fowler.) H. Jacobs. Poaceae. extinct Baccaurea macrocarpa (Miq. Poaceae. Wendl. Arg. 431. 417. Phyllanthaceae. common 406. ssp. Atractocarpus benthamianus (F. Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) M. Arg. extinct Baccaurea racemosa (Reinw. Phyllanthaceae. Loranthaceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 395. critically endangered Baccaurea motleyana (Müll. 413. cultivated only 399.. Poaceae. Phyllanthaceae. Phyllanthaceae..) Müll. Phyllanthaceae. 418. Atuna racemosa Rafin. Avicennia rumphiana Hallier f. Salviniaceae. Poaceae. Fabaceae... cultivated only Baeckea frutescens L. Arg. 443..) Müll. Avicennia marina (Forsk. Attalea cohune Mart.) Müll. critically endangered Baccaurea macrophylla (Müll. endangered Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. Arg. Phyllanthaceae. Averrhoa carambola L. asiatica R. Muell. extinct 401. Rubiaceae. Phyllanthaceae.. Phyllanthaceae. f. L. Acanthaceae. vulnerable Bacopa caroliniana (Walter) B. 416.. casual Baratranthus axanthus (Korth. 426. cultivated only Bambusa heterostachya (Munro) Holtt. common Baccaurea polyneura Hook.) Miq. 425. cultivated only 410.. Phyllanthaceae.) Beauv. cultivated only Baikiaea insignis Benth.K.. 427. Phyllanthaceae. ssp. cultivated only 397. critically endangered Baccaurea hookeri Gage. cultivated only Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. 424. Arg.) Müll.) Müll. common 407. A.. 442. 436. 428. Poaceae. Saunders & K.) Müll.. casual Bambusa lako Widjaja. Phyllanthaceae. Phyllanthaceae. naturalised 408. critically endangered Baccaurea kunstleri King ex Gage. endangered Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq. Proteaceae.. 422.. T. 433. Moore.. Picrodendraceae.. G. White) L. Acanthaceae. critically endangered Baccaurea brevipes Hook. f. cultivated only Baccaurea reticulata Hook. Averrhoa bilimbi L. Arg. critically endangered Baccaurea parviflora (Müll. Briggs. Meliaceae. extinct 17 . Phyllanthaceae. Fabaceae.) Puttock. casual Baphia massaiensis Taub. naturalised Bactris guineensis (L. f. Arecaceae. Axonopus compressus (Sw. Phyllanthaceae. naturalised B 412. E. 438. Acanthaceae. 435. Arecaceae.. 423...... Athertonia diversifolia (C. Phyllanthaceae. Plantaginaceae. Meliaceae.. Oxalidaceae. critically endangered 400. f.. Arg.. 421. Phyllanthaceae.. Arg. Arg. 429. Arecaceae. cultivated only Baphia nitida Lodd. Attalea insignis (Mart.) Drude. naturalised 409. Azadirachta indica A. Johnson & B. Arg. 441. f. common 404. Fabaceae. Chrysobalanaceae. 420. Oxalidaceae. 439. critically endangered 405. Poaceae. extinct Baccaurea pyriformis Gage. 415. Acanthaceae.) Pennell. 432.) Vierh. Avicennia alba Blume. Azolla pinnata R. Arg.

Ruscaceae. endangered Beilschmiedia tonkinensis (Lecomte) Ridl. 495. 480. 459. 482. 485. 484. Acanthaceae. cultivated only Barringtonia conoidea Griff. cultivated only Beilschmiedia kunstleri Gamble. 481. W. semibifida. 488. 465. 477. Celastraceae. Bignoniaceae. 463. cultivated only Bauhinia integrifolia Roxb. 494. 472. 458. vulnerable Bauhinia tomentosa L. f. Lecythidaceae. 461.. naturalised Biermannia laciniata (Carr) Gary. Acanthaceae. Fabaceae. Pittosporaceae. 451. cultivated only Bischofia javanica Blume.. Perrier. 479.) DC. 489. cultivated only Bauhinia divaricata L. Fabaceae. cultivated only Begonia rex Putz.) L.. 487. critically endangered Barringtonia reticulata (Blume) Miq. Fabaceae. cultivated only Begonia cucullata Willd.) Gaertn. 447. cultivated only Berchemia discolor (Klotzsch) Hemsl. 446. cultivated only Barleria obtusa Nees.. E. critically endangered Barleria cristata L. cultivated only Bergera koenigii L. ex Benth. 470.. cultivated only Bauhinia hookeri F. extinct Barringtonia edulis Seem.. Lecythidaceae.. 455. 473. Celastraceae. 457. Lecythidaceae. Lauraceae. 467. Rutaceae. Lecythidaceae. Phyllanthaceae. cultivated only Beccariophoenix madagascariensis Jum. critically endangered Beilschmiedia madang Blume. 448. cultivated only Bignonia violacea DC. cultivated only Barringtonia asiatica (L.. 475. cultivated only Bidens pilosa L. cultivated only Begonia masoniana Irmsch. 466. 444... cultivated only Barringtonia acutangula (L. Acanthaceae. cultivated only Beaumontia jerdoniana Wight. Arecaceae. cultivated only Barringtonia macrostachya (Jack) Kurz. cultivated only Beaucarnea recurvata Lem. Asteraceae. Fabaceae. cultivated only Billbergia pyramidalis (Sims) Lindl. extinct Bignonia capreolata L. 464. 490. cultivated only Beaumontia grandiflora (Roxb. 456.. 493.Chong et al. cultivated only Bauhinia variegata L.. 445. Lecythidaceae. var. cultivated only Bhesa paniculata Arn. 454. Apocynaceae... cultivated only Bauhinia galpinii N. cultivated only Billardiera heterophylla (Lindl. 453.. Fabaceae. Bignoniaceae. 471. Acanthaceae. Lauraceae. Arecaceae. & H.. cultivated only Bauhinia forficata Link. Barclaya motleyi Hook.) Kurz. Begoniaceae. Fabaceae. Rhamnaceae.) Wall.. cultivated only Barleria repens Nees. Apocynaceae. 450..) Spreng. cucullata.. Lecythidaceae. Nymphaeaceae. critically endangered Barringtonia calyptrata R. Br. Fabaceae. 491. 452. 469. Fabaceae. Lecythidaceae. cultivated only Bauhinia purpurea L. cultivated only Bauhinia bidentata Jack. 462. cultivated only 18 .. Asteraceae. cultivated only Bauhinia kochiana Korth. Lecythidaceae. Br. critically endangered Barringtonia scortechinii King. cultivated only Barleria lupulina Lindl. Fabaceae. Begoniaceae. Lauraceae. var. Fabaceae. 449. Fabaceae. vulnerable Bidens alba (L... Orchidaceae. Bromeliaceae. Lecythidaceae. 474.. cultivated only Bauhinia acuminata L. casual Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. Basellaceae.. Fabaceae..) Ding Hou. cultivated only Bauhinia semibifida Roxb. 492... Muell. Fabaceae. Begoniaceae. cultivated only Bauhinia monandra Kurz.. 483... Lecythidaceae.. 460. 468.. common Bhesa robusta (Roxb. critically endangered Bentinckia nicobarica (Kurz) Becc. cultivated only Basella alba L. Cayzer & Crisp. 476. critically endangered Barringtonia racemosa (L. 478... 486.

. Anacardiaceae. vulnerable Bougainvillea glabra Choisy. cultivated only Brachychiton discolor F...) Iwatsuki. ex G. aubertii.. 515. Rich. Asteraceae. f.. Sapindaceae. cultivated only Blumea balsamifera (L. Mitch. 525. vulnerable Blighia sapida K. Orchidaceae.) Mett.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 496. Lomariopsidaceae.C. critically endangered Breynia disticha J.) C. 537. 541. T.. Anacardiaceae. 527. 510. cultivated only Bonamia semidigyna (Roxb. 513. 507. endangered Brackenridgea palustris Bartell. 517.. cultivated only Bixa orellana L... 540. cultivated only Brachychiton rupestris (T. f.R. 533. 503. weed of uncertain origin Bolbitis appendiculata (Willd. common Blechnum serrulatum A. Asteraceae. Blechnaceae. Hydrocharitaceae.. ex Lindl. Convolvulaceae..) Maxim. 543. Schum.) Miq. 512. f.) DC.f.) A.. 498. vulnerable Bridelia tomentosa Blume. ex S. Lomariopsidaceae. Ochnaceae. weed of uncertain origin Blumea membranacea DC.) Gaudich. Phyllanthaceae. ex Hook. cultivated only Bombax ceiba L. J. critically endangered Bouea oppositifolia (Roxb. endangered Bolbitis sinuata (C. common Blumeodendron tokbrai (Blume) Kurz.) C. Don) Macarthur. 522. 500.) Philipson. Poaceae. alternifolia (Miq. vulnerable Blyxa aubertii Rich. 506. Phyllanthaceae. 545. cultivated only Breynia racemosa (Blume) Mull. extinct Bridelia micrantha (Hochst. weed of uncertain origin Bouea macrophylla Griff. Orchidaceae. 518.. 521. weed of uncertain origin Blyxa japonica (Miq. Wendl. var.) K. cultivated only Bridelia pustulata Hook. Malvaceae. 524. cultivated only Blechnum finlaysonianum Wall. 511.. cultivated only Brackenridgea hookeri (Planch.K. Arg. Asteraceae. Phyllanthaceae. Hydrocharitaceae. Bismarckia nobilis Hildebrandt & H. Orchidaceae.. cultivated only Borassus flabellifer L.... Cunn. var. Arg.) Boerl..) A. Muell. 544. cultivated only Blechnum orientale L. 530. weed of uncertain origin Blumea riparia (Blume) DC. 508. weed of uncertain origin Blumea junghuhniana (Miq. 542. f. Malvaceae. 546. 528. 504. Sm. Arecaceae. weed of uncertain origin Boehmeria nivea (L. Blechnaceae. 529. Arecaceae. 539. Nyctaginaceae. Malvaceae. endangered Breynia discigera Müll. var... 514. 526. 538. Asteraceae. 505.. Phyllanthaceae. Phyllanthaceae. Malvaceae.. 519. Watson. Presl) Ching. 499. cultivated only Breynia coronata Hook. extinct Bolusanthus speciosus (Bolus) Harms. 532. Urticaceae. 535. extinct Bromheadia finlaysoniana (Lindl. & Grev. Phyllanthaceae.. Phyllanthaceae. Presl) Henn. f. 536. leiocarpum.. 497.) Blume. Forst.. f. cultivated only Bombax oleagineum (Decne. Cook & Luond. & G. 520. 502.. Fisch.E.. common Bridelia cinnamomea Hook. Phyllanthaceae. Lomariopsidaceae. Asteraceae. D. Malvaceae. vulnerable Blechnum gibbum (Lab. Arecaceae.) Baill. Wendl. 516. Fabaceae.) S.. common 19 .) Hall. extinct Bromheadia aporoides Rchb. Blake. cultivated only Blainvillea acmella (L. Ochnaceae. naturalised Boerhavia diffusa L. 534. weed of uncertain origin Borassodendron machadonis Becc. 531. Orchidaceae. Nyctaginaceae... Gray.) DC. cultivated only Brachychiton acerifolius (A. common Bromheadia alticola Ridl. Koenig.) Meisn. Blechnaceae. Phyllanthaceae. Arecaceae. critically endangered Bridelia stipularis (L. 523. 501. Blechnaceae. Bixaceae.D. critically endangered Brahea edulis H.. common Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm. endangered Bolbitis heteroclita (C. 509. Robyns. Asteraceae. Forst. Euphorbiaceae. extinct Blumea lacera (Burm.. Phyllanthaceae. cultivated only Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz. extinct Bromheadia borneensis J.

Fabaceae. Gómez) Alwan & Stace. Bulbophyllum lobbii Lindl.. Orchidaceae. extinct 549.. Bulbine frutescens (L.) J. Bulbophyllum blumei (Lindl. 547. critically endangered 576... extinct 548.. critically endangered 580. Simaroubaceae. J. Orchidaceae. extinct 564. Rhizophoraceae...) W. Bryobium pudicum (Ridl.. Combretaceae. Bulbophyllum flabellum-veneris (J. Bruguiera cylindrica (L. Bulbophyllum botryophorum Ridl. cultivated only 553. cultivated only 570. extinct 585. Bulbophyllum cleistogamum Ridl. cultivated only 551. extinct 582. Watson. Rhizophoraceae. endangered 560. Orchidaceae. Bromheadia truncata Seidenf. extinct 579. ssp.) D. Orchidaceae. Brucea javanica (L. Bryobium hyacinthoides (Blume) Y.) Willd... extinct 575. Bruguiera sexangula (Lour. extinct 587. extinct 589. extinct 578. Anacardiaceae.. Orchidaceae.. Bucida molinetii (M. Brownea crawfordii W. Brunfelsia pauciflora (Cham. J. critically endangered 590.. Brownea rosa-de-monte Bergius. f. common 557. Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb.. critically endangered 559.. Bulbophyllum acuminatum (Ridl. Fabaceae. Agostini. Malvaceae.. Bulbophyllum patens King ex Hook. cultivated only 569. Combretaceae. extinct 588. Orchidaceae. Rogers. critically endangered 583.. Rhizophoraceae. Ng & P..) Lamk.) Benth. Sm. Orchidaceae. vulnerable 568. common 566. extinct 592. Orchidaceae..) Ridl. Orchidaceae. Brownlowia argentata Kurz. Orchidaceae. extinct 574. Solanaceae. Orchidaceae. Bulbophyllum makoyanum (Rchb. Bromheadia scirpoidea Ridl. Fabaceae. Bulbophyllum limbatum Lindl. extinct 597. Solanaceae. Orchidaceae. Bulbophyllum gusdorfii J.. Orchidaceae. Rhizophoraceae. common 558. Rhizophoraceae. Bulbophyllum flavescens (Blume) Lindl. Buchanania lucida Blume. & A.. cultivated only 572. Orchidaceae. Asphodelaceae.. Bulbophyllum medusae (Lindl. Bulbophyllum pileatum Lindl. P. Orchidaceae. ex Griff. Buddleja davidii Franch.. endangered 555. critically endangered 594. vulnerable 556. Orchidaceae. Buddleja asiatica Lour.) Poir. extinct 593. Ng & P.. Orchidaceae. Cribb. Bucida buceras L. f.) Kosterm. Orchidaceae.. Brownlowia tersa (L. extinct 554. extinct 565. capitella (Jacq. Orchidaceae. Orchidaceae. Bulbophyllum lasianthum Lindl. & Schltdl. Velasquez & G.) Y. Malvaceae. Bulbophyllum macranthum Lindl. Bulbophyllum gracillimum (Rolfe) Rolfe. Buchanania sessifolia Blume..) Ridl. P.G. Orchidaceae.. cultivated only 567. Sm. Orchidaceae. extinct 577. Orchidaceae. cultivated only 573. extinct 584..Chong et al. extinct 596. Buchanania arborescens (Blume) Blume. Bulbophyllum concinnum Hook. Fabaceae. cultivated only 550. extinct 595. f.) Blume.) Rchb. Bruguiera hainesii C. Brownea grandiceps Jacq. f. extinct 581. Bulbophyllum aberrans Schltr. cultivated only 571.J. Bulbophyllum apodum Hook. extinct 20 . cultivated only 552.. f. cultivated only 562. Orchidaceae. Konig) Aver. critically endangered 561. Orchidaceae. Anacardiaceae. J... Brownea coccinea Jacq. Orchidaceae. Bulbophyllum nigropurpureum Carr.. Bulbophyllum clandestinum Lindl. cultivated only 563. extinct 591. Orchidaceae. Bulbophyllum caudatisepalum Ames & Schweinf. Scrophulariaceae. Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L. Orchidaceae.) Merr. critically endangered 586. Orchidaceae. Bulbophyllum ovalifolium (Blume) Lindl. Anacardiaceae. Scrophulariaceae. Bulbophyllum macrochilum Rolfe. Brunfelsia americana L. Bulbophyllum membranaceum Teijsm & Binnend.... Cribb..

Fabaceae..B. 599.. Arecaceae. cultivated only Calathea crocata E. 645.. ex Tul. 617... common Butea monosperma (Lam. cultivated only Byttneria maingayi Mast. Clarke. 625. Fabaceae. 629. 600. Arecaceae. 638. Cyperaceae.. Arecaceae. 637. critically endangered Calamus luridus Becc. extinct Calamus diepenhorstii Miq.. 641. Arecaceae.) C.. 605. Fabaceae. endangered Calamus erinaceus (Becc. Orchidaceae. extinct Bulbophyllum striatellum Ridl. Orchidaceae. critically endangered Burmannia coelestis D. Fabaceae. Fabaceae.. cultivated only Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Cyperaceae. Orchidaceae. cultivated only Burmannia championii Thw. Orchidaceae. extinct Calamus ornatus Becc. critically endangered Calanthe pulchra (Blume) Lindl. Orchidaceae.) DC. cultivated only Calamus densiflorus Becc.. Malpighiaceae. Orchidaceae.. Arecaceae. 633. 620. critically endangered Caesalpinia bonduc (L. Orchidaceae. 615. 601.. Orchidaceae. vulnerable Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. 636. extinct Bulbophyllum purpurascens Teijsm & Binnend. Don. critically endangered Calamus ridleyanus Becc. 619. Burmanniaceae.) Sw.) Becc.. 609. Arecaceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 598. Dransf.. cultivated only Calathea crotalifera S. Orchidaceae. 631. Malpighiaceae. critically endangered Caelospermum truncatum (Wall.. 608. extinct Bulbophyllum trifolium Ridl.. 610. Bulbophyllum pulchellum Ridl. 626. 602. extinct Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent. Orchidaceae. Araceae. cultivated only Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. 628. 612. 643. Fabaceae. 639. Marantaceae... Orchidaceae.. Fabaceae. Arecaceae. extinct Bulbophyllum vaginatum (Lindl.J. cultivated only Burkea africana Hook. 635. Araceae.) Schott. 646. Schum.. Marantaceae..) Taub. 606.) Kunth. cultivated only 21 . Marantaceae. common Bulbostylis puberula (Poir. Orchidaceae. critically endangered Caesalpinia tortuosa Roxb. cultivated only Caesalpinia crista L. cultivated only Caladium lindenii (Andre) Madison.) Willd. Arecaceae. 622. cultivated only Caladium humboldtii (Raf. Watson. 630... 616. Sm.. Fabaceae.. extinct Bulbophyllum singaporeanum Schltr.. endangered Bulbophyllum vermiculare Hook. ex K. vulnerable Bulbophyllum uniflorum (Blume) Hassk.. cultivated only Caesalpinia sappan L. extinct Bulbophyllum vesiculosum J. extinct Calamus laevigatus Mart. 644. cultivated only Butia capitata (Mart... 614. extinct Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb. Orchidaceae. Arecaceae.. critically endangered Calamus javensis Blume... Arecaceae. 618. Bull) Regel. Fabaceae. Arecaceae. cultivated only Caesalpinia sumatrana Roxb. 611. 642. extinct Bulbophyllum ruficaudatum Ridl. 603. Rubiaceae. 632.. 634. vulnerable Calamus insignis Griff. critically endangered Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq. 607. C 621. Burmanniaceae... 640.) Roxb. Arecaceae. 604.. f.. extinct Calamus oxleyanus Teijsm & Binnend..) J. common Bunchosia armeniaca (Cav. Fabaceae. 647.) Rchb. B. Orchidaceae. extinct Bulbophyllum rugosum Ridl. 613.. extinct Bulbophyllum restrepia Ridl. Araceae. 627. critically endangered Calamus lobbianus Becc. critically endangered Calathea bella (W. Malvaceae.) C. Morren & Joriss. extinct Bulbophyllum tenuifolium (Blume) Lindl. 624. f. 623.) Baill. Clarke.

cultivated only Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels.. 669... cultivated only Calathea rotundifolia (Koch. 687. R. endangered Calophyllum sil Lauterb. cultivated only Calathea orbifolia (Linden) H. & Wyatt-Smith. 694. Marantaceae. austrocoriaceum (T. Clusiaceae. Clusiaceae. 690. Marantaceae... Marantaceae. f.. Marantaceae. 656. Lamiaceae. cultivated only Calodendrum capense Thunb.. Marantaceae. & Linden. F. 696. ex Choisy. cultivated only Callistemon pallidus (Bonpl. Myrtaceae..Chong et al. cultivated only Calocephalus brownii (Cass. C. Fabaceae. 692. Marantaceae. cultivated only Calliandra haematocephala Hassk. common Calophyllum inophyllum L. 678.F.. endangered Callicarpa maingayi King & Gamble. Fabaceae. common Calophyllum rigidum Miq. Mathieu) Planch. 660. 664. Clusiaceae. Marantaceae. Calathea insignis Petersen. Clusiaceae.) Barneby. emarginata (Humb. 653. Hunt. Morren. 665.. Marantaceae.) Korn.. critically endangered Calophyllum pulcherrimum Wall. 657. cultivated only Callisia gentlei Matuda var. Lamiaceae. 676.A. Marantaceae. Clusiaceae. 671. & Wyatt-Smith. critically endangered Calophyllum rubiginosum Hend. cultivated only Calathea lutea (Aubl.) F. Lamiaceae. 667. Kenn. ex Willd. 693. cultivated only Callisia fragrans (Lindl. cultivated only Calathea leopardina Regel.A. Myrtaceae.) DC. E. 672. 662. Marantaceae.) G. var. 684.F. critically endangered Callerya reticulata (Benth. critically endangered 22 . Myrtaceae. & Bonpl. Kenn. Clusiaceae. Moore) D. 663. bracteatum (Wight) P. extinct Calophyllum costulatum Hend. Clusiaceae. 655. extinct Calophyllum calaba L. 650. F.. var. 688. Clusiaceae. Marantaceae. 682. Clusiaceae. cultivated only Callerya atropurpurea (Wall. 674. 654. cultivated only Callicarpa longifolia Lamk. 681.) Benth. cultivated only Callistemon sieberi DC. f. 659.. casual Callerya dasyphylla (Miq. 683. Whitmore) P. f. Fabaceae. Marantaceae. cultivated only Callisia repens (Jacq.) Schot.. cultivated only Calathea warscewiczii (L. 649. 685. 648. var. cultivated only Calathea rufibarba Fenzl. cultivated only Calathea zebrina (Sims) Lindl.) Schot. Muell. cultivated only Calathea makoyana E. cultivated only Calliandra surinamensis Benth. Clusiaceae. Asteraceae. Clusiaceae. critically endangered Calophyllum lanigerum Miq. cultivated only Callistemon viminalis (Sol. 651. cultivated only Calathea roseopicta (Linden) Regel. 670. & Wyatt-Smith.. cultivated only Callicarpa tomentosa (L. Rutaceae. 675. Fabaceae. critically endangered Calophyllum ferrugineum Ridl. cultivated only Calathea ornata (Linden ex Lem.. var. cultivated only Calathea majestica (Linden) H.. extinct Callerya eriantha (Benth. cultivated only Calophyllum biflorum Hend. fasciata Petersen. cultivated only Calophyllum soulattri Burm. cultivated only Calathea picturata (Linden) K. 666. Commelinaceae. Marantaceae. 652. cultivated only Calathea veitchiana Veitch ex Hook.) Schot. Marantaceae.. 658. Stevens.) Schot. 680. extinct Callicarpa pedunculata R.. Br. Fabaceae. Lamiaceae. Fabaceae. Marantaceae.) L. Koch & Linden.. Stevens. extinct Calophyllum dispar P. 677. Fabaceae. endangered Calophyllum rufigemmatum Hend. Commelinaceae.) Schult. Myrtaceae.) Woodson. casual Calliandra tergemina (L. & Wyatt-Smith.) L. 689. Commelinaceae. Clusiaceae. 673. Macbr. 691. elegans (Alexander ex H. Stevens. 661... Clusiaceae. cultivated only Calathea loeseneri J. 668. ex Gaertn.. endangered Calophyllum macrocarpum Hook. 695.. Clusiaceae. Don. 686. 679.) Koern.

699. casual Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl.. & Wyatt-Smith) P. 702... Burseraceae. cultivated only Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam. Rubiaceae. Burseraceae.) J. Gmelin. extinct Cantleya corniculata (Becc. & Pav.E.. F. Calophyllum sundaicum P. cultivated only Canarium oleosum (Lam. F.. cultivated only Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth.) Howard.) Lam. endangered Canarium vulgare Leenh.. Rubiaceae. cultivated only 23 . 712. vulnerable Calophyllum wallichianum Planch. 704. Gillett. 716. 722. Fabaceae. Rubiaceae.. 715. Moore. 720. critically endangered Calophyllum tetrapterum Miq. vulnerable Calophyllum teysmannii Miq. cultivated only Campylospermum serratum (Gaertn. 739. f. cultivated only Calpurnia aurea (Aiton) Benth. cultivated only Canarium patentinervium Miq. critically endangered Canarium indicum L... 709.T. endangered Canthium horridum Blume. common Cananga odorata (Lam. cultivated only Camoensia scandens (Welw.) A. Cyperaceae. extinct Capparis micracantha DC. Burseraceae.F. Clusiaceae. Solanaceae.. naturalised Carpentaria acuminata Becc. endangered Canthium molle King & Gamble. 714. cultivated only Canarium littorale Blume. DC. Amaral. 706. common Canavalia rosea (Sw.. Sapindaceae.. Burseraceae. var. 746. critically endangered Calopogonium mucunoides Desv. cultivated only Carphalea kirondron Baill. Stemonuraceae. Cannaceae.C. Rhizophoraceae.D. Anacardiaceae. vulnerable Calophyllum wallichianum Planch.) W. Rubiaceae.) Seem ex Bureau. var. Arecaceae. cultivated only Canarium grandifolium (Ridl. incrassatum (Hend. common Canarium odontophyllum Miq.. Caricaceae. Boraginaceae. 718. cultivated only Carludovica palmata Ruiz. 724.) DC. Muell. cultivated only Canavalia cathartica Thouars. Cannaceae. Fabaceae. Bignoniaceae. 711. naturalised Cardwellia sublimis F. endangered Canarium pilosum Benn. cultivated only Carallia brachiata (Lour. Ochnaceae. naturalised Cansjera rheedii J. f. 727. Aiton. 721. Meliaceae. endangered Carallia suffruticosa Ridl. 729. Arecaceae.. cultivated only Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Burseraceae. Rubiaceae. vulnerable Canthium confertum Korth.. & Tr. cultivated only Campnosperma auriculata Hook.. Stevens. Apocynaceae. Clusiaceae. 737. 698.. common Campsis radicans (L.) Hook. Apocynaceae. 730. 710. 733. Clusiaceae. 744. Anacardiaceae. cultivated only Carapa guianensis Aubl. cultivated only Canna indica L.. Opiliaceae. common Canna glauca L. Fabaceae.. 735.. critically endangered Capsicum annuum L. 742. 736.) Hook. endangered Canthium glabrum Blume. Ferrero. Fabaceae. 731. common Campnosperma squamatum Ridl. 732. Solanaceae. ex K. 717. 707.. Schum. 740. Rubiaceae. 719. Burseraceae. Rhizophoraceae. cultivated only Capsicum frutescens L.. & Tr. 723. 734.. Fabaceae.) H.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 697.E. 705. f. naturalised Calotropis gigantea (L. wallichianum. 741. Clusiaceae.. cultivated only Carex cryptostachys Brongn.) Bittrich & M.) Dowe & M. 726.. 708.. Annonaceae. & Thomson. 725.B. Proteaceae. Clusiaceae... 728. 745. cultivated only Calyptronoma occidentalis (Sw. cultivated only Calyptrocalyx micholitzii (Ridl. Cyclanthaceae. Stevens. Burseraceae.. Capparaceae. 738. 700.) Merr...) Engl. 701. 713. Arecaceae. 743. critically endangered Carica papaya L.. 703. Burseraceae.

Fabaceae. Poaceae. & Schult. Carpobrotus edulis (L. Fabaceae. cultivated only Castanospora alphandii (F. 788.. 775.. Arecaceae.) Gagnep. critically endangered Casearia tuberculata Blume. Don. common Castanopsis inermis (Lindl. Muell.) F. clarkei. Arecaceae. 756. cultivated only Cassia grandis L. 782. 787. extinct Castanopsis lucida (Nees) Soepadmo. naturalised Ceiba pentandra (L. Fagaceae. 773.Chong et al.) Burk.) Ravenna. Fagaceae. 760. cultivated only Caryota zebrina Hambali. critically endangered Castanopsis malaccensis Gamble. 750. Braun & Asch. ex Wall. Arecaceae. Fagaceae. 759. vulnerable Cecropia peltata L. cultivated only Casearia capitellata Blume. 780. naturalised Centella asiatica (L. Heatubun & J. Amaranthaceae. 764. & C.) Urb. cultivated only Cassia javanica L. 748..E. extinct Casearia lobbiana Turcz. cultivated only Caryota rumphiana Mart. naturalised Cenchrus echinatus L. cultivated only Cassia fistula L. ex Mart. naturalised Cayratia mollissima (Wall. 785.Dransf. 751. Maturb. ex Laws. Apocynaceae.) Ding Hou. critically endangered Castanopsis megacarpa Gamble.) A. Br. Salicaceae. 792. 771. Cannabaceae. Arecaceae. Vitaceae. 772. cultivated only Caryota mitis Lour. critically endangered Casearia clarkei King var... common Caryota no Becc.. & Hook.) G.-Hil. 765. DC. Muell. 770. 777.. f. 776... 761. 786. Cunn. Sapindaceae. Salicaceae. Celastraceae. 774.. Poaceae. Casuarinaceae. Fagaceae.) N..) Benth.. 781. common Casuarina junghuhniana Miq. Aizoaceae. common Centipeda minima (L. 755. Apiaceae.. casual Centotheca lappacea (L. cultivated only Castilla elastica Sessé. Casuarinaceae. Fabaceae. f. endangered Cayratia novemfolia (Wall. cultivated only Cassine viburnifolia (Juss. 797. Fabaceae. 758. 790. casual Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq. 753. 757.. Salicaceae. Fagaceae. Fagaceae.. cultivated only Cassia roxburghii DC. 791. 779. 794. critically endangered Cayratia trifolia (L. extinct Cassia artemisioides DC. casual Ceiba speciosa (A. casual Celtis africana Burm. Fagaceae. 796.. Bignoniaceae. 762. Fabaceae. common 24 . Malvaceae. Salicaceae. Lauraceae. cultivated only Cenchrus brownii Roem.. 752. f. critically endangered Castanospermum australe A... cultivated only Casuarina equisetifolia L. cultivated only Casuarina nobilis Whitmore. Malvaceae.. 783.. cultivated only Cassia bakeriana Craib. 749. cultivated only Celosia argentea L.) Domin. 767. cultivated only Catalpa ovata G. 747.. 798... 769... Fabaceae.. Casuarinaceae.. critically endangered Castanopsis nephelioides King ex Hook. 754.. Vitaceae. Fabaceae. Moraceae. Poaceae.) Desv. 793.. Vitaceae. 768. 795. cultivated only Caryota cumingii Lodd. cultivated only Catharanthus roseus (L. critically endangered Cassytha filiformis L. Asteraceae. Arecaceae.) Gaertn. 766. critically endangered Castanopsis wallichii King ex Hook. critically endangered Castanopsis javanica (Blume) A. cultivated only Cassia renigera Benth. Arecaceae. Poaceae. cultivated only Caryota maxima Blume ex Mart. f. Fagaceae. critically endangered Centotheca longilamina Ohwi. f. Don. Urticaceae. St.. naturalised Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. Casuarinaceae. 784.. critically endangered Castanopsis schefferiana Hance. Fabaceae.. Fraser. Urticaceae. 789. 778.. 763..

.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 799.E. Adiantaceae. 816. Meliaceae. naturalised Chamaesyce thymifolia (L... critically endangered Cerbera odollam Gaertn. Arecaceae.. critically endangered 849. Rhizophoraceae. Moore) I.E. cultivated only Ceriops tagal (Pers.) Brongn. endangered Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl.) A. critically endangered Chisocheton erythrocarpus Hiern. 824. 800. Moore.. Meliaceae. Arecaceae. Specht. Chisocheton sarawakanus (C. Opiliaceae. cultivated only Chamaedorea metallica O. weed of uncertain origin Ceratostylis subulata Blume. 823. extinct Chilocarpus vernicosus Blume. 831. 813... 804. Rubiaceae.. 814. 805. Costaceae. Euphorbiaceae. endangered Cephalomanes singaporeanum Bosch. 826. Turner.. common Chassalia chartacea Craib. Rhizophoraceae. extinct Chisocheton patens Blume.) C. extinct Chionanthus ramiflorus Roxb... critically endangered Chisocheton longistipitatus (Bailey) L.-Ham. 844.) Greene. Hymenophyllaceae. Fabaceae. 803.M.. 839. cultivated only Centrosema pubescens Benth. 832. extinct Chisocheton pentandrus (Blanco) Merr.. 821. Apocynaceae. ssp. 827. Solanaceae. Robins. 815. endangered Chassalia pubescens Ridl. vulnerable Cercestis mirabilis (N. ex Neumann) Schltdl. 806.F. Oleaceae. 812. vulnerable Cephalomanes superbum (Backh. Meliaceae. cultivated only Chamaedorea elegans Mart. Euphorbiaceae. Meliaceae. cultivated only Cestrum elegans (Brongn. weed of uncertain origin Chambeyronia macrocarpa (Brongn. 846. 809. Solanaceae. extinct Ceratopteris thalictroides (L. Rubiaceae. Orobanchaceae. Schum. Fabaceae.) Millsp. Chloranthus erectus (Buch. Rubiaceae. 829. 825. ex T. extinct Cerbera manghas L. cultivated only Cereus hildmannianus K. naturalised Cephalomanes javanicum (Blume) Bosch.) Mabb. 817. critically endangered 848. 802. Hymenophyllaceae. Arecaceae.) Thw. vulnerable Cheilocostus globosus (Blume) C. extinct Chionanthus macrocarpus Blume. endangered Cephalomanes obscurum (Blume) K. Centranthera tranquebarica (Spreng.. cultivated only Chamaedorea microspadix Burret. 838. cultivated only Chamaesyce hirta (L. Cook ex H.P. Arecaceae. Meliaceae. f. 818.. 834. Pteridaceae. cultivated only Chisocheton macrophyllus King. 837. vulnerable Chassalia curviflora (Wall.B. Arecaceae.. 840.. 819. cultivated only Chamaecrista leschenaultiana (DC. critically endangered 25 ... Euphorbiaceae. 820.) Sw. Euphorbiaceae. 808.) Millsp. Solanaceae.. 847. naturalised Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.) Merr. Arecaceae. 841. Arecaceae. critically endangered Chisocheton pauciflorus King.S.. Chloranthaceae. 845. Davis. weed of uncertain origin Centratherum punctatum Cass. 842. paucijugus (Miq. 811. critically endangered Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Burm. 843.. cultivated only Chamaedorea seifrizii Burret. 822. Meliaceae. Iwatsuki. Rubiaceae. 833.) Bogner. cultivated only Cestrum nocturnum L.) Vieill. Meliaceae.) Millsp. 835. Apocynaceae.. cultivated only Cestrum diurnum L.. ex Becc. Hymenophyllaceae. cultivated only Champereia manillana (Blume) Merr. Sm. naturalised Chamaedorea cataractarum Mart. naturalised Chamaecrista mimosoides (L. Apocynaceae..) Verdc. Br. Arecaceae. Orchidaceae. extinct Chassalia singapurensis (Ridl..) Becc. Araceae. Cactaceae. Asteraceae. extinct Ceratolobus subangulatus (Miq. 810.. cultivated only Chamaerops humilis L. 828. 807.) Harms. extinct Cheilosa montana Blume. Oleaceae. 830. DC. Solanaceae. Hymenophyllaceae. 836. 801. Fabaceae. vulnerable Ceriops zippeliana Blume.) Degener.

. Burtt... 889. 869. 891. Fabaceae. 855. 888. Phyllanthaceae. cultivated only Chrysophyllum oliviforme L. Malvaceae. 864. 857.. Rutaceae. 898... Lauraceae. critically endangered Cissus repens Lam. Presl. common Cinnamomum javanicum Blume. critically endangered Cissus rostrata (Miq. Anacardiaceae. cultivated only Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm. cultivated only Chlorophytum laxum R. Agavaceae.) Garay. 878. Br. Verbenaceae.L.) Jacques. Lauraceae. 856.. f. 893. f.) R. Vitaceae. 859.D. critically endangered Cinnamomum sintoc Blume. Thelypteridaceae. Orchidaceae. Thelypteridaceae. ex Hassk.. Orchidaceae. f. common Christia vespertilionis (L... 863. cultivated only Chrysothemis pulchella Decne.) Bakh. 897. Rutaceae. common Cleisostoma halophilum (Ridl. Nees) Blume. cultivated only Citrus paradasi Macfad. 870. Poaceae. weed of uncertain origin Christella parasitica (L. 881. extinct Cinnamomum verum J. common Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. critically endangered Chonemorpha penangensis Ridl.Chong et al. 872. Thelypteridaceae. common Claoxylon longifolium (Blume) Endl. cultivated only Cinnamomum iners Reinw..) Brownsey & Jermy. Poulsen. extinct Cleisostoma scortechinii (Hook. critically endangered Citharexylum spinosum L. Rutaceae. cultivated only Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb...) B. oliviforme. cultivated only Chromolaena odorata (L. critically endangered Claoxylon indicum (Reinw. 850. Vitaceae. Apocynaceae. 874. cultivated only Citrus sinensis (L.. 861. 887. Rutaceae. Rutaceae. Lauraceae. Juss. 890. ex Blume) Hassk.Rob. Apocynaceae. naturalised Chrysophyllum cainito L. weed of uncertain origin Cissus nodosa Blume. 882.. 886.) Merr. 854. Agavaceae. common Christella dentata (Forsk.f.) Trin. 871.. cultivated only Chrysophyllum roxburghii G. Sapotaceae. extinct Clappertonia ficifolia (Willd. 868. Vitaceae. Poaceae. Euphorbiaceae. 877. 896. 899. cultivated only Clausena brevistyla Oliv. 858. 884. Sapotaceae.. extinct Cleistanthus hirsutulus Hook. 879.) Osbeck. cultivated only Citrus maxima (Burm..King & H. f. 892. Thelypteridaceae.) Voss. 866. cultivated only Chukrasia tabularis A. cultivated only Cinnamomum burmannii (Nees and T. cultivated only Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees.. cultivated only Clausena excavata Burm. Orchidaceae. Sapotaceae. 876. 852. Agavaceae. naturalised Chrysobalanus icaco L. 853. Vitaceae. 875. critically endangered Cinnamomum subavenium Miq... 885. 873.. casual Citrus madurensis Lour. Asteraceae.) Nordal & A. Rutaceae. cultivated only Christella arida (Don) Holttum. f. extinct Cleisostoma subulatum Blume..W. 851. 894. cultivated only Claderia viridiflora Hook. Lauraceae. 900. cultivated only Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb.) Planch.) Roberty. 867..) Gary. cultivated only Chonemorpha fragrans (Moon) Alston. f. 880. cultivated only Cinnamomum camphora (L.. Lauraceae.) Lev.) Burm. Chrysobalanaceae. 895. 865.M. Orchidaceae.. Don. Lauraceae. Presl. ssp.. naturalised Chlorophytum capense (L. extinct 26 .) J. Hill. critically endangered Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz. cultivated only Chlorophytum filipendulum Baker ssp. Lauraceae. Meliaceae. 862. Agavaceae. Lauraceae. Gesneriaceae. Euphorbiaceae. Poaceae. 883. weed of uncertain origin Christella subpubescens (Blume) Holttum. Chloris barbata Sw. Rutaceae.. & A. amaniense (Engl.) Swingle.) Decne. cultivated only Cissus hastata Miq. Rutaceae. cultivated only Citrus limon (L. 860.

Orchidaceae. Bignoniaceae. 943. Fabaceae.. 927.J... Phyllanthaceae. extinct Cleistanthus oblongifolius (Roxb. Lamiaceae. 916. Lamiaceae. 949. 936. Fabaceae. Orchidaceae. Cucurbitaceae.. Lamiaceae. Orchidaceae. 950. cultivated only Cocculus orbiculatus (L. common Clerodendrum paniculatum L. Lamiaceae. 926. 935. extinct Coelogyne tomentosa Lindl. 912.) Moldenke. 908.) Kuntze. 938. cultivated only Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb... 945. Lamiaceae. f. 906. 951. vulnerable Clerodendrum indicum (L. 918. 910. Howard. 913.. Phyllanthaceae. cultivated only Clytostoma callisgtegioides (Cham. vulnerable Clematis aristata Ker Gawl. 902. Ranunculaceae. extinct Cochlospermum religiosum (L. critically endangered Cleistanthus schlechteri Hutch.) Becc. ex Kerch. cultivated only Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf. Cleomaceae. Arecaceae.) Alston. Fabaceae. extinct Coelogyne mayeriana Rchb.. naturalised Cleome gynandra L. Connaraceae. 929. Lamiaceae. cultivated only Clerodendrum deflexum Wall. 948. cultivated only Clianthus puniceus (G. Lamiaceae. common Clerodendrum laevifolium Blume. common Coccinia grandis (L. 904. casual Clerodendrum phyllomega Steud. Phyllanthaceae.) L.. cultivated only Clerodendrum calamitosum L. extinct Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr. cultivated only Clitoria fairchildiana R. Cleomaceae.) Mull. Phyllanthaceae. Orchidaceae. Arecaceae. 952. 914. Bixaceae..) Müll.. 923. Clusiaceae. Wendl. cultivated only Clusia rosea Jacq.. extinct Coelostegia griffithii Benth.) Voigt.) A. naturalised Clinostigma samoense H. cultivated only Clerodendrum splendens G. cultivated only Clerodendrum bungei Steud. 922. Malvaceae. & H.. Bixaceae.. Orchidaceae.. Don. cultivated only Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd. 942.) Spreng. critically endangered 27 . cultivated only Clidemia hirta (L.A. cultivated only Coccothrinax crinita (Griseb. Wendl.. 944.) Walp. 905. 939. 917. Rau. 924.) DC. casual Coelogyne cumingii Lindl. naturalised Clitoria ternatea L. f. cultivated only Clematis heynei M.. naturalised Cleome rutidosperma DC.. Phyllanthaceae. 933. Euphorbiaceae. Arecaceae. Polygonaceae. cultivated only Cleome aculeata L. 907. var. cultivated only Cleistanthus sumatranus (Miq. Sm. 940... 909. Lamiaceae. Orchidaceae... 921. cultivated only Cnestis palala (Lour. Ranunculaceae. 932.. Clusiaceae.. naturalised Codiaeum variegatum (L. cultivated only Clerodendrum inerme (L.... 934. f. Fabaceae. Lamiaceae. extinct Coelogyne rochussenii de Vr... Menispermaceae. Melastomataceae. Lamiaceae.) Gaertn. naturalised Cleome viscosa L..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 901. 946. Lamiaceae. f. critically endangered Cleistanthus malaccensis Hook. 919. 920. 947. 928. cultivated only Clitoria laurifolia Poir. 925. 930.) Bureau & Schum.. naturalised Coccoloba uvifera (L. Don) Lindl. Don. 911. Arg.. Cleomaceae. 931.A. Lamiaceae.. 903. Lamiaceae. naturalised Clerodendrum buchananii (Roxb. Cleomaceae. Cleistanthus macrophyllus Hook. 937.) Merr.. vulnerable Clerodendrum wallichii Merr. extinct Coelogyne foerstermannii Rchb. Lamiaceae.... Lamiaceae. Juss.. Orchidaceae. 915. extinct Coelogyne testacea Lindl. extinct Coelogyne septemcostata J. casual Clerodendrum villosum Blume.) D.. Arg.. 941. cultivated only Cocos nucifera L.. naturalised Clusia colombiana Pipoly. myrmecophilum (Ridl.

D. Connarus semidecandrus Jack. Araceae. cultivated only 957. Combretaceae.A. Connaraceae. Colocasia esculenta (L. Combretaceae... Combretum sundaicum Miq. Commersonia bartramia (L. cultivated only 1002. Commelinaceae. cultivated only 986. Arecaceae.) Gary. common 972. Coffea liberica W.) Endl.. Laxmanniaceae. Boraginaceae. Coptosapelta griffithii Hook.. Gesneriaceae. Myrtaceae. Rubiaceae. Cordia dichotoma G. Rubiaceae. Boraginaceae. Combretaceae. vulnerable 967...) Brongn.. Combretum erythrophyllum (Burch.A.S.. cultivated only 965.D. Rubiaceae. Arecaceae. Bull ex Hiern.. Cordia subcordata Lam. Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. Johnson. Laxmanniaceae. cultivated only 981. Combretum constrictum (Benth. cultivated only 1004.) Roem. Connarus monocarpus L. Rubiaceae. Rubiaceae. f. cultivated only 961. Commelina benghalensis L. cultivated only 955. casual 974. Hill & L. A. Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg ex Sweet.) Merr. cultivated only 28 . Coptosapelta flavescens (Blume) Val. Asteraceae.) M. common 960. Combretum comosum G. Don. cultivated only 991. cultivated only 983. Combretum tetralophum C. casual 999.. Lamiaceae. Boraginaceae.) K. Larsen.. Clarke.. critically endangered 975.. Cordia caffra Sond. Mood & K. Combretaceae. cultivated only 994. Commelinaceae. Malvaceae. weed of uncertain origin 971. weed of uncertain origin 970. Myrtaceae.D. Fabaceae. cultivated only 998. Combretaceae. Copaifera officinalis (Jacq. Connaraceae. Rubiaceae. casual 973. Johnson. cultivated only 982. casual 959. Cola nitida (Vent. Congea tomentosa Roxb... naturalised 992. Corymbia polycarpa (F. cultivated only 1000. critically endangered 976. ex K.S. extinct 989.A.B. extinct 997.. Don. Fabaceae.. Coix lacryma-jobi L..) Sond. f. cultivated only 966. Commelina diffusa Burm. critically endangered 993..) Cronquist. extinct 988.. cultivated only 985. Cordia cylindristachya (Ruiz & Pav. Chev. cultivated only 996. Myrtaceae. critically endangered 977. Connaraceae. extinct 978.) H. flava Urb. Congea velutina Wight. cultivated only 1001. Asteraceae. Arecaceae. Malvaceae. Heyne. Columnea tulae Urb. Colvillea racemosa Bojer. Coprosma rugosa Cheeseman. Corymbia maculata (Hook. Lamiaceae... Asteraceae. Copernicia alba Morong. naturalised 956. weed of uncertain origin 980. 953. Boraginaceae. critically endangered 979. Cordia sebestena L. Connarus ferrugineus Jack. Commelina attenuata Koen. Connarus planchonianus Schellenb.. Corymbia papuana (F. extinct 987. Froehner. extinct 969. Moore. Lawson. Muell. Cornukaempferia aurantiflora J. & Schult. Hill & L.) K. Connaraceae.Chong et al.) K. Zingiberaceae.) Schott. critically endangered 968. Forst. Copernicia prunifera (Mill. Muell. naturalised 990. Rhamnaceae. Connaraceae. Boraginaceae. f. var.) Schott & Endl. cultivated only 1003. Cordia superba Cham. Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. Cola gigantea A. Poaceae.) A. cultivated only 954. cultivated only 964. Combretaceae. Cordyline australis (G. Cordiglottis filiformis (Hook... Orchidaceae.) L. Combretum grandiflorum G. Boraginaceae. Chev. Hill & L. Connarus grandis Jack. Commelinaceae.E. Malvaceae. Forst. Coptosapelta parviflora Ridl. Johnson. cultivated only 963. Corchorus aestuans L. critically endangered 995. Coprosma australis Robinson. Rubiaceae.. cultivated only 962. Copernicia baileyana Léon. Malvaceae.. Conyza bonariensis (L. Colubrina asiatica (L. cultivated only 984.S. cultivated only 958. Cordyline fruticosa (L.

cultivated only 1006.) Sw. Williams.S.. casual 1016. Costus spicatus (Jacq..S. naturalised 1027. Fabaceae.. endangered 1030. cultivated only 1046. Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. cultivated only 1043. Asteraceae.) S. Hill & L. Couroupita guianensis Aubl.) Nees.D. Fabaceae. Thomps.A. Acanthaceae. extinct 1034. Crinum moorei Hook. Euphorbiaceae.. Don. Costus productus Gleason ex Maas. Crepidomanes humile (G. Amaryllidaceae. cultivated only 1014. Hymenophyllaceae. Asteraceae. Costus curvibracteatus Maas. naturalised 1048. Costus lucanusianus J. Cotylelobium lanceolatum Craib. Acanthaceae. Hypericaceae. Croton argyratus Blume.. Crepidomanes christii (Copel. Arecaceae. Corymbia ptychocarpa (F. Euphorbiaceae. cultivated only 1007. cultivated only 1023. Corymbia torelliana (F. Crepidomanes pallidum (Blume) K.. Bignoniaceae. Hill & L. Orchidaceae... common 1055.. Anacardiaceae.. naturalised 29 .F. Arecaceae. extinct 1008. Euphorbiaceae... extinct 1037. Cratoxylum glaucum Korth. Hypericaceae..) Colebr. Crotalaria juncea L.) Copel. cultivated only 1021. Amaryllidaceae.-Ham ex G. Hypericaceae. Amaryllidaceae. Lecythidaceae. Croton heterocarpus Müll. cultivated only 1017. Costaceae. Muell. Costaceae. Crotalaria retusa L. cultivated only 1012. vulnerable 1029. cultivated only 1009. naturalised 1054. Fabaceae. & L. naturalised 1047. Costaceae. Costus speciosus (Koenig) Smith. Euphorbiaceae.. Crinum jagus (J. Macbr. critically endangered 1056. cultivated only 1045.) K. Costaceae. extinct 1036. cultivated only 1013. Crescentia cujete L. weed of uncertain origin 1052.. Myrtaceae. Hymenophyllaceae. naturalised 1049... cultivated only 1015. cultivated only 1010. Crotalaria quinquefolia L. Cratoxylum arborescens (Vahl) Blume. Costus malortieanus H. Crateva religiosa G. Croton hirtus L'Hér. Wendl. Menispermaceae. Arg. cultivated only 1024. Capparaceae. Crotalaria pallida Aiton.O.Forst) Bosch. Hypericaceae. Costaceae... Costaceae. Corypha utan Lam. Costaceae. cultivated only 1022. Amaryllidaceae. Costus erythrophyllus Loes.. Braun & K. Costus woodsonii Maas. Dipterocarpaceae. Corypha umbraculifera L. naturalised 1050. cultivated only 1039.. Moore. Sch. Costus varzearum Maas.) Blume. Costus amazonicus (Loes. critically endangered 1040. endangered 1011. common 1019. cultivated only 1042. Cotinus coggygria Scop. cultivated only 1018. Costaceae.) J. Fabaceae. Fabaceae. Asteraceae. weed of uncertain origin 1051.) Dandy. extinct 1053. f.) Makino. Crossostephium chinense (L. Costaceae. cultivated only 1038. Crinum xanthophyllum Hannibal. endangered 1035. Crossandra infundibuliformis (L. Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn. Corymborkis veratrifolia (Reinw. Crotalaria alata Buch. Croton caudatus Geiseler. Crinum asiaticum L. Euphorbiaceae. Hypericaceae. Johnson.) K. Crossandra pungens Lindau.. Muell. Hymenophyllaceae. endangered 1031. cultivated only 1044. Forst. cultivated only 1020. Johnson. Myrtaceae. Crinum album Herb. cultivated only 1041.A. Fabaceae. cultivated only 1028. Croton bonplandianus Baill. critically endangered 1033. common 1032. Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer. Hymenophyllaceae..D. Crotalaria incana L. Amaryllidaceae. Costaceae. Crepidomanes minutum (Blume) K. critically endangered 1025. cultivated only 1026. Costus stenophyllus Standl. Cosmos sulphureus Cav. Iwatsuki. Iwatsuki.) Blume. Costaceae. Cratoxylum maingayi Dyer.. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1005.

Cycas pectinata Buch.. Orchidaceae. Cyanotis cristata D. Annonaceae. cultivated only 1079.. Sapindaceae. Cryptocarya griffithiana Wight. Crypteroniaceae.. weed of uncertain origin 1088. endangered 1093. pubescens (Lindl. extinct 1077. Cryptocoryne griffithii Schott. Cyathostemma viridiflorum Griff. Cycadaceae. cultivated only 1085. Cryptanthus zonatus (Vis. Cryptanthus bromelioides Otto & A. Newman. f.. Apocynaceae. Zingiberaceae. extinct 1097.) H. critically endangered 1064. Cycas siamensis (Miq..) de Laub. Ctenopteris blechnoides (Grev... Cucumis maderaspatanus L. f.. critically endangered 1096. Clarke. Morren. vulnerable 1092. Cryptocarya ferrea Blume. Ctenolophonaceae. Curcuma parviflora Wall. naturalised 1081.. Cycas revoluta Thunb. ex F.. Euphorbiaceae. Thelypteridaceae. common 1094. cultivated only 1073.. Lythraceae. ssp. critically endangered 1066. cultivated only 1059. Cyathea squamulata (Blume) Copel. Cryptocarya rugulosa Hook. Ctenanthe oppenheimiana (E. Cuphea hyssopifolia Kunth. Grammitidaceae.) Fischer ex Wydler. Marantaceae. cultivated only 1060. naturalised 1078. critically endangered 1107. Cycadaceae. Muell. Cryptostegia grandiflora R. Orchidaceae. Annonaceae. critically endangered 1105. extinct 1072. Sapindaceae. Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume. Marantaceae. Cyathostemma hookeri King. Menispermaceae. Araceae. critically endangered 1068. Amaranthaceae. Cupaniopsis foveolata (F. critically endangered 1065. endangered 1058. Cyclosorus interruptus (Willd..) J. Cryptocarya caesia Blume. Curcuma rhabdota P. Lauraceae. Cymbidium bicolor Lindl. extinct 1067. Ctenanthe lubbersiana (E. Muell. Annonaceae. critically endangered 1062. Zingiberaceae. Cuphea carthagenesis (Jacq. cultivated only 1086. Euphorbiaceae. Lauraceae. extinct 1063.) Domin. Croton oblongus Burm. cultivated only 1083. Cyatheaceae. Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. Schum. Annonaceae. vulnerable 1098. Morren) Eichler ex Petersen. Cyathea cooperi (Hook. Curcuma longa L.-Ham. Lythraceae. Cyatheaceae.) Radlk. M. cultivated only 1087. Sabu &. extinct 1069. Cyathocalyx ramuliflorus (Maingay ex Hook. Commelinaceae. Br. Ctenolophon parvifolius Oliv... cultivated only 1061.Chong et al. Macbr. Cryptocoryne ciliata (Roxb.f.. f.F. Cyclea laxiflora Miers. Cucurbitaceae. Marantaceae. Bromeliaceae.. cultivated only 1090. Sirirugsa & M. Cuphea ignea A. Ctenanthe setosa (Roscoe) Eichl.. Cuscuta australis R. Cupaniopsis curvidentata (Bailey) Radlk. Don. critically endangered 1100. cultivated only 1084. Prasanthk. 1057.. Annonaceae.. Cyatheaceae. cultivated only 1102... common 1099. critically endangered 1076. Cyclanthaceae. critically endangered 30 . Lauraceae.. & Thoms. cultivated only 1071. Ito. Cycadaceae. extinct 1091. critically endangered 1070..) Scheff... Dietr. Curcuma rubrobracteata Škorničk. cultivated only 1074. cultivated only 1104.F. Zingiberaceae. Convolvulaceae. cultivated only 1082. Crypteronia griffithii C.. Cyathocalyx sumatranus Scheff. Cycas edentata de Laub. Cyatheaceae... DC.) Wagner & Grether. cultivated only 1080. Cyathocalyx ridleyi (King) Sinclair. common 1106. Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl. Cryptocarya impressa Miq. Orchidaceae. Zingiberaceae. Br.) Du Pay & Cribb.) Copel. Cycadaceae. Lauraceae. vulnerable 1095. cultivated only 1075. Araceae. Cryptocarya kurzii Hook.B. cultivated only 1101.) K. Cyathea glabra (Blume) Copel.. Cyathea latebrosa (Wall.. Croton tiglium L. Lauraceae. Cryptostylis arachnites (Blume) Hassk.) Beer... weed of uncertain origin 1089. Lythraceae. Lauraceae. Bromeliaceae. cultivated only 1103.

weed of uncertain origin 1132. Araceae. Lam... critically endangered 1112. Cyperus difformis L.. weed of uncertain origin 1121. cultivated only 1117. Dacryodes rostrata (Blume) Lam. Cyperaceae.W.) J. Cyperus sphacelatus Rottb. common 1143.. Dacryodes costata (A. Camus. Cyperus distans L. Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume) de Laub. Cyperaceae. critically endangered 1118.. common 1134.. Cyperaceae. Dacryodes rugosa (Blume) H. Podocarpaceae. Burseraceae. Cynodon dactylon (L. Poaceae. Cyperus dubius Rottb. cultivated only 1153. weed of uncertain origin 1133. Burseraceae. Cyperaceae. cultivated only 1137. f. Fabaceae.. Cyperus cyperoides (L. Cymodoceaceae. weed of uncertain origin 1129. Cyperaceae. cultivated only 1119.J. Cyperaceae. Cyrtostachys renda Blume.) A. Burseraceae.) Kern. Orchidaceae. Cymodoceaceae. vulnerable 1149.Br. Cyperus pilosus Vahl. Cyperaceae. Poaceae. Benn. Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud. Watson. Orchidaceae. Cyperus alternifolius L. Burseraceae. Cyperaceae.. extinct 1113.. critically endangered 1147. Cyperus cuspidatus Kunth. ex Aschers. Cyperaceae. common 1126. Cyperus laxus Vahl.. Arecaceae. common 1128. Cystorchis variegata Blume.) Aschers. Cyperaceae. Cyperus trialatus (Boeck.. Cyperus imbricatus Retz. Cynometra malaccensis Meeuwen.. Cyperaceae. Apocynaceae. Cyperus stoloniferus Retz. Cyperus procerus Rottb.) J. Cyrtococcum patens (L. Cyperus malaccensis Lam. Poaceae. common 1139. Cyperaceae. Dacryodes longifolia (King) Lam.V.) Kuntze.. Cyperaceae. weed of uncertain origin 1123. Cyperus iria L. extinct 1150. critically endangered 1156. Cymbopogon citratus (DC. weed of uncertain origin 1122.) Schott.) Pers.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1108. Cyperus rotundus L. naturalised 1142. Cyperaceae. cultivated only 1111.. Cyrtosperma merkusii (Hassk.. weed of uncertain origin 1141. Poaceae. Dacryodes laxa (Benn. Cymodocea serrulata (R. common 1136.) H. Cyperus digitatus Roxb. Suringer. critically endangered 1151. common 1135.. Cyperus papyrus L. Cyperus compactus Retz. Poaceae. weed of uncertain origin 1127. Cynometra cauliflora L. cultivated only 1116.. vulnerable 1114. Gesneriaceae. Cyperaceae. Cyperaceae. Cyperaceae.F... common 1115.) Stapf. weed of uncertain origin 1131.. Cyperus compressus L. Cyperaceae. critically endangered 1148.) Lam. common 1140.. Cynanchum ovalifolium Wight. Cyperaceae. Cyperus radians Nees & Meyen.) Stapf.. extinct D 1152. Cyperus cyperinus (Retz. & Hemp. common 1144. Lam. critically endangered 1146.. endangered 1155. weed of uncertain origin 1130. cultivated only 1109. Cyrtandra pendula Blume. Cynometra ramiflora L. weed of uncertain origin 1138. Cymbopogon calcicola C. Cyrtococcum accrescens (Trin. & Magnus. Hubb. Cyperaceae. vulnerable 1157. Cyperus exaltatus Retz. weed of uncertain origin 1145. endangered 1154. cultivated only 1110. Cymodocea rotundata Ehrenb. Cyperaceae. Burseraceae. Cyperaceae. Cyperus tenuiculmis Boeck. Cyperaceae. Cyperaceae. Fabaceae.. weed of uncertain origin 1124.. Fabaceae.. Cyperaceae.J..E. weed of uncertain origin 1125. Cyperus elatus L. Cystorchis javanica (Blume) Blume. Cyperus javanicus Houtt. Cyperus haspan L. Cyperaceae. common 1120. critically endangered 31 . Cyperaceae. Poaceae.

cultivated only 1174. Davalliaceae. Dalbergia rostrata Hassk.. Dalbergia oliveri Prain. common 1182. critically endangered 1170. Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.. Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. critically endangered 1200.. critically endangered 1165.) Griff. Arecaceae. Fabaceae. Dalbergia cultrata Benth. f. extinct 1205.Chong et al. Daemonorops periacantha Miq. Poaceae. critically endangered 1171. Davallia solida (G. Davallia parvula Wall. endangered 1193.. Davalliaceae..f.. extinct 1191. Dendrobium aloifolium (Blume) Rchb. Fabaceae... Fabaceae. Orchidaceae. Dalbergia odorifera T. Davidsonia pruriens F.. Arecaceae. Lauraceae. Orchidaceae. Arecaceae. Arecaceae. cultivated only 1180.. Solanaceae. Daemonorops longipes (Griff. common 1172. Dendrobium grande Hook. Davalliaceae. cultivated only 1179. Datura metel L. endangered 1189. critically endangered 1166. Myrtaceae. cultivated only 1197. Daemonorops leptopus (Griff. ex Hook. Arecaceae.) Becc.) Mart. extinct 1185. Daemonorops sabut Becc. Forst. Fabaceae. Arecaceae. Dalbergia negrensis (Radlk. Fabaceae. Fabaceae. f.. ex Hook. cultivated only 1177. Dendrobium crocatum Hook.R. Davalliaceae. Arecaceae. Orchidaceae. endangered 1162. cultivated only 1188. critically endangered 1176.. vulnerable 1164. Cunoniaceae.. Dendrobium crumenatum Sw. Dalbergia junghuhnii Benth. ex Mart. Forst. Dendrobium acerosum Lindl. Fabaceae. Arecaceae. extinct 32 . cultivated only 1173.) Mart. Daphniphyllaceae. extinct 1202. Dalbergia sissoo DC. common 1207. Darlingia ferruginea J. vulnerable 1160. common 1190.. & Grev. Davallia angustata Wall. Muell... Wendl. extinct 1208.. Orchidaceae. Orchidaceae... Daphniphyllum laurinum (Benth. Dalbergia hullettii Prain. Dalbergia candenatensis (Dennst.) Sw. Oxalidaceae. Davallia denticulata (Burm. Dalbergia parviflora Roxb. vulnerable 1198. Arecaceae. Chen.. cultivated only 1183. Orchidaceae. Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre.) Baill. Proteaceae. Daemonorops angustifolia (Griff.. Davalliaceae. Dapania racemosa Korth. Fabaceae. 1158... extinct 1203. Dalbergia velutina Benth. vulnerable 1195. Daemonorops kunstleri Becc. Fabaceae..) Willd. & Grev. Orchidaceae. Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook. Fabaceae. Bailey.. cultivated only 1187. Daemonorops didymophylla Becc.. Daemonorops micracantha (Griff. Sm.C.. & G. Davallia triphylla Hook.) Mart.. Davallia pectinata Sm.. Davalliaceae. Daemonorops geniculata (Griff. critically endangered 1186. cultivated only 1201. common 1159. Orchidaceae. vulnerable 1196.) Prain. extinct 1209.) Mett. Dendrobium aciculare Lindl... Fabaceae. vulnerable 1161. Deckenia nobilis H. ex Seem. critically endangered 1169. Dendrobium flexile Ridl. Fabaceae. Davalliaceae. Dendrobium hendersonii Hawkes & Heller.) Mart.. Decaspermum fruticosum J. extinct 1192... cultivated only 1178. f. Fabaceae. extinct 1206. Davallia heterophylla J..) Mart. vulnerable 1168. endangered 1163. Daemonorops hirsuta Blume. Davallia repens (L. critically endangered 1184. extinct 1181. Orchidaceae. Daemonorops grandis (Giff.) Raf. cultivated only 1199... Arecaceae.) Kuhn. extinct 1167. extinct 1204. Dehaasia incrassata (Jack) Kosterm. Arecaceae. Arecaceae. Davalliaceae..F..) Ducke. Daemonorops lewisiana (Griff. Arecaceae. Fabaceae.. Dendrobium bifarium Lindl. extinct 1175. vulnerable 1194..

. Rubiaceae. Dendrobium villosulum Lindl. Orchidaceae. extinct 1235. Derris amoena Benth.) DC. Orchidaceae. pallidiflavens. vulnerable 1240.J. Orchidaceae.... f. Orchidaceae. Dendrobium planibulbe Lindl. Annonaceae. naturalised 1260. vulnerable 1245. Fabaceae. Dendrobium pandaneti Ridl. Bignoniaceae. Dendrobium prostratum Ridl. extinct 1215. Desmos dumosus (Roxb. Dentella repens J. Fabaceae. indum. Poaceae. Fabaceae. Fabaceae. common 1237. extinct 33 . extinct 1218. cultivated only 1258.. Annonaceae. Dianella caerulea Sims.. Fabaceae. critically endangered 1246. Dendrobium hercoglossum Rchb. common 1239. Hemerocallidaceae.) Rchb. extinct 1233. extinct 1223. Fabaceae. ex Lindl. cultivated only 1254.. extinct 1216. Dichapetalum sordidum (Hook. Dendrobium singaporense Hawkes & Heller. Br. Hemerocallidaceae. critically endangered 1232.. Orchidaceae. vulnerable 1241. Orchidaceae. extinct 1222.. Fabaceae. Dichanthium caricosum (L. Dendrobium lobatum (Blume) Miq. Orchidaceae. Dendrobium spurium (Blume) J. critically endangered 1217. Orchidaceae. extinct 1230. var.) Steen. Dialium cochinchinense Pierre..) Leenh. cultivated only 1244. weed of uncertain origin 1249.. Dendrolobium umbellatum (L.. extinct 1224. Deplanchea tetraphylla (R. extinct 1220. Orchidaceae. Poaceae... extinct 1231.) A. Dendrobium pulchellum Roxb. Dianella ensifolia (L. Orchidaceae. Dialium indum L. Dialium schlechteri Harms. Orchidaceae. Derris scandens (Roxb. extinct 1212. Orchidaceae. Poaceae.) Stapf.) Ettingsh. cultivated only 1257. Orchidaceae. Dendrobium subulatum (Blume) Lindl. Dendrobium pensile Ridl. Dendrochilum longifolium Rchb. weed of uncertain origin 1251.) Willd.) Benth. Desmodium heterocarpon (L. Fabaceae. f.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1210.. Santalaceae. Camus. Dendrobium indragiriense Schltr.) F. Dendrotrophe buxifolia (Blume) Miq.. & Binnend. Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.. Deplanchea bancana (Scheff.) Backer ex Heyne. Orchidaceae. Derris trifoliata Lour. Dialium platysepalum Baker. Fabaceae.) Miq.. Dendrobium secundum (Blume) Lindl. Forst & G. Forst. Orchidaceae. Dendrobium lobbii Teijsm.. casual 1234. extinct 1229. Desmos dasymaschala (Blume) Safford. Bignoniaceae. critically endangered 1253. var. critically endangered 1255. Dendrocalamus asper (Schult.... f. Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.. Desmodium triflorum (L. Desmodium heterophyllum (Willd. Fabaceae. Dendrobium microglaphys Rchb. Fabaceae. Orchidaceae. Dendrobium revolutum Lindl. extinct 1238.. Dendrobium leonis (Lindl..) Benth. f. extinct 1214. Orchidaceae.R. Santalaceae. common 1259. f.) DC. critically endangered 1225. Orchidaceae. critically endangered 1252.. extinct 1221. Desmanthus virgatus (L. Fabaceae. Loranthaceae. extinct 1236. weed of uncertain origin 1242.. Dendrobium salaccense (Blume) Lindl.. Orchidaceae. extinct 1226. Orchidaceae..f.) Safford..) DC. Orchidaceae. critically endangered 1256. common 1247. Dendrobium indivisum (Blume) Miq. extinct 1228.. maingayana (Baker) Prain.... Sm. weed of uncertain origin 1261. Dendrobium setifolium Ridl. Orchidaceae. Dichapetalaceae. Dendrotrophe varians (Blume) Miq. Loranthaceae.. Dendrobium lamellatum (Blume) Lindl. f.. Orchidaceae. extinct 1227.) Bakh.) DC. Orchidaceae.. extinct 1243. Dendrobium pachyphyllum (Kuntze. Dendrobium stuposum Lindl.. Muell. Dendrophthoe falcata (L. critically endangered 1213. naturalised 1248. extinct 1219. extinct 1211. weed of uncertain origin 1250.. Orchidaceae. Dendrochilum pallidiflavens Blume var.

Dilleniaceae.. Digitaria nuda Schumach. Dillenia ovata Wall. Orchidaceae. extinct 1269. Dichondra repens J. Poaceae. Poaceae. Didymocarpus puncticulatus Ridl.) Pers. Dioscorea sansibarensis Pax. var. naturalised 1278. ex Hook. Dillenia alata (R. Dioscoreaceae. Commelinaceae. ex Hook. Rubiaceae. Konig) Seidenf. extinct 1291. Poaceae. javanica (Benth. & Schult.B. extinct 1271.. ex DC. Br. setigera. Dillenia indica L. & Thomson) Martelli. critically endangered 1289. Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f. Dilochia wallichii Lindl. Knuth. f. common 1266. naturalised 1302. endangered 1290. cultivated only 1270. 1262. Forst. Dillenia excelsa (Jack) Gilg. Dioscorea polyclados Hook.. cultivated only 1292.R.) Underw. Dilleniaceae. Digitaria ciliaris (Retz. & Thomson. common 1276.. common 1281. Dioscorea laurifolia Wall. f. Dilleniaceae. ex Roem. Dioscorea glabra Roxb. Araceae. Forst & G. Poaceae. Dioscoreaceae.Chong et al... weed of uncertain origin 1277. Poaceae. Digitaria radicosa (C. extinct 1298. Dioscoreaceae.) Roem. Digitaria longiflora (Retz. Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff.C. Dioscoreaceae. Dimocarpus longan Lour. Dillenia pulchella (Jack) Gilg. Gesneriaceae. ex Hook. Dietes bicolor (Steud.. & Schult. Didymocarpus platypus C. Dryopteridaceae. common 1307.L. weed of uncertain origin 1301. critically endangered 1306. Gesneriaceae. Digitaria didactyla Willd. Digitaria violascens Link. ex Hook. weed of uncertain origin 1283. Wendl. cultivated only 1287.) Sweet ex Klatt. Dillenia philippinensis Rolfe. & Schult.. cultivated only 1293.) Koeler. Dictyosperma album (Bory) H. Dilleniaceae. naturalised 1311.) Bremek. Poaceae. common 1280. Presl) Miq. Orchidaceae. Dioscorea prainiana R.. Dilleniaceae. Arecaceae. Gleicheniaceae. Dioclea hexandra (Ralph) Mabberley var. Dimeria ornithopoda Trin. Dioscoreaceae. Didymoplexiella ornata (Ridl.. cultivated only 1294. critically endangered 1296. Dioscoreaceae.) Garay. Digitaria fuscescens (J.. f. Diodia ocymifolia (Willd. extinct 1274. Didymochlaena truncatula (Sw. & Thoms. f. Orchidaceae. Fabaceae. Dioscorea stenomeriflora Prain & Burk. Iridaceae. Gleicheniaceae.) Schott var.. Dillenia grandifolia Wall. weed of uncertain origin 1284. Dioscoreaceae. Dilleniaceae. Convolvulaceae. Diodia sarmentosa Sw. common 1299. Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacq. common 1297. Dilleniaceae. common 1279.. Presl) Henrard. critically endangered 1308.) J. Sapindaceae. Dilleniaceae. casual 1273.. Dilleniaceae. Dichorisandra thyrsiflora J. Dillenia ingens B. Dioscorea hispida Dennst.. Poaceae. Dioscoreaceae. Digitaria setigera Roem. Burtt. Digitaria setigera Roem. weed of uncertain origin 1286. Mikan. critically endangered 1305. Dicranopteris curranii Copel.. Dillenia reticulata King. f. Poaceae.. critically endangered 1268. cultivated only 1264. Digitaria bicornis (Lam. cultivated only 1267. critically endangered 1272. Rubiaceae. cultivated only 1263.. Dienia ophrydis (J.. extinct 34 . & Schult.. calliblepharata (Henrard) Veldk. Poaceae. cultivated only 1288. Clarke. Didymoplexis pallens Griff. Dioscorea bulbifera L.) Martelli. Poaceae. & Drude ex Scheff. weed of uncertain origin 1282.. Digitaria mollicoma (Kunth) Henr.) den Hengst. seguine. weed of uncertain origin 1304. Orchidaceae. Dioscoreaceae...) Hoogl.. Dillenia albiflos (Ridl. var.. naturalised 1303. Sm. Dilleniaceae. Poaceae. weed of uncertain origin 1285. cultivated only 1275. critically endangered 1309... Dioscorea pyrifolia Kunth. Dilleniaceae. common 1265. casual 1300. Poaceae. common 1310. critically endangered 1295.

cultivated only 1352. Dipterocarpus caudatus Foxw. ex Hook. Woodsiaceae. critically endangered 1328. Diospyros malabarica (Desr. Diospyros tristis King & Gamble. Diplazium esculentum (Retz. Diospyros diepenhorstii Miq.T. Ebenaceae.) Bakh. Diplectria divaricata (Willd. Dipterocarpaceae.G. ex G... extinct 1313. Diospyros venosa Wall.) Sw. Price.. Orchidaceae. critically endangered 1355. Ebenaceae. Dipterocarpaceae. Diplazium sorzogonense C. weed of uncertain origin 1337.. critically endangered 35 . Ebenaceae. critically endangered 1348. Diospyros horsfieldii Hiern. endangered 1345. Diplocaulobium longicolle (Lindl. critically endangered 1361. ex A. Woodsiaceae.. Br.. vulnerable 1333.. vulnerable 1347. DC.) T. vulnerable 1341. Diospyros latisepala Ridl. Diplazium allantoideum M. Ebenaceae. critically endangered 1324. Dipterocarpaceae. Cyperaceae. Dioscorea tenuifolia Ridl.. Ebenaceae.. Diplectria viminalis (Jack) Kuntze. Reynolds. Diplazium riparium Holttum. common 1326.) Rchb. Ebenaceae. Sm. Diplacrum caricinum R. Dipodium paludosum (Griff. Orchidaceae. Ebenaceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1312. critically endangered 1336. Dipodium pictum (Lindl. Ebenaceae. Diospyros siamang Bakh. critically endangered 1334.. extinct 1351. critically endangered 1320. Ebenaceae. Ebenaceae. oblonga (Wall. vulnerable 1340.. Diospyros discolor Willd. ex G. Rubiaceae. vulnerable 1317. Dipterocarpus cornutus Dyer. Diospyros argentea Griff. Dipteris conjugata Reinw. Ebenaceae. Dipodium scandens (Blume) J. Orchidaceae... Diospyros oblonga Wall. DC. Diospyros buxifolia (Blume) Hiern. Diospyros ferrea (Willd. Diplazium cordifolium Blume. Ebenaceae. Diospyros sumatrana Miq. Woodsiaceae. Diplectria stipularis (Blume) Kuntze. cultivated only 1329. cultivated only 1330. Presl. extinct 1357. Dipterocarpus apterus Foxworthy. Ebenaceae. Melastomataceae. endangered 1315.. Presl. Melastomataceae. Melastomataceae.) Kraenzl. endangered 1342. Sapindaceae. cultivated only 1360. endangered 1339... extinct 1349. Ebenaceae. Diospyros maingayi (Hiern) Bakh. Dipterocarpaceae. cultivated only 1362. f.) Kuntze. Clarke. Diplazium crennatoserratum (Blume) Moore. f. Ebenaceae. Ebenaceae. extinct 1327. Diplazium tomentosum Blume..) Ashton. cultivated only 1335. vulnerable 1331. cultivated only 1353. Diplospora malaccensis Hook.f. critically endangered 1318. Dioscoreaceae. Woodsiaceae. Diospyros apiculata Hiern. Diploglottis bracteata Leenh. Woodsiaceae. critically endangered 1319. cultivated only 1359.. Diospyros confusa Bakh.. Diplazium malaccense C. Orchidaceae. cultivated only 1322. Diospyros clavigera C. Don.. Dipterocarpus baudii Korth. Diplazium prescottianum (Wall.. Dipterocarpaceae. critically endangered 1354. cultivated only 1316. cultivated only 1325. Ebenaceae. endangered 1344.) Kostel. critically endangered 1321. Ebenaceae. Ebenaceae.B. endangered 1346. Ebenaceae.. Ebenaceae. Dipterocarpus chartaceus Symington. ssp. penangianus (Foxw. Ebenaceae. Don) Ng. Diplazium polypodiodes Blume. Diospyros pilosanthera Blanco var. Woodsiaceae. Dipteridaceae. Diospyros coriacea Hiern. extinct 1356. Woodsiaceae. Woodsiaceae. extinct 1332.. Woodsiaceae.) Rchb. Moore. Diploglottis berniana S. Diospyros durionoides Bakh. Diospyros styraciformis King & Gamble. Diospyros blancoi A. Sapindaceae.. Diospyros lanceaefolia Roxb. critically endangered 1358. J. Woodsiaceae. cultivated only 1323. Ebenaceae. endangered 1343. critically endangered 1350. extinct 1314. common 1338..

Ruscaceae. extinct 1388. critically endangered 1404. f. f. & Harv. Dracaena aubryana Brongn. critically endangered 1377. Apocynaceae.. Dipterocarpus oblongifolius Blume.. cultivated only 1398. Dracaena brachystachys Hook. Ruscaceae. Apocynaceae.. Apocynaceae. cultivated only 1364. Dischidia cochleata Blume. Dipterocarpus palembanicus Slooten. Dipterocarpus elongatus Korth. Dracaena fragrans (L.. Ruscaceae. Dissochaeta annulata Hook. Apocynaceae. extinct 1375.. cultivated only 1391.. Br. Ruscaceae. Pearsen. Distylium racemosum Siebold & Zucc. cultivated only 1392. 1363. Dipterocarpaceae. Ruscaceae. Dischidia pectenoides H. f. f. cultivated only 1384. Dracaena reflexa Lam. Dischidia singaporensis Ridl. extinct 1401. Dissochaeta pallida (Jack) Blume. Melastomataceae. vulnerable 1367. critically endangered 1373. critically endangered 1394. Dischidia hirsuta (Blume) Decne. cultivated only 1400. Ruscaceae. Dipterocarpaceae. Morren. Apocynaceae. ex E. Dipterocarpaceae. Dracaena marginata Lam. Bull. Dipterocarpaceae.. Schum. vulnerable 1368. extinct 1385. vulnerable 1407. Donax canniformis (G. cultivated only 1413.. cultivated only 1412. Dischidia nummularia R. ex Triana. Dracaena loureiroi Gagnep. Dipterocarpus sublamellatus Foxw. Forst.M. Dorstenia contrajerva L. Dracaena surculosa Lindl. Dipterocarpaceae... ex Baker. common 1381. var. Dracaena cantleyi Baker. Apocynaceae. extinct 1378.. Melastomataceae.. vulnerable 1365. extinct 1393. Dissochaeta punctulata Hook. Ruscaceae. Dipterocarpaceae. Dipterocarpaceae. cultivated only 36 .. cultivated only 1408. Sapindaceae.. common 1411. Dipterocarpaceae. honoriae F. Melastomataceae. critically endangered 1374.) K.. Dipterocarpus kunstleri King. Dissochaeta gracilis (Jack) Blume... vulnerable 1409. Melastomataceae. Dipterocarpus costatus C.. Moraceae. Dovyalis caffra (Hook. Ruscaceae.. Apocynaceae.H.. ex Triana.W. Dissochaeta celebica Blume. endangered 1389.F. Marantaceae. Ruscaceae. Dissochaeta intermedia Blume. Salicaceae. Dischidia bengalensis Colebr. Dischidia albiflora Griff. cultivated only 1410.. endangered 1395. critically endangered 1369. Apocynaceae... vulnerable 1402. Ruscaceae.) Ker Gawl.. Hamamelidaceae.. Dovyalis hebecarpa (Gardner) Warb. Sander ex Mast. Ruscaceae. Dipterocarpaceae. cultivated only 1397.. Dipterocarpus costulatus Slooten. Dracaena maingayi Hook. cultivated only 1370. Dischidia major (Vahl) Merr. Bailey.. Salicaceae. Ruscaceae. Dipterocarpaceae. cultivated only 1396. critically endangered 1371. Apocynaceae. Dracaena granulata Hook. Disporum cantoniense (Lour. cultivated only 1403. Dischidia albida Griff. extinct 1414. vulnerable 1386. cultivated only 1406. critically endangered 1366. ex W. Dolichandrone spathacea (L. Colchicaceae. Melastomataceae. Dipterocarpus kerrii King. Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. Dischidia complex Griff. extinct 1383. vulnerable 1372. extinct 1376. f. Schum. Dracaena angustifolia Roxb. Ruscaceae. Dipterocarpus grandiflorus (Blanco) Blanco. Gaertn. Dracaena porteri Baker. Apocynaceae. extinct 1379. Dracaena elliptica Thunb. Bignoniaceae. Ruscaceae. Ruscaceae. Ruscaceae. f. cultivated only 1399. Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm. Dracaena compacta hort. cultivated only 1382. Melastomataceae. Melastomataceae.) Merr. vulnerable 1387. casual 1405.) K. common 1380.) Triana. Dipterocarpus tempehes Slooten.. Ruscaceae.. Dracaena sanderiana hort. Dracaena singapurensis Ridl. f. vulnerable 1390. Dracaena goldieana hort.) Warb.Chong et al.

Dryobalanops oblongifolia Dyer. Anacardiaceae. Polypodiaceae.. extinct 1452. Anacardiaceae.. Dypsis pinnatifrons Mart. common 1436. Drynaria sparsisora (Desv.) P. Arecaceae. Dransf..E. naturalised 1419. & Rolfe. Grimes. Dransf. Meliaceae. Arecaceae. Gaertn. Dypsis mcdonaldiana Beentje. f.. cultivated only 1424. Echinocactus grusonii Hildm..) Hook. cultivated only 1443. Dypsis decaryi (Jum.. vulnerable 1416. Alismataceae. Sm. cultivated only 1429. Meliaceae. cultivated only 1449. Dypsis lastelliana (Baill.. weed of uncertain origin 1463. & H. Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke. Durio graveolens Becc. Bailey. cultivated only 1441.) Beentje & J.. critically endangered 1457. extinct 1453. Meliaceae. Dypsis rivularis (Jum. critically endangered 1428. Arecaceae. Meliaceae. Drymaria cordata (L. Dipterocarpaceae. Dypsis sanctaemariae J. Poaceae..) Beentje & J. Dysoxylum excelsum Blume.. Dransf. Arecaceae. Arecaceae. casual 1435. extinct 1455.) Barneby & J. Ruscaceae. Fabaceae. Meliaceae.) Pax & K. cultivated only 1440. Dysoxylum cyrtobotryum Miq.) T. Macbr. cultivated only E 1459.) Pax & K. Dypsis hovomantsina Beentje. Dransf. Rosaceae. Dransf. Dypsis leptocheilos (Hodel) Beentje & J.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1415. cultivated only 1461.) Bakh. Echinochloa crus-galli (L. critically endangered 1427. Drynaria quercifolia (L. Durio griffithii (Mast. ex Schultes. ex DC. Putranjavaceae. cultivated only 1450. Durio singaporensis Ridl. Dysoxylum flavescens Hiern.. Drypetes laevis (Miq. Dyera costulata (Miq. Ebenopsis ebano (Berland.W.W. Dysoxylum pettigrewianum F. Caryophyllaceae. Verbenaceae. Dransf. Drypetes curtisii (Hook.. critically endangered 1426. cultivated only 1438. cultivated only 1420.. Poaceae. cultivated only 1444. Echinodorus palaefolius (Nees & Mart. Koenig) P. cultivated only 1431. Duabanga grandiflora (Roxb. Wendl.. Dypsis paludosa J.. Echinochloa colona (L.. extinct 1464. Perrier) Beentje & J. Beauv. common 1425. Dransf. Dransf. Malvaceae. Dypsis madagascariensis (Becc. Hoffm. cultivated only 1445.F. endangered 1433.. vulnerable 1454. Dransf.. cultivated only 1418. Malvaceae. Apocynaceae. Arecaceae.. Moore) Beentje & J.F. Arecaceae. cultivated only 1432. Drymophloeus oliviformis (Giseke) Mart.) Beentje & J. Poaceae. Durio zibethinus L. cultivated only 1447. Arecaceae. common 1421.) Beentje & J. cultivated only 1442. common 1422. cultivated only 37 . naturalised 1430. Dypsis nodifera Mart. Hoffm.) J. Putranjavaceae. extinct 1451. cultivated only 1446. Polypodiaceae. Dipterocarpaceae. Meliaceae... Echinochloa picta (J.) J.. Putranjavaceae. Drypetes pendula Ridl.. Michael. Dysoxylum acutangulum Miq.. Arecaceae. Arecaceae. Putranjavaceae. weed of uncertain origin 1462. f. critically endangered 1458... Arecaceae. vulnerable 1434. Malvaceae.) Walp. Arecaceae. Moore. Drypetes longifolia (Blume) Pax & Hoffm. Duranta erecta L. Dysoxylum carolinae Mabb. Arecaceae. Lythraceae. Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. Dysoxylum cauliflorum Hiern. Dypsis ambositrae Beentje. Dypsis lutescens (H. Dysoxylum alliaceum (Blume) Blume.) Willd. Meliaceae. cultivated only 1417. Dryobalanops aromatica C.M. Dracontomelon duperreanum Pierre. Meliaceae. Arecaceae. Dracaena umbratica Ridl. cultivated only 1423. Dysoxylum densiflorum (Blume) Miq. cultivated only 1439. Meliaceae... Dypsis cabadae (H.) Link. Arecaceae.. cultivated only 1448.... Cactaceae. Malvaceae. critically endangered 1456. cultivated only 1437.. cultivated only 1460.

.) Trin.) Roem. Elaeocarpaceae. Elaeocarpaceae... Poaceae. 1465.) Roem..) Vahl. Zingiberaceae. Eleocharis spiralis (Rottb. naturalised 1466.) Gaertn. Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Elaeocarpaceae. Cyperaceae.) Corner. Araliaceae. common 1481. cultivated only 1515. extinct 1511.) Urb. Eleocharis geniculata (L. Elaeocarpus macrocerus (Turcz. Eleocharis ochrostachys Steud.. Loranthaceae. common 1475.. & Thoms. f. Elaeocarpus apiculatus Mast. Elaeocarpaceae.M.T. Myrsinaceae. vulnerable 1492. Arecaceae. Cyperaceae. cultivated only 1471. Urticaceae. Embelia lampani Scheff.Chong et al. Eleutherococcus nodiflorus (Dunn) S. Elytranthe albida (Blume) Blume. Pontederiaceae. & Schult.. Endiandra longipedicellata C. Elaeocarpus polystachyus Wall.) Kunth. Myristicaceae. critically endangered 1505. cultivated only 1479. weed of uncertain origin 1493. pulchrum (N. weed of uncertain origin 1496. Elaeis guineensis Jacq. Eleocharis retroflexa (Poir. Elaeocarpus bancroftii F. Elaeocarpus rugosus Roxb.) Solms.. common 1512. weed of uncertain origin 1495.) H. Forst. endangered 1476. Embelia canescens Jack.. Elaeocarpaceae. Bell. Elaeocarpus stipularis Blume. DC. Br. Asteraceae. Muell. Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Elaeocarpus grandiflorus Sm. critically endangered 1487.Gray. f.D. Bip. weed of uncertain origin 1499. Embelia dasythyrsa Miq. Elytranthe arnottiana (Korth. Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. Eleusine coracana (L.) Merr.R. weed of uncertain origin 1514. Elaeocarpus dentatus (J. Loranthaceae. Elaeocarpaceae. Cyperaceae. & F. Elaeocarpus griffithii (Wight) A.. cultivated only 1516. Eleusine indica (L. cultivated only 1474. Endocomia canarioides (King) de Wilde.) L. extinct 38 . extinct 1508. Elateriospermum tapos Blume. Cyperaceae. Cyperaceae. common 1485.. Elaeocarpaceae. Elaeocarpus petiolatus (Jack) Wall. & G. Ellipanthus tomentosus Kurz. Hu.. Elaeocarpus nitidus Jack. Lauraceae. Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume. critically endangered 1470.. Myrsinaceae. Cyperaceae. Endiandra impressicosta C. endangered 1509.. cultivated only 1469. common 1494. Eclipta prostrata (L. Arecaceae. Elaeocarpaceae.. Elaeocarpaceae. Elaeocarpaceae. naturalised 1468. Elaeocarpaceae. Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume. extinct 1491. Schröt. Connaraceae.. Elephantopus scaber L.) DC. critically endangered 1500.. vulnerable 1482. cultivated only 1477. Allen. Myrsinaceae.. vulnerable 1486. common 1513. Eleutheranthera ruderalis (Sw. f. var. cultivated only 1467. Elaeocarpaceae.. Elaeocarpaceae. critically endangered 1483. Elettariopsis curtisii Baker. Lomariopsidaceae.Y. Poaceae. Elatostema repens (Lour.) Gaertn. Myrsinaceae. Elaeocarpaceae. Elaeocarpus ferrugineus (Jack) Steud. Elaeocarpus mastersii King.. Myrsinaceae. Elaeocarpus pedunculatus Wall. ex Mast. ex A.. Elaphoglossum amblyphyllum P.. common 1498. Embelia ribes Burm. Francis.. Elaeocarpus palembanicus (Miq... f..) Schult. cultivated only 1472. Elaeocarpaceae. E. Elaeocarpus acmosepalus Ridl. ex C. cultivated only 1490. extinct 1507. Emilia sonchifolia (L. Asteraceae. critically endangered 1480. weed of uncertain origin 1497.K. naturalised 1503. Bailey. common 1484. critically endangered 1506. Elaeocarpaceae.R.) Burret. extinct 1489. Asteraceae. Eleiodoxa conferta (Griff. cultivated only 1501. cultivated only 1504.) Miq. naturalised 1502. Lauraceae. Elaeocarpaceae. Ellipeia cuneifolia Hook. & Schult. Annonaceae.) Sch.. ex Hensch. Eichhornia azurea (Sw. extinct 1478. Euphorbiaceae. White & W. Asteraceae. Forst. Elaeocarpus hainanensis Oliver. Embelia coriacea Wall. Pontederiaceae. cultivated only 1473.. critically endangered 1510. Muell. Elaeocarpaceae. Elaeocarpaceae.) Hallier. vulnerable 1488.

critically endangered 39 . Br.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1517. Eria floribunda Lindl.. Poaceae. Eria pulchella Lindl. cultivated only 1522. Araceae. cultivated only 1544. Acanthaceae. common 1532. Eria bractescens Lindl. Orchidaceae.. Orchidaceae.. Convolvulaceae. cultivated only 1525. Eria neglecta Ridl. Orchidaceae. Poaceae. extinct 1564.. Erechtites valerianifolius (Link ex Spreng.) Blume..) Stapf. critically endangered 1521. f. vulnerable 1558. Eria pellipes Hook. extinct 1548. weed of uncertain origin 1541. Epiphyllum oxypetalum (DC. Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth. Eriocaulaceae. cultivated only 1543. Epipremnum amplissimum (Schott) Engl. extinct 1553. critically endangered 1566.. Fabaceae.B. Convolvulaceae. common 1538...) C. naturalised 1545. weed of uncertain origin 1563. Enydra fluctuans Lour. Clarke.B. Equisetaceae. critically endangered 1523. Entada spiralis Ridl. Erycibe malaccensis C.) Royle. Eria javanica (Sw. critically endangered 1520.) Engl. Eragrostis atrovirens (Desf. Hydrocharitaceae.. Hubb.. Orchidaceae. weed of uncertain origin 1526. Eria pannea Lindl. cultivated only 1536. Araceae.. Poaceae. Eragrostis pilosa (L.. ex Mart. extinct 1560. Eriocaulon oryzetorum Mart. Araceae. Convolvulaceae.. Entada rheedei Spreng. Epipremnum giganteum (Roxb. Acanthaceae. weed of uncertain origin 1567. Asteraceae. Eria robusta (Blume) Lindl. weed of uncertain origin 1562. Convolvulaceae. Enhalus acoroides (L. Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Eragrostis brownii (Kunth) Nees.. Episcia cupreata (Hook.. critically endangered 1528. Asteraceae. Poaceae. weed of uncertain origin 1561.B. ex Nees. Enkleia malaccensis Griff. Orchidaceae. weed of uncertain origin 1539. Fabaceae.) Haw. Eragrostis montana Balansa. Erycibe citriniflora Griff.. Convolvulaceae. cultivated only 1559. extinct 1547. Beauv... Eriachne pallescens R. weed of uncertain origin 1537. Araceae.. common 1540. cultivated only 1529. Eranthemum wattii (Bedd. casual 1531..) Wight & Arn. Eria tenuiflora Ridl.) Lindl. Eranthemum nigrum Linden.) Cheesman... Erycibe leucoxyloides King ex Prain. cultivated only 1530. Epigynum ridleyi King & Gamble. extinct 1552. Rosaceae..f.) Trin...-Ham. Orchidaceae.) Hanst. Equisetum scirpoides Michx.. Clarke.. Poaceae. Erechtites hieracifolius (L. Orchidaceae. Poaceae. critically endangered 1533. naturalised 1546.) Raf.E. Orchidaceae. Epipremnum aureum (Linden ex André) Bunting. Juglandaceae. Orchidaceae. extinct 1551. Thymelaeaceae. Engelhardtia serrata Blume. extinct 1568. Orchidaceae. Eriocaulaceae. Eriochloa procera (Retz. common 1524. extinct 1549.) Griseb. extinct 1565. Convolvulaceae.) Airy Shaw.) P. Eragrostis amabilis (L. extinct 1554. Apocynaceae. Poaceae. ex DC. extinct 1556.. cultivated only 1535. Gesneriaceae. Asteraceae. Equisetum hyemale L. Fabaceae. Euphorbiaceae. extinct 1557. Erycibe festiva Prain. Musaceae. extinct 1555. Epipremnum pinnatum (L. Eragrostis unioloides (Retz. Orchidaceae. Orchidaceae. cultivated only 1534. Erycibe griffithii C.) Nees ex Steud. Eriocaulaceae. Cactaceae. cultivated only 1527. vulnerable 1518. ex Steud. Eria longirepens Ridl. Equisetaceae. Clarke.) DC. Ensete superbum (Roxb. extinct 1519. Poaceae. Eria nutans Lindl. Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq. Eriocaulon truncatum Buch. extinct 1550. common 1542.. Endospermum diadenum (Miq.. Eriocaulon wildenovianum Moldenke. Erycibe maingayi C.) Schott..

Erythrina humeana Spreng.. cultivated only 1597. Myrtaceae. Euphorbia cotinifolia L. cultivated only 1581. Eucalyptus platyphylla F. Euphorbia atoto Forst. Zingiberaceae. Zingiberaceae. cultivated only 1594. cultivated only 1593.. Amaryllidaceae. Erythrina speciosa Andrews. cultivated only 1601. Eucalyptus robusta Sm. cultivated only 1602.. cultivated only 1595. Apiaceae. Fabaceae. Eucalyptus moluccana Roxb. cultivated only 1588.. f. Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. Myrtaceae. Euphorbiaceae. cultivated only 1606. Orchidaceae. common 1584. & Perr. Fabaceae. Erythrina latissima E. Euphorbiaceae. Euclinia longiflora Salisb. cultivated only 1591. Eucalyptus herbertiana Maiden.) Giseke. Erythroxylaceae. Myrtaceae. Zingiberaceae. Muell. cultivated only 1576. Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. cultivated only 1618. cultivated only 1589. common 1570. cultivated only 1609.Chong et al. Fabaceae. extinct 1572. Erythorchis altissima (Blume) Blume.) Brenan. Olacaceae. Euphorbia antiquorum L. Orchidaceae.. Rubiaceae.. Muell. cultivated only 1573. cultivated only 1617. Etlingera elatior (Jack) R. cultivated only 1599... Eugenia reinwardtiana (Blume) DC. cultivated only 1578.. Koenig ex Retz. cultivated only 1615.. cultivated only 1619. Myrtaceae. Myrtaceae.. Muell. Euphorbia milii Des Moul. Myrtaceae. Myrtaceae... cultivated only 1575. Erythropalum scandens Blume. Myrtaceae. Fabaceae. Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst. Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd.. 1569. Eucalyptus alba Reinw. cultivated only 1580. Myrtaceae. Euphorbiaceae. Euphorbiaceae. Myrtaceae. Euphorbiaceae.M. Erythrina vespertilio Benth. Etlingera punicea (Roxb. Erycibe tomentosa Blume.. cultivated only 1583. Fabaceae.. Fabaceae. cultivated only 1598. Muell.. cultivated only 1574. cultivated only 1585. Orchidaceae.) R. Fabaceae. Eryngium foetidum L. cultivated only 1613. Myrtaceae. Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus umbrawarrensis Maiden. Eucalyptus botryoides Sm. Sm. cultivated only 1603. Myrtaceae. Celastraceae.. Myrtaceae.. Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.. critically endangered 1611. Euphorbiaceae. cultivated only 1577. cultivated only 40 . cultivated only 1596.. Erythrina lysistemon Hutch. cultivated only 1600. Erythroxylum cuneatum (Miq. Myrtaceae.. cultivated only 1604. Eucalyptus globulus Labill. Erythrina fusca Lour. Euphorbiaceae. cultivated only 1590. cultivated only 1592. Euphorbia neriifolia L.. casual 1571.. Sm. Eucalyptus microcorys F. vulnerable 1582. cultivated only 1579. Eucalyptus pellita F. extinct 1612. Fabaceae. Eulophia graminea Lindl. Euphorbiaceae. Myrtaceae. Erythrina variegata L. Convolvulaceae.. Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. ex Klotzsch. Erythrina caffra Thunb. Euphorbia heterophylla L. Eucalyptus apodophylla Blakely & Jacobs... Mey. Euonymus javanicus Blume. Etlingera littoralis (J.. Erythrina crista-galli L. vulnerable 1614.M. Eucalyptus pachyphylla F.. Euphorbia lactea Haw. Eucalyptus exserta F. weed of uncertain origin 1610. cultivated only 1607... Myrtaceae. cultivated only 1620. naturalised 1616... cultivated only 1605. Fabaceae. Fabaceae. Eugenia uniflora L. Myrtaceae. Eugenia stipitata McVaugh.) Suresh. Eucrosia bicolor Ker Gawl.. Myrtaceae.. ex Blume.. extinct 1586. Eucalyptus pilularis Sm.) Kurz. Euphorbiaceae. critically endangered 1587. Muell. cultivated only 1608. Euphorbia tirucalli L.

casual 1670. Moraceae.. Ficus caulocarpa (Miq. Ficus annulata Blume. Gentianaceae. & Binn. Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm. Eurycoma longifolia Jack. Arecaceae. Linden. Moraceae. Araliaceae. critically endangered 1665... Fagraea crenulata Maingay ex C. Fagraea ceilanica Thunb. Ficus bracteata Wall. Moraceae. cultivated only 1627. Muell. Ficus auriculata Lour. Gentianaceae. ex King.. Ficus albipila (Miq. Grimes. Moraceae. extinct 1642. Moraceae. Menispermaceae. Ficus celebensis Corner. Euthemis minor Jack.) Miq. Convolvulaceae. extinct 1657. Gentianaceae. common 1646.. Moraceae. extinct 1648. Ficus destruens F. Arecaceae. Moraceae. Moraceae. Fabaceae. Ficus elastica Roxb. Moraceae. Moraceae. Falcataria moluccana (Miq. Ficus consociata Blume.. Ficus chartacea Wall. extinct 41 .) Decne. Gentianaceae. Moraceae. Ficus crassiramea Miq. common 1650. Moraceae. Fagraea racemosa Jack ex Wall. Ficus crassipes F. Moraceae. Euthemis leucocarpa Jack. common 1632. Fagraea gigantea Ridl... extinct 1635. critically endangered 1656. White. Ficus botryocarpa Miq. cultivated only 1638. Gentianaceae. aurantiaca.. Euphorbiaceae. Fagraea ridleyi King & Gamble.. Ficus excavata King.M. cultivated only 1652. Excoecaria cochinchinensis Lour.. cultivated only 1626. var. common 1660... Evolvulus alsinoides (L. common 1622. casual 1654. Ficus buxifolia De Wild. Ficus delosyce Corner. Evodiella muelleri (Engl.W. critically endangered 1663. Fagraea fragrans Roxb. Simaroubaceae. critically endangered 1636. Ficus aurantiaca Griff. critically endangered 1669. critically endangered 1623. extinct 1625. Ficus benghalensis L. critically endangered 1658. cultivated only 1668. Arg... Eurya acuminata DC. Ochnaceae. Moraceae. cultivated only 1661.. Clarke. Moraceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1621. extinct 1629. Ficus benjamina L. Fagraea auriculata Jack. endangered 1649.. Gentianaceae. Rutaceae. Poaceae. common 1631. & Planch. weed of uncertain origin 1655. extinct 1628. Moraceae. Moraceae. extinct 1640.) King. Falconeria insignis Royle. Eustachys tenera (Presl) A.. Moraceae.) L. ex King.Camus. Moraceae.. cultivated only 1653. Moraceae. Ficus barteri Sprague.. cultivated only F 1634. naturalised 1643. Ficus aurata Miq. Excoecaria indica (Willd.T. cultivated only 1664.. Euphorbiaceae. Ficus apiocarpa Miq. Moraceae. Ficus dubia Wall. cultivated only 1659. aurata.) Müll. extinct 1666.. Gentianaceae. Ochnaceae. Ficus deltoidea Jack. var. vulnerable 1662. Moraceae. cultivated only 1624. vulnerable 1651. cultivated only 1630. Bailey. Moraceae.. Fagraea acuminatissima Merr. extinct 1637. Euphorbiaceae. Fibraurea tinctoria Lour. ex Miq. cultivated only 1645.) B. cultivated only 1644. Ficus binnendykii Miq. endangered 1641.. cultivated only 1633. Euterpe edulis Mart. Lauraceae. Euphorbiaceae. extinct 1647... critically endangered 1667. common 1639. Moraceae. ex C. Gentianaceae. Excoecaria agallocha L. Pentaphylacaceae.B. Euterpe oleraceae Mart. Moraceae. Fatsia japonica (Thunb. ex Hornem.L.) Barneby & J.

C. critically endangered 1679. Sapindaceae. Cyperaceae. ex Miq.. critically endangered 1719. Fimbristylis fusca (Nees) C... cultivated only 1678. extinct 1698.. common 1716. Moraceae. Ficus grossularioides Burm. & King ex King. Winkler. Moraceae. critically endangered 1682. Moraceae. Moraceae. Moraceae. critically endangered 1687. Ficus pisocarpa Blume.. Cyperaceae. Cyperaceae. Br. Ficus sinuata Thunb. Moraceae. cultivated only 1702. cultivated only 1693. Ficus radicans Roxb. cultivated only 1680. Ficus subgelderi Corner var. Moraceae. ssp. cultivated only 1683. rigida (Miq. Ficus stricta (Miq. Moraceae. critically endangered 1697.) Vahl ssp. Muell. critically endangered 1705. endangered 1706. Ficus microsyce Ridl. Ficus scortechinii King. critically endangered 1689. naturalised 1696. Moraceae. Cyperaceae.. Moraceae.. Ficus pleurocarpa F. common 1709. Ficus microcarpa L. Ficus lamponga Miq. Moraceae. Moraceae. Moraceae. critically endangered 1699. Ficus superba Miq. Moraceae. cultivated only 1694. common 1677. cultivated only 1692. Moraceae. ex Miq. 1671. Moraceae. Moraceae. common 1720. Moraceae. critically endangered 1681. endangered 1675. Moraceae. Ficus racemosa L. Ficus trichocarpa Blume. Ficus francisci H. critically endangered 1695. Fimbristylis leptoclada Benth. cultivated only 1714. common 1672. Ficus subgelderi Corner var. weed of uncertain origin 1721. subgelderi. Moraceae. Ficus variegata Blume. critically endangered 1685.. Fimbristylis cymosa R. critically endangered 1701. & Mor. Ficus virens Aiton. Moraceae. ssp. cultivated only 1690. Ficus kerkhovenii Valeton. Moraceae. Ficus kurzii King. Ficus lyrata Warb. Moraceae.) Vahl. Fimbristylis complanata (Retz. Cyperaceae. weed of uncertain origin 1722. Moraceae. Cyperaceae. ex Blume. critically endangered 1707. Cyperaceae. Ficus pumila L. critically endangered 1713. Moraceae. Fimbristylis acuminata Vahl. Moraceae. Fimbristylis dura (Zoll. critically endangered 1712. leprieurii (Miq.) Corner. common 42 . ex Miq.) Miq.. Clarke. Ficus punctata Lam. Moraceae. Ficus glandulifera (Wall. f. Ficus villosa Blume. sundaica.. Ficus vasculosa Wall. extinct 1688. Moraceae. Ficus retusa L.. Ficus religiosa L.B. Cyperaceae. Moraceae..) Link. Ficus natalensis Hochst. extinct 1704. Ficus xylophylla Wall. cultivated only 1686.Chong et al. ribesoides King.) C. Moraceae. weed of uncertain origin 1718. cymosa. endangered 1710. dichotoma. var. Moraceae. cultivated only 1708. Ficus laevis Blume.. Fimbristylis dichotoma (L. Filicium decipiens (Wight & Arn. common 1676. casual 1691. cultivated only 1673. Berg. Moraceae. common 1717. Moraceae. Ficus sundaica Blume var. Ficus ruginervia L. Moraceae.) Thwaites ex Hook. Moraceae. Moraceae. Ficus heteropleura Blume. Moraceae. weed of uncertain origin 1715.) Merr. Ficus fistulosa Reinw. critically endangered 1711.. Ficus globosa Blume. Ficus irregularis Miq. borneensis (Miq. Ficus recurva Blume var. grossularioides. Moraceae. critically endangered 1700.) King.. f... critically endangered 1674. Ficus pellucidopunctata Griff...) Corner. Ficus obscura Blume var.. critically endangered 1703.. Cyperaceae. Moraceae. f. Fimbristylis ferruginea (L. Moraceae. Fimbristylis griffithii Boeck. common 1684. Moraceae. Moraceae. Ficus sagittata Vahl. Ficus vaccinioides Hemsl...

) Kern. vulnerable 1739. Flickingeria angustifolia (Blume) Hawkes. weed of uncertain origin 1726. common 1769. Salicaceae.D... ex C. extinct 1749. f. Muell. endangered 1737.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1723. Fimbristylis nutans (Retz. Cyperaceae. Annonaceae.) Vahl. Veitch) Brummitt. & Thoms. Franciscodendron laurifolia (F. Pandanaceae. Freycinetia multiflora Merr. Cyperaceae. Cyperaceae. Cyperaceae. Cyperaceae.) Steenis. Flagellariaceae. weed of uncertain origin 1730. weed of uncertain origin 1771.. extinct 1747. Flickingeria comata (Blume) Hawkes. weed of uncertain origin 1732. extinct 1746. common 1744. Cyperaceae. Flacourtia jangomas (Lour. & Voss. f. Freycinetia sumatrana Hemsley var. Fissistigma manubriatum (Hook. Fabaceae. extinct 1768. Pandanaceae. vulnerable 1766. Fimbristylis schoenoides (Retz.) Vahl. Friesodielsia borneensis (Miq. Commelinaceae. & Thoms. cultivated only 1763.B. Orchidaceae.. Fimbristylis polytrichoides (Retz. cultivated only 1741.. Fimbristylis ovata (Burm.. Flickingeria xantholeuca (Rchb. Fimbristylis pauciflora R. Euphorbiaceae. Muell.f. ex Sieb. Flindersia pimenteliana F. Flickingeria bancana (J. Flueggea virosa (Roxb. common 1764. Orchidaceae. Salicaceae.B. weed of uncertain origin 1731. Friesodielsia glauca (Hook. extinct 1762. sumatrana. f. & Thoms. Muell.) Steenis. Freycinetia angustifolia Blume. cultivated only 1754. Stone. weed of uncertain origin 1733. Cyperaceae. naturalised 1742. Br... vulnerable 1736. Br. Freycinetia confusa Ridl. Flickingeria laciniosa (Ridl. Sm. Orchidaceae. Br. Finlaysonia obovata Wall.. Fuirena umbellata Rottb. Pandanaceae. Muell. Hawkes. f.. vulnerable 1765. extinct 1725. ex Willd.) Merr.) Hawkes.J. Fimbristylis umbellaris (L. Friesodielsia latifolia (Hook.T. Hyland. Friesodielsia biglandulosa (Blume) Steenis. cultivated only 1770. Annonaceae. Cyperaceae. cultivated only 1753. vulnerable 1729. Fuchsia hybrida hort. Fittonia albivensis (Lindl..) Hawkes. cultivated only 1740. Pandanaceae. Friesodielsia excisa (Miq.. vulnerable 1743. Cyperaceae.. Fissistigma lanuginosum (Hook. Apocynaceae. Rubiaceae. extinct 1760.) Hawkes. Orchidaceae. Rutaceae. Pandanaceae. critically endangered 1728. Malvaceae. Annonaceae. Fissistigma fulgens (Hook..) Merr. weed of uncertain origin 1724. Annonaceae.) Steenis.. common 1756.. Flickingeria fimbriata (Blume) A. Fissistigma latifolium (Dunal) Merr. extinct 1748. Annonaceae.) Vahl. Cyperaceae. Fimbristylis tetragona R. Agavaceae. ovoideum (King) Sinclair. extinct 1750. Rutaceae. ex hort. Aiton. cultivated only G 1772.. f.) Seidenf. Fimbristylis obtusata (C. critically endangered 1759. f. Clarke) Ridl. Salicaceae. & Thoms. Flindersia brayleyana F. Flacourtia rukam Zoll. cultivated only 1735. extinct 1761.) Haw. Freycinetia javanica Blume. Flagellaria indica L. & Moritzi.. Annonaceae. critically endangered 1734... Cyperaceae.) Merr. Annonaceae. Gaertnera grisea Hook. cultivated only 1755. Orchidaceae. Rutaceae.) R. Br. weed of uncertain origin 1745.C. & Thoms.) Steenis. Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudich. Freycinetia corneri B. Annonaceae. naturalised 1757.) Voigt. Pandanaceae. Flacourtia inermis Roxb. Annonaceae. Malvaceae. globally extinct 1751. Furcraea foetida (L. Firmiana malayana Kosterm. Acanthaceae.. f. extinct 1752. Orchidaceae. Clarke. Onagraceae. vulnerable 1738. vulnerable 43 . f. vulnerable 1767. var. Floscopa scandens Lour.. Flindersia ifflaiana F. Flickingeria fugax (Rchb. Orchidaceae.) Raeusch.) W.) Steenis & B. Flemingia strobilifera (L. cultivated only 1758.. Fimbristylis tristachya R. weed of uncertain origin 1727.

.. Garcinia pyrifera Ridl. Gigantochloa thoii K. Gardenia ovularis F. cultivated only 1798. cultivated only 1814.. Garcinia eugeniifolia Wall. Gardenia jasminoides J. Poaceae. common 1799.B. Orchidaceae. Garcinia nitida Pierre. Johnst. Wong. Clusiaceae. Gaertnera viminea Hook. Anderson. casual 1823. Burseraceae. casual 44 . Clusiaceae. critically endangered 1822. Garcinia hombroniana Pierre. Garcinia nigrolineata Planch. Clusiaceae. critically endangered 1797. Clarke. critically endangered 1796. Garcinia rostrata (Hassk.) Faden. cultivated only 1807. Rubiaceae. cultivated only 1810. Geogenanthus poeppigii (Miq. Galearia fulva (Tul. Gigantochloa ligulata Gamble. Rubiaceae. extinct 1816. ex C. Garcinia griffithii T. cultivated only 1790.. cultivated only 1805. Turner & P. Clusiaceae. Rubiaceae.. Clusiaceae.. Garcinia subelliptica Merr. Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hook.. Garcinia scortechinii King.. casual 1795. Garcinia nervosa Miq. Rubiaceae. Rubiaceae. Clusiaceae. Clusiaceae. Commelinaceae. Anderson. ex T. Gardenia tubifera Wall.) Merr. common 1777. Gastrodia javanica (Blume) Lindl. ex DC. Asteraceae. critically endangered 1802. Geophila repens (L. vulnerable 1778.) I. f. Pandaceae. cultivated only 1809. Garcinia prainiana King. Clusiaceae. f. Garcinia xanthochymus Hook. endangered 1791.) Miq. Robson. Anderson.) van Beusekom. cultivated only 1784. Rubiaceae.F. f. Clusiaceae. Gardeniopsis longifolia Miq.. critically endangered 1780. critically endangered 1812. Clusiaceae. Gardenia griffithii Hook. Garcinia cowa Roxb. Galearia maingayi Hook. var. Garcinia mangostana L. Rubiaceae. f. Rubiaceae. Galeola nudifolia Lour.M. Malpighiaceae.M. extinct 1775.) Fosberg. Clusiaceae. cultivated only 1794.. Rubiaceae. Clusiaceae. var.. cultivated only 1806. Genianthus maingayi Hook. f.B. Clusiaceae. cultivated only 1804. Garuga pinnata Roxb. Schum. cultivated only 1792. extinct 1808. Rubiaceae. Gahnia tristis Nees. Clusiaceae.. Garcinia cymosa (K. Clusiaceae. f. Rubiaceae. Clusiaceae.Chong et al. critically endangered 1776. cultivated only 1781. Poaceae.. Clusiaceae. f. extinct 1801. Garcinia bancana Miq. critically endangered 1782. Clusiaceae. Rubiaceae. ex C. ex T. junghuhnii (Miq. Apocynaceae. Gardenia carinata Wall. cultivated only 1800. cultivated only 1785.. Pandaceae... stylosa King. Orchidaceae. Garcinia maingayi Hook. Gigantochloa hasskarliana (Kurz) Backer ex Heyne. f.. Clusiaceae. Clusiaceae.... cultivated only 1820. Poaceae. critically endangered 1788. Poaceae. & Schltdl. critically endangered 1815. cultivated only 1786. extinct 1818. Rubiaceae. Garcinia parvifolia Miq. Gaertnera vaginans (DC.) Miq. Garcinia malaccensis Hook. Gaertnera obesa Hook.. Ellis. endangered 1819. Anderson. cultivated only 1821. Geophila pilosa Pears.M. critically endangered 1779. Clusiaceae.) I. Clusiaceae. Clusiaceae.. asiatica (Cham. critically endangered 1793.Clarke. critically endangered 1783. Cyperaceae. Stevens. Gardenia gjellerupii Valeton. Garcinia dulcis (Roxb. ssp. endangered 1789. Garcinia atroviridis Griff. Garcinia forbesii King. Galphimia glauca Cav.) N. endangered 1774. cultivated only 1817. Garcinia macrophylla Mart. critically endangered 1803. f.. Gigantochloa wrayi Gamble. ex T. 1773. var. cultivated only 1811. Gardenia scabrella Puttock. Garcinia gummi-gutta (L. subcarinata Corner. Clusiaceae. vulnerable 1787. extinct 1813.) Kurz. Bailey.M.

critically endangered 1864. Wright. Lamiaceae. cultivated only 1855.. arborescens (Blume) Chakrab. cultivated only 1829. common 1859. Zingiberaceae.. extinct 1857. Rutaceae. Lim.. Anacardiaceae. Gomphandra quadrifida (Blume) Sleum. critically endangered 1845. critically endangered 1866.N.. Lamiaceae.) Boerl. Glochidion sericeum Hook. Naray. cultivated only 1858. vulnerable 1873. chlorosperma. cultivated only 1832. pendula var. critically endangered 1844. critically endangered 1837. f. Gmelina arborea Roxb. Gnetum microcarpum Blume. cultivated only 1852. Gnetaceae. Phyllanthaceae.. Anacardiaceae. extinct 1839. Goniothalamus tapis Miq. vulnerable 1868. Phyllanthaceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1824. Goniophlebium subauriculatum (Blume) C.) Nakai.. Lamiaceae. Phyllanthaceae. Phyllanthaceae.) Boerl. vulnerable 1850. vulnerable 1830. Gleicheniaceae. vulnerable 45 . Polypodiaceae. cultivated only 1838. Polypodiaceae.) Pax & K. extinct 1847. Annonaceae. cultivated only 1861. Phyllanthaceae.Gangop. var.. endangered 1860. Cannabaceae. pusilla S.. Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Gnetaceae. Stemonuraceae. Glochidion zeylanicum Blume var. Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. Glycosmis chlorosperma (Blume) Spreng.. pendula. Gmelina philippensis Cham. casual 1831. critically endangered 1833. Zingiberaceae. critically endangered 1843. var. Phyllanthaceae. common 1853. Gironniera parvifolia Planch. cultivated only 1869. critically endangered 1865. peninsularis Holttum. Fabaceae.. Gironniera subaequalis Planch.. casual 1851. Glochidion zeylanicum Blume var. Cannabaceae. vulnerable 1871.) Ding Hou. Globba variabilis Ridl.) Wagner & Grether. Rutaceae. Globba winitii C. Gluta wallichii (Hook. Zingiberaceae. Amaranthaceae. Globba leucantha Miq.) Kunth ex Walp. & Thoms. Zingiberaceae. vulnerable 1854.. Gironniera nervosa Planch. extinct 1840. Annonaceae. Globba atrosanguinea Teijsm. Glandularia tenera (Spreng.. Gomphrena globosa L. Colchicaceae. Phyllanthaceae. Zingiberaceae. Gnetum latifolium Blume. Phyllanthaceae. Glochidion kunstlerianum Gage.. endangered 1841. Phyllanthaceae. Lamiaceae. common 1846. f. Glochidion singaporense Gage. Presl. var. Glochidion ferdinandi (Müll. Gnetum gnemon L.. Glochidion lutescens Blume. Glochidion superbum Baill. Rutaceae. Globba pendula Roxb.. f. Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. extinct 1825. gnemon. Gnetaceae. Br.H. & Binn.. Arg. zeylanicum. Glyptopetalum quadrangulare Prain ex King. f. Glycosmis trifoliata (Blume) Spreng. extinct 1856. extinct 1835. endangered 1827. Glycosmis perakensis V. extinct 1848. f.. critically endangered 1849. Glochidion littorale Blume. vulnerable 1874. ssp.. Phyllanthaceae.. Celastraceae. Gmelina elliptica Sm. Glochidion wallichianum Müll. critically endangered 1863. Lamiaceae. common 1826. ssp. Gnetum macrostachyum Hook.. Gnetaceae. Arg.) Cabrera.. vulnerable 1870. Glochidion glomerulatum (Miq. Gleichenia truncata (Willd. Gnetum gnemonoides Brongn.. Verbenaceae. endangered 1828.. cultivated only 1836. Annonaceae. Goniophlebium percussum (Cav. Glochidion borneense (Müll. Gmelina asiatica L.. Goniothalamus ridleyi King. Phyllanthaceae. extinct 1834.. vulnerable 1872. & Thoms. critically endangered 1867.. Phyllanthaceae.. Cannabaceae.) Benth. Phyllanthaceae. & M. Gmelina macrophylla (R. Glochidion rubrum Blume. Gironniera hirta Ridl. Arg.. Phyllanthaceae. Glochidion varians Miq. extinct 1862. Gnetaceae. Annonaceae. critically endangered 1842. Gluta malayana (Corner) Ding Hou. Cannabaceae. Gloriosa superba L. Hoffm.

Gymnacranthera bancana (Miq.. Guaiacum officinale L. Myrsinaceae. ex Ridl. Gymnanthera oblonga (Burm. Gonystylus maingayi Hook. endangered 1883. & M. extinct 1917. cultivated only 1891. var. Lecythidaceae. Schouten. cultivated only 1920. critically endangered 1910. Acanthaceae. weed of uncertain origin 1877.Chong et al. f.) Mez.) Warb. cultivated only 1906. Johnson. weed of uncertain origin 1916. Grewia laevigata Vahl. Gymnostoma rumphianum (Miq. Grenacheria amentacea (C. Grevillea robusta A.A. var.) Blume. Gymnacranthera farquhariana (Hook.. f. Guioa bijuga (Hiern) Radlk. Grenacheria lampani (Scheff. Proteaceae. vulnerable 1902. Proteaceae. Myrsinaceae. Gonocaryum gracile Miq. Gordonia singaporiana Wall. Cucurbitaceae. Br..) Warb.B. Gymnanthera nitida R.. Asteraceae.. f. zippeliana (Miq.) Radlk. Grevillea baileyana McGill. Casuarinaceae.S. Gustavia gracillima Miers. extinct 1885. var.) Mez. & Thoms. Lecythidaceae.B. Proteaceae. critically endangered 1899. Bromeliaceae... Johnson. Grevillea pteridifolia Knight. Myrsinaceae. Bromeliaceae. Orchidaceae.S. Br. Goniothalamus tortilipetalus M. common 1876.. ex R. cultivated only 1897. vulnerable 1895. Apocynaceae. endangered 1881. cultivated only 1907. Gymnacranthera forbesii (King) Warb.Schouten. Guzmania dissitiflora L. cultivated only 1890. vulnerable 1901. Myristicaceae.) R. Guioa pleuropteris (Blume) Radlk. critically endangered 1908. Thymelaeaceae. DC. ex de Vriese) L. extinct 1887. Rubiaceae. cultivated only 1919. Sapindaceae. Malvaceae.) Warb. Theaceae. Grammatophyllum scriptum (L.) P. Gonystylus confusus Airy Shaw. Johnson. Gymnostoma nobile (Whitmore) L. eugeniifolia (A. Zygophyllaceae. Br. endangered 1878. Gustavia augusta L.A. Gymnosiphon aphyllus Blume. Orchidaceae. Haloragaceae. extinct 1888. Rubiaceae. & Thoms. f. Guettarda speciosa L.. cultivated only 1886.A.. Guioa pubescens (Z. Gustavia superba O. Grenacheria fulva (Mez) Airy Shaw.. critically endangered 1912. Bip. Annonaceae.. cultivated only 1892. common 46 ..) Griff.. Casuarinaceae. Sapindaceae. Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. Sm.. Moore) L. Malvaceae. Myristicaceae. cultivated only 1903.) R.. Gonocarpus chinensis (Lour. Myristicaceae. Theaceae. Gordonia penangensis Ridl.S. critically endangered 1880.. Gymnacranthera farquhariana (Hook. Guioa lasioneura Radlk. Theaceae.A. Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.S. Casuarinaceae. Grevillea dryandri R.) Orchard. Gordonia multinervis King. cultivated only 1921. endangered 1879. cultivated only 1894. vulnerable 1922. cultivated only 1905.T.. cultivated only 1904. Myristicaceae.. f. ex Walp. cultivated only 1918. cultivated only 1900. Gynochthodes coriacea Blume. Myristicaceae. Apocynaceae. critically endangered 1909. cultivated only 1893. Lecythidaceae.. Clarke) Mez.) Merr. Gymnacranthera farquhariana (Hook. Cunn.A.) Sinclair.) L. Gynochthodes sublanceolata Miq. critically endangered 1911.R. Graptophyllum pictum (L. cultivated only 1896. Sapindaceae. endangered 1898. & Thoms. Gymnopetalum chinense (Lour. Burmanniaceae. 1875. Thymelaeaceae. Grevillea banskii R. Green. common 1914. Berg.. farquhariana. Sapindaceae. Proteaceae. Guzmania lingulata (L.T. critically endangered 1882.. Gymnostoma sumatranum (Jungh. endangered 1889. Br. cultivated only 1913.S. cultivated only 1884. Rubiaceae. Casuarinaceae.A. Proteaceae... Hend. critically endangered 1915. Gymnostoma papuanum (S. Cardiopteridaceae. Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume. Johnson.

Halophila spinulosa (R.. Hedyotis verticillata (L. Habenaria singapurensis Ridl.. cultivated only 1955. Halodule pinifolia (Miki) den Hartog. cultivated only 1937. extinct 1932. cultivated only 1925. Helicia petiolaris Benn. Heliconia danielsiana W. Br.. Stiles. f.. Heliconiaceae.. cultivated only 1942. Heliconiaceae. Heliconiaceae. Hedera helix L.. cultivated only 1960. Don. extinct 1951. Hydrocharitaceae. Cymodoceaceae. Hydrocharitaceae.) L. Heliconiaceae. Xanthorrhoeaceae.. Proteaceae.. Heliconia bihai (L. Heliconiaceae. Heliconia latispatha Benth. Halophila ovalis (R.. cultivated only H 1928. Kirk) Radlk. f. Proteaceae.Don. cultivated only 1941. Asteraceae. Heliconia chartacea Lane ex Barreiros. Halophila beccarii Aschers. Heliconiaceae. cultivated only 1953.. Heliconia lankesteri Standl. Haworthia fasciata (Willd. Heliconiaceae. cultivated only 1957. cultivated only 1952. Gynura pseudochina (L. Hamelia patens Jacq.. cultivated only 1927. Heliconia mariae Hook.. Helianthus annuus L. Heliconia dielsiana Loes.. cultivated only 1965. Heliconiaceae. cultivated only 1959.. cultivated only 1958.) DC. vulnerable 1938. Heliconiaceae. Heliconia marginata (Griggs) Pitier. Hydrocharitaceae. Helicia excelsa (Roxb. Heliconiaceae. cultivated only 1940. Hydrocharitaceae. Hanguanaceae. Hedychium coronarium J.. cultivated only 1939. Heliconia indica Lam.) Hartog. ex Sm. weed of uncertain origin 1972. Br. Rubiaceae. extinct 1931.) Blume. Asteraceae..) Merr. Zingiberaceae. cultivated only 1962. Heliconiaceae. Zingiberaceae.. cultivated only 1943.) Hook. Heliconia mathiasiae G. Hedyotis pinifolia Wall. f.-Ham. Sapindaceae.. cultivated only 1954. Rhizophoraceae. Heliconia episcopalis Vell.. cultivated only 1968. Heliconia psittacorum L. Orchidaceae. Daniels & F. cultivated only 1963. Heliconia bourgaeana Petersen. extinct 47 . Koenig. Heliconiaceae. Heliconiaceae. ex Wall. critically endangered 1926. weed of uncertain origin 1947. cultivated only 1961. cultivated only 1930. Gynura procumbens (Lour. Habranthus gracilifolius Herb. Hedyotis capitellata Wall. Br. cultivated only 1948. Heliconiaceae. cultivated only 1956.) Lam. critically endangered 1935. Heliconia caribaea Lam. Cymodoceaceae. Rubiaceae. Rubiaceae.) R. Harpullia zanquebarica (J. extinct 1949. Heliconiaceae.. Hedychium coccineum Buch. Heliconia stricta Huber.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1923..S. cultivated only 1970. casual 1967. critically endangered 1934. Rubiaceae. cultivated only 1971. Heliconiaceae.) Haw. Helixanthera coccinea (Jack) Danser... Kress. Proteaceae. Heliconiaceae. critically endangered 1950. critically endangered 1945. Gynura segetum Merr. common 1944. Halodule uninervis (Forsk. Heliconiaceae. vulnerable 1946. Rubiaceae. Asteraceae. Boraginaceae... Helicia robusta (Roxb.. Heliconia densiflora Verl. Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pav. endangered 1933. Halophila minor (Zoll. critically endangered 1936.. common 1924. cultivated only 1964.. Hanguana malayana (Jack) Merr. Heliconiaceae. Gynotroches axillaris Blume. Heliconiaceae.. cultivated only 1969. Amaryllidaceae. Asteraceae.J. Heliconia vellerigera Poepp.. Araliaceae. Loranthaceae. extinct 1929.) Aschers. ex G.. Asteraceae... Hedyotis auricularia L. cultivated only 1966. Heliotropium indicum L..) Aschers.G. Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) DC. Heliconia lingulata Ruiz & Pav. Heliconia wagneriana Petersen. ex G.

Hernandiaceae.) Holttum.Chong et al. Dryopteridaceae. Hemigraphis confinis T. Malpighiaceae. Hemigraphis primulifolia (Nees) Fern.) K. ex A. cultivated only 1983.) Kurz. Acanthaceae. Orchidaceae. Homalomena pendula (Blume) Bakh. Malvaceae. cultivated only 1978. Araceae. cultivated only 2021. endangered 2022. critically endangered 1981. common 1990.. Dipterocarpaceae. Hemigraphis alternata (Burm.. Araceae. critically endangered 1985.. Muell. Araceae. Araceae. vulnerable 2006. critically endangered 2011. cultivated only 2007.. Amaryllidaceae. extinct 1991.. vulnerable 2013.H. Orchidaceae. Heritiera peralata (Bailey) Kosterm. Araceae. Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz... endangered 2018. Malvaceae. endangered 2016.. Helixanthera parasitica Lour. Anderson. ex Roem. Malvaceae.) Hallier f. Homalomena sagittifolia Jungh. cultivated only 48 . Malvaceae. Heritiera littoralis Aiton. endangered 2014. naturalised 1977. Hopea nutans Ridl. Homalium circumpinnatum F. cultivated only 2002. casual 1996. Heteropogon contortus (L. naturalised 1993. Malvaceae. Hiptage sericea Hook. Hibiscus mutabilis L. Arecaceae.) J.) G. Sm. Anderson.) Hook. Dipterocarpaceae. f. Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. Homalium grandiflorum Benth. cultivated only 1995. Poaceae. Heterosmilax borneensis A.. Heritiera sumatrana (Miq. cultivated only 1992. & Schult. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. endangered 2015. Heritiera elata Ridl. critically endangered 1979. Dipterocarpaceae. Araceae. Don.. cultivated only 2017. Rubiaceae. Heritiera javanica (Blume) Kosterm. endangered 1982. Malvaceae. cultivated only 2010.. cultivated only 1994. Polygonaceae. Heterogonium sagenioides (Mett. Homalomena rubescens (Roxb. Juss. cultivated only 2019. Hibiscus surattensis L. ex Hiern.. extinct 1974... Dipterocarpaceae. Hopea odorata Roxb... cultivated only 1997.) Herb. cultivated only 2009. Hippeastrum reticulatum (L'Hér. Hiptage benghalensis (L. Hopea pubescens Ridl.) Hemsl... Homalomena humilis (Jack) Hook.. ex Schott. critically endangered 2020. Hemigraphis repanda (L.) Kosterm. Euphorbiaceae. Smilacaceae.. Hoffmannia discolor (Lem. DC.M.f. Hopea mengarawan Miq.. 1973. Homalocladium platyclados (F. Dipterocarpaceae. Homalomena griffithii (Schott) Hook. Malvaceae. Euphorbiaceae.) T. Hopea griffithii Kurz. Homalomena rostrata Griff. naturalised 1976. Malvaceae. cultivated only 2001. f. cultivated only 2023. Malvaceae.) Kosterm. Malpighiaceae. Malvaceae. endangered 1980.-Vill. Malvaceae. Schum. Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast.. cultivated only 1975. Acanthaceae. endangered 1989. extinct 1988. Homalanthus novoguineensis (Warb. cultivated only 2024. critically endangered 2005.. Acanthaceae. Hippobroma longiflora (L.. Salicaceae.. Salicaceae. cultivated only 2008.. f. cultivated only 2004. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. weed of uncertain origin 1999. Hibiscus acetosella Welw. cultivated only 2000. Hetaeria obliqua Blume.) L. Heritiera borneensis (Merr. Histiopteris incisa (Thunb. endangered 1984. Malvaceae. Malvaceae.. Hibiscus syriacus L.. f. cultivated only 2012.... Heritiera simplicifolia (Mast.) P. Loranthaceae. Hernandia nymphaeifolia (C.. naturalised 2003. Campanulaceae.. Araceae. Malvaceae.) Kosterm. Bailey. Dipterocarpaceae. Heterospathe minor Burret. Malvaceae. f. Hetaeria nitida Ridl. extinct 1987. Homalomena wallichii Schott.. Bailey.) Müll..) Kunth. Arg. Acanthaceae. cultivated only 1998. Dennstaedtiaceae. Beauv. extinct 1986.. Hopea helferi (Dyer) Brandis. Hibiscus tricolor Dehnh. Lamiaceae. Presl) Kubitzki.

critically endangered 2032.) Warb.. Horsfieldia irya (Gaertn.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2025. Hornstedtia scyphifera (J. cultivated only 2074. Horsfieldia crassifolia (Hook. Saururaceae.. naturalised 2073. cultivated only 2043. Apocynaceae. Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. Huperzia carinata (Desv. Hoya lacunosa Blume. Horsfieldia sparsa W. critically endangered 2028. endangered 2062. Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Hydrophyllaceae. Bailey. Don. Apocynaceae. Apocynaceae.. Lypopodiaceae. Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb. Forst. Hura crepitans L. extinct 2046. Hoya obtusifolia Wight. extinct 2063.. endangered 2053. Hydnocarpus anthelminthicus Pierre ex Laness. Horsfieldia parviflora (Roxb. ex Wight & Arn.. common 2059.) Ser. Myristicaceae. Dipterocarpaceae. Hoya latifolia G.) Warb. Araliaceae. & Thoms. Chambers. Rubiaceae. weed of uncertain origin 49 .) Holub. Hydriastele costata F. critically endangered 2050.) Warb. Apocynaceae.. Horsfieldia sucosa (King) Warb. Dipterocarpaceae. Myristicaceae. Muell.. Hydrangeaceae. Apocynaceae.. Hopea wightiana Wall. & Thoms. critically endangered 2040. Huperzia phyllantha (Hook.. emend. Myristicaceae. Lypopodiaceae. critically endangered 2026. Myristicaceae. Sinclair. extinct 2049. Hoya revoluta Wight. Lypopodiaceae.. Myristicaceae. Hoya coronaria Blume. Hoya campanulata Blume. Hydriastele beguinii (Burret) W.. cultivated only 2058.) Rothm... Sinclair. Apocynaceae. Baker & Loo. Hornstedtia leonurus (J. Br. critically endangered 2031.. extinct 2061. common 2075.. Apocynaceae..J. C. extinct 2051. Howea belmoreana (C.f. Huperzia squarrosa (G. Apocynaceae. critically endangered 2029.. Balsaminaceae.. f. Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam.) Trevis. critically endangered 2034.) J. Horsfieldia punctatifolia J. Myristicaceae. cultivated only 2065. cultivated only 2069. König) Steud var.J. Apocynaceae. Hydrocera triflora (L. extinct 2056.. Hydrilla verticillata (L. Lypopodiaceae. & Arn. cultivated only 2066. Myristicaceae. endangered 2039.. Moore & F. Sinclair. f. Zingiberaceae. Hoya scortechinii King & Gamble.) Becc. Horsfieldia superba (Hook. Hydrocotyle umbellata L.) Royle. Hornstedtia conica Ridl. critically endangered 2041.) Warb. Hoya coriacea Blume. Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. vulnerable 2030. Hopea sangal Korth. Hosea lobbiana Ridl. Achariaceae. Myristicaceae. verticillata. Arecaceae. Horsfieldia polyspherula (Hook. f. Hydrocharitaceae. extinct 2048. Apocynaceae. naturalised 2035. f. König) Retz. Zingiberaceae.. Myristicaceae. cultivated only 2027. cultivated only 2070. Zingiberaceae. cultivated only 2045.M. Apocynaceae. Apocynaceae. vulnerable 2036. Huperzia phlegmaria (L. & Thoms.f. Hoya diversifolia Blume. King) J. Horsfieldia grandis (Hook.. cultivated only 2047..) Warb. Horsfieldia brachiata (King) Warb. Horsfieldia tomentosa Warb. Hoya verticillata (Vahl) G. Hoya multiflora Blume. cultivated only 2067. cultivated only 2076.. critically endangered 2037. Myristicaceae. scyphifera.. Myristicaceae. Horsfieldia wallichii (Hook. Apocynaceae. f. Arecaceae. Araliaceae.) Trevis. Hydnocarpus castaneus Hook. critically endangered 2033. ex Poir. Lypopodiaceae. weed of uncertain origin 2072. Apocynaceae.. de Wilde. cultivated only 2071. Don var. Huperzia nummulariifolia (Blume) T. endangered 2054. Hoya finlaysonii Wight. Myristicaceae. Euphorbiaceae. Achariaceae. cultivated only 2044. & Thomson. Lamiaceae. extinct 2064. extinct 2060. critically endangered 2042.) Vahl. extinct 2038. critically endangered 2068. cultivated only 2055. f. extinct 2057. f. cultivated only 2052. Hydrolea zeylanica (L. Araliaceae. Hoya carnosa (L.) Wight & Arn. Hoya kerrii Craib.) R. Arecaceae.

Amaryllidaceae.. Hylocereus undatus (Haw.. Lamiaceae. malaccensis (Becc. Orchidaceae. Balsaminaceae.H. Fabaceae. Hymenocallis speciosa (L. Hyophorbe vaughanii L. Fabaceae. Hyophorbe verschaffeltii H. Balsaminaceae.. extinct 2093. naturalised 2119. Fabaceae. ex Steud. Hymenophyllaceae. malaccensis. Hymenophyllum polyanthos Sw.. Hymenophyllum acanthoides (Bosch) Rosenst. Pittosporaceae. Hygrophila phlomoides Nees. cultivated only 2100. endangered 2090. Bailey. Fabaceae. Ilex maingayi Hook. cultivated only 2086.) Hook. Lamiaceae. Balsaminaceae. Cyperaceae. Don. Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Steud. common 2122.) R. Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (L. Hyphaene coriacea Gaertn. Hypserpa nitida Miers. Cactaceae. Ilex cymosa Blume. Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Hypolytrum nemorum (Vahl) Spreng. Hyptis suaveolens (L. Lamiaceae. endangered 2094.. common 2084. Aquifoliaceae. naturalised 2117.... Impatiens balsamina L. Indorouchera griffithiana (Planch.. Hymenophyllaceae. Arecaceae.. f. Arecaceae. Indigofera hirsuta L.) M. Hymenosporum flavum (Hook.. endangered 2091.. cultivated only 2087. Imperata conferta (J. weed of uncertain origin 2099. Hymenocallis caribaea (L. Rubiaceae.) Dunn.. Hymenaea courbaril L. Inga jinicuil G.. Linaceae. Fabaceae. Amaryllidaceae. Indigofera zollingeriana Miq. cultivated only 2123.) Salisb. Fabaceae. Hypobathrum coniferum (Ridl. Ilex latifolia Thunb. critically endangered 50 . cultivated only 2082. Aquifoliaceae. Inga velutina Willd. naturalised 2105.. weed of uncertain origin 2116.) Poit. Hylophila mollis Lindl. Inocarpus fagifer (Parkinson) Fosberg. Chr. Poaceae.E... Impatiens walleriana Hook..) F. cultivated only 2125. Arecaceae. Illigera trifoliata (Griff. Hygrophila auriculata (Buch. Intsia bijuga (Colebr. Clarke.. casual 2078. Beauv. weed of uncertain origin 2081. f.. Hernandiaceae.) Herb. Poaceae. Fabaceae. extinct 2103. cultivated only 2124. Acanthaceae. Fabaceae. Hygrophila meianthos C. Imperata cylindrica (L. Amaryllidaceae. R. Chr. Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. Almeida & S. weed of uncertain origin 2079.) Bakh.) Hallier f. cultivated only 2113. Acanthaceae. M. Hymenophyllaceae.. Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.. Moore.. cultivated only 2095. naturalised 2104. ex Mart. critically endangered 2107. Iguanura wallichiana (Wall. Arecaceae. Acanthaceae. Wendl.) Gilliland.. cultivated only 2097. Fabaceae. critically endangered 2083. Hymenaea verrucosa Gaertn. Hymenophyllaceae. naturalised I 2106. cultivated only 2098. Br. cultivated only 2085. ssp. f. extinct 2101. Hypericaceae.. f. Aquifoliaceae. Hymenophyllum denticulatum Sw. Indigofera tinctoria L. endangered 2110.. naturalised 2118. cultivated only 2112.B. 2077. Arecaceae. Presl) C. common 2102. Bailey) H. Fabaceae. Hymenophyllum holochilum (Bosch) C.. cultivated only 2114.. cultivated only 2096.. Hygrophila ringens (L. Indigofera spicata Forssk. common 2115. Impatiens repens Moon. Hymenophyllaceae.. Poaceae.) Kuntze. Hyptis brevipes Poit. common 2108.) Kiew var. naturalised 2120.-Ham. endangered 2092. Hyptis capitata Jacq. critically endangered 2121.. Menispermaceae.. Acanthaceae. cultivated only 2088.) P. vulnerable 2109. ex Salisb. cultivated only 2089. Hymenophyllum serrulatum (C.Chong et al. extinct 2111.) Salisb. f.H.Presl) Ohwi.. casual 2080.) Britton & Rose. Almeida. Fabaceae. Muell.

Ixora pendula Jack var. Don.. naturalised 2133. Poaceae. common 2155.. cultivated only 2134. Rubiaceae. naturalised 2143. cultivated only 2174. Oleaceae.. Ipomoea cairica (L. common 2138. Convolvulaceae. Convolvulaceae. Convolvulaceae. Ipomoea aquatica Forssk.) R. & Moritzi var. Poaceae. Ipomoea carnea Jacq. Convolvulaceae. cultivated only 2167. Rubiaceae.... endangered 2169. Jacaranda obtusifolia D. Ipomoea quamoclit L. weed of uncertain origin 2158. Jackiopsis ornata (Wall. Convolvulaceae. Isachne kunthiana (Wight & Arn. casual 2132. Ixora congesta Roxb. Ischaemum barbatum R. Convolvulaceae.) Ridsdale. Br.. Ixora grandifolia Zoll. W. Ischaemum timorense Kunth. Ischaemum magnum Rendle. Irvingia malayana Oliv. cultivated only 2171. Rubiaceae. Isachne globosa (Thunb.. common 2144. ex A. Rubiaceae... common 2130. Convolvulaceae. Isachne pulchella Roth ex Roem. Rubiaceae. grandifolia. cultivated only 2142. common 2150. cultivated only 2145. Rubiaceae. common 2139.. Br.) Kuntze. common 2140.. Iridaceae... Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. Ischaemum rugosum Salisb.. Intsia palembanica Miq.. & Valeton. Convolvulaceae. Jacaranda semiserrata Cham. naturalised 2141. Convolvulaceae. Icacinaceae.. critically endangered 2175.. & Schult. cultivated only 2162. Bignoniaceae. common 2136. Ixora concinna Hook. Bignoniaceae. Ixora umbellata Valeton ex Koord. critically endangered 2128. Ixora chinensis Lam. Poaceae.. Ipomoea batatas (L. Convolvulaceae.. Ixora finlaysoniana Wall. Iridaceae. Ischaemum ciliare Retz. Convolvulaceae. weed of uncertain origin 2154.. Irvingiaceae. common 2156.. Iridaceae. Isolepis cernua (Vahl) Roem. weed of uncertain origin 2149. Icacinaceae. Iris domestica Goldblatt & Mabb. cultivated only 2147. Ipomoea pes-tigridis L..) Verdc.. vulnerable 2160. common 2135. Ixonanthaceae. Ixonanthes icosandra Jack. pendula. Poaceae. endangered 2129. Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. Bignoniaceae. common 2164. Cyperaceae. Benn. Rubiaceae. Ischaemum muticum L. critically endangered 2148.. Iris laevigata Fisch. Iodes velutina King. weed of uncertain origin 2153..) Blume. Ipomoea triloba L. Ixora javanica (Blume) DC. Poaceae. Ipomoea littoralis (L.) Ker Gawl. Jasminum azoricum L. Poaceae. cultivated only 51 . Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. Convolvulaceae. Don. extinct J 2170. endangered 2168..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2126. extinct 2166. cultivated only 2165. weed of uncertain origin 2157. Rubiaceae. ex G. Rubiaceae.. Ixonanthes reticulata Jack. common 2161. Iris pseudacorus L. Iodes cirrhosa Turcz. Convolvulaceae. common 2151. Iodes ovalis Blume. Poaceae.. Poaceae.. Jacaranda acutifolia Bonpl. Poaceae.. Ipomoea obscura (L. f. & Schult. naturalised 2173. cultivated only 2146.. Ixora lobbii King & Gamble.) Sweet..) Kunstl. Convolvulaceae. cultivated only 2172.. weed of uncertain origin 2131. Isachne minutula (Gaudich. extinct 2163. weed of uncertain origin 2152. Ipomoea tricolor Cav. Ipomoea marginata (Desr. Fabaceae. Rubiaceae.) Miq. Ipomoea violacea L. Ixonanthaceae. Bignoniaceae. Icacinaceae.) Lam. common 2137. critically endangered 2127. cultivated only 2159. Poaceae.

Euphorbiaceae.E. ex Schult. critically endangered 2221. Meliaceae. endangered 2177. Jasminum longipetalum King & Gamble. Acanthaceae. var. Khaya grandifoliola C. Myristicaceae. Acanthaceae. cultivated only 2198. Kaempferia gilbertii W. Jasminum sambac (L. Zingiberaceae. Meliaceae. Arecaceae. cultivated only 2208. Jasminum humile L.. cultivated only K 2203. casual 2210. Euphorbiaceae. Justicia betonica L... Acanthaceae. Arecaceae. cultivated only 2206. cultivated only 2192. Crassulaceae.) Aiton. Justicia procumbrens L. cultivated only 2212. Bull. cultivated only 2216. Justicia vulgaris Bert. Knema curtisii (King) Warb. Oleaceae. cultivated only 2196. f. Jatropha multifida L. critically endangered 2202.. Kigelia africana (Lam. cultivated only 2178.. cultivated only 2205. Fern. Euphorbiaceae. Justicia quadrifaria (Nees) T. Kaempferia galanga L.. Knema communis J. Kadsura scandens Blume. Myristicaceae. critically endangered 2225. endangered 2223. Acanthaceae. Karomia tettensis (Klotzsch) R.. Johannesteijsmannia lanceolata J. Lamiaceae. Jasminum mesnyi Hance. f. & Thoms. Kaempferia elegans (Wall. critically endangered 2218. Acanthaceae. cultivated only 2207.. Kerriodoxa elegans J.. cultivated only 2186. Khaya senegalensis (Desr. Jatropha podagrica Hook. Dransf...) Andrews.. critically endangered 2204. Zingiberaceae. Acanthaceae. Myristicaceae.. Myristicaceae. Khaya anthotheca (Welw. Crassulaceae.. cultivated only 2214. extinct 2179. Oleaceae. Sm. Dransf. Clarke. Malvaceae..Chong et al. Jatropha curcas L. cultivated only 2185. Acanthaceae. & L.. paludosa J.) Druce. DC. Arecaceae. cultivated only 2189. Jasminum laurifolium Roxb. Acanthaceae.) Benth.B. cultivated only 2191. cultivated only 2199..) Woodson. endangered 2224. cultivated only 2209. Myristicaceae. Jasminum elongatum (P. Kibatalia maingayi (Hook.) A. DC.. Oleaceae. Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. Moore. cultivated only 2190.. endangered 2222. Jatropha gossypifolia L. Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Meliaceae. critically endangered 2217. Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. extinct 52 . Zingiberaceae. Justicia carnea Lindl.. Bignoniaceae. cultivated only 2219. Euphorbiaceae.. Apocynaceae. cultivated only 2188. Bergius) Willd... Kaempferia rotunda L. Knema glaucescens Jack. Jasminum grandiflorum L.. cultivated only 2195.B. cultivated only 2197. Cupressaceae. Jasminum griffithii C.. Euphorbiaceae. cultivated only 2187. Knema cinerea (Poir.) Baker. Jatropha integerrima Jacq. f. critically endangered 2211. extinct 2201. cultivated only 2183.) Warb. Justicia guttata Wall. Justicia gendarussa Burm. Oleaceae. Juss. Kleinhovia hospita L.. Oleaceae. Kandelia candel (L. Acanthaceae.) H.) C. cultivated only 2194. extinct 2182.) Pers.. Anderson.. Juniperus chinensis L. Oleaceae. Knema conferta (King) Warb. Monimiaceae. cultivated only 2180.J. cultivated only 2215. 2176. cultivated only 2193. Kibara coriacea (Blume) Tulasne. Sinclair. weed of uncertain origin 2200. cultivated only 2213. Oleaceae. cultivated only 2184.. Sinclair. Schisandraceae. Justicia vasculosa Wall.. Rhizophoraceae.) Warb. Johannesteijsmannia altifrons (Rchb. Jasminum rex Dunn. Oleaceae. extinct 2220.. Oleaceae. Zingiberaceae. Oleaceae. & Zoll. f... cultivated only 2181. Myristicaceae. Knema furfuracea (Hook. Justicia brandegeeana Wassh.

Arecaceae. Anacardiaceae. cultivated only 2238.. Rubiaceae. Lasianthus appressus Hook. Korthalsia laciniosa (Griff.R. Lagerstroemia indica L. Fabaceae. Myristicaceae. Kyllinga polyphylla Willd.. vulnerable 2235.. & Dalziel. Cucurbitaceae. Lagerstroemia archeriana F. endangered 2230.. cultivated only 2265. Cyperaceae. Kunstleria ridleyi Prain.. Cyperaceae. Fabaceae. Verbenaceae. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. Lythraceae. Wendl.. weed of uncertain origin 2253..) Ding Hou. critically endangered 2243. DC. Verbenaceae. Myristicaceae. cultivated only 2240.. Sinclair) W. Lansium domesticum Corrêa.) Pers. weed of uncertain origin 2252. Rubiaceae. Knema globularia (Lam. cultivated only 2260.) Engl.. de Wilde. extinct 2246.. Lythraceae. Laccospadix australasica H.. Arecaceae. Lythraceae. Verbenaceae. Lythraceae. & Thoms. Korthalsia echinometra Becc. extinct 2249. critically endangered 2228. Cyperaceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2226. Arecaceae.) Thwaites. Lasianthus constrictus Wight. f. critically endangered 2247. endangered 2250. Knema latericia Elm.. Myristicaceae. Lythraceae. Lagerstroemia langkawiensis Furtado & Montien. Koompassia excelsa (Becc. critically endangered 2244. Knema laurina (Blume) Warb. Myrsinaceae. Knema hookeriana (Wall. Meliaceae.) Mart. Arecaceae. Arecaceae. Korthalsia rigida Blume. Apocynaceae.) Taub. Lantana indica Roxb. Lagerstroemia tomentosa C. cultivated only 2242. Lagerstroemia loudonii Teijsm.-Vill. vulnerable 2274. Bailey.. Myristicaceae. cultivated only 2270. Celastraceae. Cyperaceae. endangered 2229. Knema intermedia (Blume) Warb. cultivated only 2241. critically endangered 2227. endangered 2231.. vulnerable 2255. naturalised 2268. critically endangered 2233. cultivated only 2259. Kokoona reflexa (Laws.) Dandy ex Hutch.) Chew. Korthalsia flagellaris Miq. Lagerstroemia floribunda Jack. vulnerable 2273. de Wilde. cultivated only 2262.. extinct 2236.. cultivated only 2258. Lasia spinosa (L... Lythraceae. Lantana montevidensis (Spreng. Myristicaceae. Koompassia malaccensis Maingay ex Benth. ex Kunth.. endangered 2232. Lythraceae. cultivated only 2263. & G... Kyllinga nemoralis (J. Myristicaceae.. ssp. cultivated only 2266. Apocynaceae.M. endangered 2248. endangered 2239. Korthalsia scortechinii Becc. cultivated only 2257. Koilodepas longifolium Hook.J. Labisia pumila (Blume) F. Lagerstroemia speciosa (L.. Celastraceae. Urticaceae. Arecaceae..) Warb. Knema rubens (Sinclair) W.) A.) Warb. Lythraceae. Lantana camara L. Korthalsia rostrata Blume. Rubiaceae. f. Fabaceae. Kyllinga melanosperma Nees. cultivated only 2256. Kokoona littoralis Laws. Kopsia fruticosa (Ker Gawl. Euphorbiaceae. Myristicaceae. Kopsia arborea Blume.. Apocynaceae. extinct 2234. Apocynaceae. critically endangered 2237. Lannea grandis (Dennst. & Binn. weed of uncertain origin 2251. Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb. Forst.) Briq. Lagerstroemia duperreana Pierre ex Gagnep. cultivated only 2264. cultivated only 2267. endangered 53 . Kopsia singapurensis Ridl. Araceae.. Presl. Knema patentinervia (J. ridleyi (Gandoger) de Willde.. weed of uncertain origin 2271. Arecaceae. Kopsia flavida Blume. f. Knema malayana Warb. ex Hook.J. Myristicaceae. cultivated only 2261. naturalised L 2254. critically endangered 2245. Laportea interrupta (L. Lasianthus attenuatus Jack. vulnerable 2272. naturalised 2269.. Forst.

Arecaceae. Rubiaceae. Sapindaceae. extinct 2291. Lasianthus maingayi Hook. Sapindaceae.) de Wit. Polypodiaceae. Lepisanthes amoena (Hassk.. vulnerable 2326. cultivated only 2308. weed of uncertain origin 2324.E.. Lamiaceae. Vitaceae.M. Lecanopteris crustacea Copel. Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. common 2304. ex Hook. Baker & H. Rubiaceae. Br. Sm.. cultivated only 2288.) Druce. weed of uncertain origin 2302. Scrophulariaceae. Leonurus sibiricus L. critically endangered 2284.. Latania lontaroides (Gaertn. cultivated only 2320. Lemna perpusilla Torr.. endangered 2315.. Lepisanthes senegalensis (Juss. naturalised 2305. 2275.) Leenh.. Lecythis ollaria Loefl.) Nees. critically endangered 2279. Hyacinthaceae. Myrtaceae. cultivated only 2319.) R. extinct 2280. Orchidaceae.) I. Rubiaceae. Br. Myrtaceae.G. Lepisanthes rubiginosa (Roxb.) Leenh.) Copel. Leea guineensis G... Ledebouria botryoides (Baker) J. Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Lasianthus perakensis King & Gamble. extinct 2278. Vitaceae. Rubiaceae.. Lasianthus scabridus King & Gamble. cultivated only 2318. Cyperaceae..) Merr.. weed of uncertain origin 2316. cultivated only 2287. critically endangered 2294.. Myrtaceae.. Lecananthus erubescens Jack. Lasianthus ellipticus Wight... Lasianthus griffithii Wight. common 2293. cultivated only 2289. extinct 2297.. critically endangered 2309. Lepidozamia hopei (W.) H. Lasianthus glaber Ridl. f. Apocynaceae. extinct 2301. Manning & Goldblatt.... Opiliaceae..) R. Myrtaceae. extinct 2282. albiflorus (Migo) Y. Lasianthus pterospermus Wight. Lythraceae. Vitaceae. Rubiaceae. Rubiaceae. Araceae. Leea indica (Burm. extinct 2310. Rubiaceae.. Lasianthus ridleyi King & Gamble. cultivated only 2322.. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. Lamiaceae. Polypodiaceae. Lecanopteris sinuosa (Wall. Lamiaceae. Rubiaceae. common 2300. vulnerable 2292. Lepturus repens R. cultivated only 2317. Vitaceae. Muell. critically endangered 2276. Lawsonia inermis L. vulnerable 2283. Lasianthus stipularis Blume. Lasianthus tomentosus Blume. Poaceae. cultivated only 2311. Leptochloa chinensis (L. ex Miq. Poaceae. Leucas zeylanica (L. Leea rubra Blume ex Spreng. critically endangered 2314.) Domin.C. Hill) Regel. Leonotis nepetifolia (L. common 2313. var. Lepionurus sylvestris Blume.T.Chong et al. critically endangered 2277. Lecanorchis malaccensis Ridl. f. Lepisanthes alata (Blume) Leenh.) Leenh. Polypodiaceae. naturalised 2307..M. Rubiaceae. Leptospermum brachyandrum (F. Bailey. Leea angulata Korth. Arecaceae. weed of uncertain origin 2325. Leptospermum petersonii F. Vitaceae. Latania verschaffeltii Lem. Moore. Zhu. ex Poir. Lamiaceae. Sapindaceae. Lemna tenera Kerz. Poaceae. Leucas lavandulifolia Sm. Leea aequata L. Leptospermum polgalifolium Salisb. Lecythidaceae. Don.f. extinct 2285. common 2321. critically endangered 2298. Lamiaceae. Latania loddigesii Mart. Leersia hexandra Sw. cultivated only 2295. Leuconotis griffithii Hook. cultivated only 2312. Leucophyllum frutescens (Berland.C.. Lasianthus cyanocarpus Jack. Rubiaceae. Araceae. Fabaceae. naturalised 2303.. vulnerable 2281. Johnst.. naturalised 2323. Zamiaceae. critically endangered 2286. Lepironia articulata (Retz. cultivated only 2306. cultivated only 2299.. cultivated only 54 . casual 2290.. Rubiaceae. Leptospermum liversidgei R. Lepisorus longifolius (Blume) Holttum. cultivated only 2296. Br. Fabaceae. f. Arecaceae. Rubiaceae. Sapindaceae.

) Bold. Arecaceae.. cultivated only 2337. Dennstaedtiaceae. vulnerable 2340. Plantaginaceae. cultivated only 2335. Dennstaedtiaceae. Linderniaceae... extinct 2368. extinct 2341. Bull) H. Limnocharis flava (L. Kramer.. Licuala grandis (hort. Chrysobalanaceae.. weed of uncertain origin 2347. Yamaz. Orchidaceae. Arecaceae. Orchidaceae. weed of uncertain origin 2359.) Wettst. naturalised 2358. & Moritzi. Arecaceae.. Lindsaea heterophylla Dryand. common 2365. Licuala bintulensis Becc.) Pennell.) Pennell. Lindsaea doryphora K. Lindernia nummulariifolia (D. Limnophila villosa Blume. Licuala mattanensis Becc. Dennstaedtiaceae. vulnerable 2351. Licania splendens (Korth. Arecaceae. pectinata (Blume) Mett. Lindsaea walkerae Hook.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2327.. cultivated only 2342. Lindernia ruellioides (Colsm.) F. Arecaceae. Licuala lauterbachii Dammer & K. Limacia scandens Lour.. Linderniaceae. weed of uncertain origin 2353..) Domin. Sm... naturalised 2346. extinct 2369. Limnophila sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume. extinct 55 . Ligustrum sinense Lour. vulnerable 2371.. Dennstaedtiaceae. Muell.) Fritsch. extinct 2377. Lindernia caespitosa (Blume) Panigrahi. Lindernia antipoda (L. Dennstaedtiaceae.) Alston. vulnerable 2345. cultivated only 2330. Linderniaceae. Lindsaea borneensis Hook... cultivated only 2331. Wendl. Arecaceae.) Sw.. endangered 2332. Plantaginaceae. cultivated only 2338. weed of uncertain origin 2350. extinct 2370. Dennstaedtiaceae. Don) Wettst. Arecaceae. & Grev. Arecaceae. endangered 2362. Lindsaea lucida Blume. weed of uncertain origin 2357. Linderniaceae..) Buchenau.. Liparis ferruginea Lindl. Plantaginaceae. extinct 2363. critically endangered 2376. Chrysobalanaceae. critically endangered 2343.. Licuala cordata Becc.) Pennell. Licuala peltata Roxb. Melastomataceae.. ex Baker.. Dennstaedtiaceae. Licuala triphylla Griff. Thymelaeaceae. weed of uncertain origin 2349. cultivated only 2329.. Limacia oblonga Hook. Lindernia viscosa (Hornem. f. Limnophila laxa Benth. extinct 2375.) T. Lindsaea divergens Hook. Arecaceae. f. extinct 2372. Arecaceae. Plantaginaceae. Lindsaea parasitica (Roxb.. & Thoms. Liparis gibbosa Finet. weed of uncertain origin 2360. Lindsaea orbiculata (Lam.. endangered 2344. Arecaceae. Dennstaedtiaceae. f. Linderniaceae.. Lindsaea ovata J. Dennstaedtiaceae. Liparis tricallosa Rchb. Linderniaceae. Orchidaceae. aromatica (Lam. Lindernia anagallis (Burm. Licania tomentosa (Benth. Lindsaea cultrata (Willd..) Prance. Lindernia crustacea (L. Muell. cultivated only 2334. Lindsaea parallelogramma Alderw. Lauraceae. extinct 2354. ex W. Linderniaceae. Lindernia ciliata (Colsm. Licuala paludosa Griff. extinct 2367. weed of uncertain origin 2356. Dennstaedtiaceae. weed of uncertain origin 2355. Dennstaedtiaceae. Ex Griff. Menispermaceae. Licuala ramsayi (F. Lindera lucida (Blume) Boerl. Lindsaea ensifolia Sw. Orchidaceae. Linderniaceae..) Mett.U.. extinct 2366. Lindernia elata (Benth.. extinct 2361. cultivated only 2339. Linostoma pauciflorum Griff. Limnophila chinensis (Osbeck) Merr.. common 2328.) Hieron... endangered 2364. common 2352. weed of uncertain origin 2348. Schum.. Limnocharitaceae.. endangered 2374. Oleaceae. cultivated only 2333. Liparis elegans Lindl. Lijndenia laurina Zoll.. Licuala ferruginea Becc.. Lindsaea repens (Bory) Thwaites var. Arecaceae. extinct 2373. ssp. Linderniaceae. Dennstaedtiaceae. Menispermaceae. Licuala orbicularis Becc. Dennstaedtiaceae. Licuala spinosa Thunb. cultivated only 2336.

Muell. Litsea elliptica Blume. Arecaceae. Arecaceae.. critically endangered 2405. Litsea lanceolata (Blume) Kosterm. cultivated only 2384. extinct 2379. Camus.. Litsea firma Hook.. Br. Fagaceae. & K. Arecaceae. Lauraceae. Lithocarpus conocarpus (Oudem.) Rehder. Lauraceae. Lauraceae. critically endangered 2413. Liriope muscari (Decne..) Merr.) Rehd.. vulnerable 2407.. critically endangered 2389. Lauraceae.) Goetghebeur. Lipocarpha microcephala (R. cultivated only 2399. critically endangered 2401. cultivated only 2383. Kern. Litsea gracilipes Hook. Br. Arecaceae. Arecaceae. critically endangered 2403. Litsea grandis Hook. critically endangered 2386. Sapindaceae. cultivated only 2419. Fagaceae... cultivated only 2395. cultivated only 2408. Litsea ridleyi Gamble. Lauraceae.. Liparis wrayi Hook. Lithocarpus rassa (Miq. extinct 2392.. f. endangered 2394. Lauraceae. Fagaceae. Lauraceae. Lithocarpus ewyckii (Korth.) Soepadmo.) Rehd. Lauraceae. Dransf. Livistona lorophylla Becc. cultivated only 2425. cultivated only 56 . Camus. Lauraceae. endangered 2391. Arecaceae. Cyperaceae. Chev. Lithocarpus bennettii (Miq.. Bailey. Lauraceae.. common 2382. cultivated only 2427.. Lithocarpus cantleyanus (King ex Hook. Livistona humilis R. critically endangered 2397.) Mart. endangered 2398. Wong.) A. f. Lithocarpus gracilis (Korth. Fagaceae. Lauraceae. f... weed of uncertain origin 2381. Br. Arecaceae. Bailey. cultivated only 2420.) A. extinct 2411.. critically endangered 2393. Lithocarpus encleisocarpus (Korth.. Livistona rotundifolia (Lam. cultivated only 2426. f. extinct 2409.. Arecaceae. 2378.) L. Lauraceae. cultivated only 2418. critically endangered 2396. Fagaceae... Livistona decipiens Becc. Arecaceae.. cultivated only 2429. f.Chong et al. f. Livistona saribus (Lour...) Mart. critically endangered 2406. Arecaceae. Lithocarpus elegans (Blume) Hatus. Litsea garciae S.. ex Mart. Litsea costata (Blume) Boerl. Fagaceae. cultivated only 2424.) Rehd.. Fagaceae. Cyperaceae.) Hook. critically endangered 2390. Muell. Livistona drudei F. Ruscaceae. Lithocarpus sundaicus (Blume) Rehder. Lauraceae. critically endangered 2416. Fagaceae. Lauraceae. Arecaceae. vulnerable 2417. Litsea myristicifolia (Wall. Fagaceae. Orchidaceae.) Merr. f. Fagaceae. common 2404. Lithocarpus cyclophorus (Endl. f. ex Nees) Hook. Litsea castanea Hook.. cultivated only 2423. ex Drude.M. Litsea bindoniana F. Lithocarpus lucidus (Roxb. cultivated only 2421.. Fagaceae. critically endangered 2387. Lauraceae. critically endangered 2385. Fagaceae. Litsea erectinervia Kosterm. Lipocarpha squarrosa (L. Litsea ferruginea Blume. Fagaceae. Litchi chinensis Sonn. Vidal. Livistona mariae F. Litsea costalis (Blume) Kosterm. Livistona robinsoniana Becc.) Rehd.) R. Livistona endauensis J. critically endangered 2412. f. Lauraceae. Litsea accedens (Blume) Boerl. extinct 2388.) Rehder. Livistona muelleri F. Lauraceae.) Kunth. Lauraceae. Cyperaceae.. ex A. Livistona merrillii Becc. Livistona australis (R. Lauraceae. critically endangered 2402. Muell.. Lithocarpus hystrix (Korth.. Arecaceae. Litsea machilifolia Gamble. critically endangered 2414. cultivated only 2422. Br. Livistona chinensis (Jacq. cultivated only 2428.. Litsea cordata Hook.H. Litsea umbellata (Lour.) Rehd. endangered 2415.M. ex Hance) Rehder. ex Soepadmo. Lithocarpus wallichianus (Lindl. Litsea lancifolia (Roxb. Lauraceae. endangered 2410. Lipocarpha chinensis (Osbeck) J. endangered 2400. Arecaceae. Litsea robusta Blume. common 2380.

..) Sw. Arecaceae. Arg.. Lytocaryum weddellianum (H. Schizaeaceae. Euphorbiaceae.Arg. critically endangered 2438.) H. Macaranga recurvata Gage. Campanulaceae. Ludwigia peruviana (L. Euphorbiaceae. Onagraceae. Celastraceae.) A. vulnerable 2459. Lygodium circinnatum (Burm. f. Waterh. cultivated only 2437. Arecaceae. Orchidaceae.. cultivated only 2432. common 2434. Wilson & J. Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq. extinct 2436. Onagraceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2430. Hara. Onagraceae. extinct 2474. Combretaceae. Livistona tahanensis Becc.) Mull. Schizaeaceae. Macaranga bancana (Miq. Lophopetalum beccarianum Pierre. common 2471.. naturalised 2461. Macaranga hypoleuca (Rchb.. Euphorbiaceae. Macaranga hosei King ex Hook. Lysimachia procumbens Baudo. Br.. weed of uncertain origin 2451. cultivated only 2447. Arg. Wendl.... common 2458. Luculia grandiflora Ghose.. weed of uncertain origin 2449. cultivated only M 2466. Rutaceae.. Lygodium longifolium (Willd. Lomariopsis lineata (C.) H. Br. Malpighiaceae. Presl. Caprifoliaceae. f. Lobelia cardinalis L. endangered 2455. Myrtaceae.T. Lycopodiella cernua (L. Euphorbiaceae. Schizaeaceae. Lobelia zeylanica L.. Lophostemon confertus (R. Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G.) Mull. Macaranga conifera (Zoll. naturalised 2433.) Sw. vulnerable 2462. Poaceae. common 2441. common 2463. Euphorbiaceae. Campanulaceae. cultivated only 57 . Onagraceae. weed of uncertain origin 2450.Arg.) Sw. & Bonpl.) Mull. Celastraceae. Euphorbiaceae. Lygodium japonicum (Thunb. Euphorbiaceae. cultivated only 2431. Campanulaceae.) P. Lodoicea maldivica (J. critically endangered 2457. Lygodium salicifolium C. Schizaeaceae. var.) H. Celastraceae.) Müll. common 2460. Lycopodiaceae. common 2476. Euphorbiaceae.. cultivated only 2445.. naturalised 2452. extinct 2469. Euphorbiaceae.) Mull.. Presl) Holttum. Lygodium microphyllum (Cav. Rubiaceae. Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt.) Pers. Lomariopsidaceae. f. Arg. cultivated only 2446.) Toledo.. vulnerable 2472. Hara. cultivated only 2467. Ludwigia adscendens (L. Macaranga gigantea (Rchb.M. Smith. Lophopetalum wightianum Arn.H. Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche. Loeseneriella pauciflora (DC. Macaranga caladiifolia Becc. Rich. cultivated only 2465.. critically endangered 2479. cultivated only 2439. common 2470. Combretaceae..-Serm. Don) Exell.) Peter G.) Oliv. Hara. weed of uncertain origin 2453. Celastraceae. Euphorbiaceae. Proteaceae.C.) R. cultivated only 2448. Lygodium flexuosum (L. vulnerable 2444.C. Onagraceae. Johnst.) A. rubrum Yieh. extinct 2478. Celastraceae. Euphorbiaceae. Br. critically endangered 2442.. Ludwigia sedioides (Humb. cultivated only 2440.F. Lonicera japonica Thunb.. Lophatherum gracile Brongn. Euphorbiaceae. Euphorbiaceae. Raven. Macaranga griffithiana Müll. Arecaceae. Macaranga hullettii King ex Hook. Myrsinaceae. f.. Schizaeaceae... Ludisia discolor (Ker Gawl. Lophopetalum multinervium Ridl. endangered 2456. f. vulnerable 2477. Onagraceae.... Macaranga heynei I. Loropetalum chinense (R. Macaranga lowii King ex Hook. Ludwigia prostrata Roxb.) Mull. Lophanthera lactescens Ducke. cultivated only 2435. & Zoll.) Pic. common 2468.. endangered 2443. & Zoll. cultivated only 2454. critically endangered 2475. Loeseneriella macrantha (Korth. Arg. Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. Schizaeaceae.. Macaranga tanarius (L. Arg. Gmel.) A. Hamamelidaceae.. Sm. Lobelia chinensis Lour. Macaranga pruinosa (Miq. Luvunga crassifolia Tanaka. common 2464. f.) Sw.. common 2473.

Chong et al. cultivated only 2520.) H. Mallotus macrostachyus (Miq. Mangifera foetida Lour..) Koyama. extinct 2488. Arg.H. extinct 2508. naturalised 2489. Arg. Mallotus paniculatus (Lam. Mangifera paludosa Kosterm. Anacardiaceae.) A. extinct 2495. Cyperaceae.. extinct 58 . Macroptilium atropurpureum (DC. Apocynaceae. cultivated only 2494.. critically endangered 2505. Majidea zanguebarica J. Lam. Muell. Macbr. Anacardiaceae. Magnolia figo (Lour. Gentry. Keng. Euphorbiaceae. Sapotaceae.. Madhuca longifolia (L. Loranthaceae. Mangifera laurina Blume. cultivated only 2519. Maesa ramentacea Wall. Orchidaceae.. Magnolia villosa (Miq. ex Roxb. Macaranga triloba (Thunb... f. Malpighia glabra L. Zamiaceae. Magnoliaceae.f.B. Maclurodendron porteri (Hook. Magnoliaceae.. vulnerable 2529. Anacardiaceae... endangered 2509. Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour.. Malpighia coccigera L. Sapindaceae. Euphorbiaceae.. Anacardiaceae. Sapotaceae. Macrosolen retusus (Jack) Miq.) H. vulnerable 2485. Maesopsis eminii Engl. Macbr. naturalised 2490. Mangifera odorata Griff. Madhuca motleyana (de Vriese) J. extinct 2486. Magnoliaceae. & Zoll. Keng. extinct 2512. Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm. critically endangered 2528.. Macodes petola (Blume) Lindl. cultivated only 2507. critically endangered 2498. critically endangered 2499. Madhuca malaccensis (C. Macrosolen papillosus (Gamble) Danser. critically endangered 2525. Mangifera magnifica Kochummen. extinct 2530. f.. Maesaceae. Rhamnaceae.) Mull. Sapotaceae. Melastomataceae. Euphorbiaceae. Anacardiaceae. Lam. var.) Tiegh. Sapotaceae. Arg.) Müll.Arg. Anacardiaceae.J. Orchidaceae. vulnerable 2522. Mangifera lagenifera Griff. Magnolia liliifera L. Madhuca sessilis (King & Gamble) Baehni. Fabaceae. extinct 2484. Loranthaceae. Mandevilla sanderi (Hemsl. f. common 2502.. Malpighiaceae.F. Lam. extinct 2526. Anacardiaceae. Madhuca kingiana (Brace ex King & Gamble) H. critically endangered 2521. Anacardiaceae.J. Euphorbiaceae. cultivated only 2503. Kirk. Magnoliaceae.) Kuntze. Sapotaceae. cultivated only 2506..) Müll. Magnolia champaca (L. Madhuca sericea (Miq.. cultivated only 2518. common 2493.) Baill. Keng.... Madhuca decipiens Sinclair. casual 2524. cultivated only 2504. Mangifera parvifolia Boerl. cultivated only 2517. Malaxis micrantha (Hook.. ex Pierre... extinct 2501. Malvaceae. Bignoniaceae.) J. critically endangered 2510.. Mangifera macrocarpa Blume.) DC. critically endangered 2500. cultivated only 2483.F. common 2482.. Loranthaceae. endangered 2481. Mallotus penangensis Müll. Macrozamia moorei F. Sapotaceae.) T. Anacardiaceae.) Urb. cultivated only 2511. Macaranga trichocarpa (Rchb. Malvaceae. Arg. common 2491. Rutaceae.J. extinct 2492.. cultivated only 2497. Machaerina rubiginosa (Spreng. liliifera. Magnoliaceae. Magnoliaceae. Magnolia elegans (Blume) H. Magnoliaceae. Euphorbiaceae. Mangifera indica L. & Koord. endangered 2523. f. Melastomataceae. Mangifera caesia Jack. critically endangered 2515. 2480. Fabaceae.G.) Müll. Anacardiaceae.) Urb. Magnolia maingayi King.) Woodson.f. Sapotaceae. Macfadyena unguis-cati (L. Magnolia singapurensis (Ridl) H. extinct 2513.. Hartley. Macrolenes echinulata (Naudin) Bakh. critically endangered 2487. Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. Malpighiaceae. Macroptilium lathyroides (L. endangered 2496. common 2514. Macrolenes nemorosa (Jack) Bakh. Mangifera griffithii Hook. vulnerable 2527.. Anacardiaceae.. casual 2516. Clarke) H.

Mapania longiflora C. Mapania palustris (Hassk.) A. ex Gaertn. Meiogyne monosperma (Hook. Annonaceae. Maniltoa lenticellata C. Morren. Fabaceae. Clarke) Danser. Marantaceae. critically endangered 2555. Myrtaceae. Matthew.) P. Medinilla cummingii Naudin. cultivated only 2574. Cyperaceae.. Meiogyne virgata (Blume) Miq. cultivated only 2535.. extinct 2549. weed of uncertain origin 2559. Maranta arundinacea L. Myrtaceae. Medinilla magnifica Lindl.. Hou.B. Myrtaceae. Euphorbiaceae. Marantaceae.. Myrtaceae. cultivated only 2556. cultivated only 2577. Mapania lorea Uittien. Clarke. Melastomataceae.B. Malvaceae. Matisia cordata Bonpl.B. Bignoniaceae. ex Gaertn. Medinilla crassifolia (Reinw. endangered 2557. Cyperaceae. Fabaceae. Myrtaceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2531. Cyperaceae.) Dubard. Arg. f. endangered 2544. Manihot esculenta Crantz. Simon & S.. Jacobs. Euphorbiaceae. naturalised 2533. Melaleuca cajuputi Powell. cultivated only 2562. cultivated only 2538. Blake.B. Cyperaceae. cultivated only 59 . Mastixia pentandra Blume ssp. Matthaea sancta Blume.. cultivated only 2565.) Harms. ex Blume) Blume..) S. cultivated only 2563.D.-Vill. cultivated only 2560. Myrtaceae. Maniltoa polyandra (Roxb. & Thomson) Heusden. ex B. Maranta leuconeura E. Maniltoa browneoides Harms.) Britten. Maranthes corymbosa Blume. Myrtaceae. Melaleuca armillaris (Sol. Manilkara kauki (L. Megistostigma glabratum (Kurz) Govaerts. Muell. Maschalocorymbus corymbosus (Blume) Bremek. Mapania bancana (Miq. Melastomataceae. extinct 2567. critically endangered 2569. cultivated only 2539. Manihot carthagenesis (Jack) Müll. Mansoa hymenaea (DC. cultivated only 2536.. cultivated only 2579.) A. Melaleuca bracteata F.B. vulnerable 2542..M. Scrophulariaceae. extinct 2573. naturalised 2566. Myrtaceae.. Myrtaceae. Cyperaceae. Sapotaceae. Clarke. extinct 2553.W. cultivated only 2551. Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq.H. Mapania kurzii C. common 2568. Megaskepasma erythrochlamys Lindau. critically endangered 2543. Annonaceae. Mazus pumilus (Burm.H. Celastraceae. Rubiaceae.. cultivated only 2550.) Sm.) Allem. Mapania enodis (Miq.) C. Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel. cultivated only 2571. Myrtaceae. glaziovii (Müll.) B. Fabaceae. extinct 2548. Bignoniaceae. cultivated only 2570. Melaleuca saligna Schauer. cultivated only 2572. endangered 2547. Melastomataceae. Cyperaceae. Poaceae. Melaleuca dealbata S. Medinilla radicans (Blume) Blume. Cyperaceae.f. Gentry. Royen. Medinilla astronioides Triana. cultivated only 2578. Clarke. Melastomataceae. critically endangered 2541. & Hook. Mansoa alliacea (Lam. ssp. Maytenus emarginata (Willd. scortechinii (King) K. Nyssaceae. cultivated only 2575. Melastomataceae. Nyssaceae. Jacks. naturalised 2532. Melaleuca styphelioides Sm. Clarke. extinct 2545.K. Monimiaceae. Arg.) Steenis. critically endangered 2554. Blake.) Uittien. ex Steud.T. Melaleuca leucadendra (L. White. Acanthaceae. Sapotaceae.) D. cultivated only 2537. Myrtaceae. cultivated only 2576. Mapania cuspidata (Miq. Euphorbiaceae. Mapania wallichii C.T. Mastixia trichotoma Blume var. extinct 2564. endangered 2552. Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) F. cultivated only 2540.) L. Gentry. extinct 2561. cultivated only 2534. extinct 2546. Cyperaceae. Chrysobalanaceae. Cyperaceae.T.L. maingayi (C. Melaleuca viridiflora Sol.) Benth. Mapania squamata (Kurz) Clark. extinct 2558. Manilkara zapota (L. Melaleuca decora (Salisb.

& M. extinct 2614. Melastomataceae. Melastomataceae. Merremia hirta (L.) Merr. Lamiaceae. Anacardiaceae.) Swingle. Muell. Mentha arvensis L.. Melastomataceae.. common 2585. Memecylon paniculatum Jack.. critically endangered 2612. vulnerable 2630. f. Clusiaceae. critically endangered 2602..) T. Meliosma lanceolata Blume. endangered 2609.. cultivated only 2593. cultivated only 2587. extinct 2615. Melastomataceae. extinct 2600. Memecylon acuminatum Sm. cultivated only 2624. cultivated only 2589. ridleyi (King) Beus. Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn. Sabiaceae. Memecylon megacarpum Furtado. Memecylon cinereum King. Melicope hookeri T. Memecylon caeruleum Jack. Asteraceae. Melastomataceae. Melastomataceae. Melastomataceae. weed of uncertain origin 2599. critically endangered 2597.) Zizka. vulnerable 2629. Mesua elegans (King) Kosterm. common 2586.G. Clarke. Melicope denhamii (Seem.) Holttum. Melastomataceae. critically endangered 2595. Rutaceae.. cultivated only 2598.. Melastoma malabathricum L. Memecylon campanulatum C. Rutaceae. Rutaceae.. Memecylon cantleyi Ridl. critically endangered 2613. weed of uncertain origin 2627. Memecylon lancifolium Ridl. Melinis repens (Willd.G.. critically endangered 60 . Meliosma pinnata (Roxb. cultivated only 2581. Merope angulata (Willd. extinct 2616. Melastomataceae. Memecylon minutiflorum Miq. critically endangered 2604. Rutaceae. Thelypteridaceae. Memecylon corticosum Ridl. Memecylon floridum Ridl. Melastomataceae. Lamiaceae.) Zizka. Memecylon pubescens (Cl. Merremia umbellata (L. Convolvulaceae. critically endangered 2608. Melinis nerviglumis (Franch.) Maxim. Melia indica Brand. Hartley. var. extinct 2596.. Memecylon amplexicaule Roxb. critically endangered 2607. acuminatum. endangered 2618. Melochia corchorifolia L. Memecylon garcinioides Blume. Merremia hederacea (Burm. Convolvulaceae. vulnerable 2584. Malvaceae. Rutaceae.. Melastomataceae. Memecylon oleifolium Blume. Melastomataceae. Melastomataceae. naturalised 2594. Memecylon pauciflorum Blume. Melanochyla auriculata Hook. f. vulnerable 2582. Melastomataceae.. Memecylon lilacinum Z. critically endangered 2611. Rutaceae. extinct 2623. critically endangered 2621.Chong et al.. Melastomataceae. Memecylon edule Roxb. Melanochyla caesia (Blume) Ding Hou. Mesophlebion motleyanum (Hook. Melastomataceae. fruticosa (Blume) Beus. Hartley.B. Sabiaceae. cultivated only 2588. critically endangered 2603..) Hallier f. Melampodium leucanthum Torr. Melanochyla bracteata King..G. Memecylon intermedium Blume. Asteraceae. critically endangered 2619. Anacardiaceae. Convolvulaceae. Hartley. critically endangered 2617. Mesophlebion chylamydophorum (Rosenst.) Holttum. Melastomataceae.. f.. Poaceae. Melastomataceae. critically endangered 2592.. Melicope glabra (Blume) T. Melodinus orientalis Blume. Melanthera biflora (L.) King. Memecylon fruticosum King. vulnerable 2583. extinct 2606. Hartley. Sabiaceae. Melastomataceae. Melastomataceae. 2580. Melastomataceae. Poaceae. & A.) Walp.) Hallier f. Clarke) King. extinct 2601.) T..) Wild.B. critically endangered 2625. weed of uncertain origin 2628. Memecylon excelsum Blume. extinct 2622. vulnerable 2590. Melastomataceae. Melissa officinalis L.. Melastomataceae. Anacardiaceae.. ssp. common 2626. Melastomataceae. critically endangered 2591. critically endangered 2605. Gray. critically endangered 2610. Melicope elleryana F. ssp.G. Meliosma simplicifolia (Roxb. Memecylon globosum Bakh. Thelypteridaceae. Apocynaceae. critically endangered 2620. Memecylon dichotomum (C. Meliaceae.

Pandaceae.. Euphorbiaceae. Rob.) Burret. Annonaceae.F. naturalised 2657. Mollugo pentaphylla L. Microlepia speluncae (L. Microsaccus sumatranus J. Microcos hirsutus (Korth.. Mirabilis jalapa L...) Becc. Clusiaceae. Mitrella kentii (Blume) Miq. Molineria capitulata (Lour. Millingtonia hortensis L. f. naturalised 2663. weed of uncertain origin 2656.. Malvaceae. cultivated only 2638. ex Hook. Sapindaceae... Malvaceae. Microcos blattaefolia (Corner) Rao.) Radlk. Aiton) Herb. Microstachys chamaelea (L. Micropera fuscolutea (Lindl.) Kuntze. critically endangered 2646. Momordica charantia L. cultivated only 2633. f. Microcarpaea minima (Koen. Molluginaceae. cultivated only 2639.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2631. common 2643.) DC. Millettia leucantha Kurz. Sm. Pontederiaceae. Sapindaceae. Plantaginaceae.) Copel.. Cucurbitaceae. extinct 2669. critically endangered 2675.) Holttum.) T. latifolia.) Sinclair. Micranthemum micranthemoides (Nutt. Plantaginaceae.. Arg.) Burret... Miliusa longipes King. Wright. Mimosa bimucronata (DC. extinct 2649. weed of uncertain origin 2655. Gaertn.) C. Clusiaceae. Hypoxidaceae. Annonaceae. Annonaceae. vulnerable 2674. Costaceae. Malvaceae. Mesua ferrea L. Fabaceae. f. Microsaccus ampullaceus J. f. extinct 2658. naturalised 2662. Mnesithea glandulosa (Trin) de Koning & Sosef. extinct 2653. Sapotaceae. naturalised 2664. Hypoxidaceae. Orchidaceae. cultivated only 2660. Sm. Sapindaceae. Pontederiaceae. Mischocarpus sundaicus Blume. vulnerable 2679.) Radlk. weed of uncertain origin 2677. weed of uncertain origin 2681. Mitrephora maingayi Hook. cultivated only 2636. Annonaceae.. Sapotaceae. Dennstaedtiaceae. Melastomataceae. Fabaceae. Arecaceae. Miconia calvescens DC. Mezzettia parviflora Becc. Forster.. Micrechites serpyllifolius (Blume) P. Metroxylon salomonense (Warb.. naturalised 2671. Mimusops elengi L. extinct 2645. Orchidaceae. ex Retz.. ex Petersen) Maas.. Muell.) Herb. Microsaccus griffithii (Par. cultivated only 2659. Fabaceae. Mischocarpus grandissimus (F. Annonaceae.) C.) Wettst.. Moore. Nyctaginaceae. Arecaceae. casual 2666. naturalised 2635. extinct 2634. Metathelypteris dayi (Bedd. cultivated only 61 . Mischocarpus pentapetalus (Roxb.) Gary.) B.. Microsorum punctatum (L.. weed of uncertain origin 2680. Mesua ferruginea (Pierre) Kosterm.L. Melastomataceae. Microdesmis caseariifolia Planch. extinct 2650.. Apocynaceae. cultivated only 2632. critically endangered 2637. vulnerable 2676.J. Mikania cordata (Burm.) Benth. Poaceae.J. Monocarpia marginalis (Scheff. Euphorbiaceae.. Orchidaceae. critically endangered 2641. Metroxylon sagu Rottb. Mimusops balata (Aubl. & Rchb. Mimosa pudica L. cultivated only 2640. extinct 2652. weed of uncertain origin 2642. Fabaceae. Fabaceae.. common 2647. cultivated only 2665. common 2648. Rubiaceae. T. Polypodiaceae. Microcos globulifera (Mast. Microsaccus javensis Blume.) Merr. cultivated only 2667. Mimosa pigra L. common 2673. naturalised 2661. Asteraceae. Mimosa diplotricha C. & Thoms.I. Mikania micrantha Kunth.) Müll. Mitracarpus hirtus (L. Bignoniaceae. Orchidaceae. Miconia macrophylla Triana. casual 2678. Orchidaceae.) Seidenfaden.. cultivated only 2668. Monocostus uniflorus (Poepp. Micrococca mercurialis (L. Presl ex Kunth.. Thelypteridaceae. Monochoria hastata (L. common 2672. ex W. Monochoria vaginalis (Burm.... extinct 2651. endangered 2644.) Solms. Asteraceae. Molineria latifolia (Dryand. f. ex Kurz var. common 2654. vulnerable 2670.

Musaceae. Clarke) J. & Drude. Musaceae. common 2723. Morinda rigida Miq. Wendl. cultivated only 2714. extinct 2696. extinct 2716. Don) I.. Turner. Myristicaceae. ex D. ex Hook. extinct 2694. Sm.. Orchidaceae. Myristica guatteriifolia A. Moringa oleifera Lam. Mussaenda erythrophylla Schumach. Murdannia vaginata (L. Mycetia malayana (Wall. Morton ex D. Monstera obliqua Miq. critically endangered 2729. Mussaenda frondosa L. Mussaenda philippica A. cultivated only 2685.. Vittariaceae. Montrichardia arborescens (L. Fabaceae. Fabaceae. Myristica maingayi Hook. cultivated only 2725. Myristica cinnamomea King. Musa velutina H. Rubiaceae. critically endangered 2721. Myristica fragrans Houtt.B. cultivated only 2706.. Fabaceae.) A. 2682. cultivated only 2704. Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.. endangered 2715. Myristica crassa King. Myristica elliptica Wall.f. Myrmecodia tuberosa Jack. Rubiaceae. Mycaranthes obliqua Lindl. Morella esculenta (Buch. Musgravea heterophylla L. Myristicaceae. Myristica maxima Warb. Chev. Morinda umbellata L. Morus alba L. Monstera deliciosa Liebm. Musa ornata Roxb. Mucuna acuminata Grah. Musaceae. critically endangered 2720. Morinda citrifolia L. Rutaceae.S..Chong et al. Myristica iners Blume. Hong.. ex Baker. Rubiaceae. common 2687.. critically endangered 2728. extinct 2688. Myrtus communis L. DC. extinct 2713. Myricaceae.) Schott.. Commelinaceae.. ex Ridl.M.-Ham. & Thoms. Mussaenda glabra Vahl. Mucuna gigantea (Willd. Musa acuminata Colla var. weed of uncertain origin 2700. cultivated only 2693.) Brenan.. Berg. Myristicaceae. Myrtaceae. cultivated only 2708.K.) Jack. cultivated only 2718.. cultivated only 2707. Musa beccarii N. Rubiaceae. Mundulea sericea (Willd.. Mucuna bennetti F. common 2701. Rubiaceae. Commelinaceae.) Craib. naturalised 2698.) C. Myristica lowiana King... cultivated only 2703. cultivated only 2711... Rubiaceae.Y. Murdannia bracteata (C. Musaceae. Araceae. Rubiaceae. cultivated only N 62 . Jacks.-Ham. Myristicaceae. Muntingia calabura L.. Myristicaceae. Myrialepis paradoxa (Kurz) Dransfield. Rubiaceae. endangered 2712.) Brueckn. Fabaceae. extinct 2683. cultivated only 2695. cultivated only 2697. Myrtaceae. extinct 2730. sumatrana.. Rubiaceae. Myristicaceae. Mussaendopsis beccariana Baill.. common 2691. Proteaceae. Mussaenda maingayi (Hook.) DC. & Thonn. Myristicaceae. Moraceae. Murdannia nudiflora (L. cultivated only 2686. Myristica esculenta Buch. cultivated only 2710. Myristicaceae.. Musella lasiocarpa (Franch. f.W.W. Wu ex H.) O. Araceae.. Rich.Y. critically endangered 2726. Musaceae.. critically endangered 2719. Arecaceae.. cultivated only 2709. Muell.) Hemsl. Murraya paniculata (L. Li. extinct 2717. Rubiaceae. cultivated only 2692.D. cultivated only 2702... Myristicaceae. Araceae.. Rubiaceae. Myristicaceae... Malvaceae. Commelinaceae. Moringaceae. Monogramma dareicarpa Hook.. critically endangered 2689. cultivated only 2705. endangered 2722. critically endangered 2727. Simmons. cultivated only 2724. cultivated only 2699. Musaceae. casual 2684. Musa uranoscopos Lour. f. extinct 2690. Morinda ridleyi (King & Gamble) Ridl. Rubiaceae. ex B.

Euphorbiaceae. critically endangered 2736. naturalised 2773. & Chun. cultivated only 2739. cultivated only 2746. Rubiaceae. Nephrolepis falcata (Cav. Neomarica longifolia (Link & Otto) Sprague. vulnerable 2757. Rubiaceae. extinct 2752. Wendl. Nepenthaceae.f. cultivated only 2766. Apocynaceae. Nauclea officinalis (Pierre ex Pitard) Merr. Hydrocharitaceae.) Seem.) L. ex Bureau. Nephelium cuspidatum Blume var. critically endangered 2777. vulnerable 2755. Oleandraceae. Nephrolepis auriculata (L. Presl. Oleandraceae.. f.. cultivated only 2732. cultivated only 2772. Neolitsea dealbata (R..) Bosser. Gesneriaceae.. Neonauclea purpurea (Roxb. Neomarica caerulea (Ker Gawl. Najas malesiana Delile. weed of uncertain origin 2765.) C. Nervilia punctata (Blume) Schltr. Orchidaceae. Hydrocharitaceae. singapureana (Baker) de Vogel. pachystachya (Blume) Fernando. Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb. Nephrolepis hirsutula (G. Neobalanocarpus heimii (King) P. Rubiaceae. Iridaceae.) Cham.) Sprague. extinct 2776. Malvaceae.) Trimen. Sapindaceae. var..) H. Chr. common 2771. malaccensis (Gand. Oleandraceae. critically endangered 2759. cultivated only 2750. Beauv. Neesia synandra Mast. Arecaceae.. Nepenthes gracilis Korth. Moore. Neesia malayana Bakh.. Oleandraceae. Nelumbonaceae.. critically endangered 2754. endangered 2760. Nerium oleander L.. Nephrolepis acutifolia (Desv. S. Forst..) Kosterm. Oleandraceae. extinct 2745. Nephrolepis exaltata (L. Neomarica gracilis (Herb. Convolvulaceae.. Nephrosperma vanhoutteanum (H. Iridaceae. cultivated only 2767. Hoffm. cultivated only 2753. Ashton. eriopetalum (Miq. critically endangered 2733.) H. Nepenthaceae. Orchidaceae. Nephelaphyllum pulchrum Blume. cultivated only 2751.. weed of uncertain origin 2770... f. Fabaceae. Christ. Neolitsea cassia (L. f. Neesia altissima (Blume) Blume. Lauraceae. Rubiaceae. Neuwiedia zollingeri Rchb. critically endangered 2758. Malvaceae. Podocarpaceae.) Merr. Nenga pumila (Mart.... Br. Neuropeltis racemosa Wall. extinct 2741.) Kuntze. Malvaceae.) Pax & K. Neptunia oleracea Lour.) C. Nephelium lappaceum L.f.) Sprague. critically endangered 2744. Nephelium laurinum Blume. cultivated only 2749.) C. Arecaceae. Neptunia plena (L.. vulnerable 2734. Lauraceae. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. cultivated only 2748. Nephelium ramboutan-ake (Labill. common 2756. critically endangered 2779. extinct 2738. Presl) Kuntze.) Merr. extinct 2763.. ex Van Houtte) Balf. cultivated only 63 .) Ridsdale. ex Havil.. Rubiaceae. Rubiaceae. Nageia wallichiana (C. Dipterocarpaceae. weed of uncertain origin 2735.) Leenh. Sapindaceae..) Sprague. vulnerable 2742.. Wendl. Nepenthaceae. Neonauclea pallida (Reinw. Nephrolepis radicans (Burm. Nepenthes ampullaria Jack. Newbouldia laevis (P. Oleandraceae.f. extinct 2740.. Fabaceae. extinct 2780. Sapindaceae. cultivated only 2775.) Schott. Nauclea subdita (Korth. Nauclea orientalis (L. Neuwiedia veratrifolia Blume.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2731. Nephrolepis duffii T. extinct 2778. vulnerable 2747. cultivated only 2737.f. Neuwiedia griffithii Rchb. f.) Kuhn. Orchidaceae. Podocarpaceae. Sapindaceae. var. Orchidaceae. cultivated only 2768. Nephelium costatum Hiern. Orchidaceae... Najas indica (Willd. Oleandraceae. Sapindaceae. Nageia nagi (Thunb.) Leenh. cultivated only 2743. Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack ex Hook. common 2769. ssp. naturalised 2774. Neoscortechinia kingii (Hook. Nephrolepis cordifolia (L. critically endangered 2761. Nautilocalyx lynchei (Hook.) Steud. Iridaceae.) Benth. Oleandraceae. extinct 2762.) Bakh. endangered 2764. Presl. Bignoniaceae.

) Urb. Rubiaceae. Apocynaceae.) DC. Oldenlandia trinervia Retz. Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. Loganiaceae... Oberonia ciliolata Hook. Lauraceae. Rubiaceae. f.. Oldenlandia herbacea (L.. Oleaceae. Koenig) Ormerod. naturalised 2820. Melastomataceae. Oberonia flabellifera Holtt. common 64 . extinct 2805. Oberonia lunata (Blume) Lindl. extinct 2795.. Oberonia miniata Lindl. Orchidaceae.) Roxb. Oncoba spinosa Forssk. Ochrosia oppositifolia (Lam. cultivated only 2806.) H. vulnerable 2830. 2781... weed of uncertain origin 2811. ex Andrews. Ophioglossum nudicaule L... Malvaceae. Odontonema cuspidatum (Nees) Kuntze.. cultivated only 2792. affinis. Oberonia lycopodioides (K. extinct 2808. Menyanthaceae. & Schult. Orchidaceae. Nymphaeaceae. Lamiaceae. Bailey. weed of uncertain origin 2819. Urticaceae. Nothocnide mollissima (Blume) Chew. cultivated only 2815. Nymphaea rubra Roxb. Oberonia dissitiflora Ridl. vulnerable 2821. cultivated only 2791. Lauraceae.) Roxb.) Merr. Arecaceae. Acanthaceae. & Schult. Nymphoides indica (L. Oleaceae. extinct 2798.) K. Oberonia stenophylla Ridl. cultivated only 2814. Oldenlandia diffusa (Willd. Nothaphoebe coriacea Kosterm.. Ochanostachys amentacea Mast.. Olea europaea L. Arecaceae.. Oncosperma horridum (Griff. Melastomataceae.. f. & Schult. common 2787. Ocimum americanum L. Apocynaceae.. Nicotiana alata Link & Otto. Odontadenia macrantha (Roem. Fabaceae. Olacaceae. Nypa fruticans Wurmb. Orchidaceae. cultivated only 2827. Lamiaceae. Rubiaceae. extinct 2797. endangered 2793. Marcgraviaceae.. Oleaceae. Hill) L. Rubiaceae. extinct 2809. cultivated only 2804.) ined. Ocimum tenuiflorum L..H. naturalised 2816... Nothocissus spicifera (Griff. Arecaceae. weed of uncertain origin 2822. Solanaceae. extinct 2807. Ochreinauclea maingayi (Hook. Rubiaceae.. Oldenlandia pumila (L.. Orchidaceae. extinct 2802.. Salicaceae.. extinct 2799. Normanbya normanbyi (W. Norrisia maior Solered. Ocimum basilicum L. critically endangered 2788. vulnerable 2826. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. cultivated only 2783.. Ochthocharis javanica Blume. Rubiaceae.. Ophioglossaceae.) Kuntze. Oberonia bertoldii King & Prantl. Lamiaceae. Olea brachiata (Lour. weed of uncertain origin 2823. vulnerable 2829..) DC. Orchidaceae. vulnerable 2818. weed of uncertain origin 2812. critically endangered 2785. Orchidaceae. Norantea guianensis Aubl. Rubiaceae. Rubiaceae. Oldenlandia cristata (Willd. Nuxia floribunda Benth. Oldenlandia biflora L. Nothaphoebe umbelliflora (Blume) Blume.. extinct 2800. cultivated only 2782.. extinct 2817. Ohashi.) Scheff.. Oldenlandia affinis (Roem. Arecaceae. Ohwia caudata (Thunb.) Markgr. f. weed of uncertain origin 2813. Orchidaceae. extinct 2810. extinct 2786. extinct 2796. Ochna kirkii Oliv. cultivated only 2828. weed of uncertain origin 2825. cultivated only 2790...) Latiff.. vulnerable O 2794..Chong et al. Rubiaceae.. Melastomataceae. Ochnaceae. f. weed of uncertain origin 2824. Oldenlandia corymbosa L. ex Lam. Oncosperma tigillaria (Jack) Ridl. extinct 2801..D. Schum. Orchidaceae. Ochthocharis paniculata Korth. ssp. Olacaceae. Vitaceae. Stilbaceae. extinct 2789. Ochthocharis borneensis Blume.) Ridsdale. cultivated only 2784. Olax imbricata Roxb. ex Roem. vulnerable 2803.

cultivated only 2848. Bignoniaceae. Pajanelia longifolia (Willd. Oxalis barrelieri L. critically endangered 2832.. extinct 2866. Oxalis corniculata L..) Vent. Osmoxylon lineare (Merr.) M. Clem. Ormosia pinnata (Lour. Oxystophyllum excavatum Blume. cultivated only 2834. Wong. Rubiaceae. Ophioglossaceae.. extinct 65 . Oxystophyllum sinuatum (Lindl. Rubiaceae. Ophioglossaceae. Lowiaceae.. Ophiopogon planiscapus Nakai.. cultivated only 2835. Cactaceae. Oroxylum indicum (L. Oleaceae.) Ker Gawl. Ormocarpum cochinchinense (Lour. cultivated only 2858. Malvaceae. extinct 2854. Rubiaceae. cultivated only 2872.. naturalised 2861. Bignoniaceae. Oxalidaceae.. cultivated only 2853. Orophea hastata King.. Ormosia macrodisca Baker..) Savigny. cultivated only 2871... Pachycentria constricta (Blume) Blume.) K. Osmelia philippina (Turcz. Salicaceae. Fabaceae.. Ruscaceae. Arecaceae. Paederia verticillata Blume. cultivated only 2836. Ruscaceae. endangered 2855. Fabaceae. Osmanthus fragrans Lour. Schum.. Orchidantha fimbriata Holtt. Otacanthus caeruleus Lindl. Pachystachys lutea Nees.) Nees. Poaceae. extinct 2850. Ophioglossum reticulatum L.C. Lowiaceae. Pachypodium lamerei Drake. Oxalis regnelli Miq. extinct 2867. Pachira insignis (Sw. naturalised 2862. cultivated only 2863. Arecaceae. Oxyceros fragrantissimus (Ridl. extinct 2845. Osmelia maingayi King. Oxyceros penangianus (King & Gamble) Tirveng. corymbosa (DC...) K. Ruscaceae. Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb. Oxalidaceae. vulnerable 2865. Salicaceae. Melastomataceae. Fabaceae. Lamiaceae. cultivated only 2844. extinct 2849. cultivated only 2856. et al. common 2879. Plantaginaceae. Annonaceae.) Benth. Clarke) Maxw. cultivated only 2875. Ottochloa nodosa (Kunth) Dandy. Moore. Ottelia alismoides (L. Fabaceae. Orchidaceae.) Merr.B. Oxalis debilis Kunth var. Rubiaceae. cultivated only 2840. critically endangered 2874.. cultivated only 2852.) Pers. Malvaceae. critically endangered 2873.) Wassh. casual 2876. cultivated only 2841. extinct 2880.M. extinct 2869. Paederia foetida L. naturalised 2860. cultivated only 2851.A. Cactaceae. cultivated only 2837. Rubiaceae.... Pachira aquatica Aubl. extinct 2868. extinct P 2870. Weber. Orania palindan (Blanco) Merr..E. Orania sylvicola (Griff. common 2833. Pachystachys coccinea (Aubl.) Mill. Orchidaceae. Ormosia sumatrana (Miq. Hydrocharitaceae. Acanthaceae. Orchidantha maxillarioides (Ridl.. Opuntia cochenillifer (L. cultivated only 2843. Orchidaceae..) Prain. Ormosia bancana (Miq. Ophiopogon jaburan (Siebold) Lodd. Pachystachys spicata (Ruiz & Pav. critically endangered 2847. common 2859.) H.) Merr. Oxalidaceae.) T. Schum. extinct 2838. Pachycentria maingayi (C. endangered 2846. Opuntia scheeri F... cultivated only 2878. Yamazaki.) Merr.. Ophiorrhiza singaporensis Ridl. Acanthaceae.. critically endangered 2842. endangered 2864. Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq. Oxyceros longiflorus (Lam. cultivated only 2839.) Philipson. Ophiopogon intermedius D. Apocynaceae.) Lourteig. Rubiaceae. Don... cultivated only 2877. Araliaceae. Acanthaceae. Ophioglossum pendulum L. Ruscaceae.) K. Oxystophyllum carnosum Blume.. cultivated only 2857.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2831. Rubiaceae. Fabaceae. Oxyceros scandens (Blume) Tirveng. Melastomataceae. Oxalidaceae.A.

extinct 2924. critically endangered 2892.. Chrysobalanaceae... Pandanus polycephalus Lam. Commelinaceae. Panicum luzonense Presl. cultivated only 2882. cultivated only 2899. endangered 2901. Sapotaceae. Juss. ex A. critically endangered 2921. ridleyi (Burkill) Swingle. cultivated only 2909. Amaryllidaceae. endangered 2927... cultivated only 2883. Presl ex Nees. Moraceae. extinct 2895.B. DC. Chrysobalanaceae. critically endangered 2928. Lam.) A. Pandanus rostratus Mart. Parartocarpus bracteatus (King) Becc. Sapotaceae. Pandanus pygmaeus Thouars. Pandanus utilis Bory. Poaceae.. casual 2896. cultivated only 2905. Parastemon urophyllus (Wall. critically endangered 2891. Sapindaceae. Sapotaceae. Palaquium rostratum (Miq. Sapotaceae. vulnerable 2888. Pandanaceae. Pandanaceae. Pandorea jasminoides (Lindl. Chrysobalanaceae. Palaquium beccarianum (Pierre) P.. Pandanaceae. Parartocarpus venenosa (Zoll. critically endangered 2907... common 2929.Chong et al.) Miq. Parinari elmeri Merr.. St.. f. Pandanaceae.. Pandanaceae. Parameria laevigata (A. Sapotaceae.. Sapotaceae. Parinari oblongifolia Hook. critically endangered 2900. Pandanus odorifer (Forssk. critically endangered 2930. cultivated only 2918. Palaquium leiocarpum Boerl.) Burck. cultivated only 2925. Pandanus yvanii Solms. Pandanaceae. Euphorbiaceae. critically endangered 2920. John.) K. var. Parinari costata (Korth. Palaquium galactoxylum H. Chrysobalanaceae.. Palaquium obovatum (Griff. Pandanaceae. Sapotaceae. Royen. Chrysobalanaceae. Pandanus gemmiferus H.) Blume. Palaquium gutta (Hook. Pandanaceae. critically endangered 2922. Poaceae. f. cultivated only 2893. extinct 2890. Pandanus houlletii Carriere.) Kuntze. & Moritzi) Becc. extinct 2889. Pandanus parvus Ridl. extinct 2906. critically endangered 2884. forbesii (King) Jarrett. Paramacrolobium coeruleum (Taub. Sapotaceae... Palaquium microphyllum King & Gamble. Palaquium xanthochymum (de Vr. critically endangered 2919. Rutaceae. common 2916. Pandanaceae. Parinari rigida Kosterm. Palaquium ridleyi King & Gamble. Pandanaceae. Pandanaceae. cultivated only 2886. Panicum repens L. Sapotaceae. critically endangered 2887. Apocynaceae... cultivated only 2912. Achariaceae. Parameria polyneura Hook.. extinct 2904. critically endangered 2923. critically endangered 2910.L. Poaceae. Pandanus atrocarpus Griff. Pandanaceae. Palaquium hexandrum (Griff.) Pierre. cultivated only 2926.. weed of uncertain origin 2913. Pancratium zeylanicum L.) Engl. dubius. Sapotaceae. critically endangered 2917. Pandanaceae. Schum. endangered 2897. cultivated only 2911. Pandanaceae. Pandanus tectorius Parkinson.. cultivated only 2894. Palisota mannii C.J. Pandanus dubius Spreng.. Pangium edule Reinw. Pandanaceae.) Moldenke. common 2914.. Pandanus monotheca Mart. Clarke. Sapotaceae. DC. cultivated only 2908.) J. Fabaceae. Poaceae. Dipterocarpaceae. critically endangered 2903. common 2915. 2881.) Baill. Parastemon spicatum Ridl. Chrysobalanaceae. Pandanaceae. Moraceae. Panicum sarmentosum Roxb. extinct 66 . ssp. Pandanus singaporensis Kaneh. Léonard. Paramignya scandens (Griff.) Baill. Panicum auritum J.) Craib var. Bignoniaceae. cultivated only 2898. Pandanus affinis Kurz. Paranephelium macrophyllum King. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. common 2902. Paracroton pendulus (Hassk.. Apocynaceae. Parashorea densiflora Sloot & Symington. critically endangered 2885. Palaquium oxleyanum Pierre..

Geraniaceae. cultivated only 2962. Poaceae. Fabaceae. common 2941.. cultivated only 2971.) Jessp.B. Parkia javanica (Lam.E. critically endangered 2961. Poaceae. ex Bois. common 2948. vulnerable 2933. cultivated only 2976. f. Paspalum conjugatum P. Malvaceae. Don) DC. Forst. Parkia speciosa Hassk.. Parishia maingayi Hook. Passiflora laurifolia L. Passifloraceae. endangered 2982. cultivated only 2972. Passiflora coccinea Aubl.) Planch. Fabaceae. Forst.. Passiflora foetida L. Passifloraceae. Fabaceae.) Merr... cultivated only 2981. critically endangered 2974. Pentace curtisii King. vulnerable 2937.) Taub. cultivated only 2958. Payena maingayi C.. vulnerable 67 . critically endangered 2960. naturalised 2956. Poaceae.. Parkia timoriana (DC.. cultivated only 2964. Passifloraceae. Heyne. critically endangered 2959. Br.) Kurz. Passiflora edulis Sims. f. cultivated only 2950.. Pentace triptera Mast. Ruscaceae..) Trin.. Paropsia vareciformis (Griff. naturalised 2979.. Passifloraceae. Sapotaceae. Parsonsia alboflavescens (Dennst.. cultivated only 2970. Poaceae. critically endangered 2942. endangered 2966. Fabaceae. Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér. cultivated only 2975. Fabaceae. Parkia biglandulosa Wight & Arn. cultivated only 2977.. ssp. Rhizophoraceae. Passiflora suberosa L.) Mabb..) Chiov. Peltophorum dasyrrhachis (Miq.J. Peliosanthes teta Andr.. Vitaceae. Arecaceae. Passiflora amethystina J. common 2945. endangered 2934.) Merr. Pentaphragma ellipticum Poulsen var. cultivated only 2939. Mikan. Poaceae. Parmentiera aculeata (Kunth) Seem. Paspalum longifolium Roxb. cultivated only 2980. Malvaceae.. Pennisetum alopecuroides (L. cultivated only 2936. Poaceae. Paspalum plicatulum Michx.R. Anacardiaceae. Payena lucida (G. Pellacalyx axillaris Korth. Passifloraceae.. cultivated only 2955.. ellipticum. Sapotaceae. cultivated only 2952. Urticaceae.. Pavonia multiflora A. Passifloraceae. cultivated only 2935.) Mast. Apocynaceae. Paspalum vaginatum Sw. cultivated only 2969. Sapotaceae. Fabaceae. vulnerable 2932. Passiflora palmata Lodd.C. Parishia paucijuga Engl. Pellionia daveauana N. naturalised 2944. Payena obscura Burck.. cultivated only 2968. Pellacalyx saccardianus Scort.. Peltophorum africanum Sond. Parishia insignis Hook... Rhizophoraceae.. Passifloraceae. Bignoniaceae. Passifloraceae. naturalised 2953. Pennisetum purpureum Schumach.. Br. Passifloraceae. Anacardiaceae. Euphorbiaceae. cultivated only 2951. cultivated only 2949. Pentaphragmataceae. Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk. humilis (Andr.) Backer ex K.. Anacardiaceae.. Pennisetum polystachion (L.. critically endangered 2973. Pavetta wallichiana Steud. cultivated only 2938. cultivated only 2943. casual 2946.. cultivated only 2963.) Poit. Passiflora biflora Lam. endangered 2967. Poaceae. Adiantaceae. Poaceae. vulnerable 2965. vulnerable 2957.. Pelagodoxa henryana Becc.. Poaceae.) Hook.. Bignoniaceae. Parmentiera cereifera Seem. Pellaea rotundifolia (G... St.. Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Siebold & Zucc. Rubiaceae. cultivated only 2940.) Schult.. & G. Lythraceae. Clarke..) R.. Bergius. Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L. Pemphis acidula J. Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.. Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC. Pennisetum glaucum (L. weed of uncertain origin 2947. Malvaceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2931. Pennisetum macrostachys (Brongn.. Fabaceae. Fabaceae. Poaceae.) Spreng.-Hill. naturalised 2978.. naturalised 2954. Poaceae. Paspalum scrobiculatum L.

Chong et al.

2983. Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) Deflers; Rubiaceae; cultivated only 2984. Pentaspadon motleyi Hook. f.; Anacardiaceae; cultivated only 2985. Pentaspadon velutinus Hook. f.; Anacardiaceae; cultivated only 2986. Peperomia argyreia (Miq.) E. Morren; Piperaceae; cultivated only 2987. Peperomia caperata Yunck.; Piperaceae; cultivated only 2988. Peperomia clusiifolia (Jacq.) Hook.; Piperaceae; cultivated only 2989. Peperomia obtusifolia (L.) A. Dietr.; Piperaceae; cultivated only 2990. Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth; Piperaceae; naturalised 2991. Peperomia sarmentosa A. Dietr.; Piperaceae; cultivated only 2992. Peperomia scandens Ruiz & Pav.; Piperaceae; cultivated only 2993. Pereskia aculeata Mill.; Cactaceae; cultivated only 2994. Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC.; Cactaceae; cultivated only 2995. Pereskia corrugata Cutak; Cactaceae; cultivated only 2996. Pereskia grandifolia Haw.; Cactaceae; cultivated only 2997. Pericopsis mooniana (Thwaites) Thwaites; Fabaceae; cultivated only 2998. Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton; Lamiaceae; cultivated only 2999. Peristrophe acuminata Nees; Acanthaceae; weed of uncertain origin 3000. Peristrophe hyssopifolia (Burm. f.) Bremek.; Acanthaceae; cultivated only 3001. Peristrophe roxburghiana (Roem. & Schult.) Bremek.; Acanthaceae; weed of uncertain origin 3002. Peristylus lacertifer (Lindl.) J.J. Sm.; Orchidaceae; extinct 3003. Peristylus maingayi (King & Pantl.) J.J. Wood & Omerod; Orchidaceae; extinct 3004. Peronema canescens Jack; Lamiaceae; extinct 3005. Perotis indica (L.) Kuntze; Poaceae; common 3006. Persea americana Mill.; Lauraceae; cultivated only 3007. Persea declinata (Blume) Kosterm.; Lauraceae; critically endangered 3008. Persea thunbergii (Siebold & Zucc.) Kosterm.; Lauraceae; cultivated only 3009. Persicaria barbata (L.) H. Hara var. gracilis (Danser) H. Hara; Polygonaceae; weed of uncertain origin 3010. Persicaria capitata (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) H. Gross; Polygonaceae; cultivated only 3011. Persicaria chinensis (L.) H. Gross var. chinensis; Polygonaceae; naturalised 3012. Persicaria hydropiper (L.) Delarbre; Polygonaceae; casual 3013. Persicaria odorata (Lour.) Soják; Polygonaceae; cultivated only 3014. Persicaria orientalis (L.) Spach; Polygonaceae; naturalised 3015. Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross; Polygonaceae; cultivated only 3016. Persoonia toru A. Cunn.; Proteaceae; cultivated only 3017. Pertusadina eurhyncha (Miq.) Ridsdale; Rubiaceae; vulnerable 3018. Petraeovitex wolfei J. Sinclair; Lamiaceae; cultivated only 3019. Petrea volubilis L.; Verbenaceae; cultivated only 3020. Phaeanthus ophthalmicus (Roxb. ex G. Don) J. Sinclair; Annonaceae; vulnerable 3021. Phaius tancarvilliae (Banks ex L'Hér.) Blume; Orchidaceae; critically endangered 3022. Phalaenopsis cornu-cervi (Breda) Blume & Rchb. f.; Orchidaceae; extinct 3023. Phaleria capitata Jack; Thymelaeaceae; cultivated only 3024. Phaleria clerodendron F. Muell. ex Benth.; Thymelaeaceae; cultivated only 3025. Phenakospermum guyanense (Rich.) Endl. ex Miq.; Strelitziaceae; cultivated only 3026. Philodendron bipinnatifidum Schott ex Endl.; Araceae; cultivated only 3027. Philodendron erubescens K. Koch & Augustin; Araceae; cultivated only 3028. Philodendron hederaceum (Jacq.) Schott; Araceae; casual 3029. Philodendron lacerum (Jacq.) Schott; Araceae; cultivated only 3030. Philodendron mamei André; Araceae; cultivated only 3031. Philodendron panduriforme (Kunth) Kunth; Araceae; cultivated only 3032. Philodendron undulatum Engl.; Araceae; cultivated only 3033. Philodendron wendlandii Schott; Araceae; cultivated only 68

Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore

3034. Philodendron xanadu Croat, Mayo & J. Boos; Araceae; cultivated only 3035. Philydrum lanuginosum Gaertn.; Philydraceae; extinct 3036. Phoebe grandis (Nees) Merr.; Lauraceae; critically endangered 3037. Phoenicophorium borsigianum (K. Koch) Stuntz; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3038. Phoenix canariensis hort. ex Chabaud; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3039. Phoenix dactylifera L.; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3040. Phoenix paludosa Roxb.; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3041. Phoenix reclinata Jacq.; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3042. Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3043. Phoenix rupicola T. Anderson; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3044. Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb.; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3045. Pholidocarpus kingianus (Becc.) Ridl.; Arecaceae; extinct 3046. Phormium tenax J.R. Forst & G. Forst.; Hemerocallidaceae; cultivated only 3047. Phragmites vallatoria (Retz.) Trin. ex Steud.; Poaceae; weed of uncertain origin 3048. Phreatia plantaginifolia (K. D. Koenig) Ormerod; Orchidaceae; extinct 3049. Phryganocydia corymbosa (Vent.) Bureau ex K. Schum.; Bignoniaceae; cultivated only 3050. Phrynium parvum (Ridl.) Holtt.; Marantaceae; endangered 3051. Phrynium villosulum Miq.; Marantaceae; extinct 3052. Phyla nodiflora (L.) Greene; Verbenaceae; weed of uncertain origin 3053. Phyllagathis rotundifolia (Jack) Blume; Melastomataceae; cultivated only 3054. Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels; Phyllanthaceae; cultivated only 3055. Phyllanthus amarus Schumach. & Thonn.; Phyllanthaceae; naturalised 3056. Phyllanthus cochinchinensis Spreng.; Phyllanthaceae; cultivated only 3057. Phyllanthus cuscutiflorus S. Moore; Phyllanthaceae; cultivated only 3058. Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd.; Phyllanthaceae; naturalised 3059. Phyllanthus emblica L.; Phyllanthaceae; critically endangered 3060. Phyllanthus myrtifolius (Wight) Müll. Arg.; Phyllanthaceae; cultivated only 3061. Phyllanthus pulcher Wall. ex Müll. Arg.; Phyllanthaceae; cultivated only 3062. Phyllanthus urinaria L.; Phyllanthaceae; naturalised 3063. Phymatosorus longissimus (Blume) Pichi Serm.; Polypodiaceae; endangered 3064. Phymatosorus nigrescens (Blume) Pichi Serm.; Polypodiaceae; common 3065. Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm. f.) Pic. Serm.; Polypodiaceae; common 3066. Physalis minima L.; Solanaceae; weed of uncertain origin 3067. Phytocrene bracteata Wall.; Icacinaceae; vulnerable 3068. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.; Phytolaccaceae; cultivated only 3069. Pigafetta elata (Mart.) Blume ex H. Wendl.; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3070. Pigafetta filaris (Giseke) Becc.; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3071. Pilea cadierei Gagnep. & Guillaumin; Urticaceae; cultivated only 3072. Pilea involucrata Urb.; Urticaceae; cultivated only 3073. Pilea microphylla (L.) Liebm.; Urticaceae; naturalised 3074. Pilea nummulariifolia (Sw.) Wedd.; Urticaceae; cultivated only 3075. Pilea serpyllacea (Kunth) Liebm.; Urticaceae; cultivated only 3076. Pimelodendron griffithianum (Müll.Arg.) Benth.; Euphorbiaceae; vulnerable 3077. Pinanga caesia Blume; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3078. Pinanga coronata (Blume ex Mart.) Blume; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3079. Pinanga densiflora Becc.; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3080. Pinanga dicksonii Blume; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3081. Pinanga disticha (Roxb.) Blume ex H. Wendl.; Arecaceae; extinct 3082. Pinanga kuhlii Blume; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3083. Pinanga ligulata Becc.; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3084. Pinanga limosa Ridl.; Arecaceae; extinct 3085. Pinanga malaiana (Mart.) Scheff.; Arecaceae; endangered 69

Chong et al.

3086. Pinanga patula Blume; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3087. Pinanga pectinata Becc.; Arecaceae; extinct 3088. Pinanga simplicifrons (Miq.) Becc.; Arecaceae; extinct 3089. Pinanga subruminata Becc.; Arecaceae; extinct 3090. Pinus caribaea Morelet; Pinaceae; cultivated only 3091. Pinus elliottii Engelm.; Pinaceae; cultivated only 3092. Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon; Pinaceae; cultivated only 3093. Pinus luchuensis Mayr; Pinaceae; cultivated only 3094. Pinus merkusii Jungh. & de Vriese; Pinaceae; cultivated only 3095. Piper aduncum L.; Piperaceae; naturalised 3096. Piper betle L.; Piperaceae; casual 3097. Piper caninum Blume; Piperaceae; common 3098. Piper chaba W. Hunter; Piperaceae; extinct 3099. Piper flavimarginatum C. DC.; Piperaceae; critically endangered 3100. Piper lanatum Roxb.; Piperaceae; extinct 3101. Piper macropiper Pennant; Piperaceae; critically endangered 3102. Piper maingayi Hook. f.; Piperaceae; extinct 3103. Piper muricatum Blume; Piperaceae; critically endangered 3104. Piper nigrum L.; Piperaceae; cultivated only 3105. Piper pachyphyllum Hook. f.; Piperaceae; extinct 3106. Piper pedicellosum Wall. ex C. DC.; Piperaceae; critically endangered 3107. Piper porphyrophyllum (Lindl.) N.E.Br.; Piperaceae; endangered 3108. Piper protractum C. DC.; Piperaceae; critically endangered 3109. Piper pseudolindenii C. DC.; Piperaceae; cultivated only 3110. Piper ribesioides Wall.; Piperaceae; extinct 3111. Piper sarmentosum Roxb.; Piperaceae; common 3112. Pipturus argenteus (G. Forst.) Wedd.; Urticaceae; naturalised 3113. Pisonia alba Span.; Nyctaginaceae; cultivated only 3114. Pisonia grandis R. Br.; Nyctaginaceae; cultivated only 3115. Pistia stratiotes L.; Araceae; naturalised 3116. Pitcairnia angustifolia Sol.; Bromeliaceae; cultivated only 3117. Pitcairnia bromeliifolia L'Hér.; Bromeliaceae; cultivated only 3118. Pitcairnia sanguinea (H.E. Luther) D.C. Taylor & H. Rob.; Bromeliaceae; cultivated only 3119. Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth.; Fabaceae; casual 3120. Pittosporum ferrugineum W.T. Aiton; Pittosporaceae; vulnerable 3121. Pittosporum pentandrum (Blanco) Merr.; Pittosporaceae; cultivated only 3122. Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) W.T. Aiton; Pittosporaceae; cultivated only 3123. Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Link; Adiantaceae; naturalised 3124. Placospermum coriaceum C.T. White & W.D. Francis; Proteaceae; cultivated only 3125. Plagiostachys lateralis (Ridl.) Ridl.; Zingiberaceae; extinct 3126. Plagiostachys mucida Holtt.; Zingiberaceae; extinct 3127. Planchonia grandis Ridl.; Lecythidaceae; extinct 3128. Plantago major L.; Plantaginaceae; naturalised 3129. Platea latifolia Blume; Icacinaceae; extinct 3130. Platycerium coronarium (J. Koenig ex O.F. Müll.) Desv.; Polypodiaceae; common 3131. Platycerium grande (Fée) Kunze; Polypodiaceae; cultivated only 3132. Platycerium ridleyi Christ.; Polypodiaceae; extinct 3133. Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco; Cupressaceae; cultivated only 3134. Plectocomia elongata Mart. ex Blume; Arecaceae; vulnerable 3135. Pleiocarpa mutica Benth.; Apocynaceae; cultivated only 3136. Pleocnemia irregularis (C. Presl) Holttum; Dryopteridaceae; common 3137. Plethiandra sessiliflora (Cogn.) Burk.; Melastomataceae; extinct 70

Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore

3138. Plocoglottis gigantea (Hook. f.) J.J. Sm.; Orchidaceae; critically endangered 3139. Plocoglottis javanica Blume; Orchidaceae; critically endangered 3140. Plocoglottis lowii Rchb. f.; Orchidaceae; extinct 3141. Ploiarium alternifolium (Vahl) Melchior; Bonnetiaceae; common 3142. Pluchea indica (L.) Less.; Asteraceae; common 3143. Plumbago auriculata Lam.; Plumbaginaceae; cultivated only 3144. Plumbago indica L.; Plumbaginaceae; cultivated only 3145. Plumbago zeylanica L.; Plumbaginaceae; naturalised 3146. Plumeria alba L.; Apocynaceae; cultivated only 3147. Plumeria obtusa L.; Apocynaceae; cultivated only 3148. Plumeria pudica Jacq.; Apocynaceae; cultivated only 3149. Plumeria rubra L.; Apocynaceae; cultivated only 3150. Podocarpus elatus R. Br. ex Endl.; Podocarpaceae; cultivated only 3151. Podocarpus henkelii Stapf ex Dallim. & A.B. Jacks.; Podocarpaceae; cultivated only 3152. Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.) Sweet; Podocarpaceae; cultivated only 3153. Podocarpus neriifolius D. Don; Podocarpaceae; cultivated only 3154. Podocarpus polystachyus R.Br. ex Endl.; Podocarpaceae; critically endangered 3155. Podocarpus rumphii Blume; Podocarpaceae; cultivated only 3156. Podochilus microphyllus Lindl.; Orchidaceae; extinct 3157. Podranea ricasoliana (Tanfani) Sprague; Bignoniaceae; cultivated only 3158. Pogonanthera pulverulenta (Jack) Blume; Melastomataceae; critically endangered 3159. Pogonatherum crinitum (Thunb.) Kunth; Poaceae; common 3160. Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam.) Hack.; Poaceae; cultivated only 3161. Pogostemon auricularius (L.) Hassk.; Lamiaceae; weed of uncertain origin 3162. Poikilospermum cordifolium (Barg.-Petr.) Merr.; Urticaceae; extinct 3163. Poikilospermum microstachys (Barg.-Petr.) Merr.; Urticaceae; extinct 3164. Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr.; Urticaceae; vulnerable 3165. Polianthes tuberosa L.; Agavaceae; cultivated only 3166. Pollia secundiflora (Blume) Backer; Commelinaceae; extinct 3167. Polyalthia angustissima Ridl.; Annonaceae; vulnerable 3168. Polyalthia cauliflora Hook. f. & Thoms.; Annonaceae; vulnerable 3169. Polyalthia clavigera King; Annonaceae; extinct 3170. Polyalthia glauca (Hassk.) Muell.; Annonaceae; endangered 3171. Polyalthia hookeriana King; Annonaceae; critically endangered 3172. Polyalthia hypoleuca Hook. f. & Thoms.; Annonaceae; critically endangered 3173. Polyalthia jenkensii (H. & T.) Hook. f. & Thoms.; Annonaceae; critically endangered 3174. Polyalthia lateriflora (Blume) Kurz; Annonaceae; critically endangered 3175. Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn.) Thwaites; Annonaceae; cultivated only 3176. Polyalthia macropoda King; Annonaceae; endangered 3177. Polyalthia rumphii Merr.; Annonaceae; critically endangered 3178. Polyalthia sclerophylla Hook. f. & Thoms.; Annonaceae; critically endangered 3179. Polyalthia stenopetala (Hook. f. & Thoms.) Finet & Gagnep.; Annonaceae; cultivated only 3180. Polyalthia sumatrana (Miq.) Kurz; Annonaceae; critically endangered 3181. Polygala glaucoides L.; Polygalaceae; weed of uncertain origin 3182. Polygala paniculata L.; Polygalaceae; naturalised 3183. Polyosma conocarpa Ridl.; Polyosmaceae; extinct 3184. Polyosma kingiana Schltr.; Polyosmaceae; critically endangered 3185. Polyosma ridleyi King; Polyosmaceae; extinct 3186. Polypodium polycarpon Cav.; Polypodiaceae; cultivated only 3187. Polypodium punctatum Thunb. ex Murray; Polypodiaceae; cultivated only 3188. Polyscias balfouriana (André) L.H. Bailey; Araliaceae; cultivated only 3189. Polyscias cumingiana (C. Presl) Fern.-Vill.; Araliaceae; cultivated only 71

Chong et al.

3190. Polyscias fruticosa (L.) Harms; Araliaceae; cultivated only 3191. Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem.; Araliaceae; cultivated only 3192. Polystachya concreta (Jacq.) Gary & Sweet; Orchidaceae; extinct 3193. Pomatocalpa diffusum Breda; Orchidaceae; critically endangered 3194. Pometia pinnata J.R. Forst & G. Forst.; Sapindaceae; endangered 3195. Pongamia pinnata (L.) Pierre; Fabaceae; endangered 3196. Pontederia cordata L.; Pontederiaceae; cultivated only 3197. Popowia fusca King; Annonaceae; vulnerable 3198. Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl.; Annonaceae; vulnerable 3199. Popowia tomentosa Maing. ex Hook. f. & Thoms.; Annonaceae; endangered 3200. Porana volubilis Burm. f.; Convolvulaceae; cultivated only 3201. Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq.) Cass.; Asteraceae; naturalised 3202. Porterandia anisophylla (Jack ex Roxb.) Ridl.; Rubiaceae; vulnerable 3203. Portulaca grandiflora Hook.; Portulacaceae; cultivated only 3204. Portulaca oleracea L.; Portulacaceae; naturalised 3205. Portulaca pilosa L. ssp. pilosa; Portulacaceae; critically endangered 3206. Portulaca quadrifida L.; Portulacaceae; naturalised 3207. Portulacaria afra (L.) Jacq.; Portulacaceae; cultivated only 3208. Pothos lancifolius Hook. f.; Araceae; vulnerable 3209. Pourouma cecropiifolia Mart.; Urticaceae; cultivated only 3210. Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pav.) Radlk.; Sapotaceae; cultivated only 3211. Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni; Sapotaceae; cultivated only 3212. Pouteria gardneriana (A. DC.) Radlk.; Sapotaceae; cultivated only 3213. Pouteria linggensis (Burck) Baehni; Sapotaceae; critically endangered 3214. Pouteria maingayi (C.B. Clarke) Baehni; Sapotaceae; endangered 3215. Pouteria malaccensis (C.B. Clarke) Baehni; Sapotaceae; vulnerable 3216. Pouteria obovata (R. Br.) Baehni; Sapotaceae; vulnerable 3217. Pouteria sapota (Jacq.) H.E. Moore & Stearn; Sapotaceae; cultivated only 3218. Pouzolzia zeylanica (L.) Benn.; Urticaceae; weed of uncertain origin 3219. Premna corymbosa Rottler & Willd.; Verbenaceae; cultivated only 3220. Premna foetida Reinw. ex Blume; Lamiaceae; common 3221. Premna parasitica Blume; Lamiaceae; extinct 3222. Premna punctulata C.B. Clarke; Lamiaceae; extinct 3223. Premna ridleyi King & Gamble; Lamiaceae; extinct 3224. Premna serratifolia L.; Lamiaceae; vulnerable 3225. Prismatomeris glabra (Korth.) Val.; Rubiaceae; endangered 3226. Prismatomeris tetrandra (Roxb.) K.Schum. ssp. malayana (Ridl.) Johansson; Rubiaceae; endangered 3227. Pritchardia pacifica Seem. & H. Wendl.; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3228. Pritchardia thurstonii F. Muell. & Drude; Arecaceae; cultivated only 3229. Proiphys amboinensis (L.) Herb.; Amaryllidaceae; cultivated only 3230. Pronephrium menisciicarpon (Blume) Holttum; Thelypteridaceae; endangered 3231. Pronephrium repandum (Fee) Holttum; Thelypteridaceae; common 3232. Pronephrium triphyllum (Sw.) Holttum; Thelypteridaceae; common 3233. Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Stuntz; Fabaceae; cultivated only 3234. Prumnopitys amara (Blume) de Laub.; Podocarpaceae; cultivated only 3235. Prunus arborea (Blume) Kalkman; Rosaceae; critically endangered 3236. Prunus grisea (Blume ex Müll. Berol.) Kalkman var. tomentosa (Koord. & Valeton) Kalkman; Rosaceae; critically endangered 3237. Prunus polystachya (Hook. f.) Kalkm.; Rosaceae; common 3238. Pseudarthria viscida Wight & Arn.; Fabaceae; naturalised 3239. Pseuderanthemum andersonii Lindau; Acanthaceae; cultivated only 72

Myrtaceae..) Kuhn. weed of uncertain origin 3278. Rubiaceae. Vitaceae..H. cultivated only 3242. Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Kunth) Cabrera.. Pseuderanthemum kewense L. cultivated only 3247. Agargh) R. endangered 3274. cultivated only 3248. Rubiaceae.) Kunh var.. Psychotria helferiana Kurz.) Planch. Dennstaedtiaceae. Tryon. critically endangered 3265. Acanthaceae.. vulnerable 3269. critically endangered 3258. Psychotria ovoidea Wall. Rubiaceae. cultivated only 3253.. Clark. Psychotria maingayi Hook. Pterocymbium tubulatum (Mast. Acanthaceae. Pteridaceae. critically endangered 3257. Pseuderanthemum atropurpureum L..) Laws. Rubiaceae. Bailey. Pteridaceae. wightianum (J. critically endangered 3284.. vulnerable 3282. Pterisanthes polita (Miq. cultivated only 3287. cultivated only 3244. cultivated only 3245. Pteridium aquilinum (L. ex Heyne. cultivated only 3251. cultivated only 3249.. extinct 3255. vulnerable 3283. vulnerable 3264.) T. Clarke) Ridl. Fabaceae. Pseudobombax ellipticum (Kunth) Dugand. Pteridaceae. weed of uncertain origin 3273. Psilotaceae. Malvaceae. Psychotria griffithii Hook. Psychotria penangensis Hook. Pterisanthes cissoides Blume. Psychotria cantleyi Ridl. extinct 3279. f.P. casual 3254. Pteleocarpa lamponga (Miq.H.. Psychotria malayana Jack. Forst.) Bakh. f. Pseuderanthemum kingii (C. critically endangered 3259. Rubiaceae. Pteroceras pallidum (Blume) Holtt. Rubiaceae. Fabaceae. Asteraceae. Pteridium aquilinum (L. Pteris vittata L. Pseudoclausena chrysogyne (Miq. cultivated only 3252. Pseuderanthemum graciliflorum Ridl. Pternandra echinata Jack. cultivated only 3286. Psychotria sarmentosa Blume. critically endangered 73 . vulnerable 3271. esculentum (G. Melastomataceae.B. critically endangered 3262. critically endangered 3280.. critically endangered 3268. Malvaceae. Pteris semipinnata L. Wong. Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. Psydrax maingayi (Hook.. Psilotaceae.. critically endangered 3288. Acanthaceae. Boraginaceae. cultivated only 3243. critically endangered 3260. common 3272. Psilotum complanatum Sw. Pterisanthes eriopoda (Miq.) Nayar. Acanthaceae. Bailey. Meliaceae. common 3256. Rubiaceae. Psychotria rostrata Blume. Pterocarpus indicus Willd. f. Fabaceae...H.. common 3275. Rubiaceae. Rubiaceae. Pternandra tuberculata (Korth... Psydrax nitida (Craib) K. Bailey. Acanthaceae. critically endangered 3281.M.) Pierre. Acanthaceae..) Bridson. Acanthaceae. Hoffm. critically endangered 3261. Acanthaceae..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3240.) Kuhn var. Pteridaceae. Pteridaceae.. Psidium guajava L.) Guillaumin. Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum Hubbard ex L. vulnerable 3263. Euphorbiaceae. Vitaceae. Beauv. Pseuderanthemum reticulatum hort. f. Dennstaedtiaceae. Pseudosindora palustris Symington. Pteridaceae. Pternandra coerulescens Jack. vulnerable 3276. Psychotria ridleyi King & Gamble. Pterococcus corniculatus Pax & K. endangered 3277. Pteris tripartita Sw. Fabaceae.. Rubiaceae. extinct 3246. Vitaceae. critically endangered 3267. cultivated only 3241. Pteris multifida Poir. Rubiaceae. Rubiaceae. Orchidaceae. f. Rubiaceae.. Psychotria angulata Korth. extinct 3289. casual 3285. extinct 3270. Pseudomussaenda flava Verdc.) P. Pseuderanthemum bicolor Radlk. Pteris mertensioides Willd. Psilotum nudum (L. Rubiaceae. Pseuderanthemum carruthersii (Seem. ex Hook. critically endangered 3266.M. Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kurz. Melastomataceae. Pteris ensiformis Burm... Melastomataceae. critically endangered 3250.

. Pterospermum diversifolium Blume. naturalised 3301. Polypodiaceae. Malvaceae.) Ridl. Fagaceae..) Morton. Muell.E. cultivated only 3329. Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn.. & Strey. Pyrrosia longifolia (Burm. Arecaceae. Theaceae. & Thoms. cultivated only 3320. Radermachera pinnata (Blanco) Seem.. Rapanea porteriana Wall. Fabaceae. Apocynaceae..) Hyl. Pterospermum acerifolium (L. Cyperaceae. endangered 3307. DC. Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Pyrrosia angustata (L. Pyrenaria acuminata Planch. Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. rostrata (Burret) H.. cultivated only 3315. Bignoniaceae.G. Pycreus sanguinolentus (Vahl) Nees ssp. Price. Pullea stutzeri (F. f. Pterospermum javanicum Jungh..) M. cultivated only 3323. Malvaceae. common 3333.. Perrier. vulnerable 3321.) Planch. Cyperaceae. extinct 3292. Ptychosperma lineare (Burret) Burret.. Arecaceae. cultivated only 3300. Malvaceae. cultivated only 3327. Moore.) Farwell.) P. ex Benth. cultivated only 3322. Raphia farinifera (Gaertn. Reissantia indica (Willd.. cultivated only 3295. critically endangered 3297..) Farwell.. var.. Malvaceae. Arecaceae. Lythraceae. cultivated only 3302. naturalised 3299. Bignoniaceae. Quercus argentata Korth. cultivated only 3303. extinct 3314. Renanthera elongata (Blume) Lindl.. & H. Wendl. Pyrrosia lanceolata (L... Reinhardtia gracilis (H. Quisqualis indica L.. extinct 3332.. Pterygota alata (Roxb.Chong et al.) Gibbs. cultivated only 3326. common 3304.) Nooteb. Fagaceae. critically endangered 3316. weed of uncertain origin 3306.) Burret var. Ptychosperma macarthurii (H. 3290. oblanceolata Airy Shaw. cultivated only 3291. cultivated only 3313. extinct 74 .) Benth. Celastraceae.) Willd. Radermachera glandulosa Miq.. Reineckea carnea (Andrews) Kunth. Euphorbiaceae. Cunoniaceae. Br. acuminata (Steen. cultivated only 3330. common 3311. Arecaceae. endangered 3308.. Punica granatum L. critically endangered 3296. Ptychosperma sanderianum Ridl. Muell. Malvaceae. critically endangered 3293.) Nees.. Pyrrosia piloselloides (L.) Halle..) R. common Q 3312. critically endangered 3294. Ravenia spectabilis (Lindl. cultivated only 3328. Euphorbiaceae.. Polypodiaceae.. Reinwardtia indica Dumort. Arecaceae. Ptychopyxis caput-medusae (Hook. common 3310. vulnerable 3309. common 3305. ex Hook.. Orchidaceae.. Polypodiaceae. Remirea maritima Aubl. Reevesia thyrsoidea Lindl. ssp. Arecaceae. Quassia amara L. Rutaceae. casual R 3317. cultivated only 3331. Polypodiaceae. Simaroubaceae.) Merr. Raphia australis Oberm. Wendl. Randia fitzalanii F.f. Simaroubaceae. cultivated only 3298. Ptychopyxis costata Miq. Myrsinaceae. Beauv. Ruscaceae. Quercus acutissima Carruth. Malvaceae. Linaceae. Arecaceae. cultivated only 3324. Pycreus pumilus (L. ex anon. Wendl. Pycreus polystachyos (Rottb. Annonaceae.. ex A.. Pterospermum lancifolium Roxb. cultivated only 3325. ex Griseb. Cyperaceae. Pyramidanthe prismatica (Hook.) Steen.f. Rubiaceae..) H. Combretaceae.) Karth. cyrtostachys (Miq. Cyperaceae. Strelitziaceae. Quassia indica (Gaertn. critically endangered 3319.. Ravenea rivularis Jum. cultivated only 3318.

. Rhodosphaera rhodanthema (F. Rhynchospora rugosa (Vahl) Gale ssp. common 3346.) Hemsl. Cyperaceae. Rondeletia odorata Jacq. Rhopaloblaste augusta (Kurz) H. common 3348.) O.) Engl. Phytolaccaceae. Rourea mimosoides (Vahl) Planch. Rhapis multifida Buffet. Rotheca serrata (L. f.B. Rhaphidophora maingayi Hook. Ericaceae. Rhynchospora nervosa (Vahl) Boeck. cultivated only 3354.. Lamiaceae. Rhizophora stylosa Griff..J. Cyperaceae. critically endangered 3383. Cook. cultivated only 3370. Rhynchospora malasica C. Moore. Rubiaceae. Rhapis excelsa (Thunb. critically endangered 3355. Rothmannia macrophylla (R. Wendl. endangered 3382. Ericaceae. Rivina humilis L. Rhopaloblaste singaporensis (Becc. Rhaphidophora korthalsii Schott. Annonaceae.. Araceae.) Leenh. Roystonea oleracea (Jacq.. & Schult.. critically endangered 3365. ssp. Lamiaceae. extinct 3350. Rollinia mucosa (Jacq.. Robiquetia spathulata (Blume) J. cultivated only 3356. Rhizophoraceae. Rhizophora mucronata Lam. Muell.. Rhizophoraceae. extinct 3366.. Rondeletia strigosa (Benth.) Benth. Orchidaceae.) Baill. Araceae. Orchidaceae. Cyperaceae. Rhaphidophora lobbii Schott. Rhodamnia cinerea Jack. critically endangered 3380. naturalised 3367. Myrtaceae. extinct 3384. Br.. Rhaphidophora minor Hook. common 3351. Connaraceae. extinct 3359. Araceae. cultivated only 3344. cultivated only 3358.) Burret. Arecaceae. vulnerable 3347. Rourea fulgens Planch. cultivated only 3349.. Rhynchospora rubra (Lour. extinct 3363. cultivated only 3376. common 3357. Cyperaceae.. Rourea minor (Gaertn.. cultivated only 3343. vulnerable 3338. common 3345.. Rondeletia leucophylla Kunth. Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.. naturalised 3378..) Ridl.. Arecaceae. & Drude.) Makino. Arecaceae. cultivated only 3372. Cyperaceae. Lamiaceae. Rhizophora apiculata Blume.. Rotheca incisa (Klotzsch) Steane & Mabb. weed of uncertain origin 3361. vulnerable 3381. naturalised 3364. Anacardiaceae. naturalised 3373. Clarke. Smith. Connaraceae. Rhapis humilis Blume. cultivated only 3360. Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.) T. extinct 3368. Thomas..W. Brassicaceae..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3334. Araceae. Rhynchostylis gigantea (Lindl. Koyama. Rhaphidophora sylvestris (Blume) Engl. f. f. f. vulnerable 3377. brownii (Roem.) Kuntze. Rhynchospora latifolia (Baldwin ex Elliott) W..) Bremek. f..) Steane & Mabb. Araceae. Rhododendron longiflorum Lindl. cultivated only 3353. Myrtaceae. cultivated only 3374. Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour. critically endangered 3341. Rorippa heterophylla (Blume) Williams. Rourea acutipetala Miq. Rubiaceae. Poaceae. Rhopaloblaste ceramica (Miq.) Sweet.) Clayton. cultivated only 3352.E. Arecaceae. Orchidaceae. & Hook. Rhododendron indicum (L. cultivated only 75 . Araceae. extinct 3335.) Britton. Arecaceae. vulnerable 3340. Rhopalostylis sapida H.. extinct 3379. ex Hook. Euphorbiaceae. Arecaceae. Connaraceae. Connaraceae.F... Violaceae..) Jongkind. cultivated only 3342. Arecaceae. cultivated only 3371.) Ridl. Rinorea anguifera (Lour. Rubiaceae. Connaraceae. cultivated only 3369. Rourea rugosa Planch. vulnerable 3337.) Steane & Mabb.) Kuntze. vulnerable 3339. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk. acutipetala. Rourea asplenifolia (Schellenb. Arecaceae. Henry ex Rehder. Violaceae. Renanthera histrionica (Rchb. vulnerable 3336. Rinorea lanceolata (Wall. Rubiaceae. Cyperaceae. cultivated only 3375.) A. Ricinus communis L. Rhizophoraceae. common 3362. Rhaphidophora montana (Blume) Schott. Connaraceae.

Celastraceae.Chong et al. cultivated only 3406. Salix babylonica L. Ruellia malacosperma Greenm. Acanthaceae.) A. Br. var. Cook) Becc. critically endangered 3428. cultivated only 3404.. cultivated only 3400. cultivated only 3389. weed of uncertain origin 3396.. Acanthaceae. weed of uncertain origin 3418. Salicaceae. Sacciolepis myosuroides (R. Asteraceae. Acanthaceae. Saccharum arundinaceum Retz. Poaceae. Salacia macrophylla Blume. cultivated only 3393.) Lindau. angulosus Kalkman. Camus.. Salix tetrasperma Roxb. Salacia chinensis L. critically endangered S 3408. & H. Sabia erratica van de Water. Sabal yapa C.. cultivated only 3409. Ruellia affinis (Schrad. Sagittaria latifolia Willd. ex Schult. Acanthaceae. Russelia equisetiformis Schltdl. cultivated only 3394. Arecaceae. critically endangered 3427.. casual 3416. Arecaceae. Cook.. cultivated only 3391. Alismataceae. Sabal minor (Jacq. Salacia korthalsiana Miq. Scrophulariaceae. f. cultivated only 3422.. extinct 3414. & Cham. Polygalaceae. Salvia splendens Sellow ex Schult. & Schult. cultivated only 3386. vulnerable 3388.. cultivated only 3420. Arecaceae..B. cultivated only 3401. Salicaceae. Ruellia simplex C. Acanthaceae. extinct 3387. Saintpaulia ionantha H. Celastraceae. Achariaceae. Ruellia amoena Sessé & Moc. Acanthaceae.. Ruellia tuberosa L. Sagittaria sagittifolia L. Acanthaceae. extinct 3407. Poaceae. Ryparosa scortechinii King.. Celastraceae. Gesneriaceae. Celastraceae. Salomonia cantoniensis Lour. Sabal causiarum (O. Wendl. Karst. Salacca magnifica Mogea. Salacia grandiflora Kurz. ex Nees..) Pers. vulnerable 3425. Acanthaceae. Alismataceae. cultivated only 3405. Poaceae. Acanthaceae. Rubus moluccanus L.) Griseb. Rosaceae. cultivated only 3412. cultivated only 76 . cultivated only 3413. Rosaceae.. Salacca affinis Griff. cultivated only 3402. Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. Acanthaceae. vulnerable 3429. Scrophulariaceae. Russelia sarmentosa Jacq. Lamiaceae... Arecaceae. cultivated only 3399. 3385. Scrophulariaceae. Saccharum spontaneum L. ex Laws. Ryparosa hullettii King. Wright.. weed of uncertain origin 3419.. cultivated only 3424.. cultivated only 3410. Ruta graveolens L.) Chase. Ruellia ciliosa Pursh. Celastraceae. critically endangered 3426.F. Ruellia colorata Baill. cultivated only 3403. Ruellia macrantha Mart. weed of uncertain origin 3434.F. cultivated only 3411. Sacciolepis indica (L. Salacia maingayi Laws. weed of uncertain origin 3415. Ruellia repens L. Acanthaceae. Arecaceae. cultivated only 3390. Ruspolia hypocrateriformis (Vahl) Milne-Redh. extinct 3430. cultivated only 3392.. Celastraceae. Acanthaceae.. Achariaceae. naturalised 3417... Roystonea regia (Kunth) O.. moluccanus.. Arecaceae. cultivated only 3433. extinct 3423. cultivated only 3395. Arecaceae. Sabal mauritiiformis (H. Wright ex Becc. Sabiaceae. Ruspolia seticalyx (C. cultivated only 3421. Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton. Acanthaceae. Wendl. Arecaceae. Salacia viminea Wall. Poaceae. Ruellia tweediana Griseb. cultivated only 3432. Acanthaceae...... Poaceae... Salacia exsculpta Korth. Clarke) Milne-Redh. cultivated only 3398.. Celastraceae. Rubus moluccanus L. Saccharum officinarum L. Ruellia rosea Hemsl. var. cultivated only 3397.. Ruttya fruticosa Lindau. critically endangered 3431.

Schefflera elegantissima (hort. f. Burseraceae. Araliaceae. Schefflera cephalotes (C. Meliaceae...T.. Saraca thaipingensis Cantley ex Prain..) Beumée ex K.. f.B.. Phyllanthaceae. Fabaceae. Schismatoglottis calyptrata (Roxb. Scaevola taccada (Gaertn. critically endangered 3458. Saprosma glomerulatum King & Gamble. Reynolds. & Moritzi. Araliaceae. cultivated only 3465. Goodeniaceae. Sapindaceae.) Lowry & Frodin. Sauropus spatulifolius Beille.E. Sarcotheca laxa (Ridl. extinct 3480.) Engl.) Hall.) H. Schefflera elliptica (Blume) Harms. Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer. Saurauia pentapetala (Jack) Hoogl. Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn) Raf. Schefflera actinophylla (Endl. Malvaceae.) Morong.. Goodeniaceae. naturalised 3436. common 3444. Oxalidaceae. cultivated only 3483..) Zoll. Veitch ex Mast. Ruscaceae. critically endangered 3470. vulnerable 3445. cultivated only 3448. Arecaceae. extinct 3481. Saraca declinata (Jack) Miq. cultivated only 3452. Saxifragaceae. Amaryllidaceae. Sarcopteryx martyana Radlk. casual 3474. Burseraceae. endangered 3447. Santiria conferta Benn. critically endangered 3443. critically endangered 3457. Theaceae. cultivated only 3466.. Santiria rubiginosa Blume.E. Apocynaceae. Burseraceae. Saraca indica L. Malvaceae. Sandoricum beccarianum Baill. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. cultivated only 3473. Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.) Kunth var. vulnerable 3446.. f. Schefflera lanceolata Ridl. Scaphochlamys tenuis Holttum. Araliaceae. multiflorus. cultivated only 3484. Schefflera ridleyi (King) Viguier. Sarcolobus globosus Wall. vulnerable 77 . Phyllanthaceae. ssp.. Ruscaceae. f. critically endangered 3449. Araliaceae. Salvinia molesta D. Araliaceae. cultivated only 3437. Zingiberaceae. Araceae. extinct 3455. Santiria griffithii (Hook. Scaphium linearicarpum (Mast. cultivated only 3477. common 3442.) Veldk. Schima superba Gardner& Champ. Sanchezia speciosa Leonard. Acanthaceae. critically endangered 3438. Anacardiaceae. Scaphium macropodum (Miq. cultivated only 3440. vulnerable 3486. Oxalidaceae. Phyllanthaceae.) Harms.. Araliaceae. Sapindaceae.. Sauropus bacciformis (L. extinct 3456. cultivated only 3459. Sapotaceae.) Pierre. Schaueria flavicoma N.) Hook. Araceae. sericea (Ridl. Clarke) Harms. Santiria apiculata Benn. cultivated only 3451. Satakentia liukiuensis (Hatus.. f. common 3463. Burseraceae. Schefflera hullettii (King) Viguier. critically endangered 3479. casual 3441. Saxifraga stolonifera Curtis. common 3469. cultivated only 3468.) Druce. Schefflera arboricola (Hayata) Merr. extinct 3462. extinct 3476. Burseraceae. Schefflera versteegii Harms. Actinidiaceae.) Airy Shaw. cultivated only 3454... extinct 3482.) Merr. Araliaceae.) Merr. Fabaceae. Sarcotoechia serrata S. Santiria tomentosa Blume. cultivated only 3485. cultivated only 3475. cultivated only 3450. Mitch. Sarcosperma paniculatum (King) Stapf & King. ex Hook. Burseraceae.. Sapium glandulosum (L. Heyne. Saritaea magnifica (Sprague ex Steenis) Dugand. Salviniaceae. Santiria laevigata Blume. vulnerable 3478. critically endangered 3472. cultivated only 3460. Orchidaceae.S.. endangered 3439.) Viguier. Araliaceae. Acanthaceae. Schismatoglottis wallichii (Roxb. Meliaceae. Scaevola albida (Sm. Sauropus androgynus (L.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3435. extinct 3453. Euphorbiaceae. Sansevieria trifasciata Prain. Rubiaceae.) Roxb. Sarcotheca griffithii (Planch. Araliaceae. Araliaceae. Bignoniaceae. endangered 3471. Br. critically endangered 3464. Fabaceae.. Schefflera oxyphylla (Miq.. Moore. Sarcostoma javanica Blume. cultivated only 3461. cultivated only 3467.

) Fass. Cyperaceae. Poaceae.) Clos. Selaginellaceae. Orchidaceae. casual 3495. extinct 3509. Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. extinct 3491.. critically endangered 3531. critically endangered 3523. Schoutenia accrescens (Mast. Scorodocarpus borneensis Becc. Cyperaceae. common 3511..J. Loranthaceae. Sedum nevii A. Fabaceae. Loranthaceae. Kern. Poaceae. Selaginella argentea (Wall. 3487. common 3518.. Poaceae. extinct 3494. critically endangered 3537.) Merr. Schizostachyum zolleringi Steud. Scleria terrestris (L.) Oken. cultivated only 3503. common 78 . endangered 3489. weed of uncertain origin 3499. common 3530.. Buchner & Greimler.) Wall. Br. Sciaphila maculata Miers. Scrotochloa urceolata (Roxb.. ex J. Schoenus calostachyus (R. Rubiaceae. weed of uncertain origin 3513.. Scleria biflora Roxb. vulnerable 3527.) Spring. Scleria sumatrensis Retz. cultivated only 3498. Selaginellaceae. Scindapsus hederaceus Schott. extinct 3508... Sedum mexicanum Britt. Schizaea wagneri Selling. weed of uncertain origin 3516. Schoenorchis micrantha Blume. Schizaeaceae. cultivated only 3533. Clausen. critically endangered 3507. Rubiaceae. Secamone elliptica R. Scindapsus pictus Hassk. naturalised 3525. Fabaceae.) Spring. Br. Triuridaceae. Apocynaceae. Gaertn. Schizaea dichotoma (L... Araceae. Scleria rugosa R.. Schradera morinda DC.) Alston. R. Salicaceae. Cyperaceae. extinct 3496. Scolopia macrophylla (W..F. Scirpodendron ghaeri (Gaertn.. common 3510. cultivated only 3536. Sedum rubrotinctum R. Gray. Orchidaceae. Sm. Rubiaceae. extinct 3500. Cyperaceae. Olacaceae. Schizaea digitata (L. casual 3493. Scrophulariaceae. Poaceae.. Schizaeaceae..) S. vulnerable 3521.. ex Jack) Danser. Crassulaceae.Chong et al.. cultivated only 3534. extinct 3488. extinct 3524. Cyperaceae. Br. weed of uncertain origin 3517. extinct 3512. casual 3497. Crassulaceae. Schizachyrium sanguineum (Retz.F. Scleropyrum pentandrum (Dennst. Schoenorchis secundiflora (Ridl. biflora.) Mabb. extinct 3515. common 3519.. extinct 3501.T.. Scleria oblata S.. extinct 3506. Cyperaceae.) Judz.) Gagnep. common 3514. Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. & A. Scleria poiformis Retz. Schizostachyum brachycladum Kurz. Crassulaceae. Sedum sexangulare L. critically endangered 3505. cultivated only 3535. ssp. Scleria purpurascens Steud. Schizostachyum jaculans Holttum. Cyperaceae. Araceae. Scoparia dulcis L. Poaceae. Sapindaceae. Triuridaceae. Cyperaceae. Malvaceae. endangered 3522. Schotia latifolia Jacq. Poaceae. Scleria corymbosa Roxb. Marantaceae. weed of uncertain origin 3502. Schleichera oleosa (Lour.T. Sciaphila tenella Blume. Blake. Cyperaceae. Cyperaceae. Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L. common 3528.. Santalaceae. Blake. Scleria levis Retz.) Sm.. Cyperaceae. cultivated only 3532. Cyperaceae.. Scleria ciliaris Nees.) J.) Poir. cultivated only 3504. Scurrula ferruginea (Roxb. endangered 3490.) Merr. Selaginella ciliaris (Retz. critically endangered 3529... Poaceae.. weed of uncertain origin 3520. Scyphiphora hydrophylacea C. Schizaeaceae. Smith. Scurrula parasitica L. Schradera membranacea (King) Puff. Crassulaceae. endangered 3526. Cyperaceae. Crassulaceae. Schizostachyum latifolium Gamble. Schumannianthus dichotomus (Roxb. Schizostachyum gracile (Munro) Holttum.) Palla ex A. cultivated only 3492.

critically endangered 3546. Selaginellaceae. cultivated only 3539. Pedaliaceae. casual 3560. cultivated only 3586. Selliguea heterocarpa Blume. Shorea collina Ridl. Sesuvium portulacastrum (L. Senna occidentalis (L.S. Fabaceae. Sesamum radiatum Schumach.) Pers. Fabaceae. naturalised 3561. Irwin & Barneby. Dipterocarpaceae. Dipterocarpaceae. Senna siamea (Lam. Senna pallida (Vahl) H. Ashton. Irwin & Barneby. cultivated only 79 .) H. cultivated only 3575. Irwin & Barneby. naturalised 3566. Dipterocarpaceae. Senna polyphylla (Jacq.. casual 3558. Dipterocarpaceae. Selaginella intermedia (Bl. vulnerable 3542. Arecaceae.) Link.. Senna hirsuta (L. cultivated only 3569. Dipterocarpaceae.S. Dipterocarpaceae.) L.) H.. & Grev. critically endangered 3576. cultivated only 3589. Sesbania grandiflora (L. cultivated only 3557. Fabaceae. Senna obtusifolia (L. Selaginella cuspidata (Link) Link. Senna surattensis (Burm.. Selaginellaceae. Shorea gibbosa Brandis.) H.) H. Shorea laevis Ridl.. vulnerable 3587.S. naturalised 3549. Polypodiaceae. Shorea bracteolata Dyer. vulnerable 3579. Selaginellaceae. cultivated only 3562. Senna sinqueana (Delile) Lock. Selaginella willdenowii (Desv. Selaginella mayeri Hieron. extinct 3578.. Shorea curtisii Dyer ex King ssp. Shorea macroptera Dyer ssp. curtisii. cultivated only 3540. Sesbania cannabina (Retz.) Spring. S. Irwin & Barneby. Shorea ciliata King. Shirakiopsis indica (Willd. cultivated only 3564. Irwin & Barneby.. cultivated only 3554.) Ten.) Thunb. cultivated only 3588. Fabaceae.. Shorea glauca King. Selaginellaceae. Fabaceae. Severinia buxifolia (Poir. Selaginella roxburghii (Hk. Schmitz. Fabaceae. Fabaceae. Selaginellaceae. vulnerable 3545. Poaceae. Shorea materialis Ridl. Serenoa repens (W. Pedaliaceae. naturalised 3571. cultivated only 3550. Setaria barbata (Lam. Shorea leprosula Miq. cultivated only 3541. Irwin & Barneby. cultivated only 3556.S.) H. Sesbania punicea (Cav.S. Irwin & Barneby. naturalised 3552.) Roxb. vulnerable 3585. Shorea acuminata Dyer. Fabaceae. Shorea macrophylla (de Vriese) P. Fabaceae.S. Fabaceae. Fabaceae. Fabaceae. Dipterocarpaceae. endangered 3543. Bartram) Small. Dipterocarpaceae. Dipterocarpaceae.) H. Fabaceae.) H. Irwin & Barneby. Dipterocarpaceae..) Roxb. critically endangered 3583. Senna pendula (Willd. Euphorbiaceae. Selaginellaceae. Setaria parviflora (Poir.) Benth. Dipterocarpaceae. Selaginellaceae. Fabaceae. Fabaceae.S. cultivated only 3559.) Baker. Dipterocarpaceae... Senna alata (L.) H. Senna multijuga (Rich.S. Dipterocarpaceae.) Kunth. & Thonn.) H. ex Kurz) Dyer.. Fabaceae. Rutaceae. cultivated only 3573. critically endangered 3581.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3538.S.S. Dipterocarpaceae.) Esser.. Shorea faquetiana Heim. common 3572. common 3570. Senna tora (L.. Senna fruticosa (Mill. Irwin & Barneby. vulnerable 3544.) H. Senna sulfurea (Collad.) Kerguélen. f. naturalised 3565. cultivated only 3568. Sesamum indicum L. Shorea gratissima (Wall. Fabaceae. cultivated only 3555. Irwin & Barneby. Aizoaceae. Shorea multiflora (Burck) Symington. cultivated only 3582. naturalised 3547. cultivated only 3580. naturalised 3567. critically endangered 3563. Poaceae.) Pers. Rubiaceae. cultivated only 3548. naturalised 3551. Fabaceae. macroptera. Senna spectabilis (DC. cultivated only 3577.. Selaginella erythropus (Mart.. Serianthes grandiflora Benth. Dipterocarpaceae. extinct 3574. Selaginella emmeliana F.S. Irwin & Barneby. cultivated only 3553. Dipterocarpaceae. Shorea maxima (King) Symington.) Spring. Fabaceae.) Spring. cultivated only 3584. Serissa japonica (Thunb.

Solanaceae.. critically endangered 3619. f.. exotic. Orchidaceae. Beauv. weed of uncertain origin 3603. critically endangered 3618.. & C. Melastomataceae.) Hiern.. Dipterocarpaceae. DC. Smilacaceae. Solanum sarmentosum Nees. Spathoglottis plicata Blume.. Sonerila moluccana Roxb. et al.. Sonneratia caseolaris (L. naturalised 3635. vulnerable 3616. critically endangered 3607. endangered 3594. critically endangered 3610. cultivated only 3598. endangered 3613. Sindora coriacea Maingay ex Prain. Smilax leucophylla Blume. Soejatmia ridleyi (Gamble) K. common 3617. DC. Araceae. Sida acuta Burm. Araceae. Dipterocarpaceae. cultivated only 3609. Dipterocarpaceae. Malvaceae. f.. Orchidaceae. Fabaceae. DC. ex A. Solanum torvum Sw. common 3641.Schum. ovalis. Shorea sumatrana (Sloot) Desch. Sinningia speciosa (Lodd. Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc. Spathoglottis unguiculata (Labill.) Schott. Lythraceae. Heim. Solanaceae. cultivated only 3628. Smilax calophylla Wall. f... 3590. cultivated only 3623. Dipterocarpaceae.Chong et al. weed of uncertain origin 3605. Shorea parvifolia Dyer. Solanaceae. Sindora wallichii Benth.. cultivated only 3639. naturalised 3626. Fabaceae. cultivated only 3636... Lythraceae. cultivated only 3597. Fabaceae. Shorea ochrophloia Strugnell ex Symington.. Dipterocarpaceae. Shorea palembanica Miq. Shorea platyclados Slooten ex Endert. Melastomataceae. critically endangered 3634.) Engl. weed of uncertain origin 3606. naturalised 3625. cultivated only 3627. cultivated only 3601. Sigesbeckia orientalis L. Asteraceae. Shorea pauciflora King. Solanaceae. Fabaceae. Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel. herb. critically endangered 3591. Malvaceae. Sloanea javanica Szysz.. Orchidaceae. cultivated only 3608. naturalised 3621. Wong. Smilax megacarpa A. cultivated only 3640. ex K.) Codd. Gesneriaceae.. Spathoglottis gracilis Rolfe ex Hook. common 3631.. Sonneratia alba Sm. cultivated only 3620. Sophora tomentosa L.. Dipterocarpaceae. DC. Spathoglottis kimballiana Hook.. Rhamnaceae. critically endangered 3633. Malvaceae. Poaceae. naturalised 3622. Shorea ovalis Blume ssp. Spathodea campanulata P.M. Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. Solanum americanum Miller. critically endangered 3632. critically endangered 3630. Orchidaceae. Sindora echinocalyx Prain.. Don. cultivated only 3599. critically endangered 3596. cultivated only 3637.. extinct 3615. cultivated only 3600. Lamiaceae. cultivated only 3624. Dipterocarpaceae. common 3604. Smilax setosa Miq. Shorea talura Roxb.) Rchb.. Sida cordifolia L. Sonerila heterostemon Naudin. critically endangered 3592.. cultivated only 3611. Solanum melongena L. Sida rhombifolia L. Shorea roxburghii G. Solanaceae. Shorea smithiana Symington. casual 80 . Dipterocarpaceae. Smilacaceae. Solanaceae. vulnerable 3595. Spathiphyllum cannifolium (Dryand. Lythraceae. Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal. Smilacaceae. Solanum wrightii Benth. critically endangered 3629. cultivated only 3593. Shorea seminis Slooten.. Smythea lanceata Summerh. cultivated only 3602. Smilacaceae. Fabaceae. Smilacaceae.. Poaceae. Solanaceae.. Solandra longiflora Tussac. Smilax myosotiflora A. Dipterocarpaceae. Shorea platycarpa F. Solanum mammosum L. Dipterocarpaceae. Dipterocarpaceae. Bignoniaceae. Sindora siamensis Miq. critically endangered 3612. Dipterocarpaceae. endangered 3614... f. Sonneratia ovata Back.. naturalised 3638. Elaeocarpaceae.

. Stemonuraceae.) Kurz. Sporobolus indicus (L. Steinchisma laxa (Sw.) Vahl.. Sphenodesme pentandra Jack. Stemonurus scorpioides Becc. Spatholobus ridleyi King... & Moritzi) Benth. Williams) C. Asteraceae. Verbenaceae. Spermacoce ocymoides Burm. Spermacoce latifolia Aubl. Stemodia verticillata (Mill.. naturalised 3650. common 3643. cultivated only 3687. naturalised 3682. Sterculia gilva Miq. f.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3642..) Veldk. Stemonurus malaccensis (Mast. Rubiaceae. Menispermaceae. major (Büse) Baaijens.. Br.) Vahl. ex Parkinson. Sporobolus tenuissimus (Schrank) Kuntze. Verbenaceae.) Pruski. Malvaceae. Spondias pinnata (J. critically endangered 3675.. naturalised 3671. f.. naturalised 3651. f. Stephania erecta Craib. critically endangered 3678.) Sprague. Sterculia apetala (Jacq. Araceae. Phengklai. Malvaceae.) Zuloaga. vulnerable 3693. Malvaceae.D. Clarke. Poaceae..) Holttum. Staurogyne setigera (Nees) Kuntze. Sphagneticola trilobata (L. & Schult.. Sterculia hamiltonii (Kuntze) Adelb.O. Stachytarpheta mutabilis (Jacq. cultivated only 3685. Spermacoce assurgens Ruiz & Pav.. critically endangered 3690. critically endangered 3692.) Sleum. Spatholobus maingayi King. Rubiaceae. extinct 3644. common 3664. weed of uncertain origin 3677. Thelypteridaceae. Spermacoce laevis Lam. f. Stephania capitata (Blume) Spreng. Sterculia ceramica R. Sphaerostephanos unitus (L. Stachytarpheta indica (L. Sphaerostephanos polycarpus (Blume) Copel. Br. weed of uncertain origin 3648. endangered 3668. Stenocarpus sinuatus Endl. Spatholobus ferrugineus (Zoll. cultivated only 81 . critically endangered 3683. Malvaceae. Stenochlaena palustris (Burm. Sporobolus indicus (L. naturalised 3649. cultivated only 3689. f. Spermacoce articularis L.) R. Anacardiaceae. Sporobolus virginicus (L.. Rosaceae.. Poaceae.. Forst. naturalised 3672. Rubiaceae. Adams. Stephanotis maingayi (Hook. cultivated only 3684. cultivated only 3688. Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze. Stemonuraceae. Malvaceae. Asteraceae. naturalised 3669. Proteaceae. Poaceae. Fabaceae. naturalised 3666. Poaceae. extinct 3673. Rubiaceae. Acanthaceae.) Vahl. cultivated only 3661. var. Lamiaceae..) Schleid. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.. weed of uncertain origin 3660. pyramidalis (P. Poaceae. Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Malvaceae. Acanthaceae. extinct 3653..) Veldk. cultivated only 3662.) R. Sterculia foetida L. Sphaerostephanos heterocarpus (Blume) Holttum. cultivated only 3659. Koenig ex L. naturalised 3676. Staurogyne griffithiana Kuntze. critically endangered 3645. weed of uncertain origin 3656. common 3663. cultivated only 3691. extinct 3686. Staurogyne kingiana C. Rubiaceae.. naturalised 3670. Sterculia lanceolata Blume var.) Bedd. Sporobolus indicus (L.. Spermacoce exilis (L. Thelypteridaceae. flaccidus (Roem.) Vahl. Sphaeranthus africanus L. critically endangered 3674.. Br. cultivated only 3680. Stephanotis floribunda Brongn. critically endangered 3679. Verbenaceae.) Kunth. common 3681. common 3654. Rubiaceae.) Pilger. Verbenaceae. Fabaceae. Stachyphrynium latifolium (Blume) K.I. Poaceae.) P. var. Plantaginaceae. casual 3665. weed of uncertain origin 3646. Malvaceae. Poaceae. f. common 3667. vulnerable 3655. Beauv. Spondias dulcis Sol. Sterculia cordata Blume. Spirodela polyrhiza (L.) H. Karst. Sterculia balanghas L. Apocynaceae. Blechnaceae. extinct 3658. naturalised 3647. Fabaceae.) R. Spiraea japonica L. Marantaceae. Br.B.. Sphaerocaryum malaccense (Trin. Anacardiaceae. coccinea (Jack) C. weed of uncertain origin 3652. Schum. Malvaceae.. Poaceae. var. Menispermaceae. naturalised 3657.. Thelypteridaceae. Acanthaceae.. Apocynaceae..

Strophanthus gratus (Wall.-Ham. Orchidaceae. Marantaceae. extinct 3702. Nesom. Strophanthus preussii Engl. Styracaceae. var. Stereosandra javanica Blume. & B. Strobilanthes crispus Blume. Symphyotrichum dumosum (L. ex G.) G. Olacaceae.) T. naturalised 3731. Sterculia parvifolia Roxb. ex G. & Pax. cultivated only 3708. cultivated only 3742. Malvaceae.) Corner.) Glassman. critically endangered 3734... Apocynaceae. cultivated only 3696.. Bergius. critically endangered 3703. Striga asiatica (L. Sterculia monosperma Vent. Strobilanthes dyeriana Mast. Arecaceae. Asteraceae. Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni.. Anacardiaceae. cultivated only 3711.) Jacq.. Ericaceae. cultivated only 3745. Bignoniaceae. Strongylodon macrobotrys A. Fabaceae.. cultivated only 3744. cultivated only 3706. Jeffrey. cultivated only 3715.) Baill. cultivated only 3737.. Malvaceae. Br. Strychnos axillaris Colebr.Don.) Baill. Loganiaceae. weed of uncertain origin 3713. vulnerable 3728. Streblus elongatus (Miq. Swietenia mahogani (L. vulnerable 3720. Orobanchaceae.B. extinct 3707. Sterculia macrophylla Vent.. Symplocaceae.. Moraceae. cultivated only 3698. cultivated only 3723. 3694. Love var.. Malvaceae.. Sterculia nobilis Sm. Acanthaceae. Strelitzia nicolai Regel & Körn. cultivated only 3740. Loganiaceae. extinct 3735. Stylosanthes humilis Kunth. Strophanthus singaporianus (Wall. cultivated only 3710. globally extinct 3730. Acanthaceae. critically endangered 3699. Styphelia malayana (Jack) Spr. Struchium sparganophorum (L.. casual 3738. Convolvulaceae.) Glassman. extinct 3725. Syagyrus romanzoffiana (Cham. Malvaceae. Styrax crotonoides C. Fabaceae. vulnerable 3741. Strophanthus caudatus (L. Strelitziaceae. Syagyrus schizophylla (Mart. cultivated only 3716. Strychnos maingayi C. Streblus ilicifolius (Vidal) Corner. Gray..) A. Strychnos ridleyi King & Gamble. Euphorbiaceae.. Loganiaceae. Sterculia oblongata R. Juss. Asteraceae. extinct 3733. Strelitzia reginae Aiton. Strombosia javanica Blume. Strobilanthes cusia (Nees) J. Swartzia pinnata (Vahl) Willd. Swintonia floribunda Griff.) Sw.. Styracaceae. ex D. Stigmaphyllon ciliatum (Lam. cultivated only 3739. Stictocardia tiliifolia (Desr. Sterculia rubiginosa Vent. Symphyotrichum laeve (L. Malvaceae.) Sond. cultivated only 3724.Chong et al. Acanthaceae.. Stereospermum fimbriatum (Wall. Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. Strombosia ceylanica Gardn. Asteraceae... Asteraceae. Apocynaceae. Stromanthe sanguinea (Hook. Fabaceae. laeve.L.. cultivated only 3697. cultivated only 3714. Strelitziaceae. & Hook. ex Dillwyn) Mabb.B. critically endangered 3695. Arecaceae. Fabaceae. critically endangered 3729. endangered 82 .. Apocynaceae. Clarke. cultivated only 3712. Swintonia schwenkii (T. Malvaceae. cultivated only 3704. benzoin. Juss.. Olacaceae.. Acanthaceae. Apocynaceae.J. Strobilanthes palawanensis Elm. vulnerable 3719. Moraceae. cultivated only 3701. Anacardiaceae. Strychnos ignatii P. vulnerable 3709. cultivated only 3721. Suregada multiflora (A. Stereospermum colais (Buch.Don) Gilg. & B. Swietenia macrophylla King. Don) DC. cultivated only 3705.B. critically endangered 3722. Stictocardia discolor Ootstr. Imlay.. cultivated only 3718. Styrax benzoin Dryand.. Meliaceae. vulnerable 3700. Malvaceae. cultivated only 3743.) Hallier f. critically endangered 3717. Symplocos adenophylla Wall. Love & D.) Kuntze.) C.) Kurz. Sterculia stipulata Korth. critically endangered 3736. Clarke. Malpighiaceae. Bignoniaceae. extinct 3727.. naturalised 3732. Meliaceae.. Convolvulaceae. naturalised 3726.) A. Loganiaceae.

& L. Sapotaceae. Myrtaceae. Hartley & L. Perry. Syzygium alliiligneum B. Parn. naturalised 3754. Syzygium campanulatum Korth. Myrtaceae.. Myrtaceae. Perry. Myrtaceae. Syzygium claviflorum (Roxb. f. Myrtaceae. extinct 3766. critically endangered 3793. Syzygium avene Miq.) Merr. Araceae. cultivated only 83 .R.M.) B. cultivated only 3784. ex C. Syzygium maingayi Chantaran.. & L. M. forte.) Craven & Biffin.. Myrtaceae. endangered 3753. vulnerable 3750. Syzygium cumini (L.) S. Synedrella nodiflora (L. Syzygium cinereum (Kurz) Chantaran. Myrtaceae. Hyland. Syzygium chloranthum (Duthie) Merr. Myrtaceae. conglomerata.M. Moore. Symplocaceae. Myrtaceae. Myrtaceae. cultivated only 3761.. Syzygium kunstleri (King) Bahadur & R. cultivated only 3779.. & L. Syzygium accuminatissimum (Blume) DC.. Asteraceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3746. critically endangered 3759. Syzygium conglomeratum (Duthie) I. Myrtaceae. Gaur. extinct 3773. Hyland ssp.. Syzygium malaccense (L. Symplocaceae. critically endangered 3792.. Syzygium attenuatum (Miq. naturalised 3755. Syzygium inophyllum DC. Sm. cultivated only 3764. & L. casual 3794. ex Duthie) Chantaran. Bailey) T. Myrtaceae. critically endangered 3770.M. endangered 3777. Syzygium flosculiferum (M. & Thonn. Syzygium glaucum (King) P. Myrtaceae. Adiantaceae.M. attenuatum var. critically endangered 3786. Perry. common 3768.) Siebold & Zucc. Muell.) Sreek. Syzygium leucoxylon Korth. Perry ssp. Symplocos rubiginosa Wall. Clarke. Syzygium grande (Wight) Walp. & J. Symplocos barringtonifolia Brand. & L. Myrtaceae.) Wall. extinct 3788. cultivated only 3763.Cowan & Cowan var. Myrtaceae. Synima macrophylla S. Perry. Syzygium borneense (Miq. critically endangered 3771. Myrtaceae. Parn. Myrtaceae. endangered 3760.) B. & J. extinct 3783. Syzygium lineatum (DC. Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach. Reynolds.M. Myrtaceae. Syzygium minutiflorum Miq. vulnerable 3781. Myrtaceae. Syzygium leptostemon (Korth. common 3791. Myrtaceae. Syzygium glabratum (DC. cultivated only 3757. critically endangered 3772. Turner var. attenuatum. & L. Symplocos odoratissima (Blume) Choisy ex Zoll. Myrtaceae. Myrtaceae. Myrtaceae..) Merr.M. Myrtaceae. Muell.M.. Symplocos celastrifolia Griff. critically endangered 3749.) Skeels.B. Syzygium aromaticum (L.M.G.M. Myrtaceae. cultivated only 3758.) Veldekamp. extinct 3751. Myrtaceae. & L.C. extinct 3780.) Merr. extinct 3747. Syzygium forte (F. Parn.M. Perry. Syzygium linocieroideum (King) I. & L. Symplocaceae.) Miq. extinct 3748.) Dandy. Sapindaceae. Cymodoceaceae. Myrtaceae.M. Muell.M.) Merr. Syzygium jambos (L. Syzygium fibrosum (F. Symplocaceae. ex DC. Symplocos fasciculata Zoll. ex A.) Alston. Syringodium isoetifolium (Aschers. Parn. Symplocaceae. Hend. Turner. Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour. Perry. endangered 3785. Myrtaceae.. Chantaranothai & J. Myrtaceae. Presl) J. Syzygium aqueum (Burm. naturalised 3774.. Hyland. Syzygium filiforme (Wall. Myrtaceae. endangered 3756. extinct 3752. cultivated only 3776. Myrtaceae.. cultivated only 3762. Myrtaceae.) Merr. Symplocaceae.) Gaertn. claviflorum.. extinct 3767. Myrtaceae. Syzygium duthieanum (King) Masam. extinct 3790. Perry. Syzygium incarnatum (Elmer) Merr. Symplocaceae. Myrtaceae. Syzygium antisepticum (Blume) Merr..T. Syngramma alismifolia (C.M.. Myrtaceae. Perry. Myrtaceae. casual 3787. common 3782. extinct 3778. cultivated only 3765..) Alston.) Daniell. extinct 3789. Syzygium angophoroides (F. filiforme. Perry. & L. & J.. Syzygium hemilampra (F. Syzygium griffithii (Duthie) Merr. extinct 3769. var. critically endangered 3775. Symplocos lucida (Thunb. Syngonium podophyllum Schott.

cultivated only 3832. subdecussatum. Tabernaemontana corymbosa Roxb. Myrtaceae.. cultivated only 3829. cultivated only 3817. Myrtaceae. Syzygium nervosum DC. casual 3833. 3795.) Standl. Myrtaceae. Hyland) Craven & Biffin.. Tacca plantaginea (Hance) Drenth. critically endangered 3811. Apocynaceae. Dioscoreaceae. Apocynaceae. Moore. Myrtaceae. critically endangered 3805. var. critically endangered 3816. Syzygium papillosum (Duthie) Merr. cultivated only 3836. cultivated only 3831.M.. extinct 3818. Tabebuia pallida (Lindl.) B. Hend. Syzygium pycnanthum Merr. Syzygium nemestrinum (M. critically endangered 3842.M.) Miers. Myrtaceae.) Merr.M. Myrtaceae.M. Cowan & Cowan var. Perry. Syzygium palembanicum Miq. Syzygium unipunctatum (B. Syzygium pseudoformosum (King) Merr. Myrtaceae. & L.) I. Hend. & L. ex DC. Bignoniaceae. Apocynaceae. Myrtaceae. Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq. vulnerable 3808. Apocynaceae. cultivated only 3838. Syzygium nigricans (King) Merr. Bignoniaceae. Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr.M.) Wall. Perry. Apocynaceae. Perry.. Syzygium pachyphyllum (Kurz) Merr. Bignoniaceae.. Turner. & Hook. Syzygium oblatum (Roxb. Chantaranothai & J. endangered 3835. Myrtaceae. Syzygium ngadimaniana (M. Hend.) G. Syzygium myrtifolium Walp. Syzygium scortechinii (King) P.M.) Kuntze. Bignoniaceae. critically endangered 3820. Hyland. Myrtaceae. Perry..) I.M. Syzygium singaporense (King) Airy Shaw. Tabernaemontana pauciflora Blume. Myrtaceae.. Dioscoreaceae.) DC. endangered 3800. Br. Syzygium pauper (Ridl. Bignoniaceae.) DC.) R.M. critically endangered 3796. endangered 3801. Myrtaceae. vulnerable 3821. Syzygium subdecussatum (Wall. Myrtaceae. Tabebuia chrysotricha (Mart. Dioscoreaceae. Tabebuia haemantha (Betero ex Spreng. critically endangered 3819. endangered 3798. vulnerable 3841. extinct 3797.. ex A. extinct 3809. cultivated only 3834. cultivated only 3827... Tacca chantrieri André. Syzygium rugosum Korth.M.) DC. Tabebuia heterophylla (DC. common T 3825. cultivated only 3824.) Standl. Myrtaceae.) I. Bignoniaceae. Tacca integrifolia Ker Gawl. f. cultivated only 3826. cultivated only 3799. scortechinii. & L. cultivated only 3837. Nicholson. ex Roem. Myrtaceae. & L. Perry. Syzygium syzygioides (Miq. Myrtaceae. Syzygium zeylanicum (L. Hyland) Craven & Biffin. Turner. & Schult. Syzygium urophyllum Merr. rugosum. Myrtaceae. cultivated only 3814.. critically endangered 3807. Myrtaceae. Myrtaceae.) Britton.M. ex Duthie) I. Muell. Myrtaceae.M. Myrtaceae.R.. Tabebuia ochracea (Cham. oblatum. Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. Bignoniaceae. ex Wall. Perry.. cultivated only 3828. Bignoniaceae.M. Turner var. Nicholson.. Turner.R..) Miq. Myrtaceae. Perry. critically endangered 3813. Syzygium pyrifolium (Blume) DC. Myrtaceae. Tabebuia aurea (Silva Manso) Benth. Myrtaceae. Turner. cultivated only 3840. critically endangered 3803.Parn. Myrtaceae.) I. ex S. extinct 3823. Parn.. Myrtaceae. endangered 3806. Syzygium pseudocrenulatum (M. Tacca leontopetaloides (L. Tabernaemontana divaricata (L. critically endangered 3802. Myrtaceae.R. Dioscoreaceae.M. cultivated only 3822. Syzygium muelleri (Miq. Syzygium pendens (Duthie) I. & L.Chong et al. Tabebuia rosea (Bertol. & L. Syzygium pustulatum (Duthie) Merr. Syzygium resa (B.Chantaranothai & J. critically endangered 3812.M. Myrtaceae. endangered 3815. Syzygium wilsonii (F.. cultivated only 84 .. cultivated only 3830. critically endangered 3810. & L. Tabernaemontana macrocarpa Jack. vulnerable 3839. Tabernaemontana pachysiphon Stapf. Syzygium ridleyi (King) P. Bignoniaceae. Myrtaceae. Myrtaceae. vulnerable 3804. Turner. Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl) G. var.

) Fryxell. common 3884. f. Terminalia phellocarpa King. cultivated only 3882. Tarenna adpressa (King) Merr.) K.. Terminalia catappa L. endangered 3868..) Holttum. Talinum fruticosum (L. critically endangered 3857. Terminalia pyrifolia Kurz. f. B. Combretaceae.) Engl. Dryopteridaceae. Asteraceae. cultivated only 3885. & Grev. critically endangered 3861. singaporeana Holttum. Loranthaceae. critically endangered 3878. Pentaphylacaceae. Tephrosia grandiflora (Aiton) Pers.) Juss. cultivated only 3889..) Seidenf. Combretaceae. cultivated only 3863. Taeniophyllum pusillum (Willd.. Taeniophyllum filiforme J. Terminalia subspathulata King... Tectona grandis L. Smith. critically endangered 3880. Chev.) B. Lomariopsidaceae. Teratophyllum ludens (Fee) Holttum. Tarenna odorata (Roxb. Tapeinochilos ananassae (Hassk. Pentaphylacaceae.. Terminalia belliricia (Gaertn. cultivated only 3883.. Bignoniaceae. critically endangered 3879. common 3866.) Danser. Orchidaceae. cultivated only 3864. Tarenna stellulata (Hook.. Tectaria singaporeana (Hook. naturalised 3849. Teijsmanniodendron coriaceum (C. Rubiaceae. Fabaceae. Tectaria griffithii (Baker) C. Combretaceae. extinct 3844. Terminalia muelleri Benth.) Bakh.. extinct 3892. Orchidaceae.) Copel.. critically endangered 3893.. Costaceae.. critically endangered 3845. naturalised 3877. Rubiaceae. Dryopteridaceae. Robinson. critically endangered 3854. & Ormerod.) Copel. Tectaria barberi (Hook.J. Combretaceae. critically endangered 3858. Terminalia sericea Burch. endangered 3865. Chr. Tectaria angulata (Willd. Terminalia kaernbachii Warb. Terminalia brassii Exell. Lomariopsidaceae. cultivated only 3876. ex King) Ridl..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3843. Lamiaceae. Combretaceae.f. Teratophyllum aculeatum (Blume) Mett. Ternstroemia corneri H. cultivated only 3853. extinct 85 . Bignoniaceae. critically endangered 3881. endangered 3869.. Tarenna mollis (Wall. f. Fabaceae. Tephrosia noctiflora Bojer ex Baker. Terminalia ivorensis A..) C. Combretaceae. cultivated only 3848. Taenitis blechnoides (Willd.) Sw. Tectaria vasta (Blume) Copel.) C. common 3846. Telosma cordata (Burm. cultivated only 3875. critically endangered 3888. Fabaceae. Combretaceae. cultivated only 3847. Teratophyllum rotundifoliatum (R. Portulacaceae..) Roxb. endangered 3867. & V.. critically endangered 3855. cultivated only 3887. Rubiaceae. Tagetes patula L.) Gaertn. Tarenna fragrans (Nees) K. critically endangered 3873. Malvaceae. cultivated only 3890.) Holttum.) Lindl. Tamarindus indica L. ex DC.) Ridl.L. Rubiaceae. Tarenna costata (Miq. Tecoma stans (L. Chr. Dennstaedtiaceae. Pteridaceae.. Portulacaceae. Combretaceae. Dryopteridaceae. var. Dryopteridaceae. Bonap. Taxillus chinensis (DC.. Pentaphylacaceae. Clarke) Kosterm.) C. ex Kunth. Lomariopsidaceae. cultivated only 3886. Combretaceae.. Tapeinidium pinnatum (Cav. Keng. casual 3851.) Merr.) Rich. common 3850. extinct 3859. Rubiaceae.L. Rubiaceae.) B.. Lamiaceae.. Ternstroemia wallichiana (Griff.. critically endangered 3891. Ternstroemia penangiana Choisy. Dryopteridaceae.. extinct 3874. Pentaphylacaceae. Schum. Taxodiaceae. critically endangered 3860. ex Hook... common 3870.. Tarenna ridleyi (Pears. critically endangered 3894. Lamiaceae. Dryopteridaceae. cultivated only 3872. Terminalia calamansanai (Blanco) Rolfe. Dryopteridaceae. Rubiaceae. Robinson.Chr. Combretaceae. Talinum paniculatum (Jacq. Ternstroemia bancana Miq. vulnerable 3852. Tectaria semipinnata (Roxb. Tectaria grandidentata (Ces. endangered 3871.V. endangered 3856.. Taxodium distichum (L.Morton.. cultivated only 3862.) Juss. Tecoma capensis (Thunb.. Combretaceae. Apocynaceae.) Merr. Talipariti tiliaceum (L.. Teijsmanniodendron pteropodum (Miq.

extinct 3907. Orchidaceae. Acanthaceae. Thrixspermum trichoglottis (Hook. & Schult.Chong et al. Thunbergia erecta (Benth.) Taub.) Holtt. naturalised 3936. Poaceae. cultivated only 3939. Dilleniaceae.. Orchidaceae. Tetrastigma lawsoni (King) Burk. Thelasis pygmaea (Griff. Aristolochiaceae. Dilleniaceae. common 3920. Thuarea involuta (G. extinct 3914.) K.. Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. Iwats.. vulnerable 3896. Orchidaceae. ex Hook. Acanthaceae.) K. Poaceae. cultivated only 3905. cultivated only 3910.. Camus. Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benn. Fabaceae. Thunbergia fragrans Roxb. ex Spreng. D. Theobroma cacao L.. cultivated only 3926.. Malvaceae. Thelypteris truncata (Poir. & Panz. cultivated only 3937. Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb. Thelasis micrantha (Brongn. critically endangered 3904. Tetracera indica (Christm. f.. naturalised 86 . common 3917. Tetrastigma dichotomum Planch. Thrixspermum centipeda Lour.) Asch.) Alston ex Mabb.) Hack. Dilleniaceae.. & Thonn. Thunbergia battiscombei Turril.) Rchb.. Schum.. Thunbergia kirkii Hook. extinct 3943. Orchidaceae. Aristolochiaceae. Vitaceae.f. Thelasis carinata Blume. cultivated only 3909. casual 3941.. Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst.. Schum. Vitaceae. Thalia dealbata Fraser ex Roscoe. Acanthaceae. Dilleniaceae. Orchidaceae. Apocynaceae..) Honda. cultivated only 3919. Thrixspermum ridleyanum Schltr.f. f. Thevetia peruviana (Pers. Thrixspermum amplexicaule (Blume) Rchb. Thottea dependens (Planch. ex Roem. Tetracera loureiri Pierre ex Craib. extinct 3931. globally extinct 3938. Thottea grandiflora Rottb. vulnerable 3901. Thismia fumida Ridl.. Tetracera akara (Burm.f. f. Dilleniaceae.) Klotsch. Vitaceae. Orchidaceae. Marantaceae. extinct 3923.J.. Thymophylla tenuiloba DC.. Orchidaceae. cultivated only 3944. Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims. 3895. Tetracera macrophylla Wall. ex Hornem.) Seusseng. Dilleniaceae. Jacks. extinct 3928. extinct 3902. Acanthaceae.) A. vulnerable 3898... Thelypteridaceae.) Merr. Thismiaceae.) Benth. extinct 3913. Marantaceae. extinct 3930.. vulnerable 3915. Sm.) K. Thrixspermum acuminatissimum (Blume) Rchb. Thespesia populnea (L.. Themeda arguens (L. Tetrastigma curtisii (Ridl. ex Schult.) Sol. casual 3945..) T. common 3899. critically endangered 3906. ex Hook.. Br. Thrinax parviflora Sw.. cultivated only 3927..) Merr...f... Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb.f. Arecaceae. endangered 3897. Malvaceae. naturalised 3940. extinct 3932. Acanthaceae. Arecaceae. Thismia aseroe Becc. Thalia geniculata L. Thrixspermum calceolus (Lindl. Thyrsostachys siamensis Gamble. critically endangered 3934. Thysanolaena latifolia (Roxb. Poaceae. Poaceae.. extinct 3924.. Acanthaceae. Poaceae. Tetracera arborescens Jack. Tetracera fagifolia Blume. Acanthaceae. Orchidaceae. cultivated only 3900. Acanthaceae. ex B. critically endangered 3908. Orchidaceae. casual 3911... extinct 3922. Asteraceae. Thunbergia dasychlamys Bremek. cultivated only 3918. critically endangered 3929. Thrinax radiata Lodd. Anderson. cultivated only 3903. Thrixspermum scopa (Rchb. extinct 3933. Marantaceae. cultivated only 3921. & Thoms. Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schumach. extinct 3912. f.) Lindl. vulnerable 3925. Forst) R. Tetramerista glabra Miq. & Schult...f. Orchidaceae. weed of uncertain origin 3916. Malvaceae. Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. cultivated only 3942. Tetrameristaceae..) Kuntze... Vitaceae.. Thismiaceae. ex Corrêa. Hydrocharitaceae. Themeda villosa (Poir. common 3935.) J.

) Blume. Trigoniastrum hypoleucum Miq.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3946. extinct 3965... Hymenophyllaceae. cultivated only 3968. Christ.) H. Euphorbiaceae.. cultivated only 3962.. Torenia polygonoides Benth. cultivated only 3979. Cannabaceae. Trichosanthes wawraei Cogn.f. Iridaceae. Trichotosia vestita (Lindl. Arg. extinct 3974.. cultivated only 3971. endangered 87 . Apocynaceae. Trevesia burckii Boerl. Euphorbiaceae.) Kraenzl.) Cogn. Toona sinensis (A. Trichilia emetica Vahl.) Kraenzl. Lythraceae.. Timonius finlaysonianus (Wall. Meliaceae.. cultivated only 3959. critically endangered 3992. endangered 3982. & Thomson... Araliaceae. Moraceae.) Kraenzl. Menispermaceae. casual 3956. f. vulnerable 3985. Bromeliaceae... Cucurbitaceae. Tournefortia tetrandra Blume. Menispermaceae.. Arecaceae. cultivated only 3948.. Rubiaceae. common 3953. Tithonia diversifolia (Helms. naturalised 3989. endangered 3955. Fourn.. Trigonostemon malaccanus Müll. Toechima erythrocarpum Radlk. Bromeliaceae..) M. critically endangered 3977. Trichotosia velutina (Lodd. cultivated only 3967. Trimezia martinicensis (Jacq. extinct 3991.. Sapindaceae. critically endangered 3951. Commelinaceae. Timonius wallichianus (Korth. Trichomanes motleyi Bosch (Bosch). common 3978. critically endangered 3995. Trema angustifolia (Planch. endangered 3981. vulnerable 3984. cultivated only 3970. ex Lindl. Hymenophyllaceae. Cannabaceae. Melastomataceae. cultivated only 3972. endangered 3980. Triadica cochinchinensis Lour. ex Bosse.) Cogn. f. Koch. Trigonostemon heteranthus Baill. f. Cucurbitaceae. cultivated only 3949. & Thoms. Trigonopleura malayana Hook. f.. Apocynaceae. Timonius wrayi King & Gamble. Tibouchina semidecandra (Schrank & Mart.. Rubiaceae. Euphorbiaceae. Don) Hook.) Herb. Toechima daemelianum Radlk. Trichotosia gracilis (Hook. Roem. Hymenophyllaceae. critically endangered 3993.) Hook. extinct 3988. f. Trigoniaceae. Rubiaceae. Tillandsia usneoides (L. cultivated only 3963. Asteraceae.. R. Triomma malaccensis Hook.. Berol. Gray. Tridax procumbens L. common 3994.f. Linderniaceae. Sapindaceae. Trema tomentosa (Roxb.. Orchidaceae. common 3975. Euphorbiaceae... endangered 3990. Commelinaceae. common 3976. critically endangered 3957. Trigonachras acuta (Hiern) Radlk. Trichosanthes celebica Cogn. Cannabaceae. Commelinaceae.. Orchidaceae. Burseraceae.. Fabaceae. Tinospora macrocarpa Diels. Boraginaceae.) L. Trema cannabina Lour. Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D. Trachycarpus takil Becc. Rubiaceae. critically endangered 3952. Trichomanes sublimbatum Mull. Tillandsia cyanea Linden ex K. Orchidaceae. Hunt. Trigonostemon villosus Hook. Tradescantia spathacea Sw. extinct 3966. Euphorbiaceae. Meliaceae.. cultivated only 3947. Cucurbitaceae. Tipuana tipu (Benth. naturalised 3996. cultivated only 3958.. ex Trec. cultivated only 3960. Menispermaceae. Asteraceae.. cultivated only 3973. Trachelospermum asiaticum Nakai. ex G. Melastomataceae. Trichosanthes wallichiana Wight. Juss. Tinospora crispa (L. cultivated only 3950. Timonius flavescens (Jack) Baker.. Hara..) A. Tibouchina urvilleana (DC... Trapa natans L. ex DC. Tinomiscium petiolare Miers ex Hook. Trichomanes mindorense H..) Kuntze.) Valeton. Sapindaceae. Toxocarpus griffithii Decne. cultivated only 3969. Linderniaceae. extinct 3987. Treculia africana Decne. weed of uncertain origin 3964. extinct 3954. vulnerable 3983. extinct 3986. cultivated only 3961. Torenia fournieri Linden ex E. Tradescantia zebrina hort.

Myrtaceae. cultivated only 4001. f. Uncaria sinensis (Oliv. Tylophora indica (Burm.) Roxb. acida. cultivated only 4040. var.. Muell.T. Polygonaceae. Mey. f. Turraea breviflora Ridl. extinct 4021. cultivated only 4006.) Peter G. naturalised 4018. endangered 4010. Moraceae.. glabrata (Blume) Ridsdale. Malvaceae.T. Tulbaghia violacea Harv... Tylophora squarrosa Ridl... naturalised 4036. Apocynaceae. Turneraceae.T. Tristaniopsis laurina (Sm. Waterh. Typha angustifolia L. Tropidia curculigoides Lindl. naturalised 4026. Myrtaceae. Poaceae. Triplaris cumingiana Fisch. Uraria crinita (L.... extinct 4033. Annonaceae. Rubiaceae... Uncaria lanosa Wall..) Desv. Orchidaceae. Turneraceae.. naturalised 4012. Uncaria acida (Hunt. naturalised 4011. naturalised 4019. Uncaria cordata (Lour. Araceae. endangered 4035.. naturalised 4030. Myrtaceae. Waterh. Turnera ulmifolia L. Trivalvaria macrophylla (Blume) Miq. Polygonaceae. Rubiaceae. Don) Benth. Fabaceae. extinct 88 . Waterh. Apocynaceae. Wilson & J. Myrtaceae. weed of uncertain origin 4029. Rubiaceae. Rubiaceae.) Peter G. Apocynaceae. cultivated only 4004. Uncaria callophylla Blume ex Korth. cultivated only 3999. cultivated only U 4031. cultivated only 3998. Waterh. Polygonaceae.A.) Merr.. critically endangered 4020. Urceola lucida (Wall. extinct 4039. endangered 4042. Br. endangered 4007. Araceae. var. extinct 4013. 3997. Malvaceae. Uncaria roxburghiana Korth. Apocynaceae.) Peter G.) Ridsdale. Malpighiaceae. Rubiaceae. cultivated only 4027.) Schott. ex G. Wilson & J. Myrtaceae. Staphyleaceae. critically endangered 4038. Typhaceae.. Wilson & J. & C. weed of uncertain origin 4028. cultivated only 4005. ex DC. Triphasia trifolia (Burm. Turnera aurantiaca Benth.. Rich. Alliaceae. Meliaceae. naturalised 4041. Turneraceae.Chong et al. Araceae. f. Triplaris weigeltiana Kuntze.T. Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd. Trophis scandens Hook. critically endangered 4024. Rubiaceae.) Merr. Wilson.. Tripsacum dactyloides (L.. Uncaria gambir (W. Typhonium trilobatum (L.. Wilson & J.. cultivated only 4017.) L. Typhonium roxburghii Schott.) Merr. extinct 4015. cultivated only 4016... cultivated only 4000. extinct 4025. Apocynaceae. var. Tristaniopsis beccarii (Ridl.. Tristaniopsis whiteana (Griff. Myrtaceae..) Peter G.T.) P. Tristellateia australasiae A. Tristaniopsis merguensis (Griff. Typhaceae. cultivated only 4022. Typhonodorum lindleyanum Schott... Turnera subulata Sm. Rutaceae.) Peter G. Rubiaceae. Rubiaceae. cultivated only 4003.) Blume. Wilson & J..) Peter G. & Arn. Tylophora flexuosa R.. Triumfetta tomentosa Bojer. critically endangered 4008.) Raf. endangered 4009. Tristaniopsis obovata (R. cultivated only 4002. ex Kurz... Turraea obtusifolia Hochst. Waterh. Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq.) Havil. critically endangered 4043.. Uncaria longiflora (Poir. Waterh. Wilson & J. Hunter) Roxb. Uncaria attenuata Korth. extinct 4032. extinct 4034. Meliaceae. critically endangered 4037. Commelinaceae. Tristaniopsis exiliflora (F.. common 4023.T. Rubiaceae. pteropoda (Miq. Br.. cultivated only 4014. Araceae. Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk. Triplaris americana L.. Urceola brachysepala Hook. Typha latifolia L. Urceola elastica Roxb.. Tripogandra multiflora (Sw. Apocynaceae.

Vallaris glabra (L. Annonaceae. weed of uncertain origin 4047. Dipterocarpaceae. vulnerable 4087. vulnerable 4055. cultivated only 4093. Wendl. Utricularia minutissima Vahl. Nguyen. f.) T. Urophyllum griffithianum (Wight) Hook. Urochloa glumaris (Trin. Vaginularia trichoidea Fée. Vatica oblongifolia Hook.. Orb. Dipterocarpaceae. vulnerable 4066.. ex King & Gamble. ex A. Uvaria grandiflora (Lesch.. weed of uncertain origin 4046.) J. Ericaceae. Orchidaceae. extinct 4054.D. Lentibulariaceae. Ericaceae. extinct 4065. Ventilago malaccensis Ridl. Uvaria leptopoda (King) R. Dipterocarpaceae. Uvaria lobbiana Hook. Lentibulariaceae.. Rhamnaceae. Vaccinium littoreum Miq. Dipterocarpaceae. weed of uncertain origin 4059.. Utricularia uliginosa Vahl. Vanilla planifolia Andrews.) Willd. Rubiaceae. Vernonia patula (Aiton) Merr. Urceola torulosa Hook. vulnerable 4050.. & Thoms. Apocynaceae. Uvaria pauci-ovulata Hook. endangered 4045.. critically endangered 4051.. extinct 4092. Arecaceae. Lentibulariaceae. Nymphaeaceae.. Vatica ridleyana Brandis.. Lentibulariaceae. Ericaceae. & Thoms.. weed of uncertain origin 4090.) Roxb.. DC. Urophyllum trifurcum Pears. Vernonia arborea (L. f. Veitchia joannis H.. Urophyllum macrophyllum Korth. cultivated only 4077. ex Blume) Korth. Asteraceae.. casual 4089. common 4064. cultivated only 4080.) Kuntze. extinct 4056.. Uvaria cordata (Dunal) Alston. Viburnum sambucinum Blume. vulnerable 4052. Annonaceae. Vernonia elliptica DC.) Veldkamp. Uvaria hirsuta Jack. Urophyllum hirsutum (Wight) Hook.. extinct 4063. f. Utricularia aurea Lour. Rubiaceae. extinct 4062.f.Q. Asteraceae. cultivated only 4078. Victoria cruziana A. Verschaffeltia splendida H. extinct 4073.. extinct 4071. Urophyllum blumeanum (Wight) Hook. cultivated only 4084. Poaceae.. vulnerable 4076. weed of uncertain origin 4049. Vaccinium acuminatissimum Miq. Utricularia bifida L.. Annonaceae. Annonaceae. Urochloa subquadrifida (Trin. Urophyllum arboreum (Reinw.. weed of uncertain origin 4060. Vittariaceae. ex Hook.. weed of uncertain origin 4061. Wendl. critically endangered 4068. Lentibulariaceae. Rubiaceae.. Victoria amazonica (Poepp. Vatica pauciflora Blume. Rubiaceae. Nymphaeaceae. Malvaceae. Uvaria curtisii King. Annonaceae. Dipterocarpaceae. Utricularia gibba L. endangered 4086.) R. Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. Webster. Dipterocarpaceae. extinct 4072. critically endangered 4081.E. ex DC..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 4044. f. vulnerable 4067. Rubiaceae. Lentibulariaceae. Vatica maingayi Dyer. extinct 4069. critically endangered V 4070. Vatica umbonata Burck. critically endangered 4083. f. Urophyllum streptopodium Wall.D. Poaceae. f. cultivated only 4085. cultivated only 4075. Utricularia punctata Wall... Vernonia cinerea (L. cultivated only 4091. Arecaceae. weed of uncertain origin 4058.. f. Lentibulariaceae. weed of uncertain origin 4088. Rubiaceae. Urena lobata L. f. Poaceae. Asteraceae. weed of uncertain origin 4057. Adoxaceae. Vanilla griffithii Rchb. Sowerby. endangered 4053. extinct 4074. Utricularia caerulea L. critically endangered 4079. Dipterocarpaceae. Apocynaceae. Annonaceae. Fries. Asteraceae. Rubiaceae..) Less.. Annonaceae. Urochloa mutica (Forssk. cultivated only 4082.C. Orchidaceae.. Vatica heteroptera Symington. naturalised 4048. cultivated only 89 . Vatica rassak Blume.

f. Apocynaceae. f. Viscum articulatum Burm. ex Benn. cultivated only 4098. Vigna racemosa (G. Willughbeia tenuiflora Dyer ex Hook... Washingtonia filifera (Linden ex André) H. extinct 4111. Thymelaeaceae. f. Vitex negundo L.A. common 4107. critically endangered 4135. Orchidaceae. Wodyetia bifurcata A. Wrightia antidysenterica (L.. Xanthophyllum wrayi King. endangered 4137. Apocynaceae... Lamiaceae. Wrightia religiosa (Teijsm. Lamiaceae... endangered 4134.B.. Lamiaceae. Polygalaceae. Lamiaceae.. Apocynaceae. extinct W 4112.. Arecaceae. Santalaceae. vulnerable 4136.K. Vigna marina (Burm. endangered 4140.. Santalaceae. & Binn. f. Polygalaceae.. Whitfieldia elongata (P. Xanthophyllum stipitatum Benn. Orchidaceae. naturalised 4097.Chong et al.) C. Vittaria elongata Sw. Vitex pinnata L. Apocynaceae. Viscum ovalifolium Wall. Wikstroemia ridleyi Gamble. Waltheria indica L... Araceae. Vittariaceae. Thymelaeaceae. Xanthophyllum affine Korth.. Xanthophyllum obscurum Benn. Vrydagzynea albida (Blume) Blume. Vigna unguiculata (L.. casual X 4130. Vitex gamosepala Griff. cultivated only 4116. common 4100. extinct 90 . Xanthophyllum griffithii Hook.. ex Hook. Polygalaceae. Apocynaceae.. cultivated only 4127. Myrtaceae. ssp. extinct 4123..) Benth.) B. Wrightia dubia (Sims) Spreng.. vulnerable 4141. Polygalaceae. Irvine. Wendl. f. 4094. common 4139. Polygalaceae. Lamiaceae. Beauv.. weed of uncertain origin 4126. Orchidaceae..) R.. casual 4131. Xanthophyllum eurhynchum Miq.) Walp. Vriesea splendens (Brongn. erectum Meijden. cultivated only 4117. Fabaceae. Apocynaceae. Clarke. Apocynaceae.. Willughbeia edulis Roxb. Mey. Wolffia globosa (Roxb. weed of uncertain origin 4113. Polygalaceae. Hyland. critically endangered 4129. extinct 4110. Polygalaceae. & Dalziel. Vinca minor L. Bromeliaceae. Xanthium inaequilaterum DC. cultivated only 4118. Vrydagzynea tristriata Ridl. Vitex vestita Wall. Waterhousea floribunda (F.. Willughbeia flavescens Dyer ex Hook.. Don) Hutch. naturalised 4119. Malvaceae. Washingtonia robusta H. Willughbeia grandiflora Dyer ex Hook. cultivated only 4128. Arecaceae. critically endangered 4102.) Merr. Vittariaceae. Vrydagzynea lancifolia Ridl. Asteraceae. Xanthophyllum rufum Benn. critically endangered 4101.. critically endangered 4124. Vittaria ensiformis Sw. f. Fabaceae. endangered 4138. Polygalaceae. cultivated only 4106. cultivated only 4109. Xanthophyllum discolor Chodat. common 4095. Arecaceae.. common 4108. Vitaceae.. common 4099.) Hartog & Plas.) Markgraf. cultivated only 4125. extinct 4121. cultivated only 4114. Apocynaceae. critically endangered 4122. cultivated only 4096.) Lem. Polygalaceae. f. Vitis vinifera L.. common 4103. critically endangered 4105... Fabaceae. Wendl. Vitex trifolia L.. ex DC. Muell. Br. extinct 4120. Wikstroemia indica C. ex Schau. Apocynaceae.. cultivated only 4115. casual 4104. Wrightia laevis Hook.. Apocynaceae. Polygalaceae. Acanthaceae. Xanthophyllum ellipticum Korth. Willughbeia angustifolia (Miq. endangered 4132.. Xanthophyllum vitellinum (Blume) Dietr. critically endangered 4133. Xanthophyllum amoenum Chodat. Polygalaceae.

Xylopia caudata Hook. cultivated only 4169. ex Hook.. ovoideum Holttum. F. Zamiaceae.J. Sm. endangered 4181. Amaryllidaceae. Zingiber officinale Roscoe.D.) L. Zephyranthes candida (Lindl. vulnerable 4157. Zamia fufuracea L.. Zornia diphylla (L.D. cultivated only 4152. Arecaceae. f. Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb. xylocarpa. Rhamnaceae. weed of uncertain origin 4162. Agavaceae. Xyridaceae. common 4158.) Benth. endangered 4185... cultivated only Z 4166.) Hook. et al. Xyridaceae. cultivated only 4168. & Thoms... casual 4175. ex Hook. endangered 4155.. Xanthorrhoea glauca D. Rhamnaceae.. Convolvulaceae. Xanthostemon chrysanthus (F. cultivated only 4144. Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lam. Zephyranthes rosea Lindl. Xanthorrhoeaceae..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 4142. Zamioculcas zamiifolia (Lodd.) Mabb. f. vulnerable 4183. Myrtaceae.. Xylocarpus granatum J. cultivated only 4173. Meliaceae.T. Francis.) Engl. cultivated only 4174. Francis) L.. Zingiber puberulum Ridl..) Taub.. cultivated only 4172.S.) D. Rhamnaceae. Koenig. Ziziphus calophylla Wall.. Zingiberaceae. critically endangered 4150. Olacaceae. critically endangered 4159. Asteraceae. Zephyranthes citrina Baker... Meliaceae.. Orchidaceae.. Sapindaceae. naturalised 91 . Amaryllidaceae.. Rutaceae. common 4170. ex Hook. Haemodoraceae. Youngia japonica (L. Xanthostemon youngii C. var. cultivated only 4167. Xiphidium caeruleum Aubl. critically endangered 4184. Ziziphus elegans Wall. common 4148. Annonaceae. Yucca gloriosa L. cultivated only 4153. ex B. critically endangered 4177. Zamiaceae. naturalised 4164.. casual 4182. Muell. tridentata.. Xylopia magna Maing.. Xylopia fusca Maing. Xanthorrhoea preissii Endl. f... Annonaceae. Annonaceae. Bedford. Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Xylocarpus rumphii (Kostel.) Pers. Myrtaceae. cultivated only 4186. cultivated only 4187. common 4154.D. Zingiber griffithii Baker. endangered 4179.) Wight & Arn. Zea mays L. Zeuxine clandestina Blume. Jacks.) Herb. Roem. & Thoms. f. cultivated only 4147. White & W. Myrtaceae. Amaryllidaceae.. Ziziphus horsfieldii Miq.. critically endangered 4149.. common 4151..) Sm. Xylopia ferruginea (Hook. Xyris complanata R. var.) Schltr. Xerospermum noronhianum (Blume) Blume. Rhamnaceae...H. Zeuxine gracilis (Breda) Blume. & Thoms.. common 4161. Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. cultivated only 4189. Xylopia malayana Hook. Br. Yucca aloifolia L. Xanthorrhoeaceae..T. White & W.) DC. Austin & Staples ssp. Xyris pauciflora Willd. Fabaceae. cultivated only 4145. Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb. f. Zingiberaceae. cultivated only 4165. cultivated only 4180. Xerospermum laevigatum Radlk. Fabaceae.f. cultivated only 4143. Zombia antillarum (Descourt. Agavaceae. Zephyranthes carinata Herb. f. cultivated only 4171. Araceae. Meliaceae. Ximenia americana L. critically endangered 4156.f.) DC.. critically endangered 4176.) Mill. extinct Y 4163. Zingiber zerumbet (L. cultivated only 4146. Poaceae. Zingiberaceae. f. Rhamnaceae. Amaryllidaceae. extinct 4178.. Rhamnaceae. Annonaceae. critically endangered 4160. Ziziphus oenoplia (L. Annonaceae. & Thoms. Xenostegia tridentata (L. Zingiberaceae. Zeuxine strateumatica (L. Orchidaceae. Xanthostemon verticillatus (C. Orchidaceae. & Thoms.) M. Sapindaceae. Bailey. extinct 4188.. Zamia pumila L. & Thoms.

herb. epiphyte. native.) Merr..) Spring.) Spring. exotic...) Trevis.. ex Thiele. vulnerable FILICINOPHYTA Adiantaceae 16. f. native. common 4192. C. vulnerable 24. exotic. exotic. common Selaginellaceae 7. extinct 5. 4190. Selaginella intermedia (Bl.) Spring. native. herb.) Rothm. vulnerable 15. Huperzia phlegmaria (L. climber. Poaceae.. herb. native. extinct. herb.. Syngramma alismifolia (C. cultivated only PART 2 SPECIES LIST BY PHYLA AND FAMILIES Each entry consists firstly of its phylum. cultivated only 23. Schmitz. vulnerable 13. Forst. endangered 4. Adiantum hispidulum Sw. endangered 92 . endangered 17. species name. climber. extinct 22. climber. Selaginella ciliaris (Retz. herb. Presl. Presl) J. exotic.. extinct 6. critically endangered 8. extinct 2. native. Selaginella emmeliana F. epiphyte. Chambers. Selaginella mayeri Hieron. native. climber. cultivated only 21. Adiantum fructuosum Spreng. ex Poir. herb. herb. 3. native. Zoysia matrella (L. native. Selaginella argentea (Wall. herb. The synonym(s) of the recent literature are provided for selected species. Forst. & Grev. herb. exotic. naturalised 26. family. Adiantum stenochlamys Baker. herb. naturalised 18.) Pic. Poaceae. Adiantum trapeziforme L. Huperzia carinata (Desv. native. naturalised 20.... 5) then status in Singapore based on Table 2 (p. Selaginella cuspidata (Link) Link. climber. Adiantum latifolium Lam. exotic. native.. endangered 14. herb. Adiantum raddianum C. Pityrogramma calomelanos (L. epiphyte.. epiphyte. exotic.) Baker. Selaginella willdenowii (Desv. endangered Aspleniaceae 27. author name(s) and habit (life form) based on information sources indicated under Reference Sources (pp. Poaceae. native. Zoysia tenuifolia Willd. Asplenium batuense Alderw. Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Burm. herb.) Sw. Lycopodiella cernua (L. herb. cultivated only 25. cultivated only 12.. Selaginella roxburghii (Hk.Chong et al.) Spring. herb.. 4).) Spring. & Arn. common 9. epiphyte.. LYCOPHYTA Lycopodiaceae 1. Huperzia nummulariifolia (Blume) T. native. Sm. Huperzia squarrosa (G. exotic. exotic.-Serm. f. herb. cultivated 19. native. cultivated only 11. Selaginella erythropus (Mart. native. herb. Pellaea rotundifolia (G.. native. cultivated only 10. Zoysia japonica Steud.) Holub.) Hook. native. native. Adiantum flabellulatum L. cultivated only 4191. Huperzia phyllantha (Hook. native.) Trevis. herb. extinct 3.) Link.

endangered 55. native. climber.) Copel. native. Moore. native. tree. Davallia parvula Wall.) Kuhn 69. native. Lindsaea doryphora K. Cyathea latebrosa (Wall.Forst. native. extinct Asplenium nidus L..) Kuhn. tree. extinct 42. climber.) Mett.. epiphyte. herb.. native. native.) Sw. extinct Asplenium phyllitidis D. epiphyte. Davallia repens (L. extinct 65.. 29. native. common 38.. native. native.. herb. Cyathea cooperi (Hook. native. extinct 62. Lindsaea heterophylla Dryand. indicum auct. extinct 54. native. Davallia solida (G. herb.U.. herb.. vulnerable 53. cultivated 36. Don. esculentum (G.) Kuhn var. native. Agargh) R. common.. epiphyte. Davallia pectinata Sm.. native. cultivated only Blechnaceae 35.f.) Kuhn.) C. wightianum (J. Asplenium longissimum Blume. Rich.. =B. epiphyte. tree.. epiphyte. ex Baker. & Grev. Sm. native. herb. herb. Forst.. native. climber. common Cyatheaceae 40. native. cultivated Asplenium thunbergii Kunze. cultivated 46... vulnerable. & Grev. Cyathea squamulata (Blume) Copel. Pteridium aquilinum (L. & Grev.. epiphyte. native. extinct 48. native. Kramer. vulnerable. 32. Lindsaea parallelogramma Alderw.. Lindsaea lucida Blume.. = P. endangered 49. native. 34. native. common. Pteridium aquilinum (L. vulnerable 51.. native. esculentum (G. ex Hook. herb. endangered Asplenium tenerum Forst. epiphyte.. native. native. epiphyte. native. endangered 45. epiphyte. Lindsaea cultrata (Willd. Muell. exotic. common 58. native. vulnerable 43. aquilinum (L. herb..) Domin. Davallia heterophylla J. exotic. extinct 56. 33. epiphyte.) J. vulnerable Dennstaedtiaceae 52. native. native. native.) Cockayne 68. Davallia triphylla Hook. cultivated only 41. herb. Lindsaea walkerae Hook. extinct 59. native. vulnerable 93 .. climber. f. common 67. Lindsaea ovata J.) Sw. Davallia denticulata (Burm. native. Lindsaea ensifolia Sw. Forst. Cyathea glabra (Blume) Copel. herb..) Mett. Blechnum gibbum (Lab.. tree. herb. native. & Grev. Lindsaea parasitica (Roxb. climber. epiphyte.) Mett. 39. endangered Davalliaceae 44. Sm.. herb. cultivated Asplenium nitidum Sw. vulnerable 50. Lindsaea orbiculata (Lam. native. Davallia angustata Wall. f. ex Hook. common Asplenium macrophyllum Sw.) Kunh var.. Blechnum orientale L.) T. non Burm. Chr. endangered 57. Sm. climber. 30. Ex Griff. Blechnum finlaysonianum Wall. native. extinct 63. extinct 60. Lindsaea divergens Hook. native. common. epiphyte. cultivated only 37.. extinct 66. Histiopteris incisa (Thunb. Microlepia speluncae (L. epiphyte. vulnerable. vulnerable.. vulnerable 64..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 28. Lindsaea repens (Bory) Thwaites var. climber. = P. extinct 61. 31. Tryon. Blechnum serrulatum A. ex Hook. Stenochlaena palustris (Burm. ex F. epiphyte. native. climber. pectinata (Blume) Mett..) Bedd. extinct 47. herb. Tapeinidium pinnatum (Cav. native. native.) Hieron.. exotic. epiphyte.M. native. epiphyte. epiphyte. Lindsaea borneensis Hook.

Bell. native.) J. endangered 96. herb. critically endangered. endangered 105. native. endangered 77. extinct 92. native. cultivated only 72. Chr.) Wagner & Grether. endangered 89. herb. native.. epiphyte. f. epiphyte.) C. endangered 104. endangered 98. epiphyte. extinct 99. native. Equisetum hyemale L. native. Sm. var. native. epiphyte. native.) Copel. climber. common 80. native. Tectaria barberi (Hook.. Ctenopteris blechnoides (Grev. endangered 75. Crepidomanes minutum (Blume) K. native. native. native. epiphyte. herb. Pleocnemia irregularis (C. Presl) Holttum. native. extinct 91.) Holttum. native. climber.Forst) Bosch.. Presl) Holttum. endangered 101.) Underw.. Chr. native. Hymenophyllum acanthoides (Bosch) Rosenst. extinct Hymenophyllaceae 87. extinct 94. herb. Crepidomanes humile (G. herb. Hymenophyllum polyanthos Sw. exotic.Morton. =Sticherus truncatus (Willd. herb. Berol. Hymenophyllum denticulatum Sw. native. exotic. epiphyte. native. extinct 95. common 76. vulnerable 90.. native. epiphyte. climber. Iwatsuki. herb. native. critically endangered 94 . native. endangered 79.) Copel. native. Crepidomanes pallidum (Blume) K.) C. cultivated only Gleicheniaceae 83. Trichomanes mindorense H.. endangered 100.. Bolbitis appendiculata (Willd. native. Cephalomanes obscurum (Blume) K. native. Cephalomanes singaporeanum Bosch.R. Equisetum scirpoides Michx. cultivated only 82. endangered 78. Presl) Ching. epiphyte.. Tectaria vasta (Blume) Copel...) Holttum. Chr.) Nakai. endangered 102. Bolbitis sinuata (C. Tectaria griffithii (Baker) C. Tectaria angulata (Willd. native. native. Bolbitis heteroclita (C. herb. Dipteris conjugata Reinw. Heterogonium sagenioides (Mett. epiphyte. native. Lomariopsis lineata (C. endangered Equisetaceae 81. singaporeana Holttum. epiphyte. herb. Moore) I. Cephalomanes javanicum (Blume) Bosch. endangered Lomariopsidaceae 103. Didymochlaena truncatula (Sw. Trichomanes motleyi Bosch (Bosch). herb.V.. climber. Presl) Henn. & Grev.. Presl) C. climber. native.Chr.Chong et al. Christ. native. native. Iwatsuki. Dipteridaceae 70. epiphyte. Hymenophyllum holochilum (Bosch) C.) Nakai Grammitidaceae 86.. climber.) Copel. epiphyte. epiphyte. native. common. Tectaria singaporeana (Hook. cultivated 85.. herb. cultivated Dryopteridaceae 71. Dicranopteris linearis (Burm.. Gleichenia truncata (Willd. endangered 88. Cephalomanes superbum (Backh.. endangered 73.) Iwatsuki. climber. epiphyte.M. extinct 106. native. herb.. herb. Trichomanes sublimbatum Mull. Hymenophyllum serrulatum (C. Iwatsuki. common 74. common 84. herb. native. Turner. native. exotic. endangered 97. native. Tectaria semipinnata (Roxb. Elaphoglossum amblyphyllum P. Crepidomanes christii (Copel.. Dicranopteris curranii Copel. native. endangered 93. extinct 107. shrub. vulnerable. epiphyte. ex T. Tectaria grandidentata (Ces. epiphyte.

exotic. endangered 133. Pyrrosia angustata (L. common..) Copel.. ex Hook.) Kuhn. cultivated only 116. cultivated Oleandraceae 112.) Wagner & Grether. Nephrolepis hirsutula (G. f.) Pic. Müll.. =Paragramma longifolia T. Drynaria sparsisora (Desv. Phymatosorus longissimus (Blume) Pichi Serm. herb. critically endangered Marattiaceae 111. Platycerium coronarium (J. Price. weed of uncertain origin.) Desv. native. Forst. Nephrolepis radicans (Burm. common. native.) Farwell.. Presl. native. Platycerium grande (Fée) Kunze. Nephrolepis falcata (Cav. critically endangered 109. Chr. common 135. Ophioglossum pendulum L. exotic.. common 126. epiphyte. cultivated only 115.) M. herb.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 108. epiphyte. epiphyte.. Psilotum nudum (L. herb. native.. common 142.f. critically endangered 122.) Morton. native. epiphyte.. critically endangered Psilotaceae 145. native. native. native.) Schott. Nephrolepis cordifolia (L. native. common. climber. Koenig ex O. native. Serm. epiphyte. native. Microsorum punctatum (L. Selliguea heterocarpa Blume. weed of uncertain origin 119.) C. Presl. Sm. epiphyte. native.) Holttum. native. native.G. Pyrrosia lanceolata (L. epiphyte. native.) Schott 114. cultivated. ex Murray. common 130. Goniophlebium subauriculatum (Blume) C. native. Aglaomorpha speciosa (Blume) Roos. Lecanopteris sinuosa (Wall.) Trimen. Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm. herb. epiphyte. extinct 124. Pyrrosia longifolia (Burm. Lepisorus longifolius (Blume) Holttum.) H. native. Presl. =N.. epiphyte.) C. epiphyte. Phymatosorus nigrescens (Blume) Pichi Serm. vulnerable 128. Psilotum complanatum Sw..) C. epiphyte. exotic. epiphyte. endangered 113. native. common 134. common 144. Teratophyllum ludens (Fee) Holttum. epiphyte. native. Lecanopteris crustacea Copel. Nephrolepis duffii T. Polypodium punctatum Thunb. Moore. endangered. Platycerium ridleyi Christ.) J. Moore. native. native. herb. native. cultivated only 137. native.) Hoffm.. epiphyte. cultivated only 139. Angiopteris evecta (Forst. extinct 138. extinct 146. native. common 95 . Moore 131. exotic. vulnerable. epiphyte.F. climber.) Farwell.. cultivated 136. common 143. common.. herb. Teratophyllum aculeatum (Blume) Mett. Bonap. epiphyte. Beauv. native.. exotic. Goniophlebium percussum (Cav.) P. Christ. cultivated 132. herb. Drynaria quercifolia (L. cultivated 125. climber. epiphyte.. native.) Copel. native. Nephrolepis auriculata (L. Ophioglossum reticulatum L.. common Ophioglossaceae 120. vulnerable 129. native. herb.. common Polypodiaceae 123. Nephrolepis acutifolia (Desv. common 121. climber. epiphyte.) T. epiphyte.. herb. vulnerable 141. exotic. epiphyte. Teratophyllum rotundifoliatum (R. native. Pyrrosia piloselloides (L. cultivated only 117.. herb. cultivated only 140. Ophioglossum nudicaule L. Polypodium polycarpon Cav. herb. vulnerable 127. epiphyte. epiphyte. biserrata (Sw. native. epiphyte. Nephrolepis exaltata (L. critically endangered 110. f. cultivated 118. native. epiphyte.

herb. native.. common 170. common 180. ex J. herb... endangered 169. Iwats. common 161. Lygodium circinnatum (Burm. common 165. herb. native.) K. herb. herb. native.. native. naturalised. Saunders & K. native. herb. =Pneumatopteris truncata (Poir. native. Christella subpubescens (Blume) Holttum.) Holttum Vittariaceae 185.) Holttum. extinct 187.) R. climber. vulnerable 183.) Holttum. endangered 166. climber. vulnerable 163.. climber. native. 158. native. endangered 167. native. Ceratopteris thalictroides (L. Acrostichum speciosum Willd. endangered 155. Amphineuron terminans (Hook. climber. common 148.Br.) H.) Sw.K. f. cultivated 151. Lygodium salicifolium C. common 149. Antrophyum callifolium Blume. ssp. Pteris vittata L. native. Sphaerostephanos unitus (L. native. weed of uncertain origin 172. Acrostichum aureum L. native.) Holttum. exotic.M. common... Schizaea digitata (L. critically endangered 186. Mitch. native. climber. vulnerable 154. native. herb. Mesophlebion motleyanum (Hook. Presl. Pteris ensiformis Burm.. Sm. Pronephrium triphyllum (Sw. herb. Schizaea wagneri Selling. weed of uncertain origin 156. herb. epiphyte. extinct Thelypteridaceae 168. native. Monogramma dareicarpa Hook. extinct 178. native. herb.Chong et al.) Brownsey & Jermy. herb. herb. Sphaerostephanos polycarpus (Blume) Copel. cultivated Salviniaceae 157. f. Sphaerostephanos heterocarpus (Blume) Holttum. epiphyte. herb.. vulnerable 177. vulnerable. herb. herb.. Metathelypteris dayi (Bedd. native. common 175. Cyclosorus interruptus (Willd. vulnerable 176. weed of uncertain origin 173. =A.) Sw. caroliniana Willd. common 182. Pteris tripartita Sw. native. Pteris semipinnata L. Ito. climber.) Holttum. Amphineuron opulentum (Kaulf.. weed of uncertain origin 150. Salvinia molesta D. Azolla pinnata R. naturalised Schizaeaceae 159.) Holttum. climber.) Brongn.. native. Schizaea dichotoma (L.) Lev.. Pteris multifida Poir. common 174. Christella arida (Don) Holttum. native. native. common 181. herb. herb. extinct 96 . climber. native. Mesophlebion chylamydophorum (Rosenst. Lygodium microphyllum (Cav. herb. native. herb. Taenitis blechnoides (Willd. endangered 152.) Holttum. common 153. herb. endangered 179.) Sw... Antrophyum parvulum Blume. climber.. native.. Thelypteris truncata (Poir. herb. Fowler. herb.) Sw. epiphyte. weed of uncertain origin. Br. Pteridaceae 147. common 171.) Holttum. herb. Lygodium longifolium (Willd. native. native.) Wall. exotic.. exotic. Christella parasitica (L. native. herb. herb. herb. naturalised 162. Lygodium flexuosum (L. native. herb.) Sm. Pronephrium menisciicarpon (Blume) Holttum. common 164. asiatica R.) Sw.. epiphyte.. Pteris mertensioides Willd.S. vulnerable 160. Christella dentata (Forsk.. native. native. native. weed of uncertain origin 184.. herb. native. Pronephrium repandum (Fee) Holttum. Lygodium japonicum (Thunb.

Cycas edentata de Laub. cultivated only 97 . Diplazium malaccense C. Vittaria ensiformis Sw. cultivated only 207. Pinus caribaea Morelet. Diplazium polypodiodes Blume. endangered 197. cultivated.. tree.. Diplazium crennatoserratum (Blume) Moore. common 190. Presl.. tree.) de Laub. tree.. tree. tree. epiphyte. epiphyte. Diplazium tomentosum Blume. native. exotic. exotic. native. Muell..) T. critically endangered. cultivated only 206. exotic. native. Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon. vulnerable 194. cultivated only 214. extinct 189.) Hook. exotic. Presl. Zamia pumila L. tree. exotic. Agathis dammara (Lamb. Diplazium prescottianum (Wall. native. 202. native.. cultivated only 204. tree. cultivated only 208. epiphyte. cultivated only Pinaceae 219. exotic. native. tree.G. Vaginularia trichoidea Fée. Hill) Regel. Forst. herb. tree. herb. exotic. tree. Macrozamia moorei F. M. Araucaria hunsteinii K.. Zamia fufuracea L.. Pinus elliottii Engelm. herb. herb. vulnerable CYCADOPHYTA Cycadaceae 201. native. herb. Diplazium cordifolium Blume. rumphii Miq. Vittaria elongata Sw. exotic. endangered 200. native. cultivated only 215. native. Araucaria heterophylla (Salisb. Diplazium allantoideum M. cultivated only 216. exotic. cultivated only PINOPHYTA Araucariaceae 209. cultivated only 220. cultivated only 212.. tree. endangered 193. Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco. cultivated only 210. native. exotic.) Rich. exotic. tree. exotic. ex Hook.-Ham.. cultivated only Cupressaceae 217. Cycas revoluta Thunb.. Agathis borneensis Warb. herb.) F. cultivated only 218. Bailey. herb. Diplazium sorzogonense C. cultivated only 211. Cycas pectinata Buch. Muell.. Araucaria columnaris (G. tree. cultivated only 203. Lepidozamia hopei (W.. exotic. exotic. Juniperus chinensis L. native.. tree.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 188. native. =C. exotic. Cycas siamensis (Miq. Araucaria bidwillii Hook. exotic. f. tree. common Woodsiaceae 191.. tree. tree. common 192. Agathis robusta (C. Moore. Diplazium riparium Holttum. vulnerable 195. herb. tree. cultivated only 213. tree. exotic. native. tree. endangered 196.. exotic. Schum. endangered 198. exotic. Araucaria cunninghamiana Aiton ex A. cultivated only Zamiaceae 205. Price. Moore ex F. Diplazium esculentum (Retz. cultivated only 221. native. herb.) Franco. herb. Cunn. endangered 199..) Sw. tree. exotic.

tree. Asystasia gangetica (L. Pinus luchuensis Mayr. cultivated only 230. exotic. Andrographis paniculata (Burm.) Vierh. shrub. exotic. cultivated only 234. exotic. exotic. tree. shrub. f. tree. Pinus merkusii Jungh. native.) Sweet. cultivated only 247. native. exotic. cultivated 251. Podocarpus rumphii Blume. common. Podocarpus neriifolius D. tree. Avicennia marina (Forsk. tree. Br. cultivated 245.. cultivated only 257. naturalised. exotic. cultivated only 225. Avicennia rumphiana Hallier f. cultivated 242.) Kuntze. Presl) Kuntze.. cultivated only 255. Aphelandra squarrosa Nees.Chong et al. shrub. critically endangered 238.) Blume 250. native.. critically endangered 228. tree.. tree. ssp. tree. Crossandra infundibuliformis (L. Asystasia gangetica (L. intrusa (Forssk. native. Acanthus volubilis Wall. N. cultivated only 232. 222. native. exotic..B. cultivated 253. climber. ex Endl. exotic. native. cultivated 249. Taxodium distichum (L. climber. cultivated only 98 .) Wall. Podocarpus henkelii Stapf ex Dallim. native. native. exotic. native. Podocarpus elatus R. cultivated only Taxodiaceae 235.) Rich. cultivated only 227. tree. Anderson ssp. native. cultivated only 223. Don. cultivated only 231. cultivated 243. exotic. cultivated 252...) T. Afrocarpus gracilior (Pilg. exotic. cultivated only Podocarpaceae 224. herb. Avicennia alba Blume. exotic. exotic. vulnerable 244. common. Acanthus ilicifolius L. gangetica. exotic. tree.Br. Anderson ssp. Gnetum latifolium Blume. Jacks. native. exotic. & A. & de Vriese. exotic. f. exotic. critically endangered 240. cultivated only 246. common. A. Barleria lupulina Lindl. cultivated only 258. Gnetum macrostachyum Hook.. cultivated only 256. shrub. exotic. herb. Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb. shrub. critically endangered. var. tree. herb. Page. exotic. Barleria cristata L. common. Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. Barleria obtusa Nees. climber. cultivated only 248. Podocarpus polystachyus R.. native.. vulnerable. herb.. tree. critically endangered MAGNOLIOPHYTA Acanthaceae 241. tree. ex Nees. Prumnopitys amara (Blume) de Laub. tree. exotic. tree. Nageia wallichiana (C. ex Endl. Barleria repens Nees. naturalised. critically endangered 239. cultivated 237.) T. herb. Gnetum gnemonoides Brongn. shrub. =A.. cultivated only 229. naturalised. cultivated only 226. Aphelandra sinclairiana Nees. tree. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu. cultivated 254. cultivated. Gnetum gnemon L. exotic. cultivated only GNETOPHYTA Gnetaceae 236. shrub. Nageia nagi (Thunb. tree. gnemon. exotic. tree. Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume) de Laub. nemorum Nees. native.. exotic. Gnetum microcarpum Blume. Asystasia chelonoides Nees.. climber. Avicennia officinalis L. marina. critically endangered. critically endangered. shrub. native.) C. shrub. tree. cultivated 233.) Nees.

cultivated only Ruellia repens L. 286. Nicholson Justicia gendarussa Burm. exotic. cultivated only Peristrophe roxburghiana (Roem.) Nees. cultivated only Ruellia affinis (Schrad. Clarke) Ridl. cultivated Hemigraphis repanda (L. exotic. shrub.. Sm. exotic.) M.. exotic.R. Anderson. cultivated only Eranthemum nigrum Linden. exotic.) Guillaumin. Bailey. shrub. exotic. 299. Veitch) Brummitt.) T. ex Hook. exotic. R. exotic. critically endangered Justicia vulgaris Bert. Almeida Hygrophila meianthos C. exotic. 281. =Jacobinia coccinea (Aubl. 291. Crossandra pungens Lindau. cultivated only Justicia procumbrens L.H. exotic. exotic. shrub. naturalised.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 259. herb.) R. 301. 303.. exotic.) G. 296. cultivated only Ruellia simplex C. ex Nees. cultivated only Eranthemum wattii (Bedd. casual. 306... herb. 294. Anderson. shrub.. =Jacobinia carnea (Lindl. 295. cultivated. cultivated only Hemigraphis confinis T. shrub. cultivated only Ruellia ciliosa Pursh. Pachystachys coccinea (Aubl. shrub. casual Hygrophila ringens (L. H. 280. =O...) Lindau. exotic. cultivated only Odontonema cuspidatum (Nees) Kuntze. 263. cultivated only Pseuderanthemum atropurpureum L. cultivated. 298.. exotic..-Vill. shrub. cultivated only Pseuderanthemum reticulatum hort. exotic. exotic. shrub. cultivated only Hemigraphis alternata (Burm. exotic. Almeida & S. 288. brittoniana Leonard 99 . 269. & L. Anders. =H. cultivated only Hygrophila auriculata (Buch.. exotic. 274.-Ham. cultivated only Ruellia macrantha Mart. weed of uncertain origin Peristrophe hyssopifolia (Burm. shrub. cultivated only Justicia brandegeeana Wassh. exotic. herb. exotic. 271. 265. herb. casual. shrub. Anderson. 266.) Bremek. shrub. cultivated only Peristrophe acuminata Nees. cultivated only.B. cultivated only Pseuderanthemum bicolor Radlk. cultivated only Ruellia malacosperma Greenm. exotic. shrub. 304.. weed of uncertain origin. herb. Clarke. cultivated Justicia quadrifaria (Nees) T.. exotic. 260. shrub. ex Schult. shrub. shrub. cultivated only Graptophyllum pictum (L. 285. shrub. herb. 300. Br. cultivated only Pseuderanthemum kewense L. shrub. 279.) Griff. spinosa T. herb. native. herb. exotic.. 270.. exotic. exotic. climber. cultivated only. 284. 287.. exotic. cultivated only Justicia carnea Lindl. herb... herb. 289. cultivated only Megaskepasma erythrochlamys Lindau. weed of uncertain origin Hygrophila phlomoides Nees.. native. shrub. 305. shrub. weed of uncertain origin.) Wassh.. =R. 293. Bailey. & Schult. f. cultivated only Ruellia amoena Sessé & Moc. herb. exotic. naturalised Hemigraphis primulifolia (Nees) Fern. cultivated only Pseuderanthemum carruthersii (Seem.H.. herb. 292. shrub. cultivated only Pachystachys spicata (Ruiz & Pav. exotic... 282. exotic. exotic. exotic. 276. 262. 277. cultivated Pseuderanthemum andersonii Lindau. extinct Justicia vasculosa Wall. exotic. shrub. cultivated only. cultivated only Ruellia colorata Baill. native. ex hort.M. cultivated only Justicia guttata Wall. exotic.H. extinct Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum Hubbard ex L. herb. cultivated only Pseuderanthemum kingii (C. f. 290. 267. shrub. cultivated only Pseuderanthemum graciliflorum Ridl. M. exotic. exotic.) Hiern Pachystachys lutea Nees. shrub. herb. schulli (Buch.-Ham. 273.B. 275. 268. Wright. 278. 261. shrub. 297. shrub. herb. f.) Bremek. ex Steud. cultivated only Fittonia albivensis (Lindl. Bailey.B. strictum hort.) Stapf.) Hallier f. Almeida & S. herb. herb. Almeida. exotic. exotic. shrub. exotic. shrub. shrub. 283.. 264. 302. exotic. 272. shrub. weed of uncertain origin Ruellia rosea Hemsl.) M. weed of uncertain origin Justicia betonica L.. shrub.

Saurauia pentapetala (Jack) Hoogl.. shrub. extinct Agavaceae 338. herb. herb. 324. globally extinct Thunbergia erecta (Benth.. shrub. herb. cultivated only Thunbergia fragrans Roxb. amaniense Engl. exotic. tree. Anderson. shrub.A. critically endangered Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims. native. cultivated only Achariaceae 330. 328.. extinct 334. cultivated only Ruspolia hypocrateriformis (Vahl) Milne-Redh. 322. herb.) Nordal & A.) C. cultivated only. 315. Agave angustifolia Haw. cultivated only 340. climber. cultivated only Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl.. Agave tequilana F. Acorus gramineus Sol.. exotic. cultivated only Strobilanthes palawanensis Elm. amaniense (Engl. Polianthes tuberosa L. 327. herb. =C.. exotic... exotic. cultivated only 331. herb. Clarke) Milne-Redh. naturalised. 319. 310. f. herb. herb. exotic. bichetii Backer 346. exotic. 314. 323. exotic.. herb.) Voss. tree. cultivated only Strobilanthes cusia (Nees) J.) Haw. climber.. cultivated Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. exotic. 316. herb. herb. Hydnocarpus castaneus Hook. exotic. Imlay.. shrub. f. Br. tree. Ruellia tuberosa L. native. shrub. Ryparosa hullettii King. Chlorophytum filipendulum Baker ssp.. tree. Poulsen. critically endangered Staurogyne setigera (Nees) Kuntze. cultivated only 100 .) T. native. critically endangered Strobilanthes crispus Blume.. 317. cultivated only.B. exotic. 326.E. native. 309. exotic. shrub. 329. exotic. Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb. exotic. cultivated only Ruttya fruticosa Lindau. cultivated only 344.. herb. exotic. Clarke. 325. 311. 347. cultivated only Sanchezia speciosa Leonard. herb. Br. extinct Adoxaceae 337. 308. exotic.. exotic. herb. Agave attenuata Salm-Dyck. cultivated only 333.. Ryparosa scortechinii King. cultivated Thunbergia kirkii Hook... exotic. exotic. Chlorophytum laxum R. Agave americana L. extinct Staurogyne kingiana C. =C. climber. native.. shrub. Weber. 313. 307. cultivated only. shrub. cultivated only Actinidiaceae 336. Clarke. cultivated only Thunbergia dasychlamys Bremek. exotic. herb. native. cultivated Thunbergia battiscombei Turril. cultivated only Ruspolia seticalyx (C.D. cultivated only 342. native. Furcraea foetida (L. cultivated only Ruellia tweediana Griseb. Viburnum sambucinum Blume.Chong et al. cultivated only 343. extinct. exotic.. exotic. Chlorophytum capense (L. exotic. cultivated only 332. exotic. herb. cultivated only 339. climber.B. Beauv. native. herb. herb. shrub. exotic. critically endangered. 321. exotic. tree. 312. 320. cultivated only Schaueria flavicoma N.B. herb. exotic. tree. cultivated only 341. =F. exotic. herb. 345. 318.) Jacques. exotic. gigantea Vent. Pangium edule Reinw. cultivated only Strobilanthes dyeriana Mast. casual. climber. exotic. cultivated only Staurogyne griffithiana Kuntze. exotic.B. exotic. native. herb. cultivated Whitfieldia elongata (P. native.C.. & Thomson. naturalised. cultivated Acoraceae 335. Hydnocarpus anthelminthicus Pierre ex Laness.

herb. Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Zephyranthes rosea Lindl. cultivated only Alliaceae 356.) L. Allium sativum L. herb. herb... cultivated only 375. cultivated 368.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 348. cultivated only 352.) Herb. exotic. weed of uncertain origin 359. Sagittaria latifolia Willd. var. Zephyranthes candida (Lindl.. Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn) Raf..) Schwantes. Carpobrotus edulis (L. herb. Alternanthera sessilis (L. Aptenia cordifolia (L. ex DC. Hymenocallis speciosa (L. =A. herb. herb. Sesuvium portulacastrum (L. cultivated only Amaranthaceae 358. Alternanthera ficoidea (L. Echinodorus palaefolius (Nees & Mart. herb.) Griseb. naturalised 367. herb.Br.. herb. cultivated only 381.. exotic. Celosia argentea L. Yucca gloriosa L. Alternanthera paronychioides A. Hippeastrum reticulatum (L'Hér. & Schult. Pancratium zeylanicum L.. herb. cultivated only 349. herb.-Hil. exotic. cultivated only.. Eucrosia bicolor Ker Gawl. herb. cultivated Alismataceae 353. 366. cultivated only 354. exotic. exotic... Amaranthus blitum L. shrub. exotic. Allmania nodiflora R. herb. Br. Ex Roem. exotic. naturalised. herb.) R. f. ssp. Proiphys amboinensis (L. exotic. Br. cultivated 372.) R. exotic. shrub. Crinum xanthophyllum Hannibal. cultivated only 374. native. exotic. exotic. =A. oleraceus (L. Achyranthes aspera L. native. Crinum album Herb. exotic. exotic.) P. exotic. cultivated only 376. Crinum moorei Hook..) N. cultivated 365. cultivated only Aizoaceae 350. Nicholson. native. naturalised.) Salisb.. St. Amaranthus spinosus L. lividus L. exotic. Crinum jagus (J. cultivated only Amaryllidaceae 370. exotic. herb. exotic. exotic..) Herb. herb. herb. Zephyranthes carinata Herb. cultivated only 386. critically endangered.E. Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) G. ficoidea (L..) Herb. common 360. Beauv. exotic. multiflorus. cultivated only 378.. Hymenocallis caribaea (L. exotic. exotic.. herb. herb. weed of uncertain origin. shrub. cultivated only 379. herb.. tenella Colla 362. Crinum asiaticum L. cultivated only 384. Macbr. exotic. cultivated only 355. exotic. exotic. casual. ex Salisb.. common. herb. ssp.) Blume. exotic. herb. casual. herb. Yucca aloifolia L. herb. exotic. herb. cultivated only 382. herb. cultivated only 385. cultivated only 371.) Herb. Br. herb. herb.. exotic. Habranthus gracilifolius Herb. exotic. cultivated only 383.) J.. cultivated only 357. cultivated 369. exotic. herb. =A. Cyathula prostrata (L.. herb. herb. exotic. exotic. f.. Thomps. cultivated only 377. Sagittaria sagittifolia L. cultivated only 351.. exotic.) Dandy. f.. herb. ex Wight. herb. Tulbaghia violacea Harv. cultivated only 373. exotic. herb. naturalised 364.) Salisb.. Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq.. cultivated only 363. native..) Costea. cultivated only 380. Zephyranthes citrina Baker. cultivated 101 . Gomphrena globosa L.. herb. cultivated only 387.. exotic. herb..F. common. bettzichiana (Regel) Backer 361. herb.

. extinct 409. cultivated only 421. Koenig ex L. native. Hill.) B. tree. Swintonia schwenkii (T. Mangifera parvifolia Boerl. Mangifera foetida Lour. Lannea grandis (Dennst.) Engl.. tree. Mangifera laurina Blume..) Merr.. Buchanania lucida Blume. Anisophyllea griffithii Oliv. tree. tree. vulnerable. exotic. critically endangered. native.. tree. tree. tree. Gluta malayana (Corner) Ding Hou. tree. tree. cultivated only 400.. tree. & Koord. native. exotic. native. cultivated 392. f. critically endangered 102 . Endangered.. f. Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. f.. exotic. Rhodosphaera rhodanthema (F. cultivated only 399. cultivated 394. cultivated 390. tree. Buchanania sessifolia Blume.) Meisn. common. tree. tree. & A. cultivated only 425. common 396. Gluta wallichii (Hook. exotic. native. Muell. Mangifera odorata Griff. tree. cultivated 405. Parishia maingayi Hook. native. cultivated 418. Mangifera magnifica Kochummen. Buchanania arborescens (Blume) Blume... vulnerable 419. cultivated 412. Mangifera lagenifera Griff.) Kurz. cultivated only 397. exotic. Bouea oppositifolia (Roxb. exotic.. exotic. native. tree. native. Melanochyla auriculata Hook. cultivated only 423. native. native. tree.) T. tree. vulnerable Ancistrocladaceae 428. Mangifera macrocarpa Blume.. native. exotic. tree. tree. tree. Spondias dulcis Sol. tree.) Engl. vulnerable. common. native. native. native. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Pentaspadon motleyi Hook. Burtt. critically endangered 408. f. Parishia insignis Hook. exotic. critically endangered. Melanochyla caesia (Blume) Ding Hou. native. cultivated 407. tree.. extinct 414. native. vulnerable 415. Mangifera paludosa Kosterm. exotic.) Ding Hou. extinct 413. f. native. native.. Campnosperma auriculata Hook. cultivated only 427. exotic. Cotinus coggygria Scop. Mangifera indica L. exotic. shrub. native. f..L. & Thoms. tree. exotic. cultivated 404. tree. critically endangered Anisophyllaceae 429. & B. cultivated 406. Anacardiaceae 388.. tree. f. cultivated only 393. tree. & Rolfe. tree.. f. tree. tree. tree. native. cultivated 395.. & B. shrub. cultivated only 422.W.. common 402. Melanochyla bracteata King. tree.. Anisophyllea disticha (Jack) Baill. ex Parkinson. Spondias pinnata (J. cultivated only 403. native. cultivated 389.. cultivated only 398. casual. native. Bouea macrophylla Griff. native. native. Pentaspadon velutinus Hook. tree. vulnerable 417... cultivated only 430. tree. Anisophyllea corneri Ding Hou. Parishia paucijuga Engl. Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb. critically endangered Annonaceae 432. tree. Mangifera griffithii Hook. cultivated only 401. tree... cultivated 431. vulnerable. exotic. climber. tree. Swintonia floribunda Griff. cultivated only 424.. tree. vulnerable 416. exotic. Alphonsea maingayi Hook. Anacardium occidentale L. tree. vulnerable. exotic. vulnerable 410. tree. cultivated 391. common. native. f. Ancistrocladus tectorius (Lour. Campnosperma squamatum Ridl. vulnerable. Mangifera caesia Jack. Dracontomelon duperreanum Pierre. native.. native. critically endangered 411. native. f. casual. tree.Chong et al. tree. exotic. cultivated only 426. endangered 420. tree.

) Bhandari. common Monocarpia marginalis (Scheff. endangered Cananga odorata (Lam. exotic. 455. 477. f. tree. cultivated only Cyathocalyx ramuliflorus (Maingay ex Hook. 459.. & Thoms.) Steenis.) Steenis. climber. tree. climber. native. exotic.) Merr. endangered Artabotrys wrayi King.) Hook. 439. tree. native. native. endangered Fissistigma latifolium (Dunal) Merr. 434. tree.. 441. critically endangered. critically endangered Artabotrys suaveolens (Blume) Blume. tree.. climber. climber. critically endangered Polyalthia lateriflora (Blume) Kurz. 456. extinct Mitrella kentii (Blume) Miq. & Thoms. cultivated Annona cherimola Mill. 475. & Thomson. & Thoms. native. extinct Phaeanthus ophthalmicus (Roxb. cultivated Artabotrys crassifolius Hook.) Steenis.. & Thoms.) Hook.R. native. native. & Thoms. 452. native. tree. tree. native. 436. native. tree. critically endangered Fissistigma fulgens (Hook. 449. f. native. exotic.) Merr. 446. critically endangered Polyalthia hypoleuca Hook. vulnerable. & Thoms. native. 435. tree. critically endangered Artabotrys hexapetalus (L. 445. vulnerable Fissistigma lanuginosum (Hook. climber.f. common Mitrephora maingayi Hook. 476.) Scheff. tree. tree. 460. climber. 464. f. native. vulnerable Polyalthia angustissima Ridl. native. native. native. 480. vulnerable Cyathocalyx sumatranus Scheff. tree. cultivated Annona squamosa L.. native. cultivated only Artabotrys costatus King. tree. vulnerable Goniothalamus tortilipetalus M. tree. Sinclair. Don) J. climber. tree. 479. 463. extinct Friesodielsia latifolia (Hook. vulnerable Friesodielsia excisa (Miq. exotic. critically endangered Polyalthia jenkensii (H. native. cultivated Orophea hastata King. Endangered.. native. 457. tree. tree. vulnerable Friesodielsia borneensis (Miq. native. native. 462. vulnerable Desmos dasymaschala (Blume) Safford. climber. common Cyathocalyx ridleyi (King) Sinclair. casual. vulnerable Polyalthia clavigera King.. & Thoms.) Sinclair. 440. tree. shrub. & Thoms. exotic. 467.. native. extinct Cyathostemma viridiflorum Griff.... climber. & Thoms. tree.. 469. common Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. cultivated Polyalthia hookeriana King. ex G. tree. & Thoms. critically endangered 103 . 451. native. Anaxagorea javanica Blume. f. 454. & Thoms. f. 473. 470. native. f. 478. 453.. climber. native.) Muell. native. 450. climber. 466. tree. vulnerable Friesodielsia biglandulosa (Blume) Steenis.. cultivated only Artabotrys maingayi Hook. critically endangered Desmos dumosus (Roxb. native. cultivated only Annona reticulata L. 442. ovoideum (King) Sinclair. climber. extinct Polyalthia glauca (Hassk. f. vulnerable. native. 461. f. native. vulnerable Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. native. tree. climber. native. vulnerable Goniothalamus ridleyi King.) Merr. climber. 438. vulnerable Fissistigma manubriatum (Hook.. critically endangered Cyathostemma hookeri King.. native. critically endangered Miliusa longipes King. common Meiogyne virgata (Blume) Miq. critically endangered Ellipeia cuneifolia Hook.. tree. tree. 448. native. & T. native. native. 471.. & Thoms. 482. climber. tree. & Thoms. 447. native. f. climber. climber. critically endangered Mezzettia parviflora Becc. tree. shrub.. 437. f. shrub.. tree. vulnerable Polyalthia cauliflora Hook. 483. f. 443. & Thomson) Heusden.. & Thoms. 481.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 433. native. var. native. native. Hend.) Steenis. native. f. 458.. & Thoms. vulnerable Friesodielsia glauca (Hook. climber. 474. native. native.f. f. f. exotic. 444. tree...f. native. common Meiogyne monosperma (Hook. f. native.) Safford. cultivated only Annona muricata L.. native. climber. native. vulnerable Goniothalamus tapis Miq. 468. climber.. 472. 465.

native. tree. cultivated 517. native. cultivated only 104 . cultivated Xylopia fusca Maing. 488. naturalised 518.J. 485. climber.) Urb. cultivated Polyalthia stenopetala (Hook. shrub. climber. ex G. vulnerable. ex Hook. ex Hook. cultivated only Trivalvaria macrophylla (Blume) Miq. DC. exotic. tree. cultivated 521. f. critically endangered.. exotic. critically endangered. tree. 504. climber. 505. native. Alyxia reinwardtii Blume. 490.. Beaumontia grandiflora (Roxb. Asclepias curassavica L.) Thwaites. var. f. herb. exotic. Alstonia spathulata Blume. Alstonia pneumatophora Back. cultivated only 515. tree. & Thoms. common. native.) Kurz. tree. tree..) Wall. native. native. Allamanda oenotherifolia Pohl. f. tree. native. & Thoms. exotic. native. 497. f. Amsonia tabernaemontana Walter.. cultivated Apiaceae 508. exotic. Allamanda cathartica L. tree. native. exotic. native.. critically endangered Uvaria lobbiana Hook. exotic. native. & Thoms. Alstonia spectabilis R.. native. 493. f. ex DC.) R. cultivated Polyalthia sclerophylla Hook. tree. cultivated 513. Allamanda blanchetii A. naturalised. extinct 523. native. tree. vulnerable Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl.... tree. critically endangered 519. cultivated 527. endangered Pyramidanthe prismatica (Hook.f. cultivated only 525. 489. Eryngium foetidum L.Chong et al. climber. f. native. exotic. tree.T.. casual. extinct Uvaria grandiflora (Lesch. cultivated only 529. 487. f. Alyxia pilosa Miq. climber. tree. Br. tree. climber. climber. vulnerable.) Merr. climber.. exotic... climber.f. & Thoms. 486. cultivated 516.) Baill. endangered Rollinia mucosa (Jacq. native. tree. 491. Alstonia angustifolia Wall. shrub. exotic. cultivated only Polyalthia sumatrana (Miq..E. Alstonia angustiloba Miq. shrub. shrub. cultivated only Polyalthia macropoda King. tree.. native. critically endangered Popowia fusca King. 500. Beaumontia jerdoniana Wight.) Finet & Gagnep. ex Hook. f. kansana (Vail) E. tree. extinct Uvaria pauci-ovulata Hook. Br.. 502.. ex L. DC. Anodendron candolleanum Wight. & Thoms. exotic. vulnerable Xylopia ferruginea (Hook. exotic.. Alstonia scholaris (L. common.. exotic. cultivated only 511. exotic. tree. & Thoms. extinct Uvaria cordata (Dunal) Alston. 484. 495. cultivated only 512. Aiton. 501. common 524. climber. exotic. herb. endangered Polyalthia rumphii Merr. cultivated 509. common. Allamanda schottii Pohl. shrub. Palmer & Steyerm. Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn. DC. cultivated only 522.. exotic.. cultivated Uvaria leptopoda (King) R... native. exotic. vulnerable. cultivated only 530. native.) Roxb. & Thoms... f. & Thoms.) Roem. Centella asiatica (L. tree.. Fries. critically endangered 526. f.. critically endangered Xylopia malayana Hook. Adenium obesum (Forssk. common Uvaria curtisii King. cultivated Apocynaceae 510. common. climber. & Thoms.) Hook. climber. 503. tree. climber. climber. cultivated only 514. 492. cultivated only 520. native.G. 498. & Schult. vulnerable Popowia tomentosa Maing. casual. native. native. 496.. critically endangered Xylopia magna Maing. native.. native. 507. den Berger. Alstonia macrophylla Wall. tree. herb. & Thoms. 499.. 494. climber. & Thoms. ex A.) W. cultivated only 528. critically endangered Xylopia caudata Hook. native. native. cultivated Uvaria hirsuta Jack. Calotropis gigantea (L. & Thoms. climber. Asclepias syriaca L. native. native. common. native. tree. tree. 506. exotic. native.

DC. extinct Dischidia cochleata Blume. 547. native. epiphyte. 553. cultivated Leuconotis griffithii Hook. cultivated only Catharanthus roseus (L. native. Pearsen.. 558. Mandevilla sanderi (Hemsl. vulnerable. extinct Hoya kerrii Craib. native. exotic.. climber. =Ichnocarpus serpyllifolius (Blume) P. native. cultivated only Kopsia fruticosa (Ker Gawl. 533. epiphyte.I. 565. native.. tree. exotic. critically endangered. native. 538. exotic. native. DC. climber. native. 575. =M. 546. exotic. 568. critically endangered Hoya campanulata Blume.H. native. climber. Don.. exotic. micranthus Hook. Forster. 552. native. epiphyte. 549. =L. epiphyte. cultivated Dischidia pectenoides H. 541. 544. 577. 536.. epiphyte. extinct Hoya carnosa (L. native. common. 578. shrub. critically endangered. native. 572. cultivated only Dischidia singaporensis Ridl.f.. cultivated Hoya finlaysonii Wight. native. 545.. epiphyte. tree. climber. native. exotic. native. maingayi Dyer ex Hook. epiphyte. 535. shrub.. native. exotic. 571. climber. cultivated only Hoya verticillata (Vahl) G. extinct Dyera costulata (Miq. native. common Gymnanthera oblonga (Burm. f. 559. climber.. vulnerable Dischidia albida Griff. native. cultivated only Hoya coriacea Blume. 566. 550. native. exotic. 573. 539. extinct Dischidia bengalensis Colebr. critically endangered Kopsia arborea Blume.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 531. native. critically endangered. extinct Gymnanthera nitida R. cultivated Cerbera odollam Gaertn. Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl. 540.. cultivated Chilocarpus vernicosus Blume. Br. critically endangered Dischidia albiflora Griff. 560. exotic. climber. tree. climber. 579. epiphyte. Don var. native. tree.I. 574. cultivated only Hoya lacunosa Blume. native. critically endangered Dischidia complex Griff. climber. 576. 570. Micrechites serpyllifolius (Blume) P. critically endangered Chonemorpha penangensis Ridl. forbesii King & Gamble Finlaysonia obovata Wall. 534. extinct Hoya coronaria Blume. extinct Hoya revoluta Wight. cultivated only 105 .f.. native. Br. vulnerable..f.. common. climber.) Woodson. native. native. 554.. exotic. 556. tree. Br. native.) A. cultivated Cerbera manghas L. 537.) P.S. 563. cultivated only Cynanchum ovalifolium Wight. endangered Hoya latifolia G. 562. exotic. cultivated only Cryptostegia grandiflora R. critically endangered. 567. tree. exotic. extinct Dischidia major (Vahl) Merr. Don. 569. extinct. climber. naturalised..) A. native. 532. 551. climber.) Hook.. 543. climber.W. verticillata. epiphyte. native. endangered Hoya multiflora Blume. extinct Hoya diversifolia Blume. epiphyte. epiphyte. =E. 542. f. f. common Dischidia nummularia R. Green. critically endangered. epiphyte. extinct Chonemorpha fragrans (Moon) Alston. extinct Dischidia hirsuta (Blume) Decne. cultivated only Melodinus orientalis Blume. climber. epiphyte. climber.. critically endangered Genianthus maingayi Hook. 564.. native. Nerium oleander L.) R. Br. 557. cultivated Kibatalia maingayi (Hook. cultivated Epigynum ridleyi King & Gamble. native. climber. extinct Hoya scortechinii King & Gamble. climber. native. epiphyte. epiphyte. native. cultivated only Hoya obtusifolia Wight. 555. cultivated only Kopsia flavida Blume. common. shrub. 548. climber. Forst. f.. native. native. native. climber. epiphyte.. tree. epiphyte.) G. exotic.. exotic.) Woodson.. climber. cultivated only Kopsia singapurensis Ridl. climber. tree. f. 561.

) Merr. Vallaris glabra (L.. & Schult. Plumeria alba L.J. native.) Kurz.. climber. native. cultivated only 591. climber. vulnerable. Plumeria pudica Jacq. Thevetia peruviana (Pers. native. f. tree. exotic. extinct.. climber. exotic. cultivated only 595. cultivated only 587.) Markgraf. exotic.. ex G. climber. Tabernaemontana macrocarpa Jack. extinct. cultivated... exotic.. Don) Benth. exotic. cultivated only 599. cultivated 628. extinct 612.) Mabb. native. tree. critically endangered 611.. Parsonsia alboflavescens (Dennst. extinct 608. Stephanotis maingayi (Hook. climber. cultivated only 592.) Merr. ex Roem. & Hook. native. Wrightia antidysenterica (L. tree. climber. 580. Middleton 613. climber. extinct 619. =I.. Ilex latifolia Thunb. cultivated only 604. exotic. Br. critically endangered 585. climber.. Telosma cordata (Burm. f. shrub. Willughbeia flavescens Dyer ex Hook. f. critically endangered 584.) Benth.) P. casual. Tabernaemontana pachysiphon Stapf. tree. extinct 622. Strophanthus singaporianus (Wall. climber. =Neisosperma oppositifolium (Lamk. climber.. exotic.) Moldenke. Toxocarpus griffithii Decne. Stephanotis floribunda Brongn.. exotic. Pleiocarpa mutica Benth. Secamone elliptica R. common 610..L. Parameria polyneura Hook. native. shrub. endangered 616. native. shrub. climber.. cultivated. 581. native.. Br. Juss. ex Wall. climber. cultivated only 607. cultivated only 617. climber.. native. climber...) R.. Br. climber. cultivated only 582.) Kuntze. common. shrub. cultivated only 583. Br. Willughbeia grandiflora Dyer ex Hook. climber. Wrightia laevis Hook. cultivated 620. climber. Endangered. cultivated 601.) Baill. cultivated only 609. climber. critically endangered 626. cultivated only 590.. =U. f. cultivated only 606.. cultivated only 625. extinct 593. climber. Plumeria rubra L. Schum.. extinct 596. critically endangered 614. climber. f. native. extinct 615. vulnerable 605. exotic. maingayi D. cultivated only 588. exotic. Vinca minor L. critically endangered 621. native. climber. ex G. native. Trachelospermum asiaticum Nakai. endangered. Tylophora squarrosa Ridl. Strophanthus caudatus (L. Sarcolobus globosus Wall. tree. herb. macrophylla Blume 106 . Ilex cymosa Blume. Tylophora indica (Burm. critically endangered 597. climber. exotic.. Tabernaemontana pauciflora Blume. cultivated only 598. Willughbeia tenuiflora Dyer ex Hook. Parameria laevigata (A. native.Don) Gilg. ex Hook. native. climber. Plumeria obtusa L. shrub. native. & Schult. & Sach. cultivated only 589... f. native. critically endangered 594. exotic. Pachypodium lamerei Drake. Strophanthus gratus (Wall. tree.) Fosb. Willughbeia edulis Roxb.. f. Urceola lucida (Wall. Ochrosia oppositifolia (Lam.) Markgr. Urceola torulosa Hook. exotic. shrub. tree. shrub. Urceola brachysepala Hook. ex Kurz. Wrightia religiosa (Teijsm. tree. critically endangered 586. shrub. Forst. extinct 600. cultivated only 624.Chong et al. tree. cultivated Aquifoliaceae 627.I. & Pax. shrub. exotic. native. exotic. Schum. cultivated only 602.) R. f. Tylophora flexuosa R. tree. Urceola elastica Roxb.) K... native. native. native. exotic. critically endangered 623. Tabernaemontana corymbosa Roxb. f. Wrightia dubia (Sims) Spreng. f.. exotic. climber. exotic. Strophanthus preussii Engl. Tabernaemontana divaricata (L. native.. native.... cultivated only 603. Odontadenia macrantha (Roem. native. cultivated only 618.) K. tree.. native. native. exotic. exotic. exotic. native. climber. & Binn. tree. f... climber.. Willughbeia angustifolia (Miq. Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. exotic. native. climber.

exotic.. herb. Alocasia macrorrhizos (L. Monstera obliqua Miq. critically endangered. elongata Engl. Aglaonema costatum N. herb.) Schott. cultivated only. foxii Engl. cultivated only 107 . Montrichardia arborescens (L. casual 672. Amorphophallus prainii Hook. Amydrium medium (Z. Aglaonema commutatum Schott.. Ilex maingayi Hook... Don. herb. f. =A. Lasia spinosa (L. cultivated only 648. E. Cyrtosperma merkusii (Hassk. D. native.) Schott. herb. tree. Homalomena rostrata Griff.) Bogner. 652. Lemna perpusilla Torr. Cryptocoryne griffithii Schott.. Br. Epipremnum amplissimum (Schott) Engl. cultivated only 645. cultivated only 649. exotic. vulnerable 656. endangered 644. picta Schott 657.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 629. Alocasia cucullata (Lour. climber. seguine. exotic. f. common 636. native. Colocasia esculenta (L.) Schott.) Schott var. cultivated 661. cultivated only 668. herb. exotic. cultivated only 647. cultivated 632. native. herb. Aglaonema nitidum (Jack) Kunth. f. herb. exotic.) Engl. cultivated 635. exotic. herb. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst. native. Homalomena humilis (Jack) Hook. endangered Araceae 630.. herb. endangered 663. cultivated only 638. exotic.) Nicolson. native. vulnerable 662. 639. Anthurium plowmanii Croat. f. costatum. var. native. denudata. native. exotic.) Sweet.) Nicholson. native. herb. vulnerable. climber. Aglaonema simplex Blume. herb. 633. critically endangered 655. Don. herb. herb. cultivated only 658.E. common 671. Br. herb. native. herb. herb. herb. maculata (Lodd. naturalised. exotic. Homalomena sagittifolia Jungh. =Rhektophyllum mirabile N. Caladium lindenii (Andre) Madison. cultivated only 637. exotic.E.. exotic. native. ex Schott. Monstera deliciosa Liebm. herb. Anubias barteri Schott var. endangered 665.. herb. native. cultivated. cultivated. cultivated only 650. Caladium humboldtii (Raf. climber. climber. native. exotic. native. Br. exotic. exotic. herb. cultivated only 651. cultivated 659. native. cultivated only 643. f.) G.. herb. Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacq. herb. Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent. endangered 667. Alocasia longiloba Miq. cultivated only 666. exotic. Br. Cercestis mirabilis (N. Cryptocoryne ciliata (Roxb. native. cultivated 640. Epipremnum aureum (Linden ex André) Bunting. Epipremnum pinnatum (L.. Amorphophallus variabilis Blume. costatum N. native. Anthurium crystallinum Linden & Andre. A. cultivated 642. exotic.. var. cultivated 653. exotic. common. cultivated only. climber. Homalomena pendula (Blume) Bakh. common 660.. casual. =A. vulnerable. critically endangered. & M. Homalomena griffithii (Schott) Hook.) Thwaites. f. Lemna tenera Kerz. Homalomena wallichii Schott. herb. exotic.) G. Epipremnum giganteum (Roxb.) Kunth. denudata Engl. herb. exotic. cultivated only 646. cultivated only 673. cultivated only 641. herb. Aglaonema tenuipes Engl. herb. Aglaonema nebulosum N.E.. herb. var.. native. casual. extinct 631. herb. exotic. climber.) Schott. Br. exotic. naturalised 670. herb. extinct 654. endangered 664. glabra N. vulnerable 634.E. native. cultivated 669. casual.) Schott. herb. herb. =D. herb.) Fischer ex Wydler. exotic. herb. native. Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex Andre. exotic. Aglaodorum griffithii (Schott) Schott. herb. exotic. casual. exotic. native. herb. herb.E. Br. denudata Engl. epiphyte. Homalomena rubescens (Roxb.. herb.

cultivated only 714. exotic.) Engl. herb. herb. Philodendron erubescens K. vulnerable 688. exotic. Schefflera cephalotes (C. =Anadendrum montanum (Blume) Schott 690. native. herb. critically endangered 691. extinct 108 . Philodendron undulatum Engl.) Decne. common 695.. cultivated only 683. Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam.. climber. exotic.. herb. climber. exotic. exotic. Rhaphidophora maingayi Hook... native. climber. casual.) Schott. cultivated.) Schott. weed of uncertain origin 701. selloum K. Zamioculcas zamiifolia (Lodd. native. exotic. cultivated only 711. native. shrub. Philodendron xanadu Croat. cultivated only 703. Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd. Philodendron bipinnatifidum Schott ex Endl. vulnerable 687. & Planch. herb. cultivated only 681. Rhaphidophora montana (Blume) Schott. herb. Aralia elata (Miq. herb.Koch & Sello 677. cultivated only 715.. exotic. native. native. cultivated only 680.. f.) Hartog & Plas. climber. exotic. exotic. herb. cultivated only 717.. Typhonium roxburghii Schott.. scandens K. climber. cultivated only 713. et al. weed of uncertain origin 700.. cultivated only 697. exotic. climber.Chong et al.) Hook. exotic. cultivated 693. Hedera helix L. vulnerable. shrub. cultivated only 678. native. Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb.H. cultivated only 709. Schefflera arboricola (Hayata) Merr. cultivated only 706.. herb.) Blume.. native. Rhaphidophora minor Hook. cultivated 712.B. Spathiphyllum cannifolium (Dryand. Eleutherococcus nodiflorus (Dunn) S. native. Philodendron panduriforme (Kunth) Kunth. naturalised 702. herb. cultivated 719. =P.. exotic. common. exotic. =P. tree. herb. climber. vulnerable 685. Koch 675. exotic. Pothos lancifolius Hook. Clarke) Harms. tree. native. shrub.. exotic. f. herb. naturalised. vulnerable 689. Schismatoglottis wallichii (Roxb.) Harms.) Schott. f. shrub. cultivated only 710. exotic. native. Bailey. shrub.. exotic. Philodendron lacerum (Jacq... climber. Philodendron mamei André. native. Arthrophyllum diversifolium Blume. weed of uncertain origin 704.. Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem. Presl) Fern. exotic.. Rhaphidophora lobbii Schott. Schismatoglottis calyptrata (Roxb. exotic. exotic. Scindapsus hederaceus Schott. cultivated only 696. herb.) Schott. weed of uncertain origin 698. cultivated only 676. cultivated only 720. Koch & Augustin. naturalised. exotic. climber. Polyscias cumingiana (C. Rhaphidophora korthalsii Schott. Osmoxylon lineare (Merr. 674.) Philipson. Rhaphidophora sylvestris (Blume) Engl. epiphyte. & Moritzi.Y. shrub.) Harms. shrub. herb. climber. Typhonium trilobatum (L. Syngonium podophyllum Schott. climber. Philodendron hederaceum (Jacq. vulnerable 686. Polyscias fruticosa (L. Mayo & J. shrub.. cultivated only 682. cultivated only 716. cultivated 684. exotic. Polyscias balfouriana (André) L. tree. cultivated only 679. climber. Philodendron wendlandii Schott. Fatsia japonica (Thunb. exotic. vulnerable. exotic. exotic. herb. Scindapsus pictus Hassk. climber. cultivated 699.) Seem. exotic. cultivated 707.-Vill. climber. cultivated only 708. native. Wolffia globosa (Roxb. exotic.) Zoll. climber. climber. herb. herb. Spirodela polyrhiza (L. Typhonodorum lindleyanum Schott.) Schleid. Schefflera actinophylla (Endl. Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel. casual. Pistia stratiotes L. exotic. herb. herb. Boos. common 694. Hydrocotyle umbellata L. f. exotic. vulnerable 692. native. common. cultivated only. cultivated only Araliaceae 705. cultivated only 718. Hu.

Borassus flabellifer L. Muell. native. native. Wendl. Schefflera lanceolata Ridl. cultivated 750. cultivated only 730. tree. tree. tree. exotic. tree.-Ham. cultivated only 747. cultivated only 756. tree. cultivated only 744. & Drude. exotic. native. & H.) H. critically endangered 109 . cultivated only 754. Arenga tremula (Blanco) Becc. Arenga hookeriana (Becc. Borassodendron machadonis Becc.. tree. exotic. tree. Schefflera hullettii (King) Viguier. Bactris guineensis (L. tree. endangered 763. Attalea insignis (Mart. cultivated only 728. =Veitchia merrillii (Becc. critically endangered 724. Wendl. exotic. cultivated only 761. shrub. cultivated only 742. critically endangered 765. extinct 727. exotic. exotic. casual. climber. shrub. critically endangered 767. native. cultivated only 733. & H. Areca macrocarpa Becc.. cultivated only 752. cultivated only 748. climber. Veitch ex Mast. Areca catechu L.. tree. epiphyte... climber. native. shrub. Muell.) Becc. Schefflera elliptica (Blume) Harms. Calamus diepenhorstii Miq. exotic.) Whitmore.. climber. cultivated only 735. tree. extinct 766. ex Drude.. exotic.) Wendl. Brahea edulis H.) R. Schefflera ridleyi (King) Viguier. exotic.) H. exotic. cultivated 737. cultivated only 746. cultivated only 757.. Arenga microcarpa Becc.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 721. epiphyte. Archontophoenix alexandrae (F. native. cultivated only 745. Areca ipot Becc.) Kuntze. cultivated only 749. & Guillaumin 722. native. tree.. E. cultivated only. Wendl. extinct 725. exotic. shrub. cultivated only 740. Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr. exotic.. Allagoptera campestris (Mart.E. Asterogyne martiana H. cultivated only 760. Areca concinna Thwaites. Calamus insignis Griff. cultivated only 759. climber. Wendl. Arenga undulatifolia Becc. vulnerable 764. Schefflera elegantissima (hort.. cultivated only 743. exotic. Attalea cohune Mart.. cultivated only 758. Watson. shrub.) Becc. exotic.. Calamus densiflorus Becc. Areca vestiaria Giseke. Veitch ex Mast.. Areca guppyana Becc. Actinorhytis calapparia (Blume) H.. Moore. Arenga brevipes Becc.. cultivated only 738. exotic. extinct 726. exotic. native. exotic. & Drude.. tree. cultivated only 751. Wendl. shrub. Vig. tree.. Hill ex F. Perrier. Wendl.. =Dizygotheca elegantissima (hort. Beccariophoenix madagascariensis Jum. exotic. tree.) Lowry & Frodin. native.) Drude. tree. cultivated only 741. naturalised.Moore 732. Adonidia merrillii (Becc. Trevesia burckii Boerl.. exotic. ex Buch. tree. tree. tree.. Calamus laevigatus Mart. tree. exotic. shrub. exotic. Bentinckia nicobarica (Kurz) Becc. exotic.. native. climber. ex S. Archontophoenix cunninghamiana (Wendl. cultivated only 734.) H. exotic. Butia capitata (Mart. tree. Schefflera versteegii Harms. exotic. exotic.. tree. native. epiphyte. Wendl. Dransf. exotic. Areca triandra Roxb. Acoelorraphe wrightii (Griseb. tree. Calamus erinaceus (Becc. tree.. cultivated only. exotic. cultivated only 753. exotic.. extinct 762. Bismarckia nobilis Hildebrandt & H. Areca alicae W. cultivated only 736. ex Becc. exotic. Calamus lobbianus Becc. native.) H. & Drude.) Viguier. exotic. shrub. exotic. Calamus javensis Blume. native. shrub. climber.. shrub. Schefflera oxyphylla (Miq. Arenga westerhoutii Griff. vulnerable 723. exotic.. exotic. shrub. critically endangered Arecaceae 729. cultivated only 731. epiphyte. cultivated only 739. shrub. tree. cultivated only 755.) J. exotic.

770. cultivated only Chamaedorea metallica O. exotic. exotic. Cook ex H. Dransf. 774. native. cultivated only Dypsis decaryi (Jum. ex Becc. tree. climber. tree. 772. 812. tree. native. tree. exotic. cultivated Copernicia alba Morong. 791. climber. 790.) Becc.. 793.. tree. tree. tree. cultivated only Chamaedorea seifrizii Burret. extinct Chamaedorea cataractarum Mart.) Mart.. climber.. 804. native. 778. hystrix (Griff. Moore. tree.. Ferrero. Moore) Beentje & J. 817. 775. native. 771. climber. cultivated only Caryota rumphiana Mart. cultivated only Corypha utan Lam. tree. cultivated only Clinostigma samoense H. native. exotic. cultivated only Dypsis lastelliana (Baill. 780.. climber. 787. tree. 807.D. cultivated only Chamaerops humilis L.) Mart. tree. native. & Drude ex Scheff. exotic. cultivated only Dypsis hovomantsina Beentje. 813. 814. exotic. exotic.. native.. exotic. Heatubun & J. extinct Calamus ornatus Becc.) Beentje & J..) Beentje & J.) Mart.E. cultivated only Carpentaria acuminata Becc. cultivated only 110 .. 773.. climber. Moore.. vulnerable. exotic.. tree. critically endangered Daemonorops lewisiana (Griff. exotic.) Dowe & M..) H. exotic. cultivated only Dypsis ambositrae Beentje. 803. cultivated only Drymophloeus oliviformis (Giseke) Mart. shrub..) Vieill. exotic. cultivated only Calyptronoma occidentalis (Sw. exotic. native. exotic. 794. exotic..E. Wendl. cultivated Daemonorops angustifolia (Griff. Dransf. exotic.. 777. tree. & H. tree.. Wendl. tree. 795. cultivated only Coccothrinax crinita (Griseb. Wendl. 786. exotic. cultivated only Dypsis leptocheilos (Hodel) Beentje & J. shrub. native. 808. 796. endangered Daemonorops hirsuta Blume.) Becc. 815. cultivated only Caryota zebrina Hambali. 819. tree.. Dransf. exotic.F. exotic. exotic. native. climber. common. vulnerable Daemonorops geniculata (Griff. ex Seem. cultivated only Caryota maxima Blume ex Mart.. exotic. 818. 816... tree. tree.) Griff. extinct Calamus oxleyanus Teijsm & Binnend. tree. cultivated only Chamaedorea microspadix Burret. tree. Moore. 784. climber. shrub. exotic. Calamus luridus Becc. 809. 797. ex Mart. naturalised. exotic. exotic. tree. ex Kerch.. climber. cultivated only Chambeyronia macrocarpa (Brongn. tree. climber. climber. tree. exotic.. exotic. tree. exotic... cultivated only Cyrtostachys renda Blume. 776. 810. tree..) H. 788. 789. 801.) Mart. vulnerable Daemonorops micracantha (Griff. tree.. native.. cultivated only Dypsis lutescens (H. native. shrub. cultivated only Chamaedorea elegans Mart. exotic. critically endangered Deckenia nobilis H. 769. endangered Daemonorops grandis (Giff. cultivated only Caryota mitis Lour. Wendl. extinct Daemonorops longipes (Griff.. climber. critically endangered Calyptrocalyx micholitzii (Ridl.) Beentje & J. native.. critically endangered Daemonorops sabut Becc. ex Mart. tree. climber...) Mart. Maturb. cultivated only Dictyosperma album (Bory) H. Dransf. exotic. cultivated only Ceratolobus subangulatus (Miq..E. 792. exotic. 785. =D.) Becc.. tree.. shrub.Chong et al..E. cultivated Caryota no Becc. 781. 783. native. Dransf. exotic. shrub.. critically endangered Daemonorops periacantha Miq.. 779.) Mart. critically endangered Calamus ridleyanus Becc. cultivated only Corypha umbraculifera L. tree. climber. cultivated only Dypsis cabadae (H. exotic. tree. 799. native. native. 802.. climber. climber. 782. critically endangered Daemonorops leptopus (Griff. cultivated only Copernicia prunifera (Mill. native. cultivated only Caryota cumingii Lodd. native. vulnerable Daemonorops didymophylla Becc. extinct.Dransf. 806. native. 768. Daemonorops kunstleri Becc. cultivated only Copernicia baileyana Léon. 811. Wendl. cultivated only Cocos nucifera L. 805. 800. 798. exotic.

M. shrub. Dransf.H. cultivated only Dypsis paludosa J. 857. climber.. native.. shrub.. Wendl. cultivated only Latania verschaffeltii Lem. 847. tree. exotic. ex Drude. tree. 837. extinct Korthalsia rigida Blume. tree. shrub. 842. cultivated only 111 . exotic. cultivated only Licuala ferruginea Becc. tree. cultivated only Livistona chinensis (Jacq. native. Bailey. 863. exotic. Moore. native. exotic... tree. 840. cultivated only Dypsis nodifera Mart. Perrier) Beentje & J.) H. cultivated only Licuala lauterbachii Dammer & K.E. native. shrub. climber. tree. shrub. exotic.. exotic. exotic.E. cultivated only Livistona endauensis J. tree. tree. 830. tree. cultivated only Licuala orbicularis Becc. tree. climber. tree. 864. exotic. cultivated only Hyophorbe vaughanii L. 834. cultivated only Licuala spinosa Thunb. 846. exotic. tree. 827.. exotic. tree.. cultivated Licuala grandis (hort. exotic. cultivated Euterpe edulis Mart. critically endangered Korthalsia rostrata Blume. tree.. cultivated only Kerriodoxa elegans J.. 832. & K. ssp. Schum. 845. cultivated only Korthalsia echinometra Becc. tree. tree. tree. native. shrub.) Kiew var. malaccensis (Becc. 865. native. 858. Dransf. 853. exotic. cultivated only Hyphaene coriacea Gaertn. ex W. 835. climber. Moore & F. shrub.. native. tree.) Becc.E. 839.) R. critically endangered Korthalsia laciniosa (Griff. cultivated only Licuala mattanensis Becc. cultivated only Licuala ramsayi (F. cultivated only Licuala paludosa Griff. exotic.. Baker & Loo. & H. Br. 823. exotic.. 829. cultivated only Dypsis sanctaemariae J... native. 860. Moore.. cultivated only Dypsis mcdonaldiana Beentje.. 828. cultivated only Livistona drudei F. shrub. Wong. exotic. ex Mart. Dransf. cultivated only Heterospathe minor Burret. exotic. 852.J. tree. tree.. climber. cultivated Licuala triphylla Griff. critically endangered Korthalsia flagellaris Miq. 825. cultivated only Euterpe oleraceae Mart. 831.. exotic. exotic. exotic. exotic.. cultivated only Hyophorbe verschaffeltii H. 850. 844. native. exotic. Moore. Muell. exotic. cultivated only Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (L. Br. exotic. tree. Muell. 869. cultivated only Hydriastele costata F. 822. tree. exotic. 868. exotic. 821. 870.) Burret. cultivated only Licuala bintulensis Becc. exotic. 848. endangered Korthalsia scortechinii Becc. Dransf. Dransf.. 826. shrub... 855. & Zoll.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 820.) Domin. cultivated only Livistona decipiens Becc. cultivated only Elaeis guineensis Jacq. exotic. 833. tree. Bailey. 859. 854. ex Mart. exotic. exotic. native. f. 851.... climber. cultivated only Licuala peltata Roxb. tree. shrub. tree. cultivated only Livistona humilis R. 836. 843.) Mart. Wendl. malaccensis. exotic.. 849. cultivated Johannesteijsmannia altifrons (Rchb.. Dransf. cultivated only Licuala cordata Becc. cultivated only Latania loddigesii Mart. cultivated only Howea belmoreana (C.. native. exotic. exotic. Dypsis madagascariensis (Becc.) Hook. tree. Dransf. tree. cultivated only Latania lontaroides (Gaertn. cultivated only Eleiodoxa conferta (Griff. Endangered. 862. Muell. 861. 867. 866. tree. 856. exotic. critically endangered. cultivated only Hydriastele beguinii (Burret) W.) Beentje & J.M. vulnerable. exotic. exotic. Wendl.) Mart. exotic... shrub. Bailey) H. tree. tree. extinct Livistona australis (R.. exotic.. tree. 838.. exotic. Br. cultivated only Iguanura wallichiana (Wall. cultivated only Dypsis pinnatifrons Mart. 824. shrub.H. exotic. 841. cultivated only Johannesteijsmannia lanceolata J. tree. tree. cultivated only Dypsis rivularis (Jum..) H.. vulnerable. extinct Laccospadix australasica H. exotic. Bull) H.

885. critically endangered Nenga pumila (Mart. cultivated only Phoenix canariensis hort. extinct Pinanga subruminata Becc. tree. cultivated only Metroxylon sagu Rottb. native. shrub.. 914. exotic. 883. exotic. cultivated only Phoenicophorium borsigianum (K. exotic.. tree. shrub. 877. Wendl. native. vulnerable. var. 907. 903. 913. shrub.) Merr. cultivated Oncosperma tigillaria (Jack) Ridl. extinct Pinanga simplicifrons (Miq. 890. 886. shrub. tree. exotic. Wendl. 901.) Roxb. cultivated Oncosperma horridum (Griff.. cultivated only Ptychosperma lineare (Burret) Burret. cultivated only Pinanga coronata (Blume ex Mart.. native. cultivated only Pinanga dicksonii Blume. Wendl. tree.Chong et al. cultivated Orania palindan (Blanco) Merr. tree. 910. exotic. cultivated Pelagodoxa henryana Becc. 876. exotic. tree. cultivated only Phoenix rupicola T. cultivated only Pinanga pectinata Becc. cultivated Pigafetta elata (Mart. cultivated only Pinanga limosa Ridl. native. exotic.. tree. cultivated only Livistona tahanensis Becc. tree. tree.... Chev. exotic. tree..) Toledo. exotic. 917. native. exotic.. cultivated only Pigafetta filaris (Giseke) Becc. Gmel. exotic. cultivated Pinanga kuhlii Blume. vulnerable. tree. 891. exotic. Muell. cultivated only Phoenix reclinata Jacq. 908. exotic. climber. 878.. exotic. cultivated only Orania sylvicola (Griff. Bailey.) Ridl. cultivated only Myrialepis paradoxa (Kurz) Dransfield. 897.. 900. climber. 875. 888.) Pers. 882. Moore. 905. shrub. native. cultivated Pinanga malaiana (Mart.. exotic.. ex Van Houtte) Balf. 902. f.) Blume ex H. 873. tree. 874. native.. naturalised. cultivated only Phoenix dactylifera L. shrub. shrub. shrub. exotic. ex Bois. cultivated Metroxylon salomonense (Warb. cultivated only Livistona mariae F. shrub. tree.) Blume ex H. tree. exotic. exotic. 919. exotic.) H. tree. extinct. cultivated only Lodoicea maldivica (J. critically endangered. ex A. exotic. Bailey. 892. critically endangered. native. ex Chabaud. shrub. exotic. shrub. ex Blume. tree.H. 906. Endangered. shrub. exotic. exotic. vulnerable Pritchardia pacifica Seem. Wendl. exotic. tree. cultivated Pinanga patula Blume. cultivated Nephrosperma vanhoutteanum (H. native. cultivated only Pinanga densiflora Becc. exotic. cultivated only Livistona robinsoniana Becc. 898. exotic. native. 899. tree.) Scheff. 909. Livistona lorophylla Becc. cultivated only Livistona merrillii Becc. tree. extinct. shrub.. tree..E. exotic. exotic. tree. 916. tree. tree. cultivated only Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien.) Scheff. native.) H. 895. cultivated only Phoenix paludosa Roxb. 912..M. extinct. exotic.) Mart. shrub. 896. cultivated only Livistona saribus (Lour. cultivated only Pinanga caesia Blume. 889. exotic. cultivated only Pinanga disticha (Roxb. Hill) L. & H. native. cultivated only Lytocaryum weddellianum (H. tree. 894.. cultivated only Pholidocarpus kingianus (Becc. 879. cultivated only 112 . tree. 920. 871. 884. cultivated only Pritchardia thurstonii F. tree. cultivated only Nypa fruticans Wurmb. cultivated only Livistona muelleri F. extinct Plectocomia elongata Mart. 893.. cultivated only Phoenix sylvestris (L. tree. tree. shrub. tree. Anderson. 904.. Wendl. exotic.F.. exotic.. vulnerable. & Drude. Koch) Stuntz. tree..) Becc. tree. cultivated only Livistona rotundifolia (Lam. tree. Muell. 911. 872. 918..) Blume. 915. cultivated only Normanbya normanbyi (W.. Wendl. exotic...) Becc.. 887. exotic. 881. exotic. tree. exotic. 880. pachystachya (Blume) Fernando. native. native.. cultivated only Pinanga ligulata Becc.

exotic. exotic.. exotic. exotic. shrub. cultivated only. shrub. cultivated only 946. & Strey.D. Cook. tree. Trachycarpus takil Becc.F.) Griseb. exotic. climber. Sabal causiarum (O.F. Sabal minor (Jacq.E. cultivated only 934. Syagyrus schizophylla (Mart. exotic. Wendl. exotic. Salacca affinis Griff. exotic. tree. cultivated only 925. Karst.) Glassman. exotic. exotic. cultivated only 951. Washingtonia robusta H. & Drude. Asparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Jessop. cultivated only 928.. ex Schult. Aristolochia labiata Willd. Jacks. cultivated only 113 . cultivated only 927. cultivated only 965. exotic.K. native. climber. Serenoa repens (W.. exotic. Aristolochia gigantea Mart. tree. exotic. tree. herb. cultivated only Aristolochiaceae 956. & Schult. tree. critically endangered. Irvine. native. cultivated only 947. extinct 942. Cook. cultivated only 955. Syagyrus romanzoffiana (Cham. cultivated only 935. Roystonea regia (Kunth) O. Reinhardtia gracilis (H. cultivated only 931. cultivated only 930.) L. Wendl. Salacca magnifica Mogea. cultivated only 952. Zombia antillarum (Descourt. tree. exotic. tree. 957. tree. exotic. Wendl. Rhapis multifida Buffet. tree. exotic. cultivated only 924. exotic.. Thottea dependens (Planch. Verschaffeltia splendida H. cultivated only 959.) Pers. exotic. ex Schult. exotic.) H. ex anon. exotic.E. cultivated only 939.E. naturalised. native. f. Wendl. Aristolochia elegans Mast. tree. exotic. exotic. native.) Benth..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 921... cultivated Asparagaceae 964. tree. Wendl.H. exotic. Thrinax radiata Lodd.. herb. tree. Aristolochia ringens Vahl.. & Hook. cultivated only 958. Wendl.. shrub. cultivated only 962. climber. cultivated only 938. tree. exotic.. Rhapis excelsa (Thunb. Satakentia liukiuensis (Hatus. cultivated only 926. tree. ex Hook. climber. f. cultivated only 949. shrub. cultivated only 944. exotic. tree. cultivated only 953. Wodyetia bifurcata A. =A. Wendl.) H. shrub. & H. climber. Thottea grandiflora Rottb. tagala Cham. Ravenea rivularis Jum. cultivated only 945. exotic. & Schult. tree. Bailey. cultivated only 936. exotic. & Zucc. Wright ex Becc. shrub. Thrinax parviflora Sw.) Hyl. shrub. tree.. cultivated only 923. exotic. cultivated 933. Asparagus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop. tree. Cook) Becc. exotic. Aristolochia jackii Steud. Moore. Wendl. tree.) A. tree. cultivated 922. shrub. exotic. cultivated only 943. exotic.) O. Rhopaloblaste augusta (Kurz) H. f. tree.) Burret var... Bartram) Small. & H. Moore. tree. shrub. cultivated only 937.) Glassman. exotic. cultivated only 948. Raphia australis Oberm. Rhapis humilis Blume. Rhopalostylis sapida H... rostrata (Burret) H. extinct 963. tree... exotic. tree... Sabal yapa C. Rhopaloblaste ceramica (Miq. exotic. exotic. shrub. cultivated only 940. Ptychosperma macarthurii (H. cultivated only 961.F. Washingtonia filifera (Linden ex André) H. Perrier. Henry ex Rehder. Raphia farinifera (Gaertn.) Burret. shrub. cultivated only 932. climber. Roystonea oleracea (Jacq. Sabal mauritiiformis (H. Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. Ptychosperma sanderianum Ridl. native. tree. vulnerable. Aristolochia acuminata Lam. Veitchia joannis H. f. tree. cultivated only 929. cultivated only 941. exotic. cultivated only 954... exotic. extinct 960. ex B. Wendl. cultivated only 950..) Klotsch. exotic. Rhopaloblaste singaporensis (Becc. Moore. exotic.. exotic.

) Wild. Blainvillea acmella (L. ex DC. exotic. shrub. =Wollastonia biflora (L. Conyza bonariensis (L.) Raf. cultivated only 967.L. naturalised 978. Mikania micrantha Kunth. cultivated 114 .. exotic. Artemisia vulgaris L. cultivated only 985. Aloe vera (L. exotic. herb.) Boerl. naturalised.. exotic. cultivated only 991. Artemisia lactiflora Wall.. Melanthera biflora (L. Calocephalus brownii (Cass. Forst. Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Acmella uliginosa (Sw. naturalised 1000. Eclipta prostrata (L. herb. cultivated only 1007.. herb. herb. Blumea lacera (Burm. Centipeda minima (L. herb.. Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch.) DC. exotic. herb. herb.. f. cultivated 971. ex DC. Bip.) DC. Bip. =M. Artemisia scoparia Waldst. cultivated only 1002. shrub. cultivated only 990.Rob. shrub. herb.. f.. cultivated 996. Helianthus annuus L.) F. shrub.. Chromolaena odorata (L. exotic. naturalised 1001. herb. cultivated only 968. Gynura segetum Merr.. herb. Blumea membranacea DC. common 984.. herb.) DC. herb. Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. exotic. cultivated only Asteraceae 969. Forst.. Aloe variegata L.) B.) Cronquist. Centratherum punctatum Cass... exotic. ex Walp. cultivated only 1006.. herb. Bidens alba (L. Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hook. Bulbine frutescens (L. cultivated only 1004.) DC.. exotic. Ageratum conyzoides L.) S. cultivated 998. 1010. Braun & Asch. Erechtites valerianifolius (Link ex Spreng. herb. herb.) Willd. Melampodium leucanthum Torr. =Vernonia amygdalina Delile 1003. common. exotic. shrub. herb. herb. exotic.. cultivated only 974. exotic.. herb. Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) DC. herb. herb.. exotic.. exotic. cultivated only 994. herb. herb. native. exotic. exotic. cultivated only. Gynura procumbens (Lour.. Bidens pilosa L. extinct 981. weed of uncertain origin 989. herb. herb.) Burm. exotic. cultivated only 987.. Enydra fluctuans Lour. exotic.) L.. Wedelia biflora (L. weed of uncertain origin 982. naturalised 988. herb.) R.) Kuntze. weed of uncertain origin. herb. cultivated. Blumea balsamifera (L. cultivated only 992. Mikania cordata (Burm. native. herb.. naturalised 973. naturalised 995. herb. exotic. herb. Blumea riparia (Blume) DC.M.Chong et al.. Gray. Eleutheranthera ruderalis (Sw. naturalised 993. herb. herb. f. exotic. weed of uncertain origin.. native. exotic. exotic. exotic. weed of uncertain origin 983.) DC. Asphodelaceae 966. exotic.. cultivated only 977.) Philipson. Crossostephium chinense (L. Blumea junghuhniana (Miq. weed of uncertain origin. cultivated only 979. herb..) DC.) Makino. weed of uncertain origin 1011. climber. herb. cultivated only 975. cultivated only. casual 986. & G. Rob..) A. Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg ex Sweet. exotic. naturalised 997. herb. weed of uncertain origin 999. exotic.. R. naturalised 970. herb. exotic... Cosmos sulphureus Cav..) DC. cultivated 980. climber. paludosum Kunth 1009. Moore.) Merr. exotic. cultivated only 1008.. Erechtites hieracifolius (L. herb. native..King & H. herb. cultivated only 976.) Cass. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth. & A. critically endangered 1005. exotic... weed of uncertain origin. herb. Muell. herb. Gynura pseudochina (L.) Sch. weed of uncertain origin 972. Emilia sonchifolia (L. exotic. Adenostemma viscosum J.. exotic.) DC. & Kit. Elephantopus scaber L. f. exotic.

herb. climber. cultivated only 1050. herb. exotic. cultivated 1031. herb. cultivated only 1016. cultivated only 1022.) Pruski. cucullata..) G. exotic. cultivated only 1037... extinct..) Seem ex Bureau. exotic. exotic. shrub. Tithonia diversifolia (Helms. herb. Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni. Vernonia arborea (L. =B. casual 1033.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1012. tree. 1023. naturalised. exotic. herb. cultivated only 1048. Impatiens walleriana Hook.) DC. herb. herb. climber. exotic. Anemopaegma chamberlaynii (Sims) Bureau & K.) Strother 1019. herb. Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Kunth) Cabrera. naturalised. herb. Sphagneticola trilobata (L. exotic. naturalised 1035. Symphyotrichum laeve (L. exotic... Impatiens repens Moon.. naturalised 1024. Don. Tridax procumbens L. exotic. cultivated only. weed of uncertain origin 1030. Gray. Thymophylla tenuiloba DC. exotic. Sigesbeckia orientalis L. Love & D.. exotic. herb. Vernonia elliptica DC.. climber. herb. exotic. Impatiens balsamina L. var. herb. Synedrella nodiflora (L. exotic. exotic. naturalised Balsaminaceae 1034. tree. Jeffrey 1021.) F. herb. cultivated only 1027. Catalpa ovata G.. cultivated only Basellaceae 1038. herb. =Sparganophoros vaillantii DC. weed of uncertain origin 1032. exotic. tree... exotic. Arrabidaea corallina (Jacq. exotic. Sparganophorus sparganophora (L. cultivated only 1044. exotic. herb.) Bureau & Schum. cultivated only 1041. climber.) Gaertn.. exotic. laeve.) Hitch. cultivated only Bignoniaceae 1042.L.. f. Jeffrey. exotic. cultivated only 1043. cultivated. exotic. Bignonia violacea DC. herb. Schum. herb. =Wedelia trilobata (L.. exotic. cultivated only. naturalised.) Less.) Cass. climber.) A. herb. Sphaeranthus africanus L.. =Aster laevis L. casual. exotic. herb..) Steen. native... Begonia cucullata Willd.. cultivated only 1015. Tagetes patula L. cultivated only Begoniaceae 1039. climber. climber. exotic. Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton. exotic. Hydrocera triflora (L. herb. Muell. cultivated 1051.. exotic.. herb. semperflorens Link & Otto 1040. cultivated 1028. Campsis radicans (L. cultivated 1029. cultivated only 1025. Complaya trilobata (L.) Wight & Arn. Begonia rex Putz. exotic.. exotic. Love var. cultivated only 1045. cultivated only 1026. Youngia japonica (L. native. exotic. weed of uncertain origin 1018. Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq. Symphyotrichum dumosum (L.) Sandwith. herb. vulnerable. Deplanchea tetraphylla (R... exotic. cultivated only 1049. Vernonia cinerea (L. Xanthium inaequilaterum DC.) A. tree. native. Br. Begonia masoniana Irmsch..) Less. exotic. cultivated only 1047. Deplanchea bancana (Scheff. exotic. Basella alba L. Crescentia cujete L. cultivated only 1046. Nesom.) Willd.. Pluchea indica (L. exotic. Struchium sparganophorum (L. weed of uncertain origin 1017. cultivated only 115 .. naturalised 1014.. climber.) C. shrub. common 1013. tree.) C. climber. Bignonia capreolata L. Vernonia patula (Aiton) Merr. cultivated only 1020. herb. climber. Clytostoma callisgtegioides (Cham. cultivated only 1036.

Ploiarium alternifolium (Vahl) Melchior. climber.H. Macfadyena unguis-cati (L.. Podranea ricasoliana (Tanfani) Sprague. cultivated only 1083. ex Dillwyn) Mabb. climber.. climber. cultivated only 1078.. exotic. Spathodea campanulata P. climber. common. native. exotic. cultivated only 1057. exotic. Gentry. Schum. naturalised. Forst.. tree. Stereospermum colais (Buch. exotic.. exotic. shrub. exotic.. shrub. cultivated only 1073. shrub. critically endangered 1072.. Jacaranda semiserrata Cham. shrub. tree. cultivated 1074. Tabebuia heterophylla (DC. cultivated only 1079. & Hook. f. Moore. Saritaea magnifica (Sprague ex Steenis) Dugand. Stereospermum fimbriatum (Wall. Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam.) DC. cultivated only 1080. naturalised. Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd. tree. f.. Radermachera pinnata (Blanco) Seem. exotic.) A. Tecoma capensis (Thunb. exotic. cultivated only Bixaceae 1087.. Tabebuia chrysotricha (Mart. tree. cultivated 1084. exotic. tree. Dolichandrone spathacea (L.) K. Gentry. cultivated only 1062. Schum. cultivated only 1061.. cultivated only 1089. cultivated 1092.. tree. climber. cultivated only 1093. exotic. exotic. cultivated 1053.) Miers.) Steen. cultivated only 1066. ex G.H. Oroxylum indicum (L. Mansoa hymenaea (DC.. Gentry. cultivated only 1088. cultivated only 1070. exotic. Parmentiera cereifera Seem.) Standl.. Tecoma stans (L.) Lindl. tree.) Vent. cultivated only 1058. naturalised. Millingtonia hortensis L. f... exotic.. Nicholson. naturalised. exotic. tree. exotic. tree. native. cultivated only 1069. exotic. tree. Kigelia africana (Lam. =S..) Britton.) Roem. tree. Parmentiera aculeata (Kunth) Seem. tree. cultivated only 1064.) Juss.. exotic. tree. cultivated Boraginaceae 1091. exotic. tree. exotic. cultivated only 1059. climber. Jacaranda obtusifolia D. Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq. native. cultivated only 1055. Pajanelia longifolia (Willd. exotic. Beauv.H. tree. exotic. Cordia caffra Sond. exotic. ex S. cultivated 1056. extinct 1065.. tree.) A. Don) DC. shrub. Jacaranda acutifolia Bonpl.) Standl. Schum. Tabebuia rosea (Bertol. cultivated 1094.) A. Tabebuia ochracea (Cham.) Benth.) DC. critically endangered.) Spach 1086. cultivated only 1077. cultivated only 1076.. Phryganocydia corymbosa (Vent. Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl) G. climber. cultivated only 1085. Radermachera glandulosa Miq.) Bureau ex K. 1052. Cochlospermum religiosum (L.. native. Cordia dichotoma G. cultivated only 1068.. exotic. cultivated only Bonnetiaceae 1090. Tabebuia pallida (Lindl. acuminata (Steen. exotic. Newbouldia laevis (P. =Tecomaria capensis (Thunb.Chong et al. exotic.) Chatterjee 1075. tree. ssp. critically endangered. exotic. Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. personatum (Hassk. tree.) Seem...) Spreng. Bixa orellana L. cultivated only 1063. Pandorea jasminoides (Lindl.. exotic. Cordia cylindristachya (Ruiz & Pav. tree. exotic.) K. tree. cultivated only 1071. & Schult. critically endangered. exotic. ex DC. tree. Don. shrub. exotic. cultivated only 1082. tree. exotic. cultivated only 1060. cultivated only 1054. cultivated only 1067. native.) Alston.. exotic. tree. casual. tree. cultivated only 1081. ex Kunth. cultivated 116 . Tabebuia haemantha (Betero ex Spreng. exotic. Schum.. shrub. Mansoa alliacea (Lam. tree. exotic. tree. exotic. cultivated only. exotic. tree.. Nicholson. native. ex Bureau. tree.-Ham. Beauv. exotic.) K. Tabebuia aurea (Silva Manso) Benth. tree.) G.

native. tree. Pteleocarpa lamponga (Miq. exotic.. critically endangered 1123.B. vulnerable. tree. herb. herb. exotic. herb. Dietr. Taylor & H. exotic.. Canarium odontophyllum Miq. exotic. Dacryodes laxa (Benn. cultivated 1134. B.) Schult.. Aechmea chantinii (Carriere) Baker. tree..) Lam. Guzmania lingulata (L. Cordia sebestena L. exotic.. common 1137. Burmannia championii Thw. Don. Lam. Canarium pilosum Benn. exotic. Benn. critically endangered 1133. tree. exotic. native. Garuga pinnata Roxb. tree.. cultivated only 1104. var. Sm. native. tree. Billbergia pyramidalis (Sims) Lindl. Aechmea fasciata (Lindl. tree. native. exotic. exotic.. weed of uncertain origin 1099. cultivated only 1113. herb.. native. Cryptanthus zonatus (Vis. Heliotropium indicum L. tree. critically endangered 117 . exotic.. Canarium oleosum (Lam. exotic. Cordia superba Cham.) Mez. tree.W. tree. tree. extinct Brassicaceae 1101. B. herb. native. native.J.. Tournefortia tetrandra Blume.. Santiria apiculata Benn. exotic. Ananas comosus (L. Canarium littorale Blume.) Baker. tree. extinct Burseraceae 1122. native. shrub. herb. herb. native.) Bakh. Canarium grandifolium (Ridl. native. Lam. exotic. endangered 1128.. Canarium indicum L. critically endangered.C. cultivated only 1106. extinct 1100. Dacryodes rugosa (Blume) H. cultivated only 1098. exotic. Cryptanthus bromelioides Otto & A.. cultivated only 1110.. herb.) Lam. cultivated only 1130.. cultivated only 1117. exotic. Sm.. exotic.) Merr. exotic. herb. climber. herb. endangered 1129. cultivated only 1105.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1095. exotic. f. native. Rob. cultivated only 1112. cultivated only 1136. common 1125. herb.) Lem. Sm. cultivated only 1115. herb.. Ananas bracteatus (Lindl. Luther) D. cultivated only 1109. native. native. Rorippa heterophylla (Blume) Williams.. shrub.B. exotic.. Burmannia coelestis D. native. Pitcairnia angustifolia Sol. tree. exotic. herb. exotic. exotic. Guzmania dissitiflora L. Ananas nanus (L.) L... herb. critically endangered 1120. tree. Foster.) L. tree. cultivated only 1116. herb.) Beer. Koch..E. & Schult. Pitcairnia sanguinea (H. tree. herb. cultivated only 1126. Pitcairnia bromeliifolia L'Hér.. cultivated only 1118. cultivated 1097. exotic. Cordia subcordata Lam. tree. native. Tillandsia usneoides (L. naturalised Bromeliaceae 1102.. Dacryodes costata (A. Dacryodes longifolia (King) Lam. endangered 1131. cultivated only 1096. cultivated 1107. cultivated only 1127.) H. ex Heyne. casual. common. tree. cultivated only 1108. Aechmea fulgens Brongn. Santiria conferta Benn. exotic. Gymnosiphon aphyllus Blume. critically endangered 1135. cultivated only 1103. cultivated only 1111. striatus M.J. Tillandsia cyanea Linden ex K. Canarium patentinervium Miq. cultivated only 1114. exotic. Canarium vulgare Leenh. herb. native.) Engl.. native. cultivated 1121. tree. cultivated only 1124. endangered 1132. shrub. herb. Vriesea splendens (Brongn. Dacryodes rostrata (Blume) Lam. cultivated only Burmanniaceae 1119. tree. herb.

exotic. Gonocaryum gracile Miq. shrub. shrub. exotic. Lobelia zeylanica L.. Canna glauca L.) G. shrub. exotic.. herb. cultivated only 1166. cultivated only Cardiopteridaceae 1170. f. tree. herb.) H.A. Triomma malaccensis Hook. common Cannabaceae 1157..) Engl.) Britton & Rose. exotic. endangered 1161. cultivated 1168.. Celtis africana Burm. f. f.. exotic. tree. naturalised.. Echinocactus grusonii Hildm.. cultivated only 1151. native. Lobelia chinensis Lour.. herb. exotic. native. tree. native. climber. endangered Caricaceae 1171. naturalised.) Peterm.) Blume. cultivated only 1144. Santiria laevigata Blume. herb.. Forst. Santiria rubiginosa Blume. native. cultivated 1156.Chong et al. extinct 1163. common Cannaceae 1165. endangered Cactaceae 1143. Trema tomentosa (Roxb. native.. tree. herb.. Lobelia cardinalis L. Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. Opuntia scheeri F. Gironniera parvifolia Planch. shrub. critically endangered. shrub.. exotic. Cereus hildmannianus K. climber. herb. cultivated only 1150.. Gironniera subaequalis Planch. tree. Trema cannabina Lour. exotic. tree. Don. native. shrub. cultivated only Caprifoliaceae 1169. herb.. cultivated only 1152. endangered 1142. Carica papaya L. cultivated only 1147. Hara.. exotic. extinct 1159. Opuntia cochenillifer (L. 1154. herb. native. herb. common 1164. naturalised. exotic. Pereskia corrugata Cutak. exotic.. Trema angustifolia (Planch. cultivated. shrub.. Crateva religiosa G. cultivated only 1146.C. cultivated 1160. endangered 1162. vulnerable 1141. 1138. Santiria griffithii (Hook.. cultivated only Campanulaceae 1153.. shrub. native. casual. exotic. exotic. tree. cultivated 118 . exotic. Santiria tomentosa Blume. native. Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Epiphyllum oxypetalum (DC.. Schum. Lonicera japonica Thunb. Gironniera nervosa Planch. Pereskia aculeata Mill. cultivated only 1148. climber. common. herb. cultivated only 1155. tree. tree. cultivated only 1145. Capparis micracantha DC. cultivated Capparaceae 1167. Pereskia grandifolia Haw. native. cultivated only 1149..) Mill. tree. native. Canna indica L. common 1139. Weber.. exotic. Gironniera hirta Ridl. herb. native. Hippobroma longiflora (L.) Haw. exotic. herb. vulnerable 1140. exotic.. tree. native.. exotic. native.. =Laurentia longiflora (L. native. exotic. cultivated only 1158.

Moore) L.. Casuarina equisetifolia L. shrub. exotic. cultivated only 1179.. Salacia maingayi Laws. DC.. common. tree. cultivated 1204. Lophopetalum wightianum Arn. climber. native.) Ding Hou. tree. extinct 1201. native. tree. native. tree. cultivated 1208. Smith. native. exotic. Glyptopetalum quadrangulare Prain ex King. ex A. native. cultivated only Celastraceae 1181. DC. climber.. cultivated only 1176.) D.A. Johnson. native. Casuarina junghuhniana Miq.) A. Casuarina nobilis Whitmore. ex Laws. exotic. critically endangered 1199. Gymnostoma sumatranum (Jungh.C. herb. climber. Licania tomentosa (Benth. Salacia viminea Wall. native. naturalised Casuarinaceae 1173. Maytenus emarginata (Willd. Johnson. tree. cultivated only 1207. exotic.) Blume. shrub. tree. common 1212. Atuna racemosa Rafin. Chloranthus erectus (Buch. native. exotic. Parinari rigida Kosterm.) Ding Hou. exotic. tree. ex de Vriese) L. Licania splendens (Korth. tree. tree. critically endangered Chloranthaceae 1202.) Halle. tree. ex Schultes. native. Parinari elmeri Merr. tree. exotic.. tree.S. Lophopetalum beccarianum Pierre..S..) L. native. critically endangered 1188. critically endangered. Parinari oblongifolia Hook. tree. Parastemon spicatum Ridl.S. critically endangered 1191. native. Chrysobalanus icaco L.) Verdc. Loeseneriella pauciflora (DC. extinct 1195. Salacia macrophylla Blume. Gymnostoma papuanum (S. f. extinct 1187. tree.C. naturalised 1205. exotic. Salacia exsculpta Korth.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore Caryophyllaceae 1172. critically endangered 1211.) A. tree. extinct 1189. vulnerable. vulnerable 1200. tree. critically endangered 1198.) Willd. Salacia grandiflora Kurz. tree. tree. exotic. cultivated only 1174.) A. Parinari costata (Korth. climber. common. Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq. Lophopetalum multinervium Ridl. exotic. Salacia chinensis L. native. climber. native. extinct 1194. Cassine viburnifolia (Juss. Bhesa paniculata Arn..S. climber.A.. exotic. cultivated 1193. endangered 1210. native. Euonymus javanicus Blume. native. shrub.A.. Gymnostoma nobile (Whitmore) L.. native. native. climber. cultivated only 1190. cultivated 1175.) Prance.. native. Maranthes corymbosa Blume. native. Reissantia indica (Willd. cultivated 1206. tree. cultivated 1182. Sm. Johnson. Hou.. native.. endangered 1192.A. native. native. native.. native.. critically endangered Chrysobalanaceae 1203. native. shrub.. tree. extinct Cleomaceae 119 . Endangered.-Ham. tree. tree. Drymaria cordata (L. cultivated only 1178. Loeseneriella macrantha (Korth. Salacia korthalsiana Miq. tree. tree. tree. cultivated only 1177. critically endangered 1197.. tree. cultivated 1183. climber. native. Gymnostoma rumphianum (Miq.) Ding Hou. Johnson. Bhesa robusta (Roxb. extinct 1186. tree. critically endangered 1213. exotic. critically endangered 1184. climber. Kokoona littoralis Laws. tree. native. extinct 1185. cultivated only 1180. vulnerable. native.. cultivated only 1209.) Fritsch.. vulnerable 1196. native. Kokoona reflexa (Laws. common. native. Parastemon urophyllus (Wall..

. cultivated only 1239. cultivated 1245. native. Garcinia atroviridis Griff. tree. 1214. var. critically endangered. exotic. var. native. exotic. tree. F. & Wyatt-Smith) P. native. bracteatum (Wight) P. Calophyllum lanigerum Miq. native.. tree. f. native.. & Wyatt-Smith. naturalised Clusiaceae 1218. cultivated 1241. f. critically endangered. tree. tree... native. tree. cultivated only 1231. Garcinia maingayi Hook. Garcinia mangostana L. Stevens. vulnerable. herb. & Tr. extinct 1259. Garcinia parvifolia Miq. tree. Garcinia hombroniana Pierre. native. Stevens. cultivated 1240. tree. critically endangered 1226. native. tree. critically endangered 120 .. cultivated 1232. tree. Garcinia macrophylla Mart.. critically endangered 1233. ex T. tree.. critically endangered. herb. Calophyllum dispar P. tree.. tree. tree. tree. endangered 1230. common 1223. tree. Garcinia bancana Miq. native. tree. tree. Garcinia scortechinii King. exotic. Turner & P. Calophyllum soulattri Burm. native. Stevens. Calophyllum rigidum Miq. tree. cultivated only 1244. native. Calophyllum sil Lauterb. exotic. critically endangered. naturalised 1216. endangered 1229. Calophyllum wallichianum Planch. var. Calophyllum ferrugineum Ridl.. Endangered. Calophyllum pulcherrimum Wall. vulnerable 1235. native. C. cultivated 1237. tree. Calophyllum teysmannii Miq. native. herb.. exotic. exotic. native. native. & Wyatt-Smith. tree. tree. cultivated only 1243. Calophyllum costulatum Hend. endangered 1225. cultivated 1247. herb. tree. tree. ex T. native. Endangered. wallichianum.F. vulnerable 1236. Stevens. tree.M. Cleome gynandra L. tree. critically endangered. exotic. cultivated 1227. native. Calophyllum macrocarpum Hook. extinct 1219. Garcinia prainiana King. native. exotic. tree.. & Wyatt-Smith. extinct 1220. Calophyllum calaba L.F. native. ex DC. cultivated 1257.) I.. f. Garcinia pyrifera Ridl. native. Calophyllum rufigemmatum Hend.. Calophyllum biflorum Hend. Garcinia malaccensis Hook. native. tree. cultivated 1224. native. Garcinia dulcis (Roxb. tree. Garcinia eugeniifolia Wall. cultivated 1249.. Garcinia rostrata (Hassk. exotic. cultivated only 1250. Calophyllum wallichianum Planch. native. common. exotic. exotic. Calophyllum sundaicum P. Garcinia forbesii King. exotic. tree.) Kurz. Anderson. Garcinia nigrolineata Planch.. cultivated only 1256. extinct 1221.Chong et al. native. critically endangered 1222. Schum. F. tree. stylosa King. Clusia colombiana Pipoly. Stevens. exotic. critically endangered. tree. Anderson. Calophyllum rubiginosum Hend. Cleome rutidosperma DC. Garcinia cymosa (K. Garcinia gummi-gutta (L. tree. Stevens. vulnerable 1234.. F.. Whitmore) P. tree. F. native. critically endangered 1246. common. critically endangered 1251. cultivated 1255. cultivated only 1258. tree. exotic. naturalised 1215. naturalised. tree. exotic. critically endangered 1260. native. Clusia rosea Jacq. var. native. cultivated only 1238. tree. & Tr. Anderson. var. Robson. Cleome viscosa L. Anderson. native. cultivated 1254. tree. critically endangered 1228. Garcinia cowa Roxb. casual. tree. ex T. incrassatum (Hend. critically endangered... Cleome aculeata L. tree. cultivated only 1252. ex Choisy. Calophyllum tetrapterum Miq. cultivated 1217. native. cultivated 1253. exotic. native. cultivated only 1248. tree. Garcinia nitida Pierre. tree. Garcinia nervosa Miq. Calophyllum inophyllum L. tree. native.) Miq.. Garcinia griffithii T..) N. f. austrocoriaceum (T. & Wyatt-Smith. cultivated only 1242.

. tree. tree. Clarke) J. cultivated only 1273.) Brenan. Bucida molinetii (M. weed of uncertain origin 1298.) I. common. Terminalia belliricia (Gaertn. Lawson. climber. cultivated only 1286. native. critically endangered 1276. cultivated 1277.. climber. cultivated only 1282. shrub. herb. ex DC. A. Garcinia subelliptica Merr. native. =A. Mesua ferrea L.. exotic. E. Don. cultivated only 1288. native. exotic.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1261. cultivated only 1289. critically endangered. casual. weed of uncertain origin 1304. Terminalia pyrifolia Kurz. native. native. climber. marginata Hassk... critically endangered. exotic. cultivated only Colchicaceae 1266..C. exotic. tree.. Terminalia kaernbachii Warb. Gómez) Alwan & Stace. herb. critically endangered. Don.B. cultivated 1279. cultivated only 1295. exotic.. climber. Callisia repens (Jacq. herb. herb. Disporum cantoniense (Lour. cultivated Commelinaceae 1290. Terminalia catappa L. Combretum erythrophyllum (Burch. exotic. Hunt. herb. cultivated only 1300. climber. exotic.Y. native.) Roxb. cultivated Combretaceae 1268. cultivated only 1265. Commelina attenuata Koen.. cultivated only 1302. Dichorisandra thyrsiflora J. cultivated only 1271.. Moore) D.. exotic. exotic.. native. exotic. tree... Commelina diffusa Burm. tree. cultivated only 1284. Floscopa scandens Lour. Terminalia subspathulata King. Murdannia nudiflora (L. Combretum tetralophum C. cultivated only 1293.. tree. Amischotolype mollissima Hassk. Combretum grandiflorum G.) L... cultivated only 1263. Cyanotis cristata D. exotic. Callisia fragrans (Lindl.. cultivated only 1281. herb. Terminalia phellocarpa King. common 1291. Callisia gentlei Matuda var. tree. climber. Mesua elegans (King) Kosterm. Mesua ferruginea (Pierre) Kosterm. Terminalia brassii Exell. exotic. Morton ex D. climber. tree. exotic. herb. exotic. Terminalia calamansanai (Blanco) Rolfe. tree. casual. Combretum constrictum (Benth. tree. herb. f. cultivated only 1267. Don. Garcinia xanthochymus Hook. cultivated only 1285. Terminalia sericea Burch. native. common 1301. native. Clarke. cultivated only 1303. shrub. cultivated 1278. cultivated only 1274. tree. Mikan. tree.. Geogenanthus poeppigii (Miq.) Faden. Chev. exotic. exotic. tree. native.M. exotic. Lumnitzera racemosa Willd.) Merr. exotic. herb. tree. cultivated only 1294. critically endangered 1264. exotic. Amischotolype gracilis (Ridl. common 121 . native. weed of uncertain origin 1297. shrub. 1292. tree. exotic. cultivated only 1262. f. weed of uncertain origin. Murdannia vaginata (L. tree. exotic. exotic. exotic. cultivated 1283.. Combretum comosum G..) Woodson.) Sond. exotic. critically endangered. tree. Bucida buceras L. native. native.B. Commelina benghalensis L. herb. herb. climber. Murdannia bracteata (C.) M. native. Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt. tree. Hong. cultivated 1287. tree. Endangered. Gloriosa superba L. exotic.. elegans (Alexander ex H. tree.. cultivated only 1269. exotic. extinct 1296.. Turner. vulnerable 1275. cultivated 1280.K. Quisqualis indica L. herb. Terminalia ivorensis A. cultivated only 1270. cultivated only 1272.. climber. cultivated 1299. Terminalia muelleri Benth. Endangered. R.) Brueckn. Combretum sundaicum Miq.

. cultivated only 1332. native. native.. extinct 1321. native. native.. climber.. common 1346. exotic. common 1314. Ipomoea pes-tigridis L. Clarke. 1305.) Bojer. critically endangered 1320. extinct 1318.. native. native. exotic. climber. critically endangered 1338. Forst & G. shrub.) L. Agelaea borneensis (Hook. Rourea mimosoides (Vahl) Planch. extinct 1337.... Connarus grandis Jack.. Ipomoea littoralis (L. Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D. cultivated only 1306. native. cultivated only 1344. Rourea fulgens Planch. native. pendula (Schnizl. Clarke. f. climber.. Tradescantia spathacea Sw. critically endangered 1335. Forst. Tradescantia zebrina hort. climber. acutipetala. ssp. common. climber. native. native. Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq. native. exotic. climber.) R. exotic. Ipomoea batatas (L. native. Ipomoea tricolor Cav. cultivated only 122 . Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. Ipomoea marginata (Desr.B. cultivated only 1328. climber. extinct 1334. climber. critically endangered 1313. cultivated 1351. critically endangered 1315. climber. Hunt. climber.. exotic. climber. native. naturalised. exotic.) Merr. naturalised 1327. herb. herb. Connarus planchonianus Schellenb.) Merr. critically endangered 1322. common 1350. climber. f. Erycibe citriniflora Griff. climber. Ellipanthus tomentosus Kurz. climber. native. climber. native. climber. common. Erycibe griffithii C. native. Erycibe maingayi C. vulnerable 1312. native.) Blume...) D. cultivated 1342. native. herb. native. Hunt 1310. native. ex Bosse..) Raf.f. Cnestis palala (Lour. Palisota mannii C. common 1345.) Hall.Chong et al. climber. weed of uncertain origin 1330. climber. cultivated only 1308. Clarke. climber. Ipomoea carnea Jacq. exotic. Cuscuta australis R. climber.R. Rourea asplenifolia (Schellenb. cultivated 1343.) Ker Gawl. exotic. Dichondra repens J. climber. exotic. climber. climber. Tripogandra multiflora (Sw.. herb. herb. extinct 1307. Ipomoea quamoclit L. critically endangered 1319. native. Erycibe malaccensis C.. climber. weed of uncertain origin 1336. Rourea rugosa Planch. Evolvulus alsinoides (L. shrub. climber. climber. Clarke. Ipomoea pes-caprae (L. critically endangered 1316. native.. climber. naturalised. climber. Rourea acutipetala Miq. native. exotic. climber. Rourea minor (Gaertn. Connarus ferrugineus Jack. native. herb.. critically endangered 1329.) Sweet. Argyreia ridleyi Prain. cultivated only. native.. climber. Ipomoea obscura (L.B. native. Bonamia semidigyna (Roxb.. climber. Erycibe festiva Prain.) Verdc. casual. native. cultivated 1349.B. Br. Argyreia nervosa (Burm. climber. Pollia secundiflora (Blume) Backer. cultivated 1347. critically endangered 1325... =T. climber. native. herb. native. endangered 1324. extinct Convolvulaceae 1326.) Lam. ex Oostr. common 1348. Erycibe tomentosa Blume.R. Aniseia martinicensis (Jacq.. exotic.) Choisy. native. Br. weed of uncertain origin.) Leenh. R. Connarus monocarpus L. climber. Ipomoea cairica (L.) Leenh. cultivated 1331. Connarus semidecandrus Jack.. common 1339. Erycibe leucoxyloides King ex Prain. climber. weed of uncertain origin. exotic. Agelaea macrophylla (Zoll. climber. extinct 1333. exotic. vulnerable 1323. cultivated only Connaraceae 1311.B. climber.. critically endangered 1317... cultivated 1341. climber.) Jongkind. cultivated only 1309. common 1340.

cultivated only 1369.. climber. herb. Costus curvibracteatus Maas. common 1355. exotic. ebecaceum (C. native. Tapeinochilos ananassae (Hassk. Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. herb.) Hallier f.. extinct.. Ipomoea triloba L. griffithii (C. Porana volubilis Burm. climber. cultivated only 1359. cultivated only 1384. cultivated only 1380. Macbr. Clarke) Harms Costaceae 1367.Clarke) Berhaman. weed of uncertain origin 1357. f. tree. Stictocardia tiliifolia (Desr. Costus varzearum Maas. Ctenolophon parvifolius Oliv. exotic. Cheilocostus globosus (Blume) C. exotic. exotic. native. herb. native. exotic. climber.. climber. Schum. cultivated only 1387. Costus woodsonii Maas. common. Wendl. exotic. tree. native. herb. cultivated 1372. climber. native. cultivated only Crassulaceae 1381.Don 1354. exotic. cultivated 1383. casual.. Alangium nobile (C.) Hallier f. Costus malortieanus H. herb. native. Clarke) Harms 1363. exotic. =Ipomoea campanulata L. extinct. herb. herb. Costus speciosus (Koenig) Smith. ex Petersen) Maas. Merremia hederacea (Burm.) Sw. herb. herb. Costus spicatus (Jacq.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1352.B. herb.. f. cultivated only 1371. cultivated only 1374.. casual. exotic. tree.. =Costus globosus Blume var. cultivated only 1386. exotic. exotic. cultivated only Crypteroniaceae 1388. native. Alangium salviifolium (L. exotic.) King. Merremia umbellata (L. Monocostus uniflorus (Poepp. Clausen. native. naturalised 1353. climber. herb. extinct. cultivated only 1370. climber. F.F. exotic. Sedum nevii A. cultivated 1375. native.) J. weed of uncertain origin 1356. Gray. tridentata. Sedum sarmentosum Bunge. f. critically endangered 1366. Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Costus lucanusianus J.) D. Xenostegia tridentata (L. exotic. herb. tree.) K. Alangium ridleyi King... Austin & Staples ssp... native. 1361. critically endangered. & L. native. climber. Sedum sexangulare L.B.. native. common. critically endangered 1364.. cultivated 1365. cultivated only 1376.) Merr. cultivated only 1373. Sedum mexicanum Britt.) Wang. Stictocardia discolor Ootstr. Schum. Costus erythrophyllus Loes.) Hallier f. herb. cultivated only 1379.) Holttum 1368.) Pers. native. cultivated only 1385. critically endangered 1358. exotic. cultivated only 1360. cultivated only 1382. herb. exotic. cultivated only 1377. herb.T. critically endangered Cucurbitaceae 123 . exotic. =A. ebenaceum (C. native. Crypteronia griffithii C. Merremia hirta (L. herb. Clarke) Harms. exotic. climber. Costus stenophyllus Standl. cultivated only 1378. exotic. critically endangered. common Cornaceae 1362. Alangium uniloculare (Griff. tree.. =A. tuba (Schltdl. herb.. Costus amazonicus (Loes. Williams.. Specht. exotic..B. herb. Ipomoea violacea L. herb. exotic. ridleyi (K. exotic. Alangium javanicum (Blume) Wangerin var.) G. Braun & K. Sedum rubrotinctum R. Neuropeltis racemosa Wall..B. climber. climber.O. tree.. critically endangered Ctenolophonaceae 1389. =I. Costus productus Gleason ex Maas.B. Clarke. Sch. herb. herb..

climber. herb.. weed of uncertain origin 1418. native. Muell. herb.) Aschers. herb. Cyperus pilosus Vahl.. Cyperus exaltatus Retz. shrub. Gymnopetalum chinense (Lour. Actinoscirpus grossus (L. Clarke. Cyperus imbricatus Retz. cultivated only 1394. native. native. native. common. native. common 1432. critically endangered Cyperaceae 1407. tree.. Cyperus javanicus Houtt. Cyperus cuspidatus Kunth. herb. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. native. Simpson. herb. Cyperus elatus L. naturalised. weed of uncertain origin 1425. Trichosanthes wawraei Cogn. herb.. cultivated 1424. herb.) Merr. Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. herb. A. Cyperus compactus Retz. Cyperus papyrus L. exotic. cultivated 1391. Cyperus haspan L. herb.. climber. Cyperus procerus Rottb. Cyperus compressus L.) Kuntze. native. Cymodocea rotundata Ehrenb. common 1421.) J. native. vulnerable 1397. native.B. herb. 1392. common 124 . native. herb. & D. weed of uncertain origin 1426. herb... common 1429. Halodule pinifolia (Miki) den Hartog. weed of uncertain origin 1415. critically endangered 1403.. native. herb. exotic.. Carex cryptostachys Brongn. diffusus Vahl 1428. cultivated only Cyclanthaceae 1400.. herb. & Hemp.J. Cyperus cyperoides (L. Suringer.. weed of uncertain origin 1431. Carludovica palmata Ruiz. Cucumis maderaspatanus L. Trichosanthes wallichiana Wight. common 1408. herb. critically endangered 1411. Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb. cultivated only 1430. herb. exotic. herb. exotic. & Pav.. weed of uncertain origin 1393. Cyperus distans L. common 1409.V. climber.) Aschers. f. Halodule uninervis (Forsk.) Voigt. casual.. native. native.. Roem. climber. herb. Cyperus digitatus Roxb. exotic. climber. Cyperus malaccensis Lam. cultivated only 1412. exotic. Trichosanthes celebica Cogn. native.. native. Cyperus laxus Vahl. herb. Cyperus cyperinus (Retz. weed of uncertain origin 1422. Pullea stutzeri (F. Cyperus alternifolius L. exotic. weed of uncertain origin. weed of uncertain origin 1420. herb. Cyperus radians Nees & Meyen... native. common. climber. extinct 1405. herb. Syringodium isoetifolium (Aschers. cultivated Cunoniaceae 1398.) Gibbs.. herb. herb.) C. extinct 1404. herb. extinct 1406. herb.. Momordica charantia L. common 1413. native. cultivated only Cymodoceaceae 1402. native. Cyperus iria L. common 1419. cultivated 1395. herb.. climber. Clarke. weed of uncertain origin 1423. naturalised. native. herb... vulnerable. herb.) M. B.. =C. common 1427.. herb. Coccinia grandis (L. f.. Cyperus difformis L. =Mukia maderaspatana (L.) Dandy. cultivated only 1399.. exotic. native. Bulbostylis puberula (Poir. native. native. native. Davidsonia pruriens F. Muell. Cymodocea serrulata (R. cultivated only 1401. weed of uncertain origin 1414. weed of uncertain origin 1417. cultivated 1410.) Goetgh. herb. & Magnus. tree. herb. Cyperus dubius Rottb. herb. ex Aschers..Chong et al. exotic.Br. vulnerable 1396. native. herb. 1390.) C.. native. exotic. weed of uncertain origin 1416.

herb. native.. herb. Cyperus rotundus L. ssp.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1433. herb.. Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Eleocharis retroflexa (Poir. weed of uncertain origin 1446. 1448.) Domin. Fimbristylis acuminata Vahl. native. weed of uncertain origin 1438. critically endangered 1450.. native. Fimbristylis complanata (Retz. naturalised. herb. herb. herb. native... cultivated 1473. common 1466. herb. native. common 1441. herb. common 1454. Fimbristylis cymosa R.. herb. herb. weed of uncertain origin 1443. Br. herb. 1472..) Koyama. Br. herb. herb. Clarke) Ridl.. Clarke. weed of uncertain origin 1457. & Hook. common 1437. Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb. Fimbristylis schoenoides (Retz.. critically endangered 1480.) Link. Hypolytrum nemorum (Vahl) Spreng. native. extinct. cultivated 1449. Br.) Vahl. weed of uncertain origin 1470. herb. & Dalziel. Kyllinga melanosperma Nees.) Trin. Fimbristylis griffithii Boeck. native. f. herb. Isolepis cernua (Vahl) Roem.) Goetghebeur... native.) Kunth. weed of uncertain origin 1453. common 1445. Br.. exotic. herb. vulnerable. common 1436. common 1474. & Schult.. =Cyperus triceps (Rottb. weed of uncertain origin 1458. critically endangered 1459. Kyllinga polyphylla Willd. Cyperus tenuiculmis Boeck. Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. herb. Cyperus stoloniferus Retz. herb. herb. herb. Cyperus trialatus (Boeck. Fimbristylis fusca (Nees) C. Mapania bancana (Miq. native. Forst. Fimbristylis dura (Zoll.. native. Fuirena umbellata Rottb.B. weed of uncertain origin 1471. herb.) Roem. common 1467. weed of uncertain origin 1469. herb. Fimbristylis pauciflora R. vulnerable 1460. Lepironia articulata (Retz. native. Fimbristylis leptoclada Benth. ex Hensch. Kern. native.B. common 1476.) Roem.. exotic. weed of uncertain origin.) Kern. Fimbristylis polytrichoides (Retz. Clarke. native.) Vahl. herb. exotic. herb.) Urb.) Endl.) Mattf. Fimbristylis nutans (Retz. =Cyperus aromaticus (Ridl. herb. native. herb. herb. weed of uncertain origin 1475.) Vahl. critically endangered 1478. dichotoma..D.. herb. herb. weed of uncertain origin 1455.. herb.. And Kük.) Kern. native. herb.. herb. Eleocharis ochrostachys Steud. weed of uncertain origin 1434. common 1447. weed of uncertain origin 1440.) Uittien. ex B. Mapania enodis (Miq. endangered 125 . native. herb. weed of uncertain origin 1464. native. herb. Lipocarpha microcephala (R. herb. weed of uncertain origin 1461. Mapania kurzii C. Fimbristylis ovata (Burm. herb. Fimbristylis obtusata (C. Eleocharis spiralis (Rottb. herb. Cyperus sphacelatus Rottb. native. Br. Diplacrum caricinum R. Lipocarpha squarrosa (L. weed of uncertain origin 1463.. f. weed of uncertain origin 1452. Clarke. herb.B. Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudich. weed of uncertain origin 1465. native. Fimbristylis tetragona R. native. herb.) Schult. Eleocharis geniculata (L. herb. Lipocarpha chinensis (Osbeck) J. native.) Dandy ex Hutch. herb. Fimbristylis tristachya R. & Mor. common. cymosa. naturalised 1435. native. Kyllinga nemoralis (J. weed of uncertain origin. native. Br. native.) Merr. cultivated only.R. weed of uncertain origin 1462. =Scirpus cernuus Vahl 1468. extinct 1477. Fimbristylis ferruginea (L. herb. & Schult. weed of uncertain origin 1442. Br.) Vahl. weed of uncertain origin 1439. native. herb.B. herb. native. herb. Fimbristylis dichotoma (L. native.) Benth. herb. native. herb. & G. Jacks.) C.. common 1451. Mapania cuspidata (Miq. Fimbristylis umbellaris (L. Gahnia tristis Nees. ex Kunth. native...) Vahl ssp. cultivated 1444. & Schult. cultivated 1479.. Machaerina rubiginosa (Spreng. extinct 1456. Forst. herb.) R.

Mapania lorea Uittien. Dillenia pulchella (Jack) Gilg.) Karth. Br. native. Dillenia albiflos (Ridl. Rhynchospora nervosa (Vahl) Boeck. extinct 1483. tree. Mapania squamata (Kurz) Clark. weed of uncertain origin 1495. vulnerable 1508. 1481. Pycreus pumilus (L. & Thomson) Martelli. f. exotic. Dillenia indica L. Scleria purpurascens Steud. cyrtostachys (Miq. f. herb. tree. extinct 1485.) F. cultivated only 1518... herb. native. Dichapetalum sordidum (Hook. native. cultivated only 1512. brownii (Roem. tree. Rhynchospora rugosa (Vahl) Gale ssp. cultivated 1521. tree. herb.B. Rhynchospora corymbosa (L. herb. ex DC. herb. herb.-Vill. herb. Dillenia alata (R. =Dichromena latifolia Baldwin ex Elliott 1492.. herb. weed of uncertain origin 1503. Scleria sumatrensis Retz. Scleria rugosa R. shrub. herb. Scleria corymbosa Roxb. Clarke. native. common 1496. native. common. Thomas..) Baill. biflora. f. f. Rhynchospora rubra (Lour. cultivated only 1494. herb.) Britton. native. & Thomson. herb.) Makino... endangered Daphniphyllaceae 1509. native. Tetracera akara (Burm. native. native. native. f.. Burtt.. exotic. ssp. native. herb. Pycreus polystachyos (Rottb. common 1501. herb.. common 1487.. tree. native.) Nees. exotic. herb. native. weed of uncertain origin 1498.B. Scleria terrestris (L. herb. extinct 1482. Scleria levis Retz. critically endangered Dichapetalaceae 1510.. Dillenia reticulata King.) Leenh. native. climber. Mapania palustris (Hassk. Dillenia philippinensis Rolfe. herb. cultivated only 1519. Clarke.) Merr. weed of uncertain origin. native. cultivated only 1517. Scirpodendron ghaeri (Gaertn. common 1506. native. weed of uncertain origin 1507. cultivated 1515. native.) Merr..T. extinct 1502. weed of uncertain origin 1491.. herb. Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L. Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff. tree. Scleria ciliaris Nees. Scleria poiformis Retz. vulnerable 126 . herb. & Thoms. native. cultivated only. ex Hook.. & Schult. herb..) Martelli. endangered 1484. Kern. Schoenus calostachyus (R. tree. Blake. Beauv. native. exotic.Chong et al. cultivated 1516. Dillenia excelsa (Jack) Gilg. Rhynchospora latifolia (Baldwin ex Elliott) W. Rhynchospora malasica C.W. ex Steud. common 1490. Koyama. Dillenia grandifolia Wall. tree. weed of uncertain origin 1500. climber. native.. tree.) Palla ex A. herb. native. exotic. Mapania longiflora C. Dillenia ovata Wall. herb. cultivated 1522. herb. extinct 1486. tree. native. herb. herb. Clarke.B. native. cultivated 1497. Scleria biflora Roxb. Remirea maritima Aubl. exotic. ex Hook.. cultivated only 1513. Mapania wallichii C. Br. Pycreus sanguinolentus (Vahl) Nees ssp. herb. Endangered. herb. critically endangered. extinct. herb.) Hoogl.. Daphniphyllum laurinum (Benth. common 1488.) T. native. extinct Dilleniaceae 1511. Dillenia ingens B..) Fass. Scleria oblata S. critically endangered 1520. native. critically endangered 1514. exotic. extinct 1493. extinct 1499. ex Hook. weed of uncertain origin 1504.) P.L. common 1505. Br.. native. tree.) Poir. weed of uncertain origin 1489. herb. native.

. cultivated only 1547. ex Hook. Tetracera arborescens Jack. climber.. exotic. Hopea griffithii Kurz.. exotic. native.. cultivated only 1554. cultivated 1529. vulnerable 1525. climber. critically endangered. tree. cultivated 1562. Dioscorea laurifolia Wall. tree. Anisoptera megistocarpa Slooten. tree. common 1535. Dioscorea tenuifolia Ridl. tree. tree. critically endangered. tree. exotic.. Gaertn. native. critically endangered. native. cultivated 1541. Anisoptera costata Korth. extinct 1537. climber. tree. native. critically endangered.. tree. Dipterocarpus elongatus Korth.. exotic. common 1532. native. Anisoptera laevis Ridl. exotic. critically endangered 1548. climber. native. tree.... extinct 1543. native.. exotic. Anisoptera scaphula Pierre. critically endangered 1534.. critically endangered 1556. critically endangered 1561. herb. native. critically endangered 1530. exotic. native. f. Dioscorea prainiana R. Tacca integrifolia Ker Gawl. cultivated only 1550.. tree. tree. common. native.F. native. Dipterocarpus grandiflorus (Blanco) Blanco. Dipterocarpus costatus C. native. Hopea helferi (Dyer) Brandis. exotic. critically endangered 1546. Dipterocarpus caudatus Foxw. & Thoms. extinct 1538. climber. exotic. weed of uncertain origin. cultivated only 1549. Cotylelobium lanceolatum Craib. native. native.. tree.) Ashton. Dipterocarpus costulatus Slooten. Dipterocarpus tempehes Slooten. naturalised. Anisoptera curtisii Dyer ex King... exotic. cultivated 1540. f. cultivated only 1552. cultivated 1553. native. tree. tree. Dipterocarpus palembanicus Slooten. cultivated only 1569. tree. cultivated 1568. exotic. herb. vulnerable Dioscoreaceae 1528. native. native. Tetracera loureiri Pierre ex Craib. cultivated only 127 . cultivated 1559. vulnerable. Dryobalanops aromatica C. ex Hook. & Panz. native. cultivated 1536. critically endangered 1533. Dioscorea pyrifolia Kunth. critically endangered 1563. native. native. climber. tree. critically endangered 1531. Gaertn. tree. vulnerable 1555. Dioscorea bulbifera L. climber. exotic. vulnerable. Tacca leontopetaloides (L. Dipterocarpus oblongifolius Blume. climber. Dioscorea sansibarensis Pax. cultivated only 1539. Dioscorea hispida Dennst.. tree. critically endangered 1545. Dipterocarpus kerrii King. climber.) Kuntze. vulnerable 1558. Tetracera indica (Christm. cultivated only 1564. penangianus (Foxw. native. cultivated 1526. climber. Endangered. Hopea mengarawan Miq.. cultivated only 1527. cultivated 1551. Dioscorea polyclados Hook. Dioscorea stenomeriflora Prain & Burk. exotic. Hopea odorata Roxb. Tacca plantaginea (Hance) Drenth. native. tree. native. cultivated 1557. ssp. critically endangered 1566. exotic. tree. exotic. Hopea nutans Ridl. Tacca chantrieri André. climber. tree. Dryobalanops oblongifolia Dyer. tree. tree. Knuth. climber.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1523.. tree. Dioscorea glabra Roxb. herb. tree. exotic. native. f.. climber. Dipterocarpus sublamellatus Foxw. cultivated only 1544. native. climber. herb. Dipterocarpus kunstleri King. tree.F. tree. native. Dipterocarpus chartaceus Symington. cultivated only Dipterocarpaceae 1542. climber. native. Dipterocarpus cornutus Dyer. Tetracera macrophylla Wall. native. native. Dipterocarpus baudii Korth. Tetracera fagifolia Blume.) Merr. vulnerable. native. cultivated only 1565. cultivated only 1567. Dipterocarpus apterus Foxworthy. cultivated only 1560. tree.. endangered 1524.

Diospyros clavigera C. cultivated only 1598. cultivated only 1591. critically endangered 1584. cultivated only 1604. native. tree. extinct 1611. native. critically endangered. Hopea pubescens Ridl. tree. Heim. cultivated only 1601. cultivated 1614. exotic. tree. native. vulnerable. exotic. cultivated 1618. Diospyros blancoi A. Ashton. tree. cultivated only 1602. Shorea gibbosa Brandis. native.. tree. native. Vatica heteroptera Symington. Endangered.. f. Shorea platycarpa F. tree. tree. cultivated only 1573. tree. Diospyros apiculata Hiern. cultivated only 1583. Shorea curtisii Dyer ex King ssp. tree. Diospyros discolor Willd. cultivated 1593. cultivated only Ebenaceae 1610. critically endangered 1592. critically endangered 1617. Don. cultivated 1612. tree. cultivated only 1594. tree. exotic. tree. tree. tree. exotic. Shorea laevis Ridl. exotic. cultivated only 1599. exotic. Diospyros buxifolia (Blume) Hiern.. Shorea palembanica Miq. cultivated only 1589. Parashorea densiflora Sloot & Symington. Shorea leprosula Miq. Diospyros durionoides Bakh. cultivated only 1606. Clarke. vulnerable. Shorea maxima (King) Symington. Diospyros argentea Griff. DC. cultivated only 1576. tree. cultivated 1572. native. critically endangered. exotic. Vatica umbonata Burck. tree. tree. Shorea ciliata King. Diospyros diepenhorstii Miq. tree. critically endangered 1607. Vatica pauciflora Blume. critically endangered. tree. Shorea talura Roxb. cultivated 1574. cultivated 1597.. exotic. tree. cultivated only 1600. extinct 1579. tree.. cultivated 1595. tree. Shorea multiflora (Burck) Symington. tree... Neobalanocarpus heimii (King) P. S. exotic. native. exotic. cultivated only 1578. exotic. cultivated only 1590. cultivated only 1581. native. tree. tree. native. vulnerable. native. Shorea faquetiana Heim. Shorea bracteolata Dyer. cultivated only 1608. exotic. Shorea sumatrana (Sloot) Desch. cultivated only 1613. critically endangered 1605. native. native. cultivated only 1571. cultivated 1596. native. cultivated 1580. native. tree. tree. extinct. critically endangered. Shorea glauca King. Vatica oblongifolia Hook. cultivated 1588. Shorea seminis Slooten. Shorea parvifolia Dyer. tree. Hopea wightiana Wall. Vatica maingayi Dyer. Diospyros confusa Bakh. ovalis. ex Wight & Arn. tree. Hopea sangal Korth. Vatica rassak Blume. tree. Endangered. Shorea ochrophloia Strugnell ex Symington. native. curtisii. tree. native. exotic. tree. 1570.S.. cultivated 1586. native. cultivated only 1619. macroptera. critically endangered 1616. tree. Shorea macrophylla (de Vriese) P. native. native. tree. tree. tree. Shorea collina Ridl. exotic. exotic. cultivated only 1603. cultivated only 1575. critically endangered 1615. tree. native. tree. cultivated 1577. exotic. tree. Shorea pauciflora King. exotic. exotic. cultivated only 1587. Shorea roxburghii G. tree. critically endangered.. tree. tree. cultivated only 1585. Shorea acuminata Dyer. native.. exotic.B. native.. Shorea platyclados Slooten ex Endert.. exotic. cultivated 1582. tree. Vatica ridleyana Brandis... Shorea macroptera Dyer ssp. tree. Shorea ovalis Blume ssp. tree. tree. ex Kurz) Dyer. exotic. native. exotic. exotic..Chong et al. exotic. vulnerable. Shorea gratissima (Wall.. critically endangered 1609. cultivated only 128 . exotic. tree. vulnerable. tree. tree. Shorea smithiana Symington. Shorea materialis Ridl. Ashton. native. Diospyros coriacea Hiern. critically endangered. tree. exotic.

) Merr.. tree. Vaccinium littoreum Miq.) Kurz. critically endangered 1631. Eriocaulon wildenovianum Moldenke.R. tree. tree.) Corner. native. Elaeocarpus nitidus Jack.. native. native. exotic. vulnerable 1628.. herb. tree. critically endangered. extinct 1655. native. extinct 1657.) Bakh.. Sloanea javanica Szysz. extinct 1642.) Kostel. native. Elaeocarpus dentatus (J.. Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume. tree. cultivated only 1654. Diospyros venosa Wall. Muell. tree. ex Mast. oblonga (Wall.. native. tree. native. native. cultivated only 1641.. tree.. exotic.) Vahl. cultivated only 1626. tree.) Sweet. tree. ex K. Elaeocarpus polystachyus Wall. native. Forst. & G. Bailey.. exotic. cultivated 1625. epiphyte. Forst. Endangered. native. Elaeocarpus rugosus Roxb. cultivated only 1635. Muell. common. exotic. exotic. common. tree. tree. native. cultivated only 1637. native. Elaeocarpus acmosepalus Ridl. Diospyros oblonga Wall. Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume. cultivated only 1622. native. tree.. Elaeocarpus pedunculatus Wall. critically endangered. tree. tree. native. native. cultivated only 1643. tree. cultivated 1649. tree.. cultivated only 1636. ex Mart. extinct 1656. ex C. Diospyros sumatrana Miq. tree. tree. DC.. tree. cultivated 1639. common.. epiphyte. exotic. Diospyros latisepala Ridl. native. tree. tree. native. cultivated Euphorbiaceae 129 .. Elaeocarpus hainanensis Oliver. critically endangered 1651. native. Elaeocarpus macrocerus (Turcz.-Ham. Eriocaulon truncatum Buch. cultivated only 1627. tree.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1620. vulnerable. Diospyros lanceaefolia Roxb. Diospyros ferrea (Willd.. cultivated only 1632. extinct 1624. Diospyros maingayi (Hiern) Bakh. Elaeocarpus bancroftii F. critically endangered 1634. native. tree. Elaeocarpus griffithii (Wight) A. Elaeocarpus petiolatus (Jack) Wall. & F. Rhododendron indicum (L. critically endangered Ericaceae 1653. exotic. native. native. Eriocaulon oryzetorum Mart. cultivated 1648. Diospyros horsfieldii Hiern. exotic. tree. ex G. ex G. Elaeocarpus apiculatus Mast. critically endangered 1647... native. Elaeocarpus ferrugineus (Jack) Steud. herb. extinct 1660. critically endangered 1644. native. native. native. tree. tree. common. native. tree... native.. cultivated 1645.Schum.Gray. Elaeocarpus palembanicus (Miq.M. Diospyros malabarica (Desr. ex A. vulnerable 1630. native. Erythroxylum cuneatum (Miq. exotic. shrub. tree. extinct 1629. cultivated 1646. common 1623. Don) Ng. vulnerable 1650. exotic.. shrub. shrub. Styphelia malayana (Jack) Spr. native.. tree. Elaeocarpus stipularis Blume. Vaccinium acuminatissimum Miq. exotic. weed of uncertain origin 1661. native. Diospyros pilosanthera Blanco var. tree. cultivated 1640. Rhododendron longiflorum Lindl. cultivated only 1638. extinct 1658. Diospyros siamang Bakh. herb. Don. tree. epiphyte. tree. Elaeocarpus mastersii King. tree. Diospyros tristis King & Gamble. Elaeocarpus grandiflorus Sm. Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. common. cultivated 1621. vulnerable. weed of uncertain origin Erythroxylaceae 1662. Diospyros styraciformis King & Gamble. extinct Eriocaulaceae 1659. cultivated 1652. critically endangered Elaeocarpaceae 1633..

Euphorbia antiquorum L. critically endangered 1674. exotic. herb. cultivated only 1703. shrub.. exotic. Endospermum diadenum (Miq. f. Arg.) Willd. tree. tree. Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Millsp.. Euphorbia lactea Haw. native. weed of uncertain origin 1679. Acalypha chamaedrifolia (Lam.Arg.. 1671. Agrostistachys borneensis (Wight) Benth. exotic. Acalypha hispida Burm. cultivated 1683. shrub. 1665. Excoecaria cochinchinensis Lour.) Millsp. native.. shrub. herb. tree. weed of uncertain origin 1667.. cultivated 1702. cultivated only 1695. shrub. native. endangered. herb. tree.. exotic. Euphorbia heterophylla L. ex Gage. cultivated 1707. extinct. Cheilosa montana Blume. Blumeodendron tokbrai (Blume) Kurz. Alchornea villosa (Benth. tree. cultivated only 1666. Agrostistachys gaudichaudii Müll. tree. shrub. longifolia (Wight) Benth.) Müll.. exotic. native. naturalised 1696. Arg. Acalypha siamensis Oliv. Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. shrub. cultivated only 1691. Arg. cultivated 1681. shrub. tree. =A. tree. Jatropha curcas L. exotic. exotic. =Euphobia hypericifolia L. ex Blume) Hassk. critically endangered 1687. exotic. native.. exotic. casual. shrub.) A. exotic. 1706. exotic. native. naturalised. Falconeria insignis Royle. Chamaesyce thymifolia (L. exotic. exotic. Juss. Euphorbia atoto Forst. exotic. naturalised. tree. cultivated only. 1664. exotic. exotic. Arg. tree. =Securinega virosa (Roxb. Claoxylon indicum (Reinw. tree. cultivated only 1709.) Airy Shaw. ex Willd.) Fosberg. shrub. shrub. Croton oblongus Burm. cultivated only 1699. shrub. cultivated 1684.. Jatropha integerrima Jacq.Chong et al. cultivated only 1700. laevifolius Blume 1689. herb. godseffiana Mast. extinct 1672. tree. Euphorbia milii Des Moul. 1677.) Müll. 1678. cultivated 1682. Jatropha gossypifolia L..) Müll.) Müll. shrub. vulnerable 1694. pandurifolia Andrews 130 . Euphorbia cotinifolia L.. =C. casual. herb. Euphorbia neriifolia L. ex A. cultivated. =C. vulnerable 1676. exotic. tree. naturalised. cultivated only 1697. Claoxylon longifolium (Blume) Endl.. shrub. Croton bonplandianus Baill. =A.. cultivated 1669. cultivated only 1705. common 1686. Croton heterocarpus Müll. common. exotic. tree. exotic. Elateriospermum tapos Blume.. native.) Baill. exotic.... Croton hirtus L'Hér. cultivated only.. native. exotic. exotic. cultivated only 1711. exotic. tree. weed of uncertain origin 1668. wilkesiana Müll. native. cultivated only. common. naturalised. cultivated only 1690. extinct 1673. Euphorbia tirucalli L. herb. common. ex Klotzsch. Excoecaria agallocha L. native. casual. shrub. cultivated only 1670. tree. Croton tiglium L. vulnerable 1692. exotic. Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.. native. Juss.. herb. shrub. herb. cultivated 1675. exotic. ex Wild. exotic. reptans Sw. naturalised 1688.. A. herb... naturalised. Arg. extinct. Arg..) K. cultivated only 1710.. Acalypha variegata Rusby. cultivated. cultivated only 1701. Schum.) Millsp. Croton argyratus Blume. tree.) Voigt. tree. shrub. cultivated only 1704... =A. exotic. f. native.Arg. tree. Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. exotic. Alchornea rugosa (Lour. ex Hassk. wilkesiana (Müll. Homalanthus novoguineensis (Warb.. native.. Flueggea virosa (Roxb.. cultivated only 1708. native. Acalypha indica L.. Aleurites moluccana (L. Hura crepitans L. Acalypha amentacea ssp. Croton caudatus Geiseler. tree..) Müll. herb. sparsiflorus Morong 1685. cultivated only 1698. =J. Chamaesyce hirta (L. exotic.. f. Excoecaria indica (Willd. native... Arg. exotic. extinct 1680. =Euphorbia hirta L. tree.. exotic. Acalypha lanceolata Willd. 1663. tree. cultivated only 1693.. shrub..

critically endangered 1723. Arg. native.) Müll. cultivated 1756. shrub. native. Trigonostemon malaccanus Müll. native. tree. naturalised. motleyana (Müll. critically endangered 1727. weed of uncertain origin 1738. exotic. =T. 1734.Arg. Paracroton pendulus (Hassk. native. vulnerable 1715. native. ssp. cultivated 1719. climber..) Mull. exotic.. var. Macaranga hullettii King ex Hook.) Whitmore 1720.f. Macaranga trichocarpa (Rchb. cultivated 1716. native. extinct 1731.. Acacia cincinnata F. native. Acacia auriculiformis A. native. naturalised.) Müll.) Mull. & Zoll. tree. =M. native.. cultivated only 1714.) Benth. f. Macaranga hypoleuca (Rchb. Arg. extinct 1748.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1712.. tree.. common 1724..Arg. critically endangered 1740.. Macaranga triloba (Thunb. Pterococcus corniculatus Pax & K. critically endangered. f. Arg..) Esser. common. native. tree.. cultivated 1730. common. 1752. extinct 1717. Macaranga tanarius (L. Microstachys chamaelea (L. Arg.. Acacia confusa Merr. Arg.) Mull..M. Manihot carthagenesis (Jack) Müll..Arg. tree. common. Arg. f. vulnerable 1742. climber.. herb.Arg. Macaranga caladiifolia Becc.) Müll.Arg. tree. Mallotus paniculatus (Lam.. shrub. f. Mallotus penangensis Müll. cultivated 1750. Micrococca mercurialis (L. critically endangered Fabaceae 1754. Jatropha multifida L.) Müll. oblanceolata Airy Shaw. Abrus precatorius L. Arg. cultivated only 131 .Arg. common 1721. native. Arg. tree. Arg. cultivated only 1741. tree. native.. native.. naturalised. Jatropha podagrica Hook. critically endangered. tree. Arg. critically endangered 1751. tree. tree. shrub. =M. exotic. native. vulnerable 1725.) DC. Mallotus macrostachyus (Miq. native.) Allem. Macaranga griffithiana Müll. extinct 1743. tree. Hoffm. Acacia holosericea A. Macaranga gigantea (Rchb. common. Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L. native. climber. cultivated 1732. cultivated 1755. tree. Macaranga heynei I. native. Megistostigma glabratum (Kurz) Govaerts. shrub. native.) Müll. Juss.f. Don. tree. native. native. exotic.) Baill. native.. longifolius Baill. Trigonopleura malayana Hook. glaziovii Müll. tree. tree.. tree. Shirakiopsis indica (Willd. tree. Acacia concinna (Willd. critically endangered 1745. exotic. tree. tree. extinct 1726. griffithiana (Müll. cultivated 1733. shrub. Arg.) Mull. native.. tree.. cultivated 1735. critically endangered 1744. tree. tree. exotic. native. native. f. Neoscortechinia kingii (Hook. Sapium glandulosum (L. naturalised.) Ridl. exotic. extinct 1722.) Poit. Pimelodendron griffithianum (Müll. exotic. cultivated only 1757. native. cultivated only 1728.. tree. tree. tree. Muell. cultivated 1746. herb.. Macaranga recurvata Gage. exotic. & Zoll. endangered 1729. cultivated only 1759. native.. exotic. Johnst. herb. shrub.. critically endangered 1739. extinct 1758. native... f. naturalised. ex G. & Zoll. tree.) Benth.) Mull. f. Arg. tree... Macaranga conifera (Zoll... critically endangered. tree.Arg. Macaranga hosei King ex Hook. Koilodepas longifolium Hook. Macaranga pruinosa (Miq.) Morong.. cultivated 1718. extinct 1736. Trigonostemon villosus Hook. cultivated only 1747. shrub. native. cultivated 1749. native. common. Macaranga lowii King ex Hook. common 1753. Triadica cochinchinensis Lour.f.. Ptychopyxis costata Miq. cultivated only 1713.. Suregada multiflora (A. shrub. f. shrub.) Miq. native. native. exotic. Manihot esculenta Crantz.. glaziovii (Müll. tree. Trigonostemon heteranthus Baill. ssp. cultivated. climber. tree. Arg.. Hoffm.) Mull.) Müll. Cunn. common 1737. ex Benth. exotic. Cunn. native. exotic. Ricinus communis L.. tree. vulnerable..Arg.. Macaranga bancana (Miq. common. native.) Pax & K. Ptychopyxis caput-medusae (Hook. native.

Muell. exotic. Aganope heptaphylla (L..Chong et al. cultivated only 1802. Baphia nitida Lodd.. Acacia mangium Willd. exotic. Archidendron lucyi F.. climber. climber. Adenanthera pavonina L. native. tree. exotic. native.. herb. native. C. exotic. Nielsen. tree. Amblygonocarpus andongensis (Welw. Alysicarpus vaginalis (L. Albizia lebbeck (L. tree. Bauhinia tomentosa L. vulnerable 1764. Archidendron microcarpum (Benth. exotic. Bauhinia integrifolia Roxb.) Exell & Torre. tree. exotic. cultivated only 1783.) Nielsen. cultivated only 1768. exotic. cultivated only 1780. vulnerable 1787. vulnerable. cultivated only 1796.) Nielsen. tree.. exotic. Archidendron jiringa (Jack) Nielsen. Baphia massaiensis Taub. climber. exotic. Archidendron bubalinum (Jack) I. exotic. Bauhinia acuminata L. C. et al. exotic. native. exotic. herb. cultivated only 1770. exotic. tree.) DC. Aganope thyrsiflora (Benth. critically endangered 1785... exotic.. ex Oliv. exotic. Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib. climber.. exotic. critically endangered 1789. cultivated 1786. tree. extinct. Bauhinia hookeri F. cultivated 1775. Bauhinia kochiana Korth. Afzelia quanzensis Welw.) Delile. Bauhinia variegata L. Acacia kekapur I. vulnerable 1772. naturalised 1767. Muell. Archidendron lucidum (Benth. Acacia nilotica (L. Albizia pedicellata Baker ex Benth.. cultivated 1778. Aeschynomene indica L. cultivated only 1805. tree.) Merr. tree. Archidendron ellipticum (Blume) Nielsen. native. cultivated. Archidendron contortum (Mart. Bauhinia divaricata L.. vulnerable. tree. Endangered. C. tree.. Albizia splendens Miq. cultivated 1762. tree. cultivated 1788. 1777. exotic. cultivated only 1807. cultivated only 1781. cultivated only 1792. climber. Muell. cultivated only 1800. exotic. cultivated only 132 . Baikiaea insignis Benth. cultivated only 1806... exotic. exotic. herb. tree. native. Bauhinia semibifida Roxb. native.. cultivated only 1784.) Merr. Aeschynomene americana L. cultivated only 1799. climber. exotic. cultivated 1776. tree.. cultivated 1782.. Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. herb. native. tree.) Kosterm.. endangered 1793. cultivated only 1795. Andira inermis (W. herb. native. cultivated only 1804. var. tree. Albizia retusa Benth. exotic. cultivated only 1763. weed of uncertain origin 1779. native. Bauhinia galpinii N. C.. native. exotic. Archidendron ramiflorum (F. tree. shrub... Wright) Kunth ex DC. Bauhinia monandra Kurz. naturalised. shrub.. vulnerable. Albizia saman (Jacq. casual. Br. exotic. Bauhinia purpurea L. tree.. native. cultivated only 1791. Amherstia nobilis Wall.) Benth.. exotic. exotic. native. exotic. native. cultivated only 1794. exotic. exotic. exotic.. tree. Archidendron globosum (Blume) Nielsen. tree. tree. Bauhinia forficata Link. cultivated only 1810. Arachis hypogaea L. Niels. & W. tree. 1760. cultivated 1808. Bolusanthus speciosus (Bolus) Harms.. semibifida. exotic. cultivated 1765. Bauhinia bidentata Jack. cultivated only 1769... tree. tree.) Polhill. common. Adenanthera malayana Kosterm. extinct 1761. critically endangered. tree.. climber.. cultivated only 1809.. climber. exotic. tree. tree. naturalised 1766. casual. Nielsen. cultivated only 1798. Afgekia sericea Craib. exotic. tree. native. cultivated only 1774. Archidendron clypearia (Jack) I. =Samanea saman (Jacq. tree. naturalised. casual. exotic. E. Arachis pintoi Krapov. critically endangered 1771. exotic. cultivated only 1773. tree. tree.) Polhill. Greg. cultivated 1797. tree..) I. cultivated only 1801. cultivated 1790. cultivated only 1803. Nielsen. tree. tree. tree. shrub.

Velasquez & G.) Benth. Crotalaria incana L. cultivated only 1851. cultivated 1831. tree. exotic. Clianthus puniceus (G.) Greene. climber. Don. cultivated only 1817. Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L.) Degener. cultivated only 1855.) Schot.. exotic. shrub. tree.) Schot. shrub. exotic.. exotic. exotic. & C. Cassia javanica L. Brownea rosa-de-monte Bergius. exotic.. Camoensia scandens (Welw. Calliandra surinamensis Benth. Canavalia cathartica Thouars.. capitella (Jacq. exotic... exotic. Butea monosperma (Lam. var. cultivated only. tree. f. cultivated only 1814.. tree. common 1837. & Bonpl. Cassia bakeriana Craib. Copaifera officinalis (Jacq. Christia vespertilionis (L. tree. 1826. cultivated only 1844. Calliandra haematocephala Hassk.) Moensch. flava Bailey & Rehder 1822.) Barneby. Caesalpinia crista L. casual. climber. climber. cultivated 1853. Callerya dasyphylla (Miq. =Millettia reticulata Benth.. climber. Clitoria ternatea L. climber. exotic. bialata Roxb.. cultivated only 1840. 1829.. tree. Cassia roxburghii DC. ex Willd.) Sw. tree. tree. shrub. naturalised. pulcherrima (L. climber... Calliandra tergemina (L.A. climber. Cassia fistula L. naturalised. cultivated only 1839. cultivated only 1841.) Schot. Brownea grandiceps Jacq. exotic.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1811.. casual. exotic. cultivated only 1843. native. f. Clitoria fairchildiana R. exotic. climber.) Schot. tree. Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq. extinct 1825. Cassia renigera Benth. exotic. cultivated.. shrub. naturalised 1833. exotic. Clitoria laurifolia Poir. critically endangered 1828. cultivated only 1842. Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. Brownea crawfordii W. cultivated only 1812. ex Tul. cultivated only 1830. climber. shrub.. climber.) Benth.) DC. ex Wild. cultivated only 1835. =C. naturalised 133 . cultivated only. 1832. exotic. Watson. exotic. =Cassia mimosoides L. native. =C. Callerya atropurpurea (Wall. cultivated only. Caesalpinia sumatrana Roxb. shrub. Howard. cultivated only 1850. cultivated only 1838. tree. naturalised. cultivated 1846. climber. Callerya eriantha (Benth. exotic. naturalised. exotic. exotic.) Sw.. exotic. Cassia artemisioides DC. tree. Cassia grandis L.. cultivated only 1823. exotic.. tree.) L. native. cultivated only 1813.. exotic. Castanospermum australe A. shrub. native.-Ham ex G. Callerya reticulata (Benth.. Gillett. ssp. shrub. shrub.) Roxb.. shrub. f. exotic. =Millettia atropurpurea (Wall.. naturalised. exotic. Calopogonium mucunoides Desv. exotic. cultivated only 1819.) Willd.) Benth. 1848.. Agostini. cultivated only 1821.. tree. Caesalpinia tortuosa Roxb. tree. tree. exotic. climber. emarginata (Humb. exotic. Brownea coccinea Jacq. Canavalia rosea (Sw. =C. Cunn. emarginata (Humb. tree. shrub. exotic. exotic. 1856.) Irwin & Barneby var. tree. extinct 1827. tree. cultivated only 1849.) Bakh. tree. cultivated only 1834. nictinans (L. cultivated only 1816. glabrata (Vogel) Irwin & Barneby 1847. ssp.) D. Calpurnia aurea (Aiton) Benth. native. cultivated only 1854.. cultivated only 1815. exotic. exotic. common 1836. exotic.B. naturalised 1852. var. Caesalpinia bonduc (L. cultivated.) Taub. exotic. Chamaecrista mimosoides (L. critically endangered 1824. tree.. Caesalpinia sappan L. Centrosema pubescens Benth. herb. vulnerable 1820. cultivated only 1845. Burkea africana Hook. exotic.. Crotalaria alata Buch. Colvillea racemosa Bojer. tree. exotic. Fraser. exotic. native. =C. Don) Lindl.. & Bonpl. native. exotic. tree.) J.. native. exotic. critically endangered 1818. patellaria (Collad. Chamaecrista leschenaultiana (DC.

native. weed of uncertain origin 1886. native. Crotalaria juncea L. cultivated only 1876. 1859.. native.. Cynometra ramiflora L. cultivated only. herb. exotic. native.. weed of uncertain origin.) Brenan.) Benth. climber. =C. Erythrina caffra Thunb.. cultivated 1864. exotic. exotic. Dalbergia candenatensis (Dennst. cultivated only 1904. tree. Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook. climber. cultivated only 1866. cultivated only 1895. cultivated only 1899.. tree.. exotic. var. Erythrina vespertilio Benth. 1875. climber. naturalised..) Benth... tree.. cultivated only 1870.. shrub. Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre. exotic. tree. Mey. climber. var.Don 134 .. tree. Derris scandens (Roxb. exotic.) Willd. Erythrina latissima E. weed of uncertain origin 1884.. tree. Erythrina humeana Spreng. Dialium platysepalum Baker. exotic. native. cultivated only 1862. common 1865. exotic. shrub. exotic.) Raf. maingayana (Baker) Prain.. tree. Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq. tree. cultivated 1861. exotic.. tree. tree..) Griseb.) den Hengst. exotic. exotic... cultivated only 1903. tree. tree. cultivated only 1873. climber. tree. Erythrina speciosa Andrews. Dalbergia rostrata Hassk.. exotic. climber.. Erythrina crista-galli L. tree. Chen. 1857. Dalbergia cultrata Benth. javanica (Benth.) Barneby & J. Cynometra malaccensis Meeuwen. cultivated only 1878. native.. tree. native. critically endangered.. climber.. herb. exotic. Dalbergia odorifera T.) DC. Erythrina variegata L. Derris trifoliata Lour. Entada spiralis Ridl. climber. critically endangered 1877. cultivated. exotic. native. exotic. Derris amoena Benth. tree. cultivated only 1871. exotic. & Perr. Dioclea hexandra (Ralph) Mabberley var. tree. tree. climber. Dalbergia velutina Benth. Dalbergia latifolia Roxb. shrub. Dalbergia junghuhnii Benth. common. critically endangered 1881. exotic. mucronata Desv. Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. climber. Crotalaria quinquefolia L. native. tree. cultivated only 1872.Chong et al. exotic. common 1879. Grimes. herb. native. cultivated 1888. Desmodium heterocarpon (L. exotic. cultivated only 1897.W.. herb. Dialium cochinchinense Pierre.) DC. Dialium indum L. =D. Desmodium heterophyllum (Willd. Ebenopsis ebano (Berland. Desmodium triflorum (L. weed of uncertain origin 1860. weed of uncertain origin 1891. tree. cultivated only 1887. tree. Dalbergia hullettii Prain. cultivated 1894. exotic. tree. Erythrina fusca Lour. cultivated only 1892. weed of uncertain origin. native. critically endangered 1869. tree. Dalbergia sissoo DC. naturalised 1883. exotic.) DC. Dendrolobium umbellatum (L. extinct 1874. Erythrina lysistemon Hutch. Dalbergia negrensis (Radlk. shrub. cultivated only 1863. critically endangered 1893. native. =E.. cultivated only 1898. climber. cultivated only 1896.. native. exotic. Desmanthus virgatus (L. exotic. Dalbergia oliveri Prain. native. Cynometra cauliflora L.. Dalbergia parviflora Roxb.. cultivated 1885. cultivated only 1867. exotic. tree. pseudosissoo Miq.C. Crotalaria retusa L. indum. common.) Ducke. exotic. native. critically endangered.) Prain. cultivated only 1901. naturalised 1858. Entada rheedei Spreng. exotic. climber. Crotalaria pallida Aiton. tree... tree. Dialium schlechteri Harms. cultivated only 1900. tree. common 1882.. cultivated only 1890. vulnerable 1880. tree. extinct 1868. cultivated only 1902. critically endangered 1889. guineense G.

shrub.. tree. naturalised. Parkia speciosa Hassk. cultivated only 1953. exotic.. exotic.... sepiaria Benth. cultivated only 1939... tree.) Harms. exotic. Maniltoa browneoides Harms.) Urb. tree. Intsia bijuga (Colebr. Parkia javanica (Lam. Inocarpus fagifer (Parkinson) Fosberg. shrub. tree. cultivated only 1909.. tree. cultivated only 1928.) A. cultivated only 1918. 1942. naturalised.) J. exotic. naturalised 1934. exotic. tree.. Indigofera zollingeriana Miq. Neptunia plena (L. native..) de Wit.. naturalised 1913. naturalised.) Benth. exotic. exotic. exotic.. exotic. Peltophorum dasyrrhachis (Miq. cultivated only 1948. critically endangered. Wright.T. exotic. exotic. native. climber.) I. cultivated only 1924. Mucuna gigantea (Willd. Mucuna bennetti F. Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Don. Léonard. Macroptilium lathyroides (L.C. exotic. cultivated 1941.) Kurz. tree. casual. tree. cultivated only 1917. exotic. exotic. tree. shrub.) Barneby & J. exotic.. cultivated 1920.) Kunth ex Walp.) DC. naturalised. native. endangered 1944. Indigofera suffruticosa Mill. cultivated only 1952. cultivated only 1946. exotic. cultivated only 135 . cultivated only 1916. tree. Inga jinicuil G.) Merr. Inga velutina Willd. exotic. native. cultivated 1925. tree.) H. Albizia moluccana Miq. Ormosia pinnata (Lour. 1933. cultivated only 1937. Mimosa pigra L.) DC. tree.. native.. Lespedeza bicolor Turcz. tree. exotic. Intsia palembanica Miq.. =M. cultivated. Ohashi. cultivated only 1921. shrub.. =N. Macroptilium atropurpureum (DC. shrub. tree. natans (L. Ormosia macrodisca Baker. climber. tree.. cultivated 1919.. cultivated 1951. shrub.. climber.Nielsen 1906. invisa Mart. exotic.) Taub. naturalised 1927. native. naturalised. Aiton. exotic.) DC. exotic.. exotic. cultivated 1922. weed of uncertain origin. cultivated only 1929. exotic. Grimes.. herb. cultivated only 1930. naturalised. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. cultivated 1935. vulnerable. Koompassia excelsa (Becc. exotic. native. tree. tree. native. climber. Koompassia malaccensis Maingay ex Benth. Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Parkia timoriana (DC. exotic. =M. shrub. exotic. Desmodium caudatum (Thunb. exotic. Maniltoa polyandra (Roxb. exotic. exotic.) Kuntze. Mucuna acuminata Grah. Parkia biglandulosa Wight & Arn. Falcataria moluccana (Miq.. exotic. Millettia leucantha Kurz.. herb. Peltophorum africanum Sond.) Kuntze. native. tree. Mimosa pudica L. extinct 1947. ex Murr.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1905.. =Albizia falcataria (L. Endangered. Kunstleria ridleyi Prain. ex Baker. critically endangered. cultivated. Mundulea sericea (Willd.) Fosberg. extinct 1936. Ohwia caudata (Thunb.) Merr. Ormocarpum cochinchinense (Lour. tree.. cultivated only 1950. cultivated only 1931.) Pruce 1940. tree. native.. Mimosa diplotricha C. Hymenaea courbaril L.f.) Merr. cultivated only 1949. naturalised. tree.) Urb. cultivated only 1910. climber. Indigofera hirsuta L. extinct 1938. tree. exotic. native. cultivated. critically endangered 1915. Indigofera spicata Forssk. naturalised 1914. tree. shrub. cultivated 1908. =Desmodium laburnifolium (Poir. tree. shrub. exotic. 1932..T. tree.. native. cultivated 1907. Maniltoa lenticellata C. naturalised 1926. Muell. naturalised 1911. Indigofera tinctoria L. critically endangered 1945.) Prain.) Merr.W.. climber. Hymenaea verrucosa Gaertn.) Merr. exotic. tree. exotic. White.) W. naturalised 1912. Flemingia strobilifera (L. endangered 1923. exotic. naturalised. tree. Paramacrolobium coeruleum (Taub. Neptunia oleracea Lour. shrub. tree. exotic. Ormosia bancana (Miq.. Ormosia sumatrana (Miq. tree. Mimosa bimucronata (DC. tree.. Chev. extinct 1943. tree.

1986. exotic. Irwin & Barneby.) Sw. Sophora tomentosa L. Irwin & Barneby. Senna obtusifolia (L. shrub. exotic. Senna alata (L. casual. naturalised. tree. Stylosanthes humilis Kunth.) H. exotic. Spatholobus ferrugineus (Zoll.) Pierre. Senna fruticosa (Mill. Sindora coriacea Maingay ex Prain. cultivated only 1957. tree. Irwin & Barneby.S. =Cassia hirsuta L. cultivated only 1979. critically endangered 1987. Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Link. Irwin & Barneby. Saraca indica L. Blake. tree. Peltophorum dubium (Spreng. exotic. exotic. climber.) H. Spatholobus maingayi King. Tamarindus indica L... herb. Saraca thaipingensis Cantley ex Prain. native. exotic.. tree. shrub. tree. S.S. exotic. exotic. tree.) S.. shrub. cultivated only 1989. exotic. cultivated 1994. tree.) Benth. tree. cultivated only 1960. climber.) Benth. exotic. Senna occidentalis (L. cultivated only 1978. exotic. climber. cultivated only 1968. cultivated only 1992. Senna sulfurea (Collad. exotic. Senna sinqueana (Delile) Lock. Pongamia pinnata (L. native. extinct 1997. cultivated. naturalised. shrub. shrub. 1977. exotic. cultivated only 1975.. tree. shrub.. Pseudarthria viscida Wight & Arn. Senna hirsuta (L.) Panigrahi 1959. climber. exotic. Pericopsis mooniana (Thwaites) Thwaites. Senna pallida (Vahl) H.. native. exotic. exotic. tree. exotic. naturalised. climber. =Cassia tora L. cultivated only 1982. exotic. exotic. native. cultivated only 1962. tree. tree.. Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kurz.. & Moritzi) Benth. cultivated only 1984. Pterocarpus indicus Willd. exotic. Heyne. naturalised 1966. exotic. Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. 1972. exotic. naturalised 2000. cultivated only 1993. native. exotic. tree. Spatholobus ridleyi King.S. exotic. shrub. critically endangered. exotic. Irwin & Barneby. tree. tree.) H. cultivated only 1990.S. exotic. Tephrosia grandiflora (Aiton) Pers.) Roxb.S.) H..S. shrub.) Backer ex K.F.) Taub. Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb.) H.S. Senna siamea (Lam. tree. exotic. cultivated 1991. =Cassia alata L. cultivated only 1980. Sesbania cannabina (Retz. cultivated.) H. shrub.. tree. Irwin & Barneby.) Pers.) H. exotic.) Roxb. casual 1985. cultivated only 1964.Chong et al.) H. critically endangered 1995. exotic.) Pers. =Millettia pinnata (L. Senna tora (L. Senna pendula (Willd. cultivated 1983. f. naturalised. cultivated only 1955. critically endangered. cultivated only 1973. 1967. tree. exotic. Senna multijuga (Rich. cultivated only 1969. cultivated only 2002. Pseudosindora palustris Symington. Saraca declinata (Jack) Miq. Gray. critically endangered. =S. tree. herb. Senna spectabilis (DC. common 1996. cultivated 2003... exotic. Irwin & Barneby. naturalised 1988. Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl. tree. shrub. Serianthes grandiflora Benth. naturalised. exotic. critically endangered 1998. Sindora echinocalyx Prain. Irwin & Barneby.. tree. Irwin & Barneby. Swartzia pinnata (Vahl) Willd.. cultivated 1963. =Cassia obtusifolia L.S. tree. casual. tree. exotic. exotic. native. naturalised 1961. exotic. Senna polyphylla (Jacq. tree. tree. cultivated only 1981.. exotic. tree. Sindora wallichii Benth.. tree.) H. exotic. tree. native.) H. Endangered. exotic. exotic. Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. casual. Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Stuntz. native. herb. Schotia latifolia Jacq. cultivated only 136 .. cauliflora Baker. Strongylodon macrobotrys A. Senna surattensis (Burm.. exotic. tree. 1974. Irwin & Barneby. cultivated only 1971. tree. cultivated only. cultivated only 1999. 1954. =Cassia occidentalis L. exotic.S. 1976. native. naturalised 2001. Sesbania grandiflora (L.S. cultivated 1956. cultivated only 1970.) Benth. cultivated 1958. tree. cultivated only 1965... Sesbania punicea (Cav. casual.. Irwin & Barneby. Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC. Sindora siamensis Miq. tree.

. Quercus argentata Korth. exotic. naturalised Fagaceae 2013.. cultivated only 2032. tree. critically endangered. extinct 2043. native. common 2009. tree. cultivated only 2007. tree. cultivated 2024. native. climber. native..) Merr. extinct 2025. tree. Tephrosia noctiflora Bojer ex Baker. native.) Pers. critically endangered 2017. f. tree. tree.) Taub.) Rehder. Castanopsis lucida (Nees) Soepadmo. native. critically endangered. critically endangered. cultivated 2008. f. tree. cultivated 2031. critically endangered. cultivated Gentianaceae 2037. tree. native. native. native. exotic. exotic. & Hook. cultivated 2042. critically endangered 2019. Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schumach. cultivated only. native. climber. Uraria crinita (L. tree. xylocarpa. Lithocarpus wallichianus (Lindl. exotic.. native. =F. exotic. f. Fagraea racemosa Jack ex Wall. critically endangered. Castanopsis javanica (Blume) A. tree. shrub. Castanopsis inermis (Lindl. Lithocarpus cyclophorus (Endl. critically endangered 2027. Lithocarpus elegans (Blume) Hatus. cultivated 2038.) Soepadmo... critically endangered.. native.. Fagraea fragrans Roxb.) Rehder. Fagraea acuminatissima Merr.. naturalised 2011. tree. native.. tree. & Thonn. climber. native. Fagraea ceilanica Thunb. tree. cultivated 2028.. tree. & Dalziel.) A. critically endangered 2020.. Lithocarpus bennettii (Miq. herb. critically endangered Flagellariaceae 2036. common.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2004. epiphyte. tree. tree. ex DC. cultivated 2026. native. Clarke. Don 2010. Tipuana tipu (Benth. tree. splendens Blume 2040. critically endangered. cultivated 2033. Castanopsis malaccensis Gamble. Fagraea auriculata Jack. native. Lithocarpus hystrix (Korth. tree. critically endangered. extinct. Endangered. Lithocarpus gracilis (Korth. cultivated 2014. naturalised. Camus. Lithocarpus lucidus (Roxb. native. tree. Lithocarpus sundaicus (Blume) Rehder. cultivated only 2041. DC.. cultivated 2018.B. tree. tree... Flagellaria indica L. exotic.) Taub. cultivated 2023. Don) Hutch. Zornia diphylla (L. tree. cultivated 2044. Vigna marina (Burm. native. Lithocarpus cantleyanus (King ex Hook. exotic. ex Soepadmo. native.) Benth. exotic. exotic.) Desv.) Walp. var. native. Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb. critically endangered. exotic. cultivated 2034... tree. native. cultivated only 2035. critically endangered 2022. cultivated 2021. ex Wall. native..) Rehd. Camus. Quercus acutissima Carruth. native. tree. native. climber.) Kuntze. tree. extinct 2029.. ex Hance) Rehder. extinct 137 . tree. Endangered.) A. Castanopsis schefferiana Hance. Castanopsis megacarpa Gamble.) Rehd. Castanopsis nephelioides King ex Hook. =Clitoria racemosa G. Fagraea ridleyi King & Gamble. cultivated. Lithocarpus ewyckii (Korth. tree.) Rehd. Castanopsis wallichii King ex Hook. climber. exotic. naturalised 2005. f. tree. extinct. cultivated only 2012. Fagraea crenulata Maingay ex C. common. herb. cultivated only 2006. native. tree. native. Endangered.. native. Lithocarpus rassa (Miq. Fagraea gigantea Ridl. climber. tree. Lithocarpus conocarpus (Oudem. shrub.. native. critically endangered.) Rehd.. native. cultivated 2016. native. cultivated 2039. Vigna racemosa (G. Lithocarpus encleisocarpus (Korth. critically endangered 2030.) Rehd. native. extinct 2015. Vigna unguiculata (L.

. extinct 2056. Heliconia mathiasiae G. cultivated only Gesneriaceae 2046. cultivated only 2074. Scaevola albida (Sm. cultivated only 2078. exotic.. exotic. common. Br.) Orchard. exotic. climber. Aeschynanthus wallichii Benn.. cultivated only 2061. Xiphidium caeruleum Aubl. cultivated only 138 . exotic. native. cultivated Heliconiaceae 2067. cultivated only 2071. Heliconia bourgaeana Petersen. Heliconia latispatha Benth. Aeschynanthus parvifolius R. shrub. Loropetalum chinense (R. herb. weed of uncertain origin Hamamelidaceae 2064. herb.) Oliv. exotic.B. 2048.. Stiles.J. cultivated only 2069. herb... exotic. herb. exotic.... exotic. Heliconia densiflora Verl. exotic. herb. native. cultivated only 2079. herb. tree. Aeschynanthus albidus (Blume) Steud.. herb. var. exotic. Scaevola taccada (Gaertn. herb. extinct. Heliconia episcopalis Vell. critically endangered 2055. rubrum Yieh. native. herb. exotic. herb. et al. native. native. cultivated only 2053. Heliconia mariae Hook. Heliconia caribaea Lam. cultivated only Goodeniaceae 2060. Heliconia indica Lam. shrub. herb. var. exotic. Heliconia bihai (L.G. Heliconia danielsiana W. exotic.. Chrysothemis pulchella Decne. exotic. shrub. =A. Columnea tulae Urb. Heliconia dielsiana Loes. Cyrtandra pendula Blume.. cultivated. Clarke. cultivated only 2052. exotic. native. Heliconia lingulata Ruiz & Pav. herb. cultivated only 2077... Hanguana malayana (Jack) Merr. shrub. Kress. epiphyte. Geraniaceae 2045. exotic. herb. f. cultivated only 2073. Heliconia marginata (Griggs) Pitier. climber.. exotic.) Roxb. cultivated only 2080.) Hanst. cultivated only 2076. Gonocarpus chinensis (Lour. Episcia cupreata (Hook. cultivated only 2068. shrub.Chong et al.. epiphyte. Distylium racemosum Siebold & Zucc. herb. Sinningia speciosa (Lodd. herb. cultivated only 2057. Wendl. herb. critically endangered 2051. herb. cultivated only Haloragaceae 2063. Nautilocalyx lynchei (Hook. cultivated Haemodoraceae 2062. lobbianus Hook. native. herb. cultivated only Hanguanaceae 2066. cultivated only 2070. Aeschynanthus radicans Jack. Heliconia lankesteri Standl. climber. exotic. Daniels & F. exotic. herb.. exotic... cultivated only 2050. cultivated only 2081. Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér.) L. epiphyte. herb. herb. exotic.S. Didymocarpus puncticulatus Ridl. cultivated only 2072. herb... cultivated only 2058. cultivated only 2075. Aeschynanthus speciosus Hook. flava Urb. exotic.) Sprague. native. critically endangered 2054. Heliconia chartacea Lane ex Barreiros. cultivated only 2059. extinct 2049. Didymocarpus platypus C. exotic. herb. critically endangered 2047. Saintpaulia ionantha H. exotic. climber.) Hiern. f. vulnerable. herb. Br.. exotic. native. exotic. cultivated only 2065..) Druce. exotic.

ex W. herb.) Hartog 2096. native. herb.. cultivated 2110.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2082. herb. vulnerable 2103. critically endangered. critically endangered Hydrophyllaceae 2106. latifolia. shrub. cultivated only 2084. Blyxa aubertii Rich.) Royle. T. cultivated 2091.. Ledebouria botryoides (Baker) J. herb.D.) C. Enhalus acoroides (L. critically endangered 2100. weed of uncertain origin Hypoxidaceae 2113. cultivated only Hernandiaceae 2090. native. native. cultivated 2114. Manning & Goldblatt. Br. common 2111. Dianella caerulea Sims. weed of uncertain origin. exotic. cultivated 2089.. herb. Phormium tenax J. common. Hydrolea zeylanica (L. cultivated only Hydrocharitaceae 2094.) Blume. cultivated only 2085. native. exotic.) Asch. exotic. vulnerable. cultivated 139 . tree. exotic. Forst & G. native. exotic.) Vahl. Hydrilla verticillata (L. cultivated only 2086. native. Molineria latifolia (Dryand.R. tree.. extinct.. Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pav..) Maxim. cultivated only 2105. herb. exotic. Cratoxylum maingayi Dyer. cultivated only 2088. Heliconia psittacorum L. herb. weed of uncertain origin Hypericaceae 2107.. critically endangered 2101. herb. cultivated only Hemerocallidaceae 2087. Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb. Cratoxylum arborescens (Vahl) Blume. weed of uncertain origin 2104. herb. Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. Halophila ovalis (R. =B.) Ser.. herb. tree. tree.K. Heliconia stricta Huber. Forst. native. Dianella ensifolia (L. tree. native. exotic. native. Illigera trifoliata (Griff. var. herb. exotic. herb. f. Ottelia alismoides (L. weed of uncertain origin 2102. herb. f. native. native. Br. critically endangered 2112.. cultivated 2083. alternifolia (Miq. herb. Endangered. Cratoxylum glaucum Korth. alternifolia (Miq. herb. shrub. native.. herb. exotic. extinct Hyacinthaceae 2092. Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. herb.) Royle. herb. endangered 2098.. Hernandia nymphaeifolia (C. herb. ex Kurz var. var.) Herb. herb. f.) Dunn. native. native. Halophila minor (Zoll. Najas indica (Willd. Heliconia vellerigera Poepp. native. Heliconia wagneriana Petersen. Aiton) Herb.) Hook. vulnerable 2108.. cultivated 2109. Cook & Luond.) DC.. weed of uncertain origin 2095.) Cham.) Hartog. herb. exotic. Najas malesiana Delile. Presl) Kubitzki.) Aschers. Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer. Endangered. herb. Blyxa japonica (Miq. native. Molineria capitulata (Lour.) Pers. herb. tree. casual. aubertii. critically endangered 2099. cultivated only Hydrangeaceae 2093. climber.. critically endangered 2097. Halophila beccarii Aschers.C.f. native. Halophila spinulosa (R. herb.

exotic. tree. exotic. casual. cultivated only 2153. shrub. W. cultivated 2147.) Sweet ex Klatt. shrub. shrub. cultivated only 2138. native. Neomarica longifolia (Link & Otto) Sprague. Benn. Clerodendrum laevifolium Blume. vulnerable. native.) Sprague. exotic. native. Clerodendrum buchananii (Roxb. herb. 2122. cultivated 2145. exotic. common. cultivated only 2141. native. Iris domestica Goldblatt & Mabb. Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb. Trimezia martinicensis (Jacq.. cultivated 2146. native. common. cultivated 2134. tree. endangered 2117. extinct Iridaceae 2120. herb. ex A. Don.. Clerodendrum paniculatum L. endangered 2135. exotic.. cultivated only 2137. Clerodendrum splendens G. critically endangered 2116. casual.) Kuntze.. Callicarpa maingayi King & Gamble. vulnerable. shrub. native.. shrub.. shrub. cultivated 2152. Clerodendrum calamitosum L. exotic. native. tree. shrub. climber. exotic. Ixonanthes reticulata Jack. Br. critically endangered. cultivated only 2133. tree. Clerodendrum phyllomega Steud.. Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr... extinct Lamiaceae 2132.. cultivated only. shrub. shrub. Clerodendrum villosum Blume. exotic.Chong et al. Iodes cirrhosa Turcz. shrub. Iris pseudacorus L. shrub. naturalised.. common. exotic.. shrub. exotic. exotic.. exotic. weed of uncertain origin. cultivated only 2144. native. exotic. cultivated Juglandaceae 2131. Clerodendrum inerme (L. native. exotic. Irvingia malayana Oliv. climber. climber. vulnerable 2119. Iodes velutina King.) Moldenke. cultivated only 2126. exotic. Iodes ovalis Blume. shrub. cultivated Ixonanthaceae 2129. cultivated only 2142. shrub. tree.) Sprague. cultivated only 2150. exotic.) Herb..) L. cultivated 140 . cultivated 2151. Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf. Iris laevigata Fisch. native.) Walp. exotic. common 2118. climber. native. Dietes bicolor (Steud.. cultivated only 2127. herb. climber. native. tree. exotic. Engelhardtia serrata Blume.) DC. Icacinaceae 2115. exotic. cultivated only 2140. native.. climber. tree. cultivated 2130. native. Callicarpa pedunculata R. cultivated only 2149. Platea latifolia Blume. Clerodendrum bungei Steud.. herb. climber. Ajuga reptans L. casual. extinct 2136. Neomarica caerulea (Ker Gawl. Anisomeles indica (L. herb.) Kuntze. exotic.. cultivated only 2124. herb. vulnerable. Phytocrene bracteata Wall. extinct 2148.. exotic. shrub. myrmecophilum (Ridl.) Gaertn. Congea tomentosa Roxb.. cultivated 2143. shrub. shrub. cultivated only 2121. Callicarpa longifolia Lamk. cultivated only 2125. herb. =Belamcanda chinensis (L. Neomarica gracilis (Herb. herb. cultivated only 2139. Clerodendrum deflexum Wall.. native. Clerodendrum wallichii Merr.. cultivated only 2123. native. cultivated Irvingiaceae 2128. Callicarpa tomentosa (L.. Clerodendrum indicum (L. exotic. var. Ixonanthes icosandra Jack.

Premna foetida Reinw.. exotic. Fern... weed of uncertain origin 2174.) R. extinct 2192. extinct 2195. Peronema canescens Jack. Pogostemon auricularius (L. tree. herb. Zhu. extinct 2202. herb.... native. climber.. Congea velutina Wight.) Benth. exotic. ex Schau. exotic. native. shrub. critically endangered 2196. common.C... Clarke. native. Rotheca myricoides (Hochst.. Rotheca incisa (Klotzsch) Steane & Mabb. Endangered. native. cultivated only 2189. Ocimum americanum L. tree. cultivated only 2159. tree. weed of uncertain origin 2181. exotic. Br. casual.) Bakh. cultivated only 2178. native. herb. native. cultivated only 2168. tree. Ocimum basilicum L. Hyptis suaveolens (L. cultivated 2160. exotic.. cultivated only 2180.. herb.. climber. cultivated only 2177. critically endangered Lauraceae 2200. cultivated only 2190. exotic. shrub. Br. exotic.. cultivated only 2173. Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. herb. Premna punctulata C. herb. Salvia splendens Sellow ex Schult. critically endangered. f. Actinodaphne glomerata (Blume) Nees. shrub.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2154. tree. Vitex negundo L. native.. f. exotic. var.) Steane & Mabb. naturalised 2165. climber. cultivated only 2172. cultivated 2179. native. native. Vitex gamosepala Griff. Sinclair. endangered 141 .) R. climber. climber.. Teijsmanniodendron pteropodum (Miq. extinct 2184. native. exotic.) Hassk. Actinodaphne malaccensis Hook. native. climber. common 2157. climber. tree.) Codd. exotic... native. vulnerable 2186. cultivated only 2191. Vitex pinnata L. herb. exotic. B. cultivated 2158. Perilla frutescens (L.. Premna ridleyi King & Gamble. Teijsmanniodendron coriaceum (C. Leonurus sibiricus L. exotic. extinct 2183. Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq... native. albiflorus (Migo) Y. Gmelina elliptica Sm.. shrub... weed of uncertain origin.. cultivated 2182. herb. shrub. native. cultivated 2198. Gmelina macrophylla (R. critically endangered 2201. Leonurus japonicus Houtt. common. Vitex trifolia L. naturalised 2169. tree. climber. cultivated only 2162. shrub. =Clerodendrum macrosiphon Hook. exotic. Gmelina arborea Roxb. Leonotis nepetifolia (L. Hosea lobbiana Ridl. herb. Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz.. tree.. cultivated 2199. Br. Premna serratifolia L. herb. Clerodendrum incisum Klotzsch 2187. naturalised 2164.. Leucas lavandulifolia Sm. weed of uncertain origin 2170. critically endangered 2194. exotic. tree. shrub. cultivated only 2188. Vitex vestita Wall. herb.. cultivated 2175.. f... cultivated only. weed of uncertain origin 2171. climber.B. native. Actinodaphne macrophylla (Blume) Nees. naturalised 2167. exotic. Sphenodesme pentandra Jack.) Steane & Mabb. herb. Tectona grandis L.. casual. cultivated 2155. herb. native.. native. exotic. Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Mentha arvensis L. exotic. Hyptis brevipes Poit. tree. exotic. exotic. cultivated only 2161. Premna parasitica Blume. shrub. exotic.. Hyptis capitata Jacq. exotic. herb. extinct. f. cultivated 2176. Melissa officinalis L. naturalised 2163. Rotheca serrata (L. climber.) Britton. cultivated 2197. native. extinct 2185. extinct. Karomia tettensis (Klotzsch) R. Gmelina asiatica L.. Petraeovitex wolfei J. tree. Gmelina philippensis Cham. weed of uncertain origin. cultivated only 2156. exotic. shrub. native. Leucas zeylanica (L.. cultivated only 2166. ex Blume. cultivated only 2193.) Poit. exotic. herb. shrub. tree. herb. Clarke) Kosterm. shrub. exotic.

. native. critically endangered 2223. native. Cinnamomum camphora (L. f. Litsea erectinervia Kosterm. Litsea lancifolia (Roxb. cultivated 2247. native. exotic. tree. tree. cultivated 2250... extinct 2207. critically endangered 2236. Litsea firma Hook. Presl. tree. Endangered. Allen. endangered 2248. tree. tree. Beilschmiedia kunstleri Gamble. Nothaphoebe umbelliflora (Blume) Blume. f.K. tree. Nothaphoebe coriacea Kosterm. Endiandra longipedicellata C. f. critically endangered 2208.. native. f. Endangered. tree. exotic. Dehaasia incrassata (Jack) Kosterm. Lindera lucida (Blume) Boerl. Alseodaphne nigrescens (Gamble) Kostermans.T.. common.. Cinnamomum verum J. Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm. tree. tree. tree. tree. tree. shrub. critically endangered 2226. White & W. tree.) Hook. native. 2203. Litsea costalis (Blume) Kosterm. Litsea ferruginea Blume. Litsea cordata Hook. critically endangered 2222... native. extinct 2224. native. cultivated only 2214.. native. native. extinct 2218. tree. Litsea machilifolia Gamble. cultivated 2233.. ex Nees) Hook. tree. exotic. native. Muell. tree. Cinnamomum javanicum Blume. vulnerable. exotic. Neolitsea cassia (L. tree. tree. tree. tree. native. Endangered. native. tree. tree. Cryptocarya impressa Miq.D.. Litsea garciae S. extinct 2244. tree. Litsea grandis Hook. tree.Chong et al. native. tree. native. tree. exotic. native. critically endangered 2246. native. native. Cryptocarya caesia Blume. Litsea umbellata (Lour. exotic. Cassytha filiformis L. tree. cultivated 2240. native. critically endangered 2249. native. exotic. tree.. Litsea castanea Hook. cultivated. native. native.. Litsea ridleyi Gamble. Neolitsea dealbata (R. tree. native. critically endangered 2225. native. critically endangered.) Kosterm. native.. f. Litsea costata (Blume) Boerl. Cinnamomum subavenium Miq. native.. climber.. native.. critically endangered 2234. critically endangered 2216. tree. Actinodaphne pruinosa Nees. tree. Cinnamomum sintoc Blume.. tree.. vulnerable.. native. exotic. Beilschmiedia madang Blume.. common. Litsea robusta Blume. common. tree. vulnerable. Presl. critically endangered 2210. tree. Cryptocarya rugulosa Hook. Beilschmiedia tonkinensis (Lecomte) Ridl. Cryptocarya griffithiana Wight. tree. & Binn.. cultivated only 2227. native.) Merr. tree. tree.) Merr. tree. extinct 2220. Alseodaphne intermedia Kostermans. Endiandra impressicosta C. critically endangered 2217.. native. endangered 2204. cultivated 2231.) J. Cryptocarya ferrea Blume.. common. cultivated 2235. Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees. Br. cultivated 142 . Litsea lanceolata (Blume) Kosterm. shrub. cultivated 2237. Litsea accedens (Blume) Boerl. exotic. critically endangered. native. Litsea elliptica Blume. Vidal. tree. tree. critically endangered 2238. native. cultivated only 2241. endangered 2209. cultivated 2211. f. native. tree. Francis. cultivated only 2252. vulnerable. cultivated 2230. =N. extinct 2253. native.... Cinnamomum burmannii (Nees and T. critically endangered 2239. Litsea bindoniana F. native. tree. native. Alseodaphne bancana Miq. native. critically endangered 2205. tree. Cryptocarya kurzii Hook.. Litsea gracilipes Hook. Cinnamomum iners Reinw. Nees) Blume. tree. critically endangered 2206. native. native. tree. cultivated only 2219. cultivated only 2228. native. Litsea myristicifolia (Wall. cultivated only 2229. critically endangered 2221. native. shrub. 2251. critically endangered 2245. cultivated 2243. cultivated 2215. cultivated only 2232. f. f. tree. extinct 2242. f. cultivated only 2213. cultivated only 2212. exotic. native. tree. zeylanica (Nees) Merr.

Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2254.) Endl. cultivated only 2257. exotic. herb. cultivated 2256. exotic. cultivated Linaceae 2284. exotic. shrub.. cultivated only 2269. Barringtonia conoidea Griff. weed of uncertain origin 2281.. herb. exotic. herb. Utricularia uliginosa Vahl. common. exotic. cultivated 2285. Barringtonia edulis Seem. herb. critically endangered. Gustavia augusta L. native. herb.. herb. tree. cultivated Laxmanniaceae 2258. exotic. cultivated only 2263. exotic. native. Couroupita guianensis Aubl.. native. shrub. Berg. cultivated only 2261. native. tree.. Lindernia nummulariifolia (D. naturalised.. cultivated only 2272. Utricularia minutissima Vahl. critically endangered 2268. weed of uncertain origin 2278. native. exotic. Barringtonia calyptrata R. Utricularia aurea Lour. native. Forst.. Gustavia gracillima Miers. ex A.. Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. native.) Kurz.. weed of uncertain origin 2280. Utricularia punctata Wall. tree. Lindernia caespitosa (Blume) Panigrahi. exotic. Utricularia gibba L.. Cordyline australis (G.) Alston. 143 . extinct 2282. cultivated only Linderniaceae 2286. weed of uncertain origin 2288. native. tree. exotic. native.) Pennell. Utricularia bifida L. tree. native... tree. herb. tree. Chev. tree. weed of uncertain origin 2290. critically endangered. DC. Phoebe grandis (Nees) Merr. herb. exotic.. Gustavia superba O. herb.) Buchenau.. Barringtonia asiatica (L. exotic.) Pennell.) Wettst.. herb. shrub.. native. climber. shrub.. Barringtonia racemosa (L. critically endangered. Lindernia ciliata (Colsm. Br. exotic. cultivated only 2271. exotic.) Gaertn. cultivated only 2275. Lindernia crustacea (L. naturalised. casual. extinct Limnocharitaceae 2283. native. tree. tree... Lindernia anagallis (Burm. cultivated Lecythidaceae 2260. cultivated only 2273. Lindernia antipoda (L. climber. =L. herb.. extinct 2289. Reinwardtia indica Dumort. tree. Persea declinata (Blume) Kosterm. Barringtonia acutangula (L. cultivated 2262. cultivated 2266. Limnocharis flava (L. exotic. cultivated 2267... sessiliflora (Benth. Don) Wettst. native. critically endangered. herb. tree. tree. weed of uncertain origin 2279. common 2287. native. cultivated only 2265. Persea americana Mill. tree. Barringtonia reticulata (Blume) Miq.) Kosterm. native. cultivated only 2270. tree. ex Benth. weed of uncertain origin 2292. Lindernia elata (Benth.. f. Planchonia grandis Ridl. Barringtonia scortechinii King. weed of uncertain origin 2277. tree. exotic.) Spreng. herb. Lecythis ollaria Loefl. native. Cordyline fruticosa (L. native. tree. Barringtonia macrostachya (Jack) Kurz. cultivated only 2259. cultivated only 2274.. native. herb. extinct 2264. Indorouchera griffithiana (Planch. Persea thunbergii (Siebold & Zucc. extinct Lentibulariaceae 2276. exotic. herb. tree.. Muell.) Wettst.) A. cultivated only 2255.. Utricularia caerulea L. critically endangered.) F.) Hallier f. native. weed of uncertain origin 2291..

climber.M.) Engl. epiphyte. Lagerstroemia tomentosa C. extinct 2312. native.B. epiphyte. exotic. Lagerstroemia floribunda Jack. exotic. tree. cultivated only 2328. Strychnos axillaris Colebr. native. cultivated only Lythraceae 2318. native. naturalised 2319. cultivated only 2321.. Schum.) Miq.. epiphyte. epiphyte. cultivated only 2325. Amylotheca duthieana (King) Danser. Cuphea ignea A.) Danser.) Ettingsh. Lagerstroemia archeriana F. Sonneratia caseolaris (L. naturalised 2320. herb. extinct 2305. globally extinct Loranthaceae 2302.) J.. common 2311. epiphyte.) Walp. Torenia fournieri Linden ex E. epiphyte. critically endangered 2298. tree. vulnerable 2300.. native. exotic. Torenia polygonoides Benth. cultivated only 2327. Pemphis acidula J.) Bold. Forst. shrub. exotic. epiphyte. exotic.. native.. cultivated only 2317. exotic. herb. Lindernia viscosa (Hornem. Dendrophthoe falcata (L. casual. critically endangered 2315. exotic. extinct 2299. Norrisia maior Solered. Strychnos ridleyi King & Gamble. cultivated only 2323. tree. epiphyte.. weed of uncertain origin 2294. native. cultivated only 2331. Presl.F. native. critically endangered.... common. shrub. Strychnos ignatii P.. DC. ex Jack) Danser. tree. & G. Lawsonia inermis L. herb. native. tree. common 2314. Lagerstroemia duperreana Pierre ex Gagnep. extinct 2309. epiphyte. cultivated 2335. epiphyte. epiphyte. ex DC. native. epiphyte. native. Dendrophthoe pentandra (L. exotic. climber. critically endangered Lowiaceae 2316. native. native. cultivated only 2322. Cuphea hyssopifolia Kunth. exotic.. cultivated Loganiaceae 2297. Helixanthera parasitica Lour. Punica granatum L. tree. shrub. Strychnos maingayi C. Baratranthus axanthus (Korth. Ammannia baccifera L. shrub. cultivated 2336... 2293.. herb. Lagerstroemia langkawiensis Furtado & Montien. Elytranthe albida (Blume) Blume. epiphyte. critically endangered 2301. extinct 2303. Elytranthe arnottiana (Korth. native.) Pers.. Taxillus chinensis (DC.. cultivated only 2330.. Scurrula ferruginea (Roxb. epiphyte. Sonneratia ovata Back. native. Orchidantha fimbriata Holtt.. common 2306. exotic. Scurrula parasitica L. Macbr. Lagerstroemia indica L. native. tree. native. Duabanga grandiflora (Roxb. exotic. herb. exotic. climber. exotic. extinct 2304. cultivated 2333. Orchidantha maxillarioides (Ridl. native. Fourn. cultivated only 2296. extinct 2308.Chong et al... Helixanthera coccinea (Jack) Danser.. exotic. cultivated 2332. native. extinct 2307. tree..) Pennell.. Lagerstroemia loudonii Teijsm. cultivated only 2329. native. tree. cultivated only 2334... tree. cultivated only 2326. Lindernia ruellioides (Colsm.) Miq. Macrosolen retusus (Jack) Miq. & Binn.. native. Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour. critically endangered. Sonneratia alba Sm. Bailey. native. extinct 2310. herb.. Lagerstroemia speciosa (L. Clarke.) K. Bergius.R. weed of uncertain origin 2295.) Tiegh. epiphyte. critically endangered.) Miq. tree. tree. common 2313. exotic. shrub. native. Macrosolen papillosus (Gamble) Danser. exotic. weed of uncertain origin. Cuphea carthagenesis (Jacq. cultivated 144 .J. f.. native. exotic. exotic. herb. cultivated only 2324. herb. tree.

shrub. casual. tree.) Walp. Brachychiton acerifolius (A. candollei (Blume) J. native. herb. Ceiba pentandra (L.) Kunth. endangered. shrub. shrub. exotic..) H.) Bakh. cultivated only 2362. climber. leiocarpum. tree.) Govaerts. Trapa natans L. Commersonia bartramia (L. Cunn. Magnolia champaca (L. var. Juss. Adansonia digitata L. tree. & Arn. cultivated only 2349..) Spreng. Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. tree. St. native. cultivated only 2353. climber. exotic. Tristellateia australasiae A. Keng. =Michelia champaca L. tree.f. tree. Durio graveolens Becc. cultivated only 2348.) Gaertn. ex Roxb. casual. native. 2345. Lophanthera lactescens Ducke... climber. var. exotic. Coelostegia griffithii Benth. tree. shrub. naturalised 2378. shrub. exotic.) Schott & Endl.) Noot. Mitch..) Baill. extinct 2368. cultivated Malvaceae 2357. exotic. critically endangered 2352. native. cultivated only 2350.. endangered 2369. exotic.) DC. shrub. Stigmaphyllon ciliatum (Lam. =M. weed of uncertain origin. cultivated only 2363.. Durio griffithii (Mast. exotic. Hiptage sericea Hook.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2337.) Merr. tree. shrub. liliifera.) Kurz.) A.) Baill. exotic. critically endangered Malpighiaceae 2346.) Sweet. Don) Macarthur. exotic. cultivated only 2351. Endangered. cultivated only 2379.. native. shrub. Malpighia glabra L. cultivated only 2372. cultivated 2360. ex G. native.) Juss. Magnolia singapurensis (Ridl) H.. tree. cultivated only Maesaceae 2338. Clappertonia ficifolia (Willd. tree. Abutilon pictum (Gillies ex Hook. common 2377. Abelmoschus esculentus (L.. cultivated 2354. native. exotic. Rich. cultivated only 2373. singapurensis (Ridl. exotic. endangered 145 .) Decne.. critically endangered 2341. Corchorus aestuans L... exotic. cultivated only 2366. cultivated 2371.) Kosterm. Keng. exotic. critically endangered 2374.) K. tree. exotic... cultivated only 2364. native. =Michelia figo (Lour. herb. native. exotic. Magnolia liliifera L. Keng. Magnolia maingayi King. native. Hiptage benghalensis (L. Chev.. Schum.) Ravenna... critically endangered 2370. cultivated 2359. Brownlowia tersa (L. Brachychiton rupestris (T. exotic. Bombax ceiba L. endangered 2347. ex Pierre. Cola gigantea A. climber. var.... tree. 2342. tree. tree. cultivated only 2367. Malpighia coccigera L. cultivated only. exotic. tree. Brownlowia argentata Kurz. shrub. shrub. tree. native.) A. shrub.. exotic. exotic. Galphimia glauca Cav.. Byttneria maingayi Mast. Bunchosia armeniaca (Cav. exotic.. common Magnoliaceae 2339. Byrsonima crassifolia (L. Magnolia elegans (Blume) H. native. cultivated only. tree. cultivated only 2375. exotic. cultivated only 2365. Aspidopterys concava (Wall. Abutilon indicum (L. Magnolia figo (Lour. casual. cultivated only 2356. exotic. tree. M. exotic. Keng var. exotic. cultivated only. Brachychiton discolor F. tree. exotic. Bombax oleagineum (Decne. climber. native. herb. exotic.) DC. Robyns.) Moench. native. Muell. 2340. singapurensis (Ridl. shrub.-Hil. tree.. cultivated only 2355. cultivated only 2361. ex Lindl. tree. exotic. tree. pumila Andrews 2343. Maesa ramentacea Wall... liliifera (L. Magnolia villosa (Miq. cultivated only 2376. climber. Cola nitida (Vent. cultivated only 2358. Ceiba speciosa (A. exotic. =M. extinct 2344.

Hibiscus tricolor Dehnh.) Pierre. shrub. tree. Sida acuta Burm. shrub. Pterygota alata (Roxb.. Pterospermum diversifolium Blume. Durio singaporensis Ridl. Heritiera javanica (Blume) Kosterm. cultivated only 2422. Endangered.) Savigny. exotic. tree..Chong et al.. cultivated only 2403. Hyland.. cultivated only 2415. Microcos hirsutus (Korth. Franciscodendron laurifolia (F..) R. cultivated 2390. tree. shrub. tree. tree. native. tree. shrub.) Willd. exotic. native. exotic. exotic.) Kosterm. native. critically endangered. cultivated 2388. Pterospermum javanicum Jungh. native. Heritiera borneensis (Merr. critically endangered 2428. tree. native.. extinct.. critically endangered 2393. critically endangered 2387.) Urb. native. exotic. Heritiera peralata (Bailey) Kosterm. extinct 2408. Kleinhovia hospita L.. cultivated only 2397. native. cultivated only 2426. Neesia altissima (Blume) Blume. extinct. native. Malvaviscus arboreus Cav. tree.. Pterocymbium tubulatum (Mast. cultivated 2402.) Hook. tree. exotic. f. Melochia corchorifolia L. Pterospermum acerifolium (L.) Kosterm. Grewia laevigata Vahl. native. tree. Endangered. Hibiscus syriacus L. exotic. Sida cordifolia L. Pachira aquatica Aubl..-Hill. vulnerable 2413.. shrub. cultivated only 2404. tree. native. extinct 2411.. exotic. Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. exotic. Heritiera simplicifolia (Mast. exotic. Heyne. weed of uncertain origin 2431.. cultivated only 2430. exotic.. cultivated only 2395.) Steenis & B. native. native. cultivated 2382. f.) Burret.. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. native. naturalised. cultivated only 2414.) Beumée ex K. Scaphium linearicarpum (Mast. shrub. cultivated 2396. tree. tree. Pentace triptera Mast. Hibiscus surattensis L. native. critically endangered 2409.) Burret. tree.. native. vulnerable 2381. cultivated only 2401. cultivated only 2420. Muntingia calabura L.. exotic. casual. Pavonia multiflora A. casual. cultivated only 2391. exotic. climber. Neesia synandra Mast. native. Matisia cordata Bonpl. cultivated only 2427. Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm. Scaphium macropodum (Miq. exotic. critically endangered 2421. tree. Pachira insignis (Sw. cultivated 2423. ex Hiern. Br.. tree. Heritiera sumatrana (Miq.. tree. tree. tree. Microcos blattaefolia (Corner) Rao. tree. St.... tree. cultivated only 2386... tree.. cultivated 2392.. tree. Endangered. critically endangered 2389.) Pierre. tree. weed of uncertain origin 2399.. exotic. cultivated only 2384. cultivated 2410. common 146 . cultivated 2429. exotic. cultivated only 2416. extinct 2412. exotic. tree.. native. shrub. shrub. cultivated 2419. tree.. cultivated only 2400. Endangered. Heritiera elata Ridl. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. endangered 2407. native. exotic. cultivated only 2418.. cultivated 2424. exotic. Reevesia thyrsoidea Lindl. Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast.. critically endangered 2425. shrub. Durio zibethinus L. Microcos globulifera (Mast. tree. tree. tree... Heritiera littoralis Aiton. tree. herb. tree. cultivated only 2405. cultivated only 2398. exotic. shrub. 2380. native. exotic. ex Lam. exotic. cultivated only 2383. tree. exotic. Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. shrub. Endangered. cultivated only 2394. native. tree.) Kosterm. exotic. shrub. Firmiana malayana Kosterm.. shrub. tree. native. exotic.. tree. exotic. cultivated only 2417. Hibiscus acetosella Welw.. weed of uncertain origin 2406. Pseudobombax ellipticum (Kunth) Dugand. tree. native. tree. Hibiscus mutabilis L.. Pentace curtisii King. Pterospermum lancifolium Roxb. vulnerable. native. cultivated 2385. Schoutenia accrescens (Mast.) Merr. Muell. Neesia malayana Bakh.

cultivated only 2471. tree. critically endangered 2439. shrub. Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. 2478.. Schum. native. Br. cultivated only 2461.. Calathea bella (W.. coccinea (Jack) C. herb. common. herb. Sterculia gilva Miq. f. cultivated only 2480. exotic. herb. exotic. exotic. tree. Sterculia nobilis Sm. cultivated only 2457. Sterculia apetala (Jacq.. Schum. exotic. Phrynium parvum (Ridl. Morren. Talipariti tiliaceum (L. exotic.. ex Corrêa. cultivated only 2444. Ctenanthe lubbersiana (E. native. cultivated only 2472. Morren & Joriss. Schum. critically endangered. Bull) Regel. herb. cultivated only 2477. herb. cultivated 2446. Phengklai. exotic. cultivated 2447. Macbr. shrub. Br. =Hibiscus tiliaceus L. herb. exotic. Calathea rotundifolia (Koch. herb. grandis (Miq. exotic. Sterculia stipulata Korth. native. exotic.A. exotic. cultivated only 2469. Koch & Linden. Calathea lutea (Aubl. cultivated 2437. cultivated only 2476. exotic. tree. shrub. Calathea ornata (Linden ex Lem. tree. herb. Calathea crocata E.) H... cultivated only 2474.. cultivated 2442. exotic.. Maranta leuconeura E. cultivated only 2451. weed of uncertain origin 2433. Forst. Sterculia hamiltonii (Kuntze) Adelb... exotic.. Endangered. herb.. Karst.. critically endangered.. exotic. shrub. vulnerable.A. Calathea leopardina Regel. ex Spreng. Kenn.) Koern.. cultivated only 2450. cultivated only 2435.. cultivated only 2465.. cultivated only 2460. cultivated only 2466. Calathea veitchiana Veitch ex Hook. Morren. Thespesia populnea (L. exotic. cultivated only 2448. Triumfetta tomentosa Bojer. shrub.) Schult. Sterculia monosperma Vent. Calathea warscewiczii (L. naturalised 2453.. tree. Calathea rufibarba Fenzl. exotic. Watson. tree. tree. cultivated only 2468. Ctenanthe oppenheimiana (E. tree.) K. cultivated only 2479. exotic.) K. cultivated only 2470. cultivated only 2473. Calathea orbifolia (Linden) H. herb. common.) Holtt.. exotic. vulnerable. exotic. Sterculia rubiginosa Vent. herb. cultivated only 2441. tree. tree. native. exotic. shrub. cultivated only 2434. exotic. shrub. Waltheria indica L.) Ridl.) Sol. cultivated only 2463. Sterculia foetida L. tree. Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. Kenn. cultivated. tree. tree. exotic..) Fryxell. cultivated 2452. exotic.F. cultivated only 2467. Donax canniformis (G. Morren. cultivated. Calathea makoyana E. Morren) Eichler ex Petersen. cultivated only 2436. Mathieu) Planch. & Linden. shrub. endangered 147 .) Korn... exotic. exotic.. Calathea zebrina (Sims) Lindl. Calathea crotalifera S. Calathea majestica (Linden) H. critically endangered. Ctenanthe setosa (Roscoe) Eichl. cultivated only 2462. Sterculia cordata Blume. native. cultivated only 2438. Calathea picturata (Linden) K. herb.. coccinea Jack 2440. cultivated. Sida rhombifolia L. =S.. weed of uncertain origin Marantaceae 2456. exotic. herb. exotic. exotic.. Sterculia oblongata R. cultivated only 2445. weed of uncertain origin 2455. cultivated only 2475. herb. native. exotic. Sterculia lanceolata Blume var. Sterculia parvifolia Roxb. shrub. herb. fasciata Petersen. native. shrub. =D. cultivated only 2459... herb. cultivated only 2443.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2432. exotic. native.. cultivated only 2458. Urena lobata L. cultivated only 2464. naturalised 2454. exotic. tree. herb. native. 2449. native. Sterculia balanghas L.. tree. exotic. shrub. Calathea insignis Petersen. Sterculia ceramica R. Sterculia macrophylla Vent. Maranta arundinacea L. var. tree. tree.) K. herb. herb. exotic. exotic.. Theobroma cacao L. tree.. exotic. Calathea loeseneri J. Calathea roseopicta (Linden) Regel. shrub. exotic.

& Moritzi. extinct 2505. Medinilla cummingii Naudin.. Thalia geniculata L. exotic. native.. native.. Schum. native. cultivated 2514. native. exotic. ex Triana. Dissochaeta punctulata Hook. f. endangered 2498. Dissochaeta pallida (Jack) Blume. ex B. extinct 2503. tree. Dissochaeta gracilis (Jack) Blume. shrub. critically endangered 2483. critically endangered 2522. climber. exotic. tree. Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benn. Melastoma malabathricum L. Memecylon acuminatum Sm. native. Diplectria stipularis (Blume) Kuntze. tree.. extinct 2492. native. tree.. critically endangered 2519. exotic. climber. climber. shrub. critically endangered 2491. critically endangered 2526. herb. cultivated. extinct 2525.. native. native. tree.. f. exotic. epiphyte. Phrynium villosulum Miq. vulnerable 2495. Memecylon excelsum Blume. native. climber. Stromanthe sanguinea (Hook. herb. extinct 2497. Schumannianthus dichotomus (Roxb. Memecylon lancifolium Ridl. climber. Memecylon caeruleum Jack. Macrolenes nemorosa (Jack) Bakh. ex Triana. critically endangered 2516. extinct 2524. Clarke. native. tree..Chong et al... exotic. native. extinct 2515. Medinilla astronioides Triana. cultivated only 2506. cultivated 2511. Memecylon globosum Bakh. Memecylon garcinioides Blume. native. native. critically endangered 2520. extinct 2523. cultivated only 2507. extinct 2482. acuminatum. vulnerable 2499.. Schum. herb. shrub.. Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm. Endangered. Memecylon floridum Ridl. Macrolenes echinulata (Naudin) Bakh. climber. native. native. casual. Memecylon fruticosum King. extinct 2510. epiphyte. tree.) D. shrub. native. Thalia dealbata Fraser ex Roscoe. native. shrub. cultivated only 2486. var. Memecylon amplexicaule Roxb. shrub. herb. cultivated 2512. herb. critically endangered 2501. native. cultivated 2518. critically endangered. Memecylon cinereum King. native.. shrub.. naturalised. native. native. critically endangered 2493. native. =S.B.) Benth. shrub. tree. cultivated only Melastomataceae 2489. Memecylon intermedium Blume. f. Dissochaeta annulata Hook. tree. shrub. native. Memecylon cantleyi Ridl. native. Memecylon corticosum Ridl. Stachyphrynium latifolium (Blume) K. 2481.. Medinilla radicans (Blume) Blume. Memecylon megacarpum Furtado.) Kuntze. griffithii (Baker) K. climber. Jacks. native. tree. common. shrub. Memecylon lilacinum Z. tree. shrub. 2484. native. critically endangered 2517. climber. Memecylon edule Roxb. cultivated only 2500. native. Medinilla magnifica Lindl.) Sond. Clidemia hirta (L. climber. cultivated Marcgraviaceae 2488. exotic.f. herb. climber. Dissochaeta intermedia Blume. critically endangered 2521. cultivated only 2504. Diplectria viminalis (Jack) Kuntze. Memecylon campanulatum C. Norantea guianensis Aubl. extinct 2494. native. critically endangered 2513. native.. native... Clarke) King. D. Memecylon dichotomum (C.) Triana. critically endangered. native. endangered 2527. Dissochaeta celebica Blume. exotic.) Gagnep. cultivated only 2485. native. exotic. critically endangered 2502. native. Diplectria divaricata (Willd. Don. native. extinct 2508. native. critically endangered 148 . f. vulnerable 2496. climber. native. tree. Endangered.B.. cultivated 2490. tree. ex Blume) Blume. herb. exotic. climber. native. cultivated 2509.. tree. climber. Lijndenia laurina Zoll. Medinilla crassifolia (Reinw. Memecylon minutiflorum Miq. cultivated only 2487. & M. critically endangered.

) Nayar. native. native. shrub. Memecylon paniculatum Jack.) Pellegrin. exotic. tree. Pachycentria constricta (Blume) Blume. tree. cultivated 149 .. native. cultivated 2543. cultivated 2558. native. tree. native. shrub.) Parker. native.. tree. cultivated only 2554. Pternandra coerulescens Jack. tree. shrub.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2528. herb. extinct 2569. Pogonanthera pulverulenta (Jack) Blume. Chisocheton longistipitatus (Bailey) L.) Burk. Aglaia cucullata (Roxb. shrub. extinct 2536. native. extinct 2572. exotic. extinct 2535. native.) King. native. tree. Sm. extinct 2552. epiphyte. tree. & Binn. Memecylon pauciflorum Blume.. Aglaia elliptica Blume.B. Aglaia duperreana Pierre. shrub. Aglaia formosana Hayata. herb. Aglaia odorata Lour. cultivated only 2540.) Cogn. critically endangered 2556. native. tree.. S. Theob. Miconia macrophylla Triana. critically endangered 2553. Chisocheton erythrocarpus Hiern. extinct. native.) Cogn. tree. exotic. Aglaia malaccensis (Ridl. tree.. tree. tree. critically endangered 2550. Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall. exotic. native. cultivated only 2534.. native. Tibouchina urvilleana (DC. native. Tibouchina semidecandra (Schrank & Mart.) Harms. Aglaia odoratissima Blume. critically endangered 2555. tree. tree. native. tree. Aglaia multinervis Pannell. tree. shrub. extinct 2541. native. native.. extinct 2532. Aglaia palembanica Miq. tree. critically endangered 2568. Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) M. cultivated 2574. cultivated only 2551. critically endangered 2567. cultivated 2531. cultivated only 2533. Memecylon pubescens (Cl. tree. extinct 2537. tree. critically endangered 2545. tree. Chisocheton macrophyllus King. cultivated only Meliaceae 2549. Azadirachta indica A. Memecylon oleifolium Blume. native. critically endangered 2538. exotic. Sonerila heterostemon Naudin.. tree. native.. Sonerila moluccana Roxb. critically endangered. cultivated only 2573. Aglaia macrocarpa (Miq. shrub. critically endangered 2566. exotic. native. vulnerable. Endangered. exotic.) S. Pternandra tuberculata (Korth. Jain & Bennet. shrub. native. Ochthocharis borneensis Blume. critically endangered 2561. Aglaia rufinervis (Blume) Bentv. epiphyte. tree. native. cultivated 2544. tree.) Pannell. ex DC. Carapa guianensis Aubl. cultivated only 2548. Aphanamixis sumatrana (Miq. tree... tree. exotic. tree. Plethiandra sessiliflora (Cogn. tree. Juss. Aglaia tomentosa Teijsm. cultivated 2571. native. native. cultivated only 2560.) Ridl. Ochthocharis javanica Blume. Aglaia exstipulata (Griff. Aglaia leptantha Miq. epiphyte. Pachycentria maingayi (C. Jacobs. cultivated 2529. native. Phyllagathis rotundifolia (Jack) Blume.) Pannell. herb. tree. tree. exotic. tree.. tree. native. critically endangered 2530. cultivated 2576... vulnerable. critically endangered 2542.) W. native. native. extinct 2562. critically endangered. extinct 2563. native. Aglaia tenuicaulis Hiern. extinct 2570. Aglaia spectabilis (Miq. tree. Aglaia sexipetala Griff. critically endangered 2546... native. Miconia calvescens DC. native. tree. native. extinct 2557.. native. Aglaia oligophylla Miq. native. native. critically endangered 2539. casual. epiphyte. extinct 2559. cultivated only 2575. critically endangered 2564. exotic. Aglaia simplicifolia (Bedd. critically endangered 2547. critically endangered 2565. Ochthocharis paniculata Korth. Aglaia rubiginosa (Hiern) Pannell. cultivated only 2577.. native. tree. exotic. native.S. Clarke) Maxw. tree. extinct. critically endangered. exotic. Pternandra echinata Jack. Aglaia leucophylla King.. native.

cultivated only 2602. exotic. native. native. tree. common. vulnerable. cultivated 2608. exotic. tree. cultivated 2587. critically endangered 2582. Khaya senegalensis (Desr.) T. Sandoricum beccarianum Baill. climber. Endangered. climber. native.f.) Harms. & Thoms... Dysoxylum densiflorum (Blume) Miq. native. Trichilia emetica Vahl. cultivated only 2592. native. tree. tree.. tree. Nymphoides indica (L. native. Stephania capitata (Blume) Spreng. climber. cultivated 2601. exotic. Toona sinensis (A. tree. tree. native. vulnerable 2616. tree. Khaya anthotheca (Welw. exotic. exotic.) Jacq. Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lam.. tree. exotic. tree... native. native. native. critically endangered 2589.. native. tree. Cocculus orbiculatus (L.) Mabb. extinct 2580. exotic. critically endangered 2590. tree. native.. Roem. cultivated only 2597. Sandoricum koetjape (Burm.. native. tree. herb. critically endangered 2598. climber. native.. Chisocheton patens Blume. climber. casual. Juss. critically endangered 2612. extinct 2588. cultivated only 2604. DC. Turraea obtusifolia Hochst. native.. climber. f.) Kuntze. native. Juss.. Xylocarpus granatum J. native.) M. native. weed of uncertain origin 150 . cultivated 2600. cultivated only 2583. cultivated 2607. & Thomson. Juss.. Dysoxylum excelsum Blume. climber. Roem. tree. tree.) Merr. shrub. native. tree. & Thoms. native.) A. Mollugo pentaphylla L. cultivated 2620. tree. Stephania erecta Craib. native. tree. native. exotic. Khaya grandifoliola C. Chisocheton pentandrus (Blanco) Merr. exotic. Tinomiscium petiolare Miers ex Hook. 2578. cultivated only 2595. tree. endangered 2619. critically endangered Menispermaceae 2609. Dysoxylum alliaceum (Blume) Blume.) M. cultivated only 2593. native. cultivated only 2606. Chisocheton sarawakanus (C. critically endangered 2581.. endangered 2615. tree. Dysoxylum pettigrewianum F. critically endangered 2591.. Xylocarpus rumphii (Kostel. Endangered. climber. Dysoxylum flavescens Hiern.) Hook. critically endangered 2579. climber. cultivated Molluginaceae 2622. cultivated 2613. Tinospora macrocarpa Diels. f. native. tree. tree. ssp..) DC. endangered 2611. Melia indica Brand. Dysoxylum cauliflorum Hiern... paucijugus (Miq.P. DC. Swietenia macrophylla King. climber. Bailey. DC. critically endangered Menyanthaceae 2621. exotic.) C. Cyclea laxiflora Miers. exotic. Limacia oblonga Hook. extinct 2585. Tinospora crispa (L. common. tree.. tree. Limacia scandens Lour. cultivated only 2596. Fibraurea tinctoria Lour. Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn. Hypserpa nitida Miers. Pseudoclausena chrysogyne (Miq. exotic. climber. Chisocheton pauciflorus King.. extinct 2586. native. cultivated only 2603. Clark. tree. critically endangered 2599. cultivated only 2618. extinct 2584.. f. Dysoxylum cyrtobotryum Miq. extinct 2610. Lansium domesticum Corrêa.M. exotic. extinct 2614. tree. Swietenia mahogani (L. Dysoxylum carolinae Mabb. native. Turraea breviflora Ridl.) Colebr.. Chukrasia tabularis A. extinct 2605.) Mabb. native. native.. exotic. herb. Koenig. shrub. tree.Chong et al. Dysoxylum acutangulum Miq. casual. Endangered... tree. critically endangered 2617. native. native. cultivated only 2594. tree. climber.

Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore

Monimiaceae 2623. Kibara coriacea (Blume) Tulasne; shrub; native; critically endangered 2624. Matthaea sancta Blume; shrub; native; endangered Moraceae 2625. Antiaris toxicaria Lesch.; tree; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2626. Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg; tree; exotic; casual; cultivated 2627. Artocarpus anisophyllus Miq.; tree; native; Endangered; cultivated 2628. Artocarpus camansi Blanco; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2629. Artocarpus dadah Miq.; tree; native; Endangered; cultivated 2630. Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume; tree; native; common; cultivated; =A. scortechinii King 2631. Artocarpus fulvicortex Jarrett; tree; native; critically endangered 2632. Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. ex Trec.; tree; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2633. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam.; tree; exotic; casual; cultivated 2634. Artocarpus hispidus Jarrett; tree; native; critically endangered 2635. Artocarpus integer (Thunb.) Merr.; tree; exotic; casual; cultivated 2636. Artocarpus kemando Miq.; tree; native; endangered 2637. Artocarpus lanceifolius Roxb.; tree; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2638. Artocarpus lowii King; tree; native; critically endangered 2639. Artocarpus maingayi King; tree; native; extinct 2640. Artocarpus nitidus Trec. ssp. griffithii (King) Jarrett; tree; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2641. Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2642. Artocarpus rigidus Blume; tree; native; vulnerable; cultivated 2643. Castilla elastica Sessé; tree; exotic; casual; cultivated 2644. Dorstenia contrajerva L.; shrub; exotic; cultivated only 2645. Ficus albipila (Miq.) King; tree; native; extinct; cultivated 2646. Ficus annulata Blume; strangler; native; extinct 2647. Ficus apiocarpa Miq.; climber; native; endangered 2648. Ficus aurantiaca Griff. var. aurantiaca; climber; native; common; cultivated 2649. Ficus aurata Miq. var. aurata; tree; native; vulnerable 2650. Ficus auriculata Lour.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2651. Ficus barteri Sprague; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2652. Ficus benghalensis L.; strangler; exotic; casual; cultivated 2653. Ficus benjamina L.; strangler; weed of uncertain origin; cultivated 2654. Ficus binnendykii Miq.; strangler; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2655. Ficus botryocarpa Miq.; tree; native; extinct 2656. Ficus bracteata Wall. ex Miq.; strangler; native; critically endangered 2657. Ficus buxifolia De Wild.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2658. Ficus caulocarpa (Miq.) Miq.; strangler; native; common; cultivated 2659. Ficus celebensis Corner; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2660. Ficus chartacea Wall. ex King; shrub; native; vulnerable 2661. Ficus consociata Blume; strangler; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2662. Ficus crassipes F.M. Bailey; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2663. Ficus crassiramea Miq.; strangler; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2664. Ficus delosyce Corner; strangler; native; extinct 2665. Ficus deltoidea Jack; epiphyte; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2666. Ficus destruens F. Muell. ex C.T. White; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2667. Ficus dubia Wall. ex King; strangler; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2668. Ficus elastica Roxb. ex Hornem.; strangler; exotic; casual; cultivated 2669. Ficus excavata King; climber; native; extinct 151

Chong et al.

2670. Ficus fistulosa Reinw. ex Blume; tree; native; common; cultivated 2671. Ficus francisci H. Winkler; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2672. Ficus glandulifera (Wall. ex Miq.) King; tree; native; critically endangered 2673. Ficus globosa Blume; shrub; native; Endangered; cultivated 2674. Ficus grossularioides Burm. f. var. grossularioides; tree; native; common; cultivated 2675. Ficus heteropleura Blume; climber; native; common 2676. Ficus irregularis Miq.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2677. Ficus kerkhovenii Valeton; strangler; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2678. Ficus kurzii King; strangler; exotic; cultivated only 2679. Ficus laevis Blume; climber; native; critically endangered 2680. Ficus lamponga Miq.; tree; native; critically endangered 2681. Ficus lyrata Warb.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2682. Ficus microcarpa L. f.; strangler; native; common; cultivated 2683. Ficus microsyce Ridl.; strangler; native; critically endangered 2684. Ficus natalensis Hochst. ssp. leprieurii (Miq.) C. C. Berg; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2685. Ficus obscura Blume var. borneensis (Miq.) Corner; epiphyte; native; critically endangered 2686. Ficus pellucidopunctata Griff.; strangler; native; extinct 2687. Ficus pisocarpa Blume; strangler; native; critically endangered 2688. Ficus pleurocarpa F. Muell.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2689. Ficus pumila L.; climber; exotic; casual; cultivated 2690. Ficus punctata Lam.; climber; exotic; cultivated only 2691. Ficus racemosa L.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2692. Ficus radicans Roxb.; herb; exotic; cultivated only 2693. Ficus recurva Blume var. ribesoides King; climber; native; critically endangered 2694. Ficus religiosa L.; strangler; exotic; naturalised; cultivated 2695. Ficus retusa L.; tree; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2696. Ficus ruginervia L.; climber; native; extinct 2697. Ficus sagittata Vahl; climber; native; critically endangered 2698. Ficus scortechinii King; tree; native; critically endangered 2699. Ficus sinuata Thunb.; epiphyte; native; critically endangered 2700. Ficus stricta (Miq.) Miq.; strangler; exotic; cultivated only 2701. Ficus subgelderi Corner var. rigida (Miq.) Corner; strangler; native; critically endangered 2702. Ficus subgelderi Corner var. subgelderi; strangler; native; extinct 2703. Ficus sundaica Blume var. sundaica; strangler; native; critically endangered 2704. Ficus superba Miq.; strangler; native; Endangered; cultivated 2705. Ficus trichocarpa Blume; climber; native; critically endangered 2706. Ficus vaccinioides Hemsl. & King ex King; climber; exotic; cultivated only 2707. Ficus variegata Blume; tree; native; common; cultivated 2708. Ficus vasculosa Wall. ex Miq.; tree; native; Endangered; cultivated 2709. Ficus villosa Blume; climber; native; critically endangered 2710. Ficus virens Aiton; strangler; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2711. Ficus xylophylla Wall. ex Miq.; strangler; native; critically endangered 2712. Morus alba L.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2713. Parartocarpus bracteatus (King) Becc.; tree; native; critically endangered 2714. Parartocarpus venenosa (Zoll. & Moritzi) Becc. ssp. forbesii (King) Jarrett; tree; native; extinct 2715. Streblus elongatus (Miq.) Corner; tree; native; vulnerable; cultivated 2716. Streblus ilicifolius (Vidal) Corner; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2717. Treculia africana Decne. ex Trec.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2718. Trophis scandens Hook. & Arn.; climber; exotic; cultivated only


Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore

Moringaceae 2719. Moringa oleifera Lam.; tree; exotic; cultivated only Musaceae 2720. Ensete superbum (Roxb.) Cheesman; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2721. Musa acuminata Colla var. sumatrana; herb; exotic; cultivated only 2722. Musa beccarii N.W. Simmons; herb; exotic; cultivated only 2723. Musa ornata Roxb.; herb; exotic; cultivated only; =M. rosacea hort. 2724. Musa uranoscopos Lour.; herb; exotic; cultivated only 2725. Musa velutina H. Wendl. & Drude; herb; exotic; cultivated only 2726. Musella lasiocarpa (Franch.) C.Y. Wu ex H.W. Li; herb; exotic; cultivated only Myricaceae 2727. Morella esculenta (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) I.M. Turner; tree; native; common; cultivated; =Myrica esculenta Buch.-Ham. Myristicaceae 2728. Endocomia canarioides (King) de Wilde; tree; native; extinct 2729. Gymnacranthera bancana (Miq.) Sinclair; tree; native; critically endangered 2730. Gymnacranthera farquhariana (Hook. f. & Thoms.) Warb. var. eugeniifolia (A. DC.) R.T.A. Schouten; tree; native; critically endangered 2731. Gymnacranthera farquhariana (Hook. f. & Thoms.) Warb. var. farquhariana; tree; native; critically endangered 2732. Gymnacranthera farquhariana (Hook. f. & Thoms.) Warb. var. zippeliana (Miq.) R.T.A.Schouten; tree; native; critically endangered 2733. Gymnacranthera forbesii (King) Warb.; tree; native; critically endangered 2734. Horsfieldia brachiata (King) Warb.; tree; native; critically endangered 2735. Horsfieldia crassifolia (Hook. f. & Thoms.) Warb.; tree; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2736. Horsfieldia grandis (Hook. f.) Warb.; tree; native; critically endangered 2737. Horsfieldia irya (Gaertn.) Warb.; tree; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2738. Horsfieldia parviflora (Roxb.) J. Sinclair; tree; exotic; naturalised 2739. Horsfieldia polyspherula (Hook. f. emend. King) J. Sinclair; tree; native; vulnerable 2740. Horsfieldia punctatifolia J. Sinclair; tree; native; critically endangered 2741. Horsfieldia sparsa W.J. de Wilde; tree; native; extinct 2742. Horsfieldia sucosa (King) Warb.; tree; native; Endangered; cultivated 2743. Horsfieldia superba (Hook.f. & Thoms.) Warb.; tree; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2744. Horsfieldia tomentosa Warb.; tree; native; critically endangered 2745. Horsfieldia wallichii (Hook.f. & Thoms.) Warb.; tree; native; critically endangered 2746. Knema cinerea (Poir.) Warb.; tree; native; critically endangered 2747. Knema communis J. Sinclair; tree; native; endangered 2748. Knema conferta (King) Warb.; tree; native; Endangered; cultivated 2749. Knema curtisii (King) Warb. var. paludosa J. Sinclair; tree; native; endangered 2750. Knema furfuracea (Hook. f. & Thoms.) Warb.; tree; native; critically endangered 2751. Knema glaucescens Jack; tree; native; extinct; cultivated 2752. Knema globularia (Lam.) Warb.; tree; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2753. Knema hookeriana (Wall. ex Hook. f. & Thoms.) Warb.; tree; native; critically endangered 2754. Knema intermedia (Blume) Warb.; tree; native; endangered 2755. Knema latericia Elm. ssp. ridleyi (Gandoger) de Willde; tree; native; endangered 2756. Knema laurina (Blume) Warb.; tree; native; Endangered; cultivated 2757. Knema malayana Warb.; tree; native; Endangered; cultivated 2758. Knema patentinervia (J. Sinclair) W.J. de Wilde; tree; native; critically endangered 153

Chong et al.

2759. Knema rubens (Sinclair) W.J. de Wilde; tree; native; extinct 2760. Myristica cinnamomea King; tree; native; critically endangered 2761. Myristica crassa King; tree; native; critically endangered 2762. Myristica elliptica Wall. ex Hook.f. & Thoms.; tree; native; endangered 2763. Myristica esculenta Buch.-Ham.; tree; native; common 2764. Myristica fragrans Houtt.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2765. Myristica guatteriifolia A. DC.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2766. Myristica iners Blume; tree; native; critically endangered 2767. Myristica lowiana King; tree; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2768. Myristica maingayi Hook. f.; tree; native; critically endangered 2769. Myristica maxima Warb.; tree; native; critically endangered Myrsinaceae 2770. Aegiceras corniculatum (L.) Blanco; tree; native; endangered 2771. Ardisia colorata Roxb.; shrub; native; common 2772. Ardisia comosa (de Wit) Taton; shrub; exotic; cultivated only 2773. Ardisia crassa C. B. Clarke; shrub; native; extinct 2774. Ardisia crenata Sims; shrub; native; critically endangered 2775. Ardisia elliptica Thunb.; tree; native; Endangered; cultivated 2776. Ardisia humilis Vahl; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2777. Ardisia lanceolata Roxb.; tree; native; critically endangered; cultivated 2778. Ardisia miqueliana Scheff.; shrub; native; critically endangered 2779. Ardisia ridleyi King & Gamble; shrub; native; extinct 2780. Ardisia sessilis Scheff.; shrub; native; extinct 2781. Ardisia singaporensis Ridl.; shrub; native; extinct 2782. Ardisia teysmanniana Scheff.; shrub; native; endangered 2783. Ardisia tuberculata Wall. ex A. D. C.; shrub; native; critically endangered 2784. Ardisia villosa Roxb.; shrub; native; critically endangered 2785. Ardisia wallichii A. DC.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2786. Embelia canescens Jack; climber; native; endangered 2787. Embelia coriacea Wall. ex A. DC.; climber; native; critically endangered 2788. Embelia dasythyrsa Miq.; climber; native; extinct 2789. Embelia lampani Scheff.; climber; native; common 2790. Embelia ribes Burm. f.; climber; native; common 2791. Grenacheria amentacea (C.B. Clarke) Mez; climber; native; extinct 2792. Grenacheria fulva (Mez) Airy Shaw; climber; native; extinct 2793. Grenacheria lampani (Scheff.) Mez; climber; native; endangered 2794. Labisia pumila (Blume) F.-Vill.; herb; native; vulnerable; cultivated 2795. Lysimachia procumbens Baudo; herb; exotic; cultivated only 2796. Rapanea porteriana Wall. ex A. DC.; shrub; native; vulnerable; cultivated Myrtaceae 2797. Asteromyrtus symphyocarpa (F. Muell.) Craven; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2798. Baeckea frutescens L.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2799. Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2800. Callistemon pallidus (Bonpl.) DC.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2801. Callistemon sieberi DC.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2802. Callistemon viminalis (Sol. ex Gaertn.) G. Don; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2803. Corymbia maculata (Hook.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2804. Corymbia papuana (F. Muell.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2805. Corymbia polycarpa (F. Muell.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2806. Corymbia ptychocarpa (F. Muell.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson; tree; exotic; cultivated only 154

Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore

2807. Corymbia torelliana (F. Muell.) K.D. Hill & L.A.S. Johnson; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2808. Decaspermum fruticosum J.R. & G. Forst.; tree; native; vulnerable; cultivated 2809. Eucalyptus alba Reinw. ex Blume; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2810. Eucalyptus apodophylla Blakely & Jacobs; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2811. Eucalyptus botryoides Sm.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2812. Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2813. Eucalyptus deglupta Blume; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2814. Eucalyptus exserta F. Muell.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2815. Eucalyptus globulus Labill.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2816. Eucalyptus herbertiana Maiden; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2817. Eucalyptus microcorys F. Muell.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2818. Eucalyptus moluccana Roxb.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2819. Eucalyptus pachyphylla F. Muell.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2820. Eucalyptus pellita F. Muell.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2821. Eucalyptus pilularis Sm.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2822. Eucalyptus platyphylla F. Muell.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2823. Eucalyptus robusta Sm.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2824. Eucalyptus umbrawarrensis Maiden; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2825. Eugenia brasiliensis Lam.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2826. Eugenia reinwardtiana (Blume) DC.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2827. Eugenia stipitata McVaugh; shrub; exotic; cultivated only 2828. Eugenia uniflora L.; shrub; exotic; cultivated only 2829. Leptospermum brachyandrum (F. Muell.) Druce; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2830. Leptospermum liversidgei R.T. Baker & H.G. Sm.; shrub; exotic; cultivated only 2831. Leptospermum petersonii F.M. Bailey; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2832. Leptospermum polgalifolium Salisb.; shrub; exotic; cultivated only 2833. Lophostemon confertus (R. Br.) Peter G. Wilson & J.T. Waterh.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2834. Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2835. Melaleuca armillaris (Sol. ex Gaertn.) Sm.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2836. Melaleuca bracteata F. Muell.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2837. Melaleuca cajuputi Powell; shrub; native; extinct; cultivated 2838. Melaleuca dealbata S.T. Blake; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2839. Melaleuca decora (Salisb.) Britten; tree; exotic; cultivated only; =M. gensitifolia Sm. 2840. Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2841. Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2842. Melaleuca saligna Schauer; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2843. Melaleuca styphelioides Sm.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2844. Melaleuca viridiflora Sol. ex Gaertn.; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2845. Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) O. Berg; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2846. Myrtus communis L.; shrub; exotic; cultivated only 2847. Psidium guajava L.; shrub; exotic; casual; cultivated 2848. Rhodamnia cinerea Jack; tree; native; common; cultivated 2849. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk.; shrub; native; common; cultivated 2850. Syzygium accuminatissimum (Blume) DC.; tree; native; Endangered; cultivated; =Acmena acciminatissima (Blume) Merr. & L.M.Perry 2851. Syzygium alliiligneum B. Hyland; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2852. Syzygium angophoroides (F. Muell.) B. Hyland; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2853. Syzygium antisepticum (Blume) Merr. & L.M. Perry; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2854. Syzygium aqueum (Burm. f.) Alston; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2855. Syzygium aromaticum (L.) Merr. & L.M. Perry; tree; exotic; cultivated only 2856. Syzygium attenuatum (Miq.) Merr. & L.M. Perry ssp. attenuatum var. attenuatum; tree; native; extinct 155

) Wall.) Craven & Biffin.M. tree.. cultivated. ex A. endangered 2891.M. Syzygium leucoxylon Korth. & L. Syzygium nemestrinum (M. cultivated 2872. Syzygium fibrosum (F. critically endangered 156 . critically endangered 2893. native. tree. Turner 2876. endangered. & L. common. extinct. var. Syzygium minutiflorum Miq. =S. filiforme. 2871.M. native..M. vulnerable.M. Turner. critically endangered 2898. Syzygium maingayi Chantaran. extinct 2879. tree.) Amsh. tree.M.) B. Syzygium pseudocrenulatum (M. tree. native. Syzygium cinereum (Kurz) Chantaran. clavimyrtus (Koord. tree. Hend. Syzygium malaccense (L. Syzygium chloranthum (Duthie) Merr. Chantaranothai & J. Syzygium cumini (L. cultivated 2859. Syzygium filiforme (Wall.. Syzygium jambos (L. native. Syzygium pustulatum (Duthie) Merr. cultivated 2861. Hend. native. & L. cultivated 2865. exotic. tree. Gaur. extinct 2888.. common. tree. critically endangered. Cowan & Cowan var. tree. tree. Syzygium muelleri (Miq. Perry. extinct 2880. Syzygium incarnatum (Elmer) Merr.. & L. Perry. native.R. claviflorum. tree. Hartley & L.M. native. extinct 2864. extinct 2881. native.) Miq. cultivated only 2890. tree. Syzygium oblatum (Roxb. bernardii (King) I. Turner 2877. critically endangered 2894. M.M. native. native. & J. native. Syzygium pachyphyllum (Kurz) Merr. Syzygium myrtifolium Walp. Parn. Syzygium griffithii (Duthie) Merr. ex Duthie) P. filiforme (Wall. =S. Turner. conglomerata. Syzygium glabratum (DC.M.R.) I. Syzygium campanulatum Korth. cultivated only 2875. Perry. cultivated 2860. var. Muell. & L. Syzygium ngadimaniana (M. Turner. tree. Perry. Syzygium claviflorum (Roxb. extinct.) Sreek. Syzygium nervosum DC.M. Syzygium pauper (Ridl. Syzygium avene Miq. vulnerable 2895.. Turner. exotic.M. native. 2857. endangered 2897.R. critically endangered 2884. & L. native.M.) Alston. tree. Syzygium forte (F. Syzygium flosculiferum (M.) Miq. Turner. Parn. critically endangered 2862. exotic. tree.G. Perry.M. Syzygium palembanicum Miq. tree. Syzygium lineatum (DC. & Valeton) I. Syzygium inophyllum DC. extinct 2869. tree. cultivated 2885. Syzygium glaucum (King) P.) I. Syzygium kunstleri (King) Bahadur & R. cultivated. Parn.. & L. tree.) Merr. native. native. critically endangered 2901. Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp. tree. Perry.M.M. tree. native. common. tree. exotic. Perry. critically endangered 2863. extinct 2858.. Parn. Syzygium conglomeratum (Duthie) I. tree. native.. native. extinct 2900.C.) I.M.M. endangered 2892. tree. Hyland ssp. ex Duthie) Chantaran. exotic. Syzygium papillosum (Duthie) Merr. var. cultivated only 2867. tree.) I. tree. native.. gracile (Korth. Syzygium nigricans (King) Merr.M. Endangered. tree. native.M. Syzygium pseudoformosum (King) Merr. inophyllum DC. tree.. Turner. tree. tree. native. tree. native.. tree.) Merr. native. tree. Hend.M. Syzygium grande (Wight) Walp. native. tree.) Wall.M.) Merr.. native. =Eugenia grandis Wight 2873.Cowan & Cowan var.. native. Turner var. critically endangered 2883.. Syzygium duthieanum (King) Masam. critically endangered.) Skeels. tree. forte. tree.) Veldekamp. cultivated 2878. Hend. tree.M. casual. cultivated 2882. exotic. Perry. native. Syzygium hemilampra (F. Bailey) T. cultivated only 2886. tree. critically endangered 2887.) I. tree. casual. & L. native. Muell. tree. & L. exotic. Perry. native.R.R. Syzygium linocieroideum (King) I. cultivated only 2870. cultivated 2899. =S.M. Hend. tree. extinct 2874. native. native. tree.. & J. Chantaranothai & J. oblatum. vulnerable. native.. critically endangered 2896. Syzygium borneense (Miq. Syzygium pendens (Duthie) I. tree. critically endangered 2866. & J. Syzygium leptostemon (Korth. native. exotic. native. cerinum (M. native. tree. Perry. ex A. Perry. =S.Chong et al. naturalised. & L. native. tree. Turner 2868. Parn. endangered 2889. tree. native.

Hyland. Tristaniopsis obovata (R. tree. Xanthostemon verticillatus (C. exotic. exotic. Waterh. Chantaranothai & J. tree. exotic.) Peter G. tree. Francis) L. Tristaniopsis exiliflora (F. tree. extinct 2909. exotic.T. cultivated 2916.Parn. cultivated 2920..) Peter G. cultivated 2929. Muell. Tristaniopsis laurina (Sm.. critically endangered 2911. native. Wilson & J. tree. subdecussatum. vulnerable. vulnerable 2912. cultivated only 2908. exotic. cultivated only 2932. Tristaniopsis beccarii (Ridl.M.) B. Wilson & J. Parn..T. Waterh. tree. endangered 2906. exotic. Perry. exotic. tree. Barclaya motleyi Hook. native. critically endangered... Waterh. ex Andrews. Muell. Syzygium pyrifolium (Blume) DC. tree. Syzygium unipunctatum (B. Muell. Hyland... herb. native. tree.) Peter G.. native. Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. Syzygium rugosum Korth.Chantaranothai & J. cultivated 2921. Wilson & J. climber. weed of uncertain origin 2931. herb. Endangered. Xanthostemon chrysanthus (F. exotic. cultivated only 157 . native.. native. tree.) DC. Syzygium scortechinii (King) P.. Orb.T.. exotic. White & W. tree. cultivated 2922. shrub. cultivated only 2934. exotic.) Peter G.T. Wilson & J. critically endangered. shrub.T. cultivated only 2938.) B.. Syzygium resa (B. Victoria cruziana A. tree. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn. native. critically endangered 2910.. ex Duthie) I. Nepenthes ampullaria Jack. native. & L.) J. tree. herb. cultivated only Nepenthaceae 2927. & L. tree. Pisonia alba Span. Syzygium subdecussatum (Wall. Hyland) Craven & Biffin. cultivated 2903. tree. native.. Syzygium pycnanthum Merr. Mirabilis jalapa L. critically endangered 2907.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2902. herb.M. cultivated only 2915. native. exotic. Syzygium singaporense (King) Airy Shaw. scortechinii. tree. cultivated only 2919. Sm..) Merr. climber. vulnerable 2928..D. cultivated only 2918. Syzygium zeylanicum (L.T. critically endangered 2936.S. Hyland) Craven & Biffin.M. Perry. herb. exotic. Muell. native. Waterh. Syzygium urophyllum Merr. Bougainvillea glabra Choisy. critically endangered 2904. Francis. Waterh. White & W. Tristaniopsis merguensis (Griff. native. exotic. Br.T. exotic. exotic. f..D. cultivated only 2924. tree. f. Nepenthes gracilis Korth. native. native. Wilson & J. shrub. extinct 2914. cultivated only 2913.) Peter G. tree. common. Turner var. Sowerby. & L. Syzygium wilsonii (F.T. tree. native. tree. cultivated only 2925. tree.M. Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack ex Hook. Waterh. Br. cultivated only 2937. herb. cultivated only Nymphaeaceae 2935.) Peter G.. shrub. Perry. exotic..) Benth. exotic. herb. cultivated only 2905. var.. native. cultivated only Nelumbonaceae 2926. tree. Tristaniopsis whiteana (Griff. cultivated only 2933. Waterhousea floribunda (F. Xanthostemon youngii C. Endangered.D. exotic. Wilson & J.. herb. Pisonia grandis R. cultivated only 2923. var. cultivated only 2917. Syzygium syzygioides (Miq. exotic. Boerhavia diffusa L. Nymphaea rubra Roxb. rugosum. climber.C. Victoria amazonica (Poepp. native. common. Syzygium ridleyi (King) P. cultivated Nyctaginaceae 2930.

native. maingayi (C. endangered 2959. Bergius) Willd.. critically endangered Ochnaceae 2941. Chionanthus macrocarpus Blume. climber. Ludwigia peruviana (L. native. cultivated only Onagraceae 2973. Fuchsia hybrida hort. climber. native. exotic. Brackenridgea hookeri (Planch. climber. shrub. Chionanthus ramiflorus Roxb.. Ludwigia sedioides (Humb. exotic. herb. Jasminum grandiflorum L. native. Jasminum longipetalum King & Gamble. Strombosia javanica Blume.B.Chong et al.E.B. shrub.) Andrews. shrub. Jasminum rex Dunn. Olea brachiata (Lour. Gray. Olax imbricata Roxb. climber. native. native. herb. Ochna kirkii Oliv. tree. ex Sieb.. tree. exotic. shrub. native. cultivated 2952. native. Ludwigia prostrata Roxb. Mastixia trichotoma Blume var.) Merr.. cultivated 2954... tree. shrub.H. tree. native. native. Erythropalum scandens Blume. Amaral.) A. shrub. endangered 2942. common 2944.J. Jasminum griffithii C. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L. herb. cultivated only 2963. shrub. extinct 2951...) P. tree. Clarke) Danser.. cultivated only 2972. Matthew. Ximenia americana L. exotic. exotic. Euthemis leucocarpa Jack. native.. cultivated only 2965. Anacolosa frutescens (Blume) Blume. Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G. native. tree. cultivated only 2974. common. exotic. Jasminum mesnyi Hance. vulnerable 2953. Brackenridgea palustris Bartell. cultivated only 2967.. Jasminum azoricum L. tree.C. vulnerable 2949. climber. cultivated only 2968. cultivated only 2958. climber.) H. tree. exotic. Jasminum elongatum (P. weed of uncertain origin 2976. Osmanthus fragrans Lour. tree. native. native.) H. herb. Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq. Hara. vulnerable 2971. cultivated only 2969. extinct 2946. Campylospermum serratum (Gaertn. exotic. Mastixia pentandra Blume ssp. Jasminum laurifolium Roxb. Olea europaea L. Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. climber. cultivated only 2970. Raven. weed of uncertain origin 2979. exotic. weed of uncertain origin 2975. critically endangered 2957. climber. cultivated 2950. native.) Aiton. cultivated Oleaceae 2955. climber. climber. naturalised 2978. extinct 2948. native. extinct 2964. vulnerable. Jasminum humile L. exotic.. extinct 2945. Euthemis minor Jack.. & Bonpl. Hara. & Voss. Jasminum sambac (L. Ludwigia adscendens (L. critically endangered 2943. herb. scortechinii (King) K. Ligustrum sinense Lour. f. shrub. shrub. shrub. exotic. exotic. cultivated only Olacaceae 2947. cultivated only 2966. tree.. native. cultivated only 158 . extinct 2961. cultivated only 2962. exotic. exotic. tree.. Strombosia ceylanica Gardn. tree.. weed of uncertain origin 2977.. extinct 2956.) H. critically endangered 2940. Clarke. herb. Hara. exotic. tree. Scorodocarpus borneensis Becc. Don) Exell. native. herb. native..) Bittrich & M. vulnerable. tree.. Nyssaceae 2939. cultivated only 2960. native. Ochanostachys amentacea Mast. Endangered. exotic. native.M.

native. native. native. epiphyte.Chase.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore Opiliaceae 2980. Lepionurus sylvestris Blume. Adenoncos sumatrana J. J. critically endangered 3012. Bulbophyllum flavescens (Blume) Lindl.. =Dendrobium acuminatum Kunth 2991.) Schuit. critically endangered Orchidaceae 2983. f. native. native. native. J. Bulbophyllum clandestinum Lindl. Ng & P. extinct 2988. common 3005. Bromheadia scirpoidea Ridl. native.. herb. native. Bulbophyllum flabellum-veneris (J. herb. J. epiphyte. Bulbophyllum lasianthum Lindl... native. native. native. Bulbophyllum cleistogamum Ridl.F. native. herb.. native. herb. extinct 3001. cultivated 2981. =Eria hyacinthoides (Blume) Lindl.) J. epiphyte. native... extinct 2996. =A. Bulbophyllum botryophorum Ridl. 3009. native. native. native. f. extinct 2998. extinct 3018.. Apostasia nuda R.. epiphyte. Bulbophyllum aberrans Schltr.. epiphyte. tree.. Bromheadia aporoides Rchb.. epiphyte..) Schltr. var. extinct 2987.. Sm. native. extinct 2986.. critically endangered.. Aphyllorchis pallida Blume. native. epiphyte. herb. native.J. extinct.J. native. Adenoncos major Ridl.) Miq. Agrostophyllum stipulatum (Griff. native. native. Bromheadia truncata Seidenf. epiphyte.. herb. bicuspidatum (J. climber. Bryobium pudicum (Ridl.. Sm. P. Appendicula lucida Ridl. common.) Ridl.) Schltr. f. native. Bulbophyllum acuminatum (Ridl. extinct. Agrostophyllum stipulatum (Griff. native. epiphyte. shrub. extinct.J. native. Sm. Cribb. Cansjera rheedii J. extinct 2995. Ng & P. native.. =Cirrhopetalum gusdorfii (J. native. epiphyte.. Br. epiphyte. native. native. native. extinct 3023.) Y.. Cribb. Bulbophyllum apodum Hook. epiphyte. f.. epiphyte.. Biermannia laciniata (Carr) Gary.. Bulbophyllum blumei (Lindl. extinct 3003. Appendicula uncata Ridl. native.. extinct 3015. epiphyte. extinct 3021. extinct 2992. herb.W.. =B.Sm. native... critically endangered 2984. epiphyte. Anoectochilus geniculatus Ridl. extinct 3007.. extinct 3006. extinct 2989. f. herb. Bromheadia borneensis J. herb. Appendicula cornuta Blume. J. epiphyte.) J. epiphyte. f. extinct. sessile (Koen. Bryobium hyacinthoides (Blume) Y. herb. epiphyte. Champereia manillana (Blume) Merr. Bromheadia finlaysoniana (Lindl. extinct 3017. Acriopsis liliifolia (J. native.. extinct 3004. native. critically endangered 3019. epiphyte. native. Konig) Aver.) Schltr. critically endangered 2999. common. native. extinct 3011. climber. extinct 3020.J.) Garay et al. native. Bulbophyllum caudatisepalum Ames & Schweinf. Bulbophyllum limbatum Lindl. native. 3008. epiphyte. Arachnis hookeriana (Hook. Sm. Acriopsis ridleyi Hook. epiphyte. Sm. Bromheadia alticola Ridl. johorense (Holttum) Garay et al. native.J. 3016. critically endangered. extinct 3010. extinct 2993. extinct 3013. cultivated 2982. Appendicula anceps Blume.. epiphyte. ssp. Bulbophyllum gracillimum (Rolfe) Rolfe. bicuspidatum J. epiphyte. Gmelin. epiphyte. Bulbophyllum gusdorfii J. native.. extinct 3002. epiphyte. Konig) Retz. 3022. Bulbophyllum concinnum Hook. extinct 2997. extinct 159 .J. extinct 3014. native. Arundina graminifolia (Don) Hochr. vulnerable. herb. =Eria pudica Ridl. epiphyte. epiphyte. extinct 2985. epiphyte. cultivated 3000.. critically endangered 2994. Anathallis acuminata (Kunth) Pridgeon & M. P. Sm. Agrostophyllum majus Hook. native. Sm. native. epiphyte. 2990.

native.. extinct 3072. extinct 3069. epiphyte. epiphyte. native. native. epiphyte.. native. extinct. Bulbophyllum trifolium Ridl. Bulbophyllum membranaceum Teijsm & Binnend. Sm. Dendrobium aloifolium (Blume) Rchb. vulnerable 3043. extinct 3051. native. pubescens (Lindl.Chong et al. epiphyte. Bulbophyllum makoyanum (Rchb. native. Claderia viridiflora Hook.. extinct 3049. epiphyte. Endangered. epiphyte. native.. Dendrobium crocatum Hook. critically endangered 3048.. epiphyte. f. native. extinct 3029. native. extinct 3071. f. extinct 3038. Bulbophyllum rugosum Ridl.) Blume. native. epiphyte. Corymborkis veratrifolia (Reinw. Cystorchis javanica (Blume) Blume. native....... native.. epiphyte. critically endangered 3065. epiphyte. extinct 3068. cultivated 3030. f. extinct 3041. extinct 3025. extinct 3037. extinct 3047. f. epiphyte.. extinct 3061. epiphyte.. native.. epiphyte. Bulbophyllum ovalifolium (Blume) Lindl. herb. extinct 3044. herb. Bulbophyllum singaporeanum Schltr. epiphyte. epiphyte. native. Coelogyne tomentosa Lindl.. herb. epiphyte.. native. native. critically endangered.J. Cleisostoma halophilum (Ridl. herb. critically endangered 3026. Bulbophyllum uniflorum (Blume) Hassk.) Garay. Bulbophyllum pileatum Lindl. f. f.J. Bulbophyllum lobbii Lindl. critically endangered 3066.. epiphyte. Cleisostoma scortechinii (Hook. =Cirrhopetalum concinnum Hook... critically endangered 3064. native. Bulbophyllum medusae (Lindl. extinct 3036. epiphyte.) Rchb. extinct 3070. Bulbophyllum pulchellum Ridl. Dendrobium crumenatum Sw.f. f. extinct 3059. Bulbophyllum vesiculosum J. epiphyte. =Cirrhopetalum makoyanum Rchb. native. extinct 3032. native.) Ridl. epiphyte. native. Coelogyne rochussenii de Vr. epiphyte.f. extinct 3034. native. epiphyte. Cystorchis variegata Blume. Bulbophyllum nigropurpureum Carr. native.. Coelogyne septemcostata J. native..) Gary. epiphyte. native. Bulbophyllum vermiculare Hook. Ceratostylis subulata Blume. epiphyte. native. Dendrobium acerosum Lindl. epiphyte. f. f. extinct 3067. epiphyte. Bulbophyllum tenuifolium (Blume) Lindl. epiphyte. epiphyte. epiphyte. native. native. Cryptostylis arachnites (Blume) Hassk. extinct 3063. native.. 3024. epiphyte. native. native. extinct 3031. extinct 3058. extinct 3062. Calanthe pulchra (Blume) Lindl. epiphyte. native. epiphyte. extinct 3039. Bulbophyllum vaginatum (Lindl.. Bulbophyllum purpurascens Teijsm & Binnend.) Du Pay & Cribb.) Rchb. Sm. Bulbophyllum patens King ex Hook. epiphyte.. native.) Gary. common. Bulbophyllum striatellum Ridl.. Bulbophyllum restrepia Ridl.. critically endangered 3050. extinct 3040. Coelogyne cumingii Lindl. 3028. native. ssp. Coelogyne foerstermannii Rchb.. native. epiphyte. extinct 3057. Cordiglottis filiformis (Hook. extinct 3042. extinct 3027. epiphyte. native. native. native.f. epiphyte. native. Bulbophyllum ruficaudatum Ridl. epiphyte.. Dendrobium bifarium Lindl. native. epiphyte. extinct 3060. Coelogyne mayeriana Rchb. extinct 3054. epiphyte. f. native.. extinct 3056. native. native. herb. herb. native.. extinct 3053. Coelogyne testacea Lindl. epiphyte. extinct 3052.. extinct 3046. Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl. epiphyte. 3035. f.. native. Cleisostoma subulatum Blume. Bulbophyllum macranthum Lindl. extinct 3033. Dendrobium aciculare Lindl. extinct. native. native. native. native... extinct 3055. epiphyte.. native. herb. Cymbidium bicolor Lindl. Bulbophyllum macrochilum Rolfe. cultivated 160 . cultivated 3045..

3104. native. climber. native.f. extinct 3084. Dendrochilum longifolium Rchb.. f. Dendrobium flexile Ridl. native. cultivated only 3110. epiphyte. f. native. f. Dendrobium prostratum Ridl. Dendrobium salaccense (Blume) Lindl. native.. epiphyte. Dendrobium planibulbe Lindl. Dendrobium pachyphyllum (Kuntze. Eria floribunda Lindl. Dendrobium secundum (Blume) Lindl. Dendrobium leonis (Lindl.J. Dendrobium pulchellum Roxb.. native. epiphyte. extinct 3108. f. epiphyte. native. epiphyte. epiphyte. epiphyte.. extinct 3081. epiphyte. extinct 3085. native. epiphyte. native. Eria robusta (Blume) Lindl. weed of uncertain origin.. epiphyte. J.. native.) Bakh. native. epiphyte. Dendrobium hendersonii Hawkes & Heller.) Rchb. epiphyte. epiphyte... Eria javanica (Sw. Eulophia graminea Lindl. epiphyte. Dienia ophrydis (J. epiphyte. epiphyte. extinct.. Eria pellipes Hook. epiphyte.) Rchb.. epiphyte.. critically endangered 3107.. extinct 3096. extinct 3093. native. native. extinct 3076. native. native... epiphyte. native. epiphyte. extinct 3112.. =D. extinct 3119. extinct 3077..) Blume. native. herb. epiphyte. herb. epiphyte. native.) Garay. Eria neglecta Ridl. extinct 3087. Dipodium paludosum (Griff. Konig) Seidenf. native. herb. =D. extinct 3078. native..E.. Dilochia wallichii Lindl..f. extinct 3099. native... epiphyte. ex Hook. native. Dendrobium revolutum Lindl. epiphyte. extinct. extinct 3086. herb. Dendrobium singaporense Hawkes & Heller. f.. extinct 3116. Eria nutans Lindl.. Eria pulchella Lindl. extinct 3090.) Rchb. extinct 3115.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3073. epiphyte.. epiphyte. Sm. native. extinct 3102. Dendrobium pensile Ridl. extinct 3117.. native. native. Dendrobium subulatum (Blume) Lindl. f. extinct 3092. extinct 3075. Dendrochilum pallidiflavens Blume var. epiphyte.. Dendrobium spurium (Blume) J. critically endangered 3103. native. 3097. epiphyte. Eria longirepens Ridl. native. epiphyte..f. native. sphegidoglossum Rchb. Dendrobium indivisum (Blume) Miq. epiphyte. cultivated 161 . extinct 3106. extinct 3074. Erythorchis altissima (Blume) Blume. Didymoplexiella ornata (Ridl. Eria pannea Lindl. Diplocaulobium longicolle (Lindl. epiphyte. native. D.. extinct 3120.. Eria bractescens Lindl.. herb. native. native. ex Lindl. Dendrobium stuposum Lindl. & Binnend. epiphyte.. f. Dendrobium microglaphys Rchb. herb. native. epiphyte. extinct 3089. native. native. epiphyte. epiphyte.. exotic. native.. native. Eria tenuiflora Ridl. native. critically endangered 3098. extinct. ellipticum Ridl. Dendrobium grande Hook. pallidiflavens. extinct 3121..) Kraenzl. climber. extinct 3100. native. native. herb. Dendrobium lamellatum (Blume) Lindl. extinct 3109.. extinct 3080.. Dendrobium villosulum Lindl. flavidulum Ridl. extinct 3105. native. Sm.. Dendrobium hercoglossum Rchb. extinct 3082.. extinct 3114. epiphyte. native. Dendrobium pandaneti Ridl. extinct 3118. critically endangered 3079. Dendrobium setifolium Ridl. Dipodium pictum (Lindl. critically endangered 3083.. extinct 3122. Dendrobium lobatum (Blume) Miq. critically endangered 3091. native. extinct 3095. Dendrobium indragiriense Schltr. epiphyte... native.. Sm. extinct 3113. epiphyte. native. epiphyte. native. native. Didymoplexis pallens Griff. Dipodium scandens (Blume) J.f. extinct 3111. epiphyte. extinct 3088. extinct 3094. Dendrobium lobbii Teijsm. epiphyte. native. 3101.. =Malaxis latifolia J.. native. Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth.

Sm. extinct. epiphyte. =Dendrobium excavatum (Blume) Miq. cultivated only 3134. epiphyte. extinct 3163. Oberonia flabellifera Holtt. Gastrodia javanica (Blume) Lindl. epiphyte. Microsaccus sumatranus J. 3154. herb. epiphyte. extinct 3126. native. cultivated 3135. Koenig) Ormerod. extinct. native. native. cultivated 3142. critically endangered 3139. extinct 3128. native.) Linl. extinct 3159.. 3168. Neuwiedia veratrifolia Blume. f.. herb. Oberonia lunata (Blume) Lindl. Liparis elegans Lindl. extinct 3125. native. Sm. extinct 3150. singapureana (Baker) de Vogel. extinct. herb.. epiphyte. native. extinct 3161. native. 3123. Oberonia dissitiflora Ridl..) Hawkes. extinct 3127. extinct 3137. =Dendrobium concinnum Miq. extinct 3148. cultivated 3124. epiphyte. epiphyte. critically endangered 3132. extinct 3156. Sm. epiphyte. Malaxis micrantha (Hook. herb. extinct 3136. Hawkes. extinct. Sm.. Oberonia stenophylla Ridl... epiphyte. Oxystophyllum excavatum Blume..J.) Suresh. extinct 3165. var.A. native. Rich. herb. & Rchb. epiphyte. epiphyte. herb. extinct 3160. Wood & Omerod. native.) Lindl.) Seidenf. extinct 3166. f. Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst. native. extinct 3167. Hylophila mollis Lindl. Macodes petola (Blume) Lindl.) J. Flickingeria fimbriata (Blume) A.. f. native. native. herb. extinct 3131. native. Liparis tricallosa Rchb. herb. extinct 3149. exotic. herb. epiphyte. Lecanorchis malaccensis Ridl. cultivated 3155. Oberonia miniata Lindl.J. extinct 3144. =Dendrobium sinuatum (Lindl. herb. native. extinct 3129. herb. extinct 3157... critically endangered 3133. Peristylus maingayi (King & Pantl. native. native. Microsaccus ampullaceus J. epiphyte. extinct. 3169. candidus J. =P. extinct 3153. herb. Flickingeria comata (Blume) Hawkes. Oberonia bertoldii King & Prantl..) Seidenfaden. native. Sm. Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume. epiphyte. Microsaccus griffithii (Par. epiphyte. Oxystophyllum sinuatum (Lindl.. extinct 3145. extinct 3151. native. native. epiphyte. epiphyte. epiphyte. native. herb. native.J.J..) Hawkes. f. herb.) Kuntze. native. Liparis ferruginea Lindl. native. Flickingeria fugax (Rchb. epiphyte. Nervilia punctata (Blume) Schltr. native. herb. f. critically endangered. native. extinct 3171. native.) Gary.Chong et al. epiphyte. f. =Eria obliqua (Lindl. native. Oxystophyllum carnosum Blume. native.. critically endangered. epiphyte. critically endangered. extinct 3143.J. Grammatophyllum scriptum (L. 162 . native. native. Nephelaphyllum pulchrum Blume. native.. Neuwiedia zollingeri Rchb. herb. cultivated 3158...D. native. native. epiphyte. 3170. Clem. Peristylus lacertifer (Lindl.) M.) J. Oberonia ciliolata Hook. Habenaria singapurensis Ridl. extinct 3147. extinct 3141.D. Mycaranthes obliqua Lindl.. extinct 3152. exotic. native. epiphyte. Ludisia discolor (Ker Gawl. native. Oberonia lycopodioides (K. extinct 3164.f. cultivated only 3146. critically endangered 3140.) Hawkes. epiphyte.J. Liparis gibbosa Finet. Hetaeria nitida Ridl. native. Flickingeria bancana (J. ex Rchb. herb. Hetaeria obliqua Blume. Flickingeria angustifolia (Blume) Hawkes. herb... globally extinct 3130. native.. critically endangered. native. Micropera fuscolutea (Lindl. Microsaccus javensis Blume. native. Flickingeria xantholeuca (Rchb. herb. Neuwiedia griffithii Rchb. extinct 3162. epiphyte. extinct. extinct 3138. native. epiphyte. herb...f. native. Flickingeria laciniosa (Ridl... Galeola nudifolia Lour.) A. Liparis wrayi Hook.. native.. native. native.) Blume. f. native. epiphyte. native. f. native. epiphyte. climber.

epiphyte. native.f. herb. native. critically endangered..) Ridl.. herb. native. extinct 3213. Trichotosia velutina (Lodd.. herb. Polystachya concreta (Jacq. epiphyte. f. f.) Lindl. herb. native.. native. herb.) J. Thelasis carinata Blume. native. epiphyte. extinct. critically endangered 3176. epiphyte. critically endangered. native. extinct 3210.. f. native. Sm. native. extinct 3185. native. native. extinct 3199. epiphyte.J. & Ormerod.) J. extinct 3174. f. extinct Orobanchaceae 3218. epiphyte. native. =T.J.J. Spathoglottis kimballiana Hook. f. herb.) Merr. climber. herb. native.. extinct 3202. exotic. =P. extinct 3179. Phalaenopsis cornu-cervi (Breda) Blume & Rchb. Sarcostoma javanica Blume. epiphyte. Centranthera tranquebarica (Spreng.. native. climber. native. Spathoglottis gracilis Rolfe ex Hook. native. Rhynchostylis gigantea (Lindl.) Kraenzl. ex Hook. native. Smith. Thelasis pygmaea (Griff. extinct 3214. Trichotosia gracilis (Hook. =R.. extinct 3200. Smith. extinct 3183. epiphyte. Podochilus microphyllus Lindl. Vanilla griffithii Rchb. Vrydagzynea tristriata Ridl.) Blume. Taeniophyllum filiforme J. native. herb.f. critically endangered 3177. Thrixspermum acuminatissimum (Blume) Rchb. exotic. Zeuxine clandestina Blume.f. Thrixspermum centipeda Lour. epiphyte.) Kuntze. herb.. Vanilla planifolia Andrews. herb..Sm. critically endangered 3217. critically endangered 3173.) Kraenzl. Plocoglottis gigantea (Hook. herb. weed of uncertain origin 163 . native.. exotic. native.. native. extinct 3204. Plocoglottis javanica Blume. cultivated only 3191. herb. native.) Gary & Sweet. f. extinct 3195. native.f. epiphyte. Renanthera histrionica (Rchb.J..f. 3184. Spathoglottis plicata Blume. extinct 3188. extinct 3180. critically endangered 3206. native. Tropidia curculigoides Lindl.. native. Thelasis micrantha (Brongn. Thrixspermum ridleyanum Schltr.) Kraenzl.) Seidenf. extinct 3197. native. native. extinct 3198. native.J. secunda (Blume) Lindl. D. histrionica (Rchb. herb. Pteroceras pallidum (Blume) Holtt. native. epiphyte. Spathoglottis unguiculata (Labill.) J. native. cultivated only 3190.. epiphyte. epiphyte. cultivated 3193. epiphyte. casual.f. extinct 3203. Thrixspermum amplexicaule (Blume) Rchb. Sm.) J.) Holtt. cultivated 3211. Zeuxine strateumatica (L. vulnerable. Schoenorchis secundiflora (Ridl. Zeuxine gracilis (Breda) Blume.. native. herb.. native. critically endangered 3201. epiphyte.. herb. native. epiphyte. Vrydagzynea albida (Blume) Blume. epiphyte. native. extinct 3205.. Robiquetia spathulata (Blume) J. extinct 3194. Renanthera elongata (Blume) Lindl... epiphyte. native. Stereosandra javanica Blume.) Rchb.) Ridl. Phaius tancarvilliae (Banks ex L'Hér. herb. f. epiphyte. herb. herb. herb.) Schltr. Plocoglottis lowii Rchb. epiphyte. epiphyte. Phreatia plantaginifolia (K. extinct. extinct 3189. extinct 3178. Smith.. native.) Rchb. Schoenorchis micrantha Blume. native. Koenig) Ormerod. critically endangered 3182. herb. Thrixspermum trichoglottis (Hook. extinct 3215..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3172. extinct 3186.) Ridl. latifolia (Lindl. native. Taeniophyllum pusillum (Willd. native. extinct 3207. common. cultivated only 3212. ex Lindl. =P.J. Thrixspermum scopa (Rchb. cultivated 3192. obtusum Blume 3196. Pomatocalpa diffusum Breda. epiphyte. extinct 3208. exotic..f.f.. extinct 3209. epiphyte. Vrydagzynea lancifolia Ridl. native. epiphyte. epiphyte. Trichotosia vestita (Lindl.. native.. Thrixspermum calceolus (Lindl. 3175. 3181. f.. critically endangered 3216. native. extinct 3187.

climber. Pandanus odorifer (Forssk.. native. native. cultivated only 3227. climber. Pandanus tectorius Parkinson. native.. corymbosa DC. shrub. Pandanus gemmiferus H. tree. native..f. Stone. f. cultivated only 3259. ex Hook. native.Chong et al.. cultivated only 3237. herb. shrub. native. Galearia maingayi Hook. endangered 3241. f. exotic.) Miq. casual. exotic. Dapania racemosa Korth. cultivated 3225. =P. naturalised. critically endangered 3228.) Kuntze. native.. common 3256. climber. exotic. Passiflora biflora Lam. shrub. corymbosa (DC. exotic.C. Paropsia vareciformis (Griff.) Mast. Passiflora edulis Sims. common. ex G.. herb. exotic. cultivated 3224. Freycinetia angustifolia Blume. sericea (Ridl. shrub. extinct 3223... native. Pandanus polycephalus Lam. critically endangered Pandaceae 3229. Pandanus monotheca Mart. Galearia fulva (Tul. casual. climber. 3246..) Kuntze. critically endangered 3244. Averrhoa bilimbi L. climber.) Hall.. var.) Veldk. native.) Lourteig. native. Pandanus singaporensis Kaneh. tree. extinct 3235. cultivated Pandanaceae 3232. native. Sarcotheca laxa (Ridl. shrub. singaporeana (Wall.. exotic.. Pandanus rostratus Mart. climber.. shrub. native. herb. var. Pandanus pygmaeus Thouars. cultivated only 3252. exotic. cultivated only 3258. Oxalis barrelieri L. critically endangered. critically endangered. cultivated 3247. shrub. climber.. climber. native. tree... Averrhoa carambola L. native. exotic. Pandanus utilis Bory. Passiflora coccinea Aubl. native. climber. Striga asiatica (L. exotic. climber. shrub. =P.) Kunth var. native. ex Hook.. naturalised. native.. herb. tree. critically endangered Passifloraceae 3254. cultivated 3255. native. Pandanus yvanii Solms. odoratissimus L. extinct 3250. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. casual. Freycinetia sumatrana Hemsley var. shrub. cultivated. shrub. native.. native. critically endangered 3233.. St. shrub. shrub. Pandanus atrocarpus Griff. Freycinetia javanica Blume. vulnerable. Pandanus parvus Ridl. extinct 3239. shrub. endangered 3245. Adenia macrophylla (Blume) Koord. cultivated only 3253. native. dubius.C. Pandanus houlletii Carriere. Freycinetia confusa Ridl. shrub. f. vulnerable. Oxalis debilis Kunth var. sumatrana. exotic. weed of uncertain origin Oxalidaceae 3220. Microdesmis caseariifolia Planch. Freycinetia corneri B. Mikan. Pandanus dubius Spreng. cultivated 3222. exotic. Pandanus affinis Kurz. native. common. John. tree. common 3238. herb. Oxalis corniculata L. exotic. climber. exotic. tree. cultivated only 3257. exotic. native. cultivated only 3242.. cultivated 3240. exotic. Freycinetia multiflora Merr. 3219. exotic. naturalised. shrub. Passiflora amethystina J. tree. 3251. tetrodon Ridl.. extinct 3248. tree. cultivated 3221. cultivated 3230. exotic. cultivated only 164 . Don) de Wilde. tree. =O. cultivated only 3249. extinct 3234. herb.. critically endangered 3231. Oxalis regnelli Miq. cultivated only 3243. Sarcotheca griffithii (Planch. 3226. extinct 3236.

Antidesma bunius (L... bracteosa Pax & K. tree.. tree. cultivated 3262. critically endangered 3296. tree. tree.) Müll. shrub. native. Antidesma velutinosum Blume. cultivated 3261. =A. Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq. extinct Philydraceae 3275. common. native. Aporosa prainiana King ex Gage. 3265. native. common. endangered 3289. Adinandra integerrima T. javanica (Miq. Sesamum indicum L. tree. var. Actephila excelsa (Dalz. tree. tree. native. herb. Baccaurea hookeri Gage. critically endangered 3284. native. cultivated Pentaphylacaceae 3267. endangered 3281. Aporosa nigricans Hook. Aporosa confusa Gage.) Müll. Endangered... extinct Phyllanthaceae 3276. native. Keng.) Airy Shaw.) Kurz. native. native. tree.. critically endangered. tree.. extinct 165 . tree. exotic. common 3271. tree. tree. shrub. native. tree. exotic. lucida. f.. native. Baccaurea kunstleri King ex Gage. native. tree. Ternstroemia penangiana Choisy. tree. Aporosa lunata (Miq. & H. native. critically endangered 3288. native. cultivated 3299. Anders.) Airy Shaw var. critically endangered 3285. vulnerable 3290. herb. common.) P. native. native.. Aporosa frutescens Blume.) Spreng. tree. cultivated 3286. Adinandra acuminata Korth. cultivated 3269. tree. Arg. Arg. f. native. Aporosa symplocoides (Hook.. naturalised. tree. cultivated 3280. 3287. cultivated Pentaphragmataceae 3266. Pentaphragma ellipticum Poulsen var. Ternstroemia bancana Miq. Aporosa nervosa Hook. native. vulnerable 3293. miqueliana Müll. critically endangered 3297. native. native. native. ellipticum. Passiflora foetida L. tree.. native.. native. climber. naturalised. extinct 3292. =S. climber. naturalised. Ternstroemia wallichiana (Griff. & Thonn. herb... climber.) Müll. casual. native. endangered 3291. exotic. critically endangered 3298. vulnerable 3283. tree. Endangered.Arg. cultivated 3282... vulnerable.. tree. common 3295. f. Baccaurea bracteata Müll. native. Sesamum radiatum Schumach. Antidesma cuspidatum Müll. Baccaurea brevipes Hook. vulnerable 3277. Hoffm.. Ternstroemia corneri H.. endangered. Arg. native. f. Antidesma coriaceum Tul. f. climber. tree.) Gage. Passiflora laurifolia L. tree. native. Antidesma neurocarpum Miq. cultivated 3278. native. cultivated only 3263. tree. tree. Passiflora suberosa L. native. native. exotic.. f. Aporosa lucida (Miq. Aporosa benthamiana Hook. cultivated 3272. vulnerable 3279. tree. native. Adinandra dumosa Jack. native. Aporosa microstachya (Tul.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3260. =A.) Engl. tree. extinct 3270.. exotic. cultivated Pedaliaceae 3264. Passiflora palmata Lodd. herb.. Aporosa penangensis (Ridl. naturalised. exotic. exotic. naturalised. extinct.. native. Aporosa falcifera Hook. tree. critically endangered 3274. tree. orientale L. Aporosa subcaudata Merr. Arg. 3294. Eurya acuminata DC. tree. Philydrum lanuginosum Gaertn. native. Arg. critically endangered 3268. critically endangered 3273. ex Dyer...

exotic. tree. shrub. native. hookeri Gage. native. f.. tree. Cleistanthus malaccensis Hook.) Müll. cultivated 3335. native. exotic.. extinct. tree. f.. critically endangered. f. exotic. Glochidion singaporense Gage. common. Glochidion glomerulatum (Miq. Baccaurea sumatrana (Miq. cultivated 3305. brunneum Hook. cultivated only. tree. critically endangered 3337. =B. vulnerable. native. 3308.) Boerl... Arg. common 3318. cultivated only 3311. =G.. cultivated 3324. =G. Cleistanthus schlechteri Hutch. critically endangered 3322. shrub.) Boerl. Glochidion zeylanicum Blume var. Arg..) Müll.) C.) Mull.. vulnerable 3313.E. cultivated 3310. Breynia coronata Hook.. native.. extinct 3342. f. tree. Bischofia javanica Blume. critically endangered. griffithii Hook. tree. shrub. extinct 3302.) Pax & K.Arg.. native. native. critically endangered 3304. native. Bridelia pustulata Hook. critically endangered 3316. climber. Arg. Forst. Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm. native. cultivated. native. =G. cultivated only 3329.) Boerl. tree. Arg. native. =B. native. vulnerable. Arg. arborescens (Blume) Chakrab. griffithii Hook. native. Baccaurea pubera (Miq. Arg. tree. cultivated only 3314. tree.. critically endangered.) Müll...) Baill.. f. native. Cleistanthus sumatranus (Miq. tree. tree. 3341. Breynia disticha J. tree. native. cultivated only 166 . Endangered. Arg.Gangop. tree. Arg. =B. Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. tree.. Arg.f. native.. common. Glochidion borneense (Müll. critically endangered 3331. Baccaurea polyneura Hook.) Blume..) Müll. native. tree. Arg. climber. native. cultivated only 3321. extinct 3309. cultivated 3306.) Kurz 3328. Glochidion varians Miq. =B. tree. latifolia King ex Hook. shrub. f. tree. Hoffm.R. Forst. Glochidion lutescens Blume. f. Baccaurea parviflora (Müll. G.. native. Cleistanthus macrophyllus Hook. Baccaurea reticulata Hook. tree. native. native. native. cultivated only 3332. extinct. myrianthus (Hassk. native. native. 3300. tree. tree.. kunstleri King ex Gage 3307. native. Baccaurea minor Hook. Arg. Cleistanthus hirsutulus Hook. Glochidion zeylanicum Blume var. vulnerable 3323. tree. tree. tree. hypoleucum (Miq. exotic. =G.. tree. shrub. Baccaurea racemosa (Reinw. tree. cultivated 3327. f. extinct.) Müll. critically endangered 3326. tree. exotic. nivosa (W. Arg.) Airy Shaw 3344. cultivated 3340. Bridelia cinnamomea Hook. native. Arg. 3336. Fisch.) Müll. native. tree. 3301.f.. Glochidion superbum Baill. extinct 3334. Bridelia stipularis (L. Cleistanthus oblongifolius (Roxb. Glochidion rubrum Blume. arborescens Blume 3343... native. critically endangered. tree. =B. extinct. native. native.. native. f. f. =C. & M. native.. Baccaurea maingayi Hook. B. tree.. 3320.Arg. critically endangered. Phyllanthus acidus (L. endangered 3315. Arg. critically endangered 3303. Glochidion littorale Blume. critically endangered 3312.) Müll. Breynia discigera Müll. native.C. Baccaurea macrophylla (Müll. extinct 3333.) Skeels. tree. native. fuscum (Müll. Baccaurea motleyana (Müll. Arg. f. Endangered. Breynia racemosa (Blume) Mull.Chong et al. tree. common. exotic. Baccaurea macrocarpa (Miq. tree. f. zeylanicum. f.. cultivated 3330.. shrub. extinct 3325. shrub. tree. f. shrub..) Müll. Bridelia tomentosa Blume. native. Endangered.) Boerl. Glochidion sericeum Hook. native. & G. native. Baccaurea pyriformis Gage. Bridelia micrantha (Hochst. tree. Glochidion kunstlerianum Gage. Arg. native.. critically endangered 3338. exotic.. Glochidion ferdinandi (Müll. Arg. Bull) Small 3317. Glochidion wallichianum Müll.. cultivated. critically endangered 3339.. common 3319. perakense (Müll. shrub.

shrub. extinct 3372. Piper aduncum L. naturalised 3349.. naturalised Picrodendraceae 3358.) F. Morren. native. cultivated only 3387..) Trel. exotic.T. shrub. Pittosporum tobira (Thunb. herb. exotic. tree. & Thonn. critically endangered 3375. native. Peperomia clusiifolia (Jacq.) Airy Shaw. critically endangered 3378. DC. ex C. common. shrub. shrub. Piper maingayi Hook. Aiton. cultivated only 3347. extinct 3370. Muell. Aiton. Piper caninum Blume.T.. tree. tree. native. native. magnificum (C. Peperomia pellucida (L. climber.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3345. exotic.) Hook. Peperomia scandens Ruiz & Pav. Peperomia obtusifolia (L. extinct 3382.. cultivated only 3357. Piper macropiper Pennant. climber.. exotic. climber. Piper sarmentosum Roxb. Hymenosporum flavum (Hook. exotic. exotic. Phyllanthus emblica L. Dietr. herb.) W. critically endangered 3373..) N. Piper pedicellosum Wall.) Merr. Austrobuxus nitidus Miq. naturalised 3367. native. shrub.. native. Rivina humilis L. Phyllanthus amarus Schumach.. native.. exotic. climber. cultivated Pittosporaceae 3383. native.. common. DC.) L. cultivated 3368. cultivated 3369. cultivated 3386. exotic. climber. Piper porphyrophyllum (Lindl.. f. climber. tree...Br. Phyllanthus myrtifolius (Wight) Müll. critically endangered 3355. herb. casual. cultivated only 167 .) Kunth. native. climber. exotic.... climber. climber. cultivated only. Piper pachyphyllum Hook.. native. common. f. exotic.. Piper lanatum Roxb. Cayzer & Crisp. DC. vulnerable. exotic. Peperomia caperata Yunck.E. 3381. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb. Phyllanthus cuscutiflorus S. DC.. exotic. Piper muricatum Blume. cultivated only 3351. =P. Sauropus androgynus (L. cultivated only 3352. exotic. herb.) E. exotic. native. Piper chaba W. cultivated only 3348. cultivated only 3362. herb. herb. DC. shrub.. W. tree. exotic. naturalised.. shrub. cultivated 3350. Piper nigrum L. climber.. exotic. Billardiera heterophylla (Lindl. tree.. critically endangered. exotic. native. extinct Piperaceae 3359. naturalised 3346. critically endangered 3371. Moore. Arg. Sauropus bacciformis (L. extinct 3374. herb. herb. Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd. Hunter. Piper pseudolindenii C. exotic.. herb. climber. Piper protractum C. climber.. climber. Piper ribesioides Wall. shrub. exotic. native.) A. native. exotic. cultivated only 3365. cultivated only 3385.. native. cultivated only 3363.. exotic. exotic. Pittosporum pentandrum (Blanco) Merr. Phyllanthus pulcher Wall. Phyllanthus cochinchinensis Spreng. native. tree. exotic. endangered 3379. Sauropus spatulifolius Beille. native. exotic. naturalised 3364. cultivated only 3366... cultivated 3354. cultivated only 3361. Pittosporum ferrugineum W. cultivated only 3384. Phyllanthus urinaria L. Peperomia argyreia (Miq. cultivated 3353. Piper betle L. herb. herb. exotic. Piper flavimarginatum C. herb. shrub.. critically endangered 3380. cultivated only 3376. native. cultivated only 3360. ex Müll. herb.. Dietr. Peperomia sarmentosa A. cultivated only Phytolaccaceae 3356. herb. Arg. extinct 3377.

common 3391. weed of uncertain origin 3399. herb.. Plumbago auriculata Lam.) T.. exotic. herb. Yamaz. cultivated only 3431. Angelonia biflora Benth. naturalised.F. herb. exotic. Miq.. cultivated only 3402. ex J. Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz. Bambusa tuldoides Munro. shrub. Coix lacryma-jobi L. naturalised 3395.. exotic. Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud. naturalised 3422. herb. herb. exotic.) Sprague. cultivated only 3392.. herb. herb. cultivated only 3406. Plumbago zeylanica L. casual. weed of uncertain origin 3420. weed of uncertain origin 3401. cultivated Poaceae 3407.) Desv. cultivated 3426. herb. shrub. cultivated only 3393. herb. herb. herb. Plantago major L.) Stapf. herb. cultivated only... exotic. Cymbopogon calcicola C. cultivated only 3429. cultivated 3403.) Merr.) Wettst. Plantaginaceae 3388.) Pennell.) J. exotic. cultivated 3423. C. cultivated 3412. naturalised. Cymbopogon citratus (DC. 3410. Chloris barbata Sw. casual 3408. herb. shrub. weed of uncertain origin 3396. cultivated 3419. exotic. herb. Alloteropsis cimicina (L. cultivated only 3411. herb. exotic. shrub. Chrysopogon zizanioides (L.) Makino. non L. weed of uncertain origin 3397. casual. Watson. f. cultivated 3414. Cynodon dactylon (L. =A. cultivated only 3394. Bambusa heterostachya (Munro) Holtt. naturalised. Wendl. weed of uncertain origin 3398. exotic. cultivated only 3405. exotic. Bacopa caroliniana (Walter) B. Bambusa lako Widjaja.) Stapf. Microcarpaea minima (Koen. herb. herb.) Trin. native. Adenosma inopinatum Prain. Bacopa monnieri (L.. Bambusa multiplex (Lour. weed of uncertain origin 3390. herb. cultivated only 3415. naturalised. shrub.. cultivated 3428. shrub. Bambusa ventricosa McClure. naturalised. Adenosma javanicum (Blume) Koord. common. Otacanthus caeruleus Lindl. exotic. exotic. herb.. herb. Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kulm. common 3424. Hubb. Arundo donax L.. ssp.) Raeusch.) Beauv. exotic. weed of uncertain origin 3409.) Roberty. Limnophila sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume.. Plumbago indica L. Acroceras munroanum (Balansa) Henr.. herb. cultivated only 3427. herb. naturalised.. herb.E. Angelonia salicariifolia Bonpl. exotic. shrub. native. Centotheca lappacea (L. cultivated only 3418.. herb. critically endangered. herb. herb. exotic. exotic.. Cyrtococcum accrescens (Trin.) Stapf. herb. exotic. Cenchrus brownii Roem. native.Chong et al. cultivated only 3430. aromatica (Lam. Arundinaria variegata (Siebold ex. echinatus auct. Limnophila chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. herb.. & Schult.. herb. cultivated only 3400. exotic. common. Micranthemum micranthemoides (Nutt. exotic.) Merr. herb. cultivated only 3417.) S. Stemodia verticillata (Mill. exotic. ex Retz. Axonopus compressus (Sw. native. exotic. exotic.. Rob. exotic.. weed of uncertain origin Plumbaginaceae 3404. Blake. shrub.. cultivated 3432. shrub.. herb. L. herb... =C. native. exotic. herb. herb. exotic. Centotheca longilamina Ohwi. Limnophila villosa Blume. =Bambusa variegata Siebold ex Miq. Cenchrus echinatus L. shrub.. cultivated only 3416.. exotic. Limnophila laxa Benth.. affinis Chase 3413.) Pers. native. Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz. critically endangered 168 . ex Schult & Schult. Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. weed of uncertain origin 3389. exotic. exotic. Adenosma indicum (Lour... 3421. exotic. naturalised 3425. shrub. T.

=E. Eragrostis amabilis (L. Camus. herb. cultivated only 3465.) Gilliland.) Koeler. ex Nees. 3456. herb. herb. Eragrostis montana Balansa.. calliblepharata (Henrard) Veldk. herb. Digitaria setigera Roem. common 3450. native. herb. herb. native.. Presl) Miq. weed of uncertain origin 3446.. ex Steud. herb. native. extinct. herb. herb. Digitaria mollicoma (Kunth) Henr. & Schult. herb.) Trin. weed of uncertain origin 3452. ex Roem. Wong. herb. Beauv.) Kuntze. cultivated 3436. Echinochloa colona (L.) P.. weed of uncertain origin 3478.Presl) Ohwi. & Schult. Eragrostis pilosa (L. herb. weed of uncertain origin. Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Steud. cultivated 3468. =E. Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk. Digitaria radicosa (C. weed of uncertain origin 3476. herb. weed of uncertain origin 3449. exotic. native.. native. & Schult.) Nees ex Steud. Digitaria fuscescens (J. common 3479.. common 3442.) Miq. common 3459. Eustachys tenera (Presl) A.) Willd. shrub. weed of uncertain origin 3458.. herb. exotic. common 3469. critically endangered 3434. Beauv. herb.) Link. Gigantochloa wrayi Gamble. Eragrostis brownii (Kunth) Nees. Isachne globosa (Thunb. weed of uncertain origin 3440. Eleusine coracana (L.. exotic. herb.. herb. Cyrtococcum patens (L. herb. herb.) A. native. common 3461. cultivated 3467. Br. weed of uncertain origin 3460. exotic. Eriachne pallescens R. native. herb.) Gilliland 3470. weed of uncertain origin 3473.) Roem. =H. common 3474. native. native. setigera. var. common. herb. herb. 3453. herb. Ischaemum muticum L. weed of uncertain origin 3438. Eragrostis unioloides (Retz. Gigantochloa ligulata Gamble.) Backer ex Heyne.. & Schult. weed of uncertain origin 3445. var.Camus.) Gaertn. weed of uncertain origin 169 . herb. native. herb. common 3457. native. naturalised 3437. casual.. cultivated only 3454. common. herb. common 3475... herb. shrub. herb. weed of uncertain origin 3463. weed of uncertain origin. viscosa (Retz. herb. extinct 3464.. Imperata cylindrica (L. exotic. Ischaemum barbatum R.. cultivated 3472. Digitaria ciliaris (Retz. herb. Echinochloa crus-galli (L. native. herb. Echinochloa picta (J. acutigluma (Steud. casual. Eriochloa procera (Retz. weed of uncertain origin 3477. Koenig) P. native. Isachne pulchella Roth ex Roem. Digitaria violascens Link. native. exotic.M. weed of uncertain origin 3447. Presl) Henrard. Hubb.. Br. herb.. Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L. shrub. common 3444. Ischaemum magnum Rendle. herb. Gigantochloa thoii K.) P. herb. native. Beauv.) C. herb. Beauv. Imperata conferta (J. casual. native. exotic. weed of uncertain origin 3448.. native. Eleusine indica (L. native. weed of uncertain origin 3451. Beauv. herb. shrub. & Schult. common 3471. Isachne minutula (Gaudich. common 3443. native. native. herb. Isachne kunthiana (Wight & Arn. common 3439.) A.. native. herb. Dendrocalamus asper (Schult. Digitaria nuda Schumach... Dimeria ornithopoda Trin. native.. naturalised 3455. non (Retz.) Pers.) Trin. Digitaria bicornis (Lam. herb. herb.) Wight & Arn.. herb. Digitaria setigera Roem. naturalised 3441. common 3435.) P. stagnina auct.) Stapf. Digitaria longiflora (Retz. Heteropogon contortus (L.) P..) Gaertn. Dichanthium caricosum (L. Eragrostis atrovirens (Desf. Gigantochloa hasskarliana (Kurz) Backer ex Heyne. Digitaria didactyla Willd.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3433. Camus. shrub. herb.W. Michael. vulnerable 3462..) Kunstl. herb.. Ischaemum rugosum Salisb.E. exotic.) P. cultivated 3480. Ischaemum ciliare Retz. critically endangered 3466.

exotic.. common 3486. herb. exotic. weed of uncertain origin 3499. Sporobolus indicus (L. naturalised 3527. cultivated only 3501. cultivated 3518. Panicum sarmentosum Roxb. herb. Sphaerocaryum malaccense (Trin. Sacciolepis myosuroides (R.. weed of uncertain origin. weed of uncertain origin 3512. native. herb. Panicum repens L.) R. shrub. 3487.) Nees. shrub. common 3497. weed of uncertain origin 3483.L.) Kuntze. Phragmites vallatoria (Retz. Lepturus repens R. cultivated only 3503. Sacciolepis indica (L. herb. native. Schizostachyum zolleringi Steud. weed of uncertain origin 3482. 3489. weed of uncertain origin 3484.) Spreng. exotic.. Pennisetum glaucum (L. Wong.) B. native. Br.) Hack. Paspalum longifolium Roxb.) Kunth. herb. exotic. 3508..) Clayton. Paspalum plicatulum Michx.) Veldk. naturalised 3524.J. major (Büse) Baaijens. Pennisetum alopecuroides (L. Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam. naturalised. herb. Setaria barbata (Lam. native. herb. Melinis repens (Willd.) R. casual 3498. herb. =Panicum maximum Jacq. exotic. herb. herb. common 3500. naturalised 3504.) Steud. native. herb. herb.. cultivated only 3510.E. exotic.. var.) C. herb.. herb.. Br.. exotic. Bergius. karka (Retz. Schizostachyum brachycladum Kurz. Schizostachyum jaculans Holttum. herb. extinct 3528... Pennisetum macrostachys (Brongn.. native. Simon & S. Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk. native. native. cultivated 3522. Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. native. native. herb. herb.) Zizka. native. herb... herb. exotic. herb. =Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd. Schizachyrium sanguineum (Retz. Mnesithea glandulosa (Trin) de Koning & Sosef. naturalised 3505.) Chase.K. native. herb. Hubb. Melinis nerviglumis (Franch. herb.) Zizka. native. exotic. exotic. exotic. herb. herb. Pogonatherum crinitum (Thunb. naturalised. naturalised 3514.) Kunth. herb. herb. Setaria parviflora (Poir. flaccidus (Roem. Br. exotic.. exotic. native.W. ex Steud. Lophatherum gracile Brongn. cultivated only 3488. exotic. casual. native. common 3495. common 170 . weed of uncertain origin 3515. Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc.) Chiov.. Sporobolus indicus (L. vulnerable 3523.) Kerguélen..) Alston. native. herb. Leersia hexandra Sw.. herb.) Schult.. common 3485. weed of uncertain origin 3492. Perotis indica (L. 3481. weed of uncertain origin 3516. native. Schizostachyum gracile (Munro) Holttum. common 3525. Leptochloa chinensis (L. native. herb. Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. Ottochloa nodosa (Kunth) Dandy. common 3493.. herb. cultivated only 3506. Panicum auritum J. cultivated only 3502.) Judz. exotic.. herb. Soejatmia ridleyi (Gamble) K. common 3494.M. common 3491. native. critically endangered 3526. cultivated 3520. herb. Saccharum spontaneum L. native. Camus. casual. Scrotochloa urceolata (Roxb. herb. exotic. Saccharum officinarum L. shrub.. =P. shrub.. & Schult. cultivated 3509. Presl ex Nees. exotic.) Pilger.) Trin. Panicum luzonense Presl. Saccharum arundinaceum Retz. herb. herb. herb. Paspalum vaginatum Sw. herb. herb. casual. naturalised 3496. herb.) A.) R. common.Chong et al. Br. naturalised 3511. climber. var. common 3507. casual. Br. extinct 3521. shrub. Paspalum scrobiculatum L. exotic. vulnerable 3490. Ischaemum timorense Kunth. herb.. Pennisetum polystachion (L. Schizostachyum latifolium Gamble. exotic. native. Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour. herb.) Trin. native. herb. exotic. Paspalum conjugatum P. herb. extinct 3517. extinct 3519. common 3529. cultivated 3513. cultivated. Jacobs.

tree. herb. herb. cultivated only 3574. native. herb.) Hack. exotic.) Delarbre. native. Steinchisma laxa (Sw. casual. cultivated 3561. Polygala glaucoides L. Triplaris weigeltiana Kuntze. Persicaria hydropiper (L. herb. cultivated only Polygalaceae 3548. native.. vulnerable 3556.) Soják. cultivated 3539. Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze. var. tree. weed of uncertain origin. exotic..) Zuloaga. Thysanolaena latifolia (Roxb. common 3537.H. weed of uncertain origin 3536. Persicaria odorata (Lour.. native. Webster.) L. Xanthophyllum wrayi King. Sporobolus indicus (L. Mey.) L. native. cultivated only 3570. common 3559. Thuarea involuta (G. cultivated 3560. herb. Forst) R. naturalised. weed of uncertain origin 3566. tree. exotic. Antigonon leptopus Hook. ex Hornem.) L. herb. Xanthophyllum amoenum Chodat. dimidiatum auct. Br. herb.. cultivated only 3546. exotic.. naturalised. Persicaria capitata (Buch. common 3538. cultivated 3551. non (L. casual. herb. tree. ex D.) Kunth. exotic. herb. cultivated only 171 . casual 3531. Polygala paniculata L. naturalised 3571. native. native. 3535. herb. Nguyen.) Brongn.. casual. Xanthophyllum stipitatum Benn. Xanthophyllum rufum Benn. =Panicum laxum Sw. shrub. herb. cultivated 3558. Persicaria barbata (L. critically endangered. Endangered. vulnerable.. cultivated 3555. Xanthophyllum griffithii Hook. herb. exotic.. native.Q. Gross. ex Roem. Br. Zea mays L. Persicaria orientalis (L. Xanthophyllum discolor Chodat. naturalised 3568. =S. exotic. herb. tree. Xanthophyllum obscurum Benn.A. cultivated only 3545. ssp. Zoysia japonica Steud. erectum Meijden. naturalised 3532.) H.. shrub.) H. Don) H. Beauv. native. tree. exotic.-Ham.D. native. native.) Merr.. Homalocladium platyclados (F. native. Thyrsostachys siamensis Gamble. cultivated 3540. common 3533. & Arn. tree. exotic. cultivated only 3564. weed of uncertain origin 3549. endangered 3552.. native. herb. herb. Urochloa glumaris (Trin. ex Benn. Salomonia cantoniensis Lour. Hara.) Spach.. & C. Zoysia matrella (L.. ex Thiele. Gross var. Xanthophyllum affine Korth.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3530. shrub.. shrub. herb. exotic.. tree. exotic. Xanthophyllum ellipticum Korth. naturalised 3543. exotic. & Schult. cultivated only 3573. climber. herb. chinensis. Coccoloba uvifera (L. exotic. exotic. Endangered. exotic. native. exotic. Persicaria chinensis (L. exotic. Sporobolus virginicus (L. exotic.) Honda. Camus. Muell. Xanthophyllum vitellinum (Blume) Dietr. Bailey. common 3547. Triplaris americana L. gracilis (Danser) H. cultivated only 3567. exotic.) R. herb. exotic. pyramidalis (P. tree.) T. herb. Sporobolus tenuissimus (Schrank) Kuntze.. cultivated only 3565. tree.) Veldk. weed of uncertain origin 3542. Themeda villosa (Poir. Persicaria perfoliata (L. herb. Hara var. cultivated only 3572. Zoysia tenuifolia Willd.. Tripsacum dactyloides (L. herb. herb. herb. endangered 3554.f. herb. Triplaris cumingiana Fisch. 3534.) A. Urochloa subquadrifida (Trin. herb.) H. exotic. Xanthophyllum eurhynchum Miq.) R... tree. tree. herb.) Veldkamp. cultivated 3563. Urochloa mutica (Forssk. naturalised. native. weed of uncertain origin 3544.. exotic. cultivated 3569. critically endangered 3553. exotic. cultivated only 3541. herb. tree. extinct Polygonaceae 3562. exotic. naturalised 3550. endangered 3557. Gross.. Themeda arguens (L.

Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche. Cardwellia sublimis F. cultivated only 3603. Cunn.) Solms. cultivated only 3596. exotic. exotic. Alloxylon flammeum P. tree. Grevillea baileyana McGill. exotic. cultivated only 172 . exotic. native. exotic.) Kunth.. Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Helicia excelsa (Roxb. Grevillea pteridifolia Knight. Portulaca grandiflora Hook.S. Helicia robusta (Roxb. exotic. Br.. shrub. cultivated only 3605. Br. critically endangered Ranunculaceae 3611. Placospermum coriaceum C. exotic. exotic. native. exotic. Br. cultivated only 3594. extinct Pontederiaceae 3578. exotic.) Pax & K. exotic. Johnson & B.Chong et al. native. exotic. shrub.. exotic. exotic. cultivated Proteaceae 3590. Stenocarpus sinuatus Endl. cultivated only 3604.) C. extinct 3600. naturalised. tree. common 3608. herb. tree. Polyosma ridleyi King. cultivated only 3588. Musgravea heterophylla L. Rau. tree. critically endangered 3586. extinct 3602. cultivated only 3599. herb. tree. H. exotic. tree.. native. Hoffm. exotic.D.. shrub. Weston & Crisp. tree. exotic. Clematis aristata Ker Gawl.. cultivated only 3606. tree. herb. cultivated only Putranjavaceae 3607. tree. Sm. exotic. Polyosma conocarpa Ridl.. Persoonia toru A. Darlingia ferruginea J. herb.) Solms. cultivated only 3591.F.) Pax & K. critically endangered 3610. Monochoria hastata (L. tree. cultivated only 3612. cultivated only 3597. exotic. cultivated only 3595. ssp. cultivated only 3589. Presl ex Kunth. Hoffm.. Grevillea banskii R.. cultivated only 3584. exotic. Grevillea robusta A.A. cultivated 3581.) R. climber. Helicia petiolaris Benn. Cunn. cultivated only 3593. herb.) Juss. G. tree.) Gaertn. herb. naturalised. native. f. tree. ex Wall.. native.) Blume. herb. herb. Br. native. tree. tree. Portulaca oleracea L. White & W.. cultivated only Portulacaceae 3583... extinct 3576. Bailey. herb.T. exotic. Portulaca pilosa L. naturalised 3587. naturalised. Clematis heynei M. cultivated only 3598. Briggs.. f. tree. Drypetes longifolia (Blume) Pax & Hoffm. native. Polyosmaceae 3575. critically endangered 3577. Talinum paniculatum (Jacq. Grevillea dryandri R. exotic. Drypetes pendula Ridl. T. tree. Drypetes laevis (Miq. critically endangered 3601. Athertonia diversifolia (C. cultivated 3585. cultivated only 3592. Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Muell. herb. cultivated 3580. weed of uncertain origin.... critically endangered 3609. exotic. Pontederia cordata L... Portulacaria afra (L. Drypetes curtisii (Hook. White) L. tree. Talinum fruticosum (L. native... S. native. pilosa. exotic. Polyosma kingiana Schltr. Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. A. herb. native. climber.. shrub. Francis. tree. weed of uncertain origin 3582. tree. tree..) Jacq. exotic. ex R.. cultivated only 3579. Portulaca quadrifida L. tree.

cultivated 3636.) Lindl. Rubus moluccanus L. Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke. Endangered. naturalised. climber. tree. var. tree. exotic. tree.f. Ventilago malaccensis Ridl. climber. native. native. Bruguiera sexangula (Lour. critically endangered 3635. climber. cultivated 3626. cultivated 3645. exotic. climber.. Aidia cochinchinensis Lour. tree.) Puttock... cultivated. native.. Ziziphus calophylla Wall. Robins. f. tree. native. Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore Rhamnaceae 3613. cultivated only 3622. native. tree. native. Rogers. & Valeton) Kalkman.. endangered 3621. endangered 173 .. Carallia brachiata (Lour. critically endangered 3644. critically endangered 3617. Endangered.) Merr. climber. angulosus Kalkman. roxburghiana Arn. f. cultivated only 3614.) Masam. Pellacalyx saccardianus Scort. tree. critically endangered. var. cultivated only 3631.. native. cultivated 3630.. Ziziphus nummularia (Burm. native. cultivated only 3652.. ex Griff. 3633. Atractocarpus benthamianus (F. Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth. tree. cultivated 3629. cultivated 3625.) Poir. tree.. exotic. tree..) Kalkman var.. native. critically endangered 3620.. ex K. vulnerable 3632.) W. Prunus arborea (Blume) Kalkman. tree. native. Prunus polystachya (Hook.G.. tree. exotic. common. Schum. Bruguiera hainesii C. native. native. critically endangered 3649. native. vulnerable Rosaceae 3640. Ziziphus oenoplia (L.. Bruguiera cylindrica (L.. Smythea lanceata Summerh. climber.) Wight & Arn. moluccanus. cultivated only 3616. shrub. Pellacalyx axillaris Korth. tree. Canthium confertum Korth. Schum. endangered 3628. Gynotroches axillaris Blume. Caelospermum truncatum (Wall.) Ridsdale. Carallia suffruticosa Ridl. native... ex K. climber. cultivated 3615. tree. native. decandra (Griff... native. Muell. tree. native. climber. native. C. exotic. tree. critically endangered 3627. =Potentilla indica (Andr. common. Aidia densiflora (Wall. cultivated 3651.) C. cultivated only 3650. Colubrina asiatica (L. cultivated only 3654. =C. exotic.) Lamk. cultivated 3647. tree. tree. Maesopsis eminii Engl. tree. shrub.) Wolf 3641. climber.. Aidia auriculata (Wall. common. tree.) Blume. cultivated only 3642. shrub. native. climber. native. common.) Ding Hou. tomentosa (Koord. cultivated. native. native. tree. native. endangered 3637. tree. native.) Druce. extinct Rhizophoraceae 3624. ex Hook. native. tree. cultivated only Rubiaceae 3648. f. extinct 3646. cultivated 3638. critically endangered 3643. native.) Mill. native.) Hook. common. tree.. native. & A. Spiraea japonica L. Ziziphus horsfieldii Miq. tree.. Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb.. Rhizophora apiculata Blume. cultivated 3639.) Baill. Rhizophora stylosa Griff. Rhizophora mucronata Lam. exotic. native. endangered 3618.. Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. vulnerable 3619.) Brongn. Prunus grisea (Blume ex Müll.B. vulnerable. Endangered. common. Ceriops zippeliana Blume. cultivated only 3623. native. tree. Berchemia discolor (Klotzsch) Hemsl. exotic. exotic. common. Berol. exotic.. exotic. climber. critically endangered 3653. tree... Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. Ziziphus elegans Wall. Rubus moluccanus L.) Kalkm. native. Ceriops tagal (Pers. Kandelia candel (L. herb. vulnerable. cultivated 3634. f.

. exotic. native. shrub. Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. tree.R. extinct 3688. exotic. shrub. var.. Coffea liberica W. native. cultivated 174 . Clarke. var.. Gardenia tubifera Wall. tree. herb. shrub.) Fosberg. extinct 3687. native. herb. native. extinct 3670. critically endangered 3699. Guettarda speciosa L. epiphyte.. Hypobathrum coniferum (Ridl.. native. Ixora concinna Hook. Ellis. native.. Gardenia griffithii Hook. tree. native. extinct 3658.. tree. exotic. cultivated 3702. endangered 3656.) A. cultivated 3677. =Psychotria singapurensis (Ridl. vulnerable 3660. native. shrub. Coprosma rugosa Cheeseman. cultivated only 3666.. exotic.) I. Coptosapelta parviflora Ridl.M.Turner 3663. f.Chong et al. native.. weed of uncertain origin 3671. Hedyotis pinifolia Wall. tree. exotic.. Ixora chinensis Lam. Heyne. cultivated 3690. f. critically endangered 3695. Clarke. exotic. native. tree. Bailey. extinct 3669. native. tomentosa Valeton ex K. Williams 3698.P. Froehner. shrub. junghuhnii (Miq. ex G. common 3694. climber. Carphalea kirondron Baill.) Hemsl. cultivated only 3680. Gardenia jasminoides J.. climber. naturalised 3672. shrub. =H. Canthium glabrum Blume. Hedyotis auricularia L. Canthium horridum Blume. Hamelia patens Jacq. Forst & G. vulnerable 3696.B. Endangered. Gardeniopsis longifolia Miq. native. native. Coprosma australis Robinson. critically endangered 3674. Dentella repens J. cultivated only 3681. native. common.. exotic. Johnst. native. shrub. exotic.. f. native. Geophila pilosa Pears. endangered 3661. Chassalia curviflora (Wall. Diodia ocymifolia (Willd. Gynochthodes coriacea Blume.M. native. Gardenia carinata Wall. Coptosapelta griffithii Hook. tree. asiatica (Cham.. ex Roem. cultivated only 3701. climber. Euclinia longiflora Salisb. & Schltdl. Endangered. tree. native. native. climber. shrub. extinct 3662.B. weed of uncertain origin 3697.. ex C. climber. native. Gardenia gjellerupii Valeton. f. herb.O. Chassalia chartacea Craib.M.. extinct 3678. exotic..) Bremek. native. f.) Thw. shrub. Hedyotis capitellata Wall.) van Beusekom. ex C. extinct. native. cultivated only 3659. Canthium molle King & Gamble.) Merr. native.) Lam. naturalised 3673. shrub. exotic. Coptosapelta flavescens (Blume) Val.) Bakh. herb. cultivated only 3665. climber. cultivated only 3667. critically endangered. Endangered. cultivated 3686.B. Bull ex Hiern. ssp. herb. bullata L. Hoffmannia discolor (Lem. vulnerable 3691. endangered 3657. extinct. Gaertnera vaginans (DC. Geophila repens (L. Don. common 3692. Diodia sarmentosa Sw. shrub. f. Diplospora malaccensis Hook.. Davis. shrub. Coffea canephora Pierre ex A. critically endangered. herb. native. =C. cultivated only 3675. cultivated only. cultivated only 3685. Forst. cultivated only 3683. tree. ex G. Heyne 3668. exotic. Gaertnera grisea Hook. native. exotic. cultivated 3689. exotic. shrub. vulnerable 3676. ex C. exotic. native. native. shrub. subcarinata Corner. Gynochthodes sublanceolata Miq.. native. shrub. f. shrub. shrub. cultivated only 3693.) I. shrub. shrub.. Ixora congesta Roxb. native. 3655. cultivated only 3664. herb. Gardenia ovularis F. f. Chassalia pubescens Ridl. shrub. native. extinct 3682. extinct 3700. shrub.. cultivated only 3684. Gardenia scabrella Puttock. climber. Gaertnera viminea Hook. Hedyotis verticillata (L.Don.. exotic. exotic.Clarke. shrub. tree. shrub. Gaertnera obesa Hook. critically endangered 3679. Chassalia singapurensis (Ridl. & Schult. ex K.

vulnerable 3721. Morinda rigida Miq. Ixora lobbii King & Gamble. & Schult. native. herb. native. Oldenlandia biflora L. malaccensis (Gand. shrub. shrub.f. extinct.. Lasianthus scabridus King & Gamble. Lasianthus ellipticus Wight. Lecananthus erubescens Jack. cultivated only 3737. Mussaenda frondosa L. Mussaendopsis beccariana Baill. critically endangered 3715. native. =M. native.. pendula. shrub. cultivated 3735. shrub. critically endangered. native. cultivated 3732. cultivated only 3742. Don. climber. extinct 3709. Nauclea orientalis (L. tree.) Bakh. cultivated only 3733. extinct..) Hemsl. & Thonn. Mussaenda maingayi (Hook. native. naturalised 3728.. exotic. Jackiopsis ornata (Wall.. endangered 3713. native.. 3727. native. =L. Mussaenda glabra Vahl. native. Morinda umbellata L.. extinct 3745. shrub. Morinda citrifolia L.. native. =Hedyotis dichotoma Koen. tree. Lasianthus maingayi Hook. extinct 3718. native. Morinda ridleyi (King & Gamble) Ridl. shrub. exotic. native. Lasianthus pterospermus Wight. Ochreinauclea maingayi (Hook. extinct 3739. Mussaenda philippica A. Nauclea subdita (Korth. cultivated 3708. native. climber. exotic. shrub. exotic. native. extinct 3743. critically endangered 3714. exotic. cultivated only 3744. vulnerable. critically endangered 3710. shrub.. shrub. native. native.. shrub. f.) Lam.. Ixora grandifolia Zoll. Oldenlandia affinis (Roem. shrub. =M. cultivated 3724.. ex Roth 3748. climber. ex Havil. Lasianthus cyanocarpus Jack. Lasianthus appressus Hook. tree. native. Lasianthus ridleyi King & Gamble. native. climber. Jacks. 175 . exotic. exotic. densifolius Miq. native. shrub. tree. tomentosa Heyne 3729. & Valeton. climber. Ixora finlaysoniana Wall.. tree. native. extinct 3725. tree. shrub. shrub. cultivated only 3706. climber.D. shrub. native. extinct 3747. cultivated only 3704. =Urophyllum corymbosum (Blume) Korth. ex Ridl. weed of uncertain origin 3749.) Ridsdale. shrub. tree. native. endangered 3707. cultivated. naturalised.) Ridsdale. Neonauclea purpurea (Roxb. Lasianthus stipularis Blume. & Moritzi var. native. Mussaenda erythrophylla Schumach. mutabilis Hook.) Ridsdale. native. cultivated 3705. endangered 3738. shrub.) Merr. f. =Hedyotis corymbosa (L. critically endangered 3722. Lasianthus tomentosus Blume. extinct. cultivated.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3703. affinis. ex G.. common. Nauclea officinalis (Pierre ex Pitard) Merr.) Bosser. native. exotic. climber. shrub. tree. critically endangered 3741. cultivated only 3726. native. herb. cultivated only 3746. shrub. native. Myrmecodia tuberosa Jack. Endangered. extinct. vulnerable. cultivated 3740. cultivated only 3734. critically endangered 3717. herb. extinct 3720. ssp. grandifolia. exotic. Ixora umbellata Valeton ex Koord. Oldenlandia corymbosa L. Lasianthus perakensis King & Gamble. 3712. Luculia grandiflora Ghose. ex B. native. f. shrub. & Chun. shrub. vulnerable 3711. Lasianthus glaber Ridl. extinct. extinct 3731.f..) Steud. ssp. native.. 3736. Ixora pendula Jack var. native. exotic.) L. native. extinct 3723. herb.) DC. native. f. herb. extinct 3716. exotic. tree.... Mitracarpus hirtus (L. Ixora javanica (Blume) DC. Lasianthus attenuatus Jack. Maschalocorymbus corymbosus (Blume) Bremek. Neonauclea pallida (Reinw. shrub. native. Rich.) Craib. Lasianthus constrictus Wight.. shrub. shrub. Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb. climber. native. critically endangered 3730. native. shrub.) DC. Lasianthus griffithii Wight. Endangered. vulnerable 3719. Mycetia malayana (Wall.

Pseudomussaenda flava Verdc. Borreria setidens (Miq. Schradera morinda DC. cultivated 3787. herb. Psychotria ovoidea Wall. critically endangered 3774. exotic.) Roxb. native. herb.. native. Psychotria angulata Korth. shrub. Spermacoce assurgens Ruiz & Pav. native. critically endangered. vulnerable.O. extinct 3759. tree. Wong.. native.D. native. climber.. shrub. Randia fitzalanii F. critically endangered 3770. Psychotria griffithii Hook. native.. Rondeletia odorata Jacq.) K.. tree. =P.F.M. climber.. native.) Bold. Saprosma glomerulatum King & Gamble. Rondeletia strigosa (Benth.O.. cultivated only 3783. native.. shrub. shrub.) Thunb..) Hemsl. exotic. native.Schum.. obovata Wall. Paederia verticillata Blume. Oxyceros fragrantissimus (Ridl. climber.. herb. 3796. Williams. native. native. Borreria latifolia (Aubl. native. herb.) Ridl. common. shrub..) Bridson. native. climber. Adams. Don. critically endangered 3779. native. exotic.. Prismatomeris tetrandra (Roxb. common. =Borreria repens DC. naturalised. cultivated 3766. cultivated only 3764. Hedyotis philippinensis (Wild. ex Benth. herb. native. 3753. f. critically endangered 3773. exotic. ex Hook. =Hedyotis congesta R. native. Schradera membranacea (King) Puff. Rob. herb. native. Rondeletia leucophylla Kunth. exotic. climber.. exotic. native.Chong et al. Wong.. cultivated 3761. shrub. native. exotic. 3795. shrub. 3750. endangered 3757. native. vulnerable 3763.. herb. ex Spreng. vulnerable 3777. f. tree..) Val. cultivated 3752. shrub. exotic. & Schult. cultivated 3791. critically endangered..) Bremek. vulnerable 3758. 3790. native.. Psychotria ridleyi King & Gamble. native. native. Gaertn. 176 . critically endangered 3778. native. climber. Serissa japonica (Thunb. shrub.. ex G. exotic. shrub. shrub.Schum. tree. =Hedyotis herbacea L. =Borreria alata (Aubl.) T.) DC.B.) K.. critically endangered 3788.. climber. Paederia foetida L. Psychotria malayana Jack. tree.) Griseb. shrub. native. Buchner & Greimler. Oxyceros penangianus (King & Gamble) Tirveng. climber..) Johansson. Spermacoce articularis L. endangered 3768. naturalised. climber. foetida (L. vulnerable.) Ridsdale. weed of uncertain origin. Spermacoce laevis Lam. 3792.. weed of uncertain origin 3754. herb. climber. weed of uncertain origin 3793. herb.. Oldenlandia trinervia Retz. vulnerable 3782. Porterandia anisophylla (Jack ex Roxb. Oldenlandia herbacea (L. Oxyceros scandens (Blume) Tirveng. Spermacoce exilis (L.) Merr. weed of uncertain origin Borreria exilis L. shrub. Yamazaki.) Roxb. Ophiorrhiza singaporensis Ridl. Psychotria maingayi Hook..) Deflers. extinct 3756. f. Psydrax maingayi (Hook. ex Roem. f. Psychotria rostrata Blume. critically endangered 3775. weed of uncertain origin. ssp. extinct 3760. Pertusadina eurhyncha (Miq. native. native. native. Scyphiphora hydrophylacea C. cultivated only 3769. cultivated only 3784.Br. vulnerable.. critically endangered 3781. R.. Williams) C.. climber. Pavetta wallichiana Steud. native. Pentas lanceolata (Forssk. Psychotria sarmentosa Blume. Spermacoce latifolia Aubl. critically endangered 3771. 3751. weed of uncertain origin 3755. malayana (Ridl. f. shrub. cultivated only. naturalised 3794. Oxyceros longiflorus (Lam. Muell..M. climber.) K. shrub. shrub.. climber. tree. endangered 3767. exotic. cultivated only 3785. 3780. f. Psychotria helferiana Kurz. Oldenlandia pumila (L. =Lucinaea morinda DC. Oldenlandia cristata (Willd. Psychotria penangensis Hook. vulnerable 3776. Rothmannia macrophylla (R. Prismatomeris glabra (Korth. herb. herb.) DC. critically endangered 3772. =Lucinaea membranacea King 3789. native. climber. =S.. f.) ined. cultivated only 3786. extinct 3762. Psydrax nitida (Craib) K. ex C. Psychotria cantleyi Ridl. extinct. Oldenlandia diffusa (Willd. native. f. Br. =Borreria laevis (Lam. vulnerable 3765..) Lam.

Timonius finlaysonianus (Wall.. climber. Uncaria sinensis (Oliv.. native. vulnerable. tree. var. critically endangered 3815.. exotic. native. vulnerable 3832. 3806. native. Uncaria gambir (W. climber. Dracaena marginata Lam.. shrub. cultivated only 3828. native.) Roxb. native. native. pteropoda (Miq. shrub. vulnerable 3837. common. critically endangered. Dracaena loureiroi Gagnep.. Dracaena angustifolia Roxb. =U. shrub. cultivated only 3833. Tarenna costata (Miq. Uncaria acida (Hunt.) Ker Gawl. native. Dracaena brachystachys Hook. casual. extinct 3809. climber. Uncaria longiflora (Poir. cultivated 3839. critically endangered 3834. extinct 3831. cultivated only 3836. Uncaria lanosa Wall. native. extinct 3817. acida. native. extinct 3823. native. shrub.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3797. native. Timonius wrayi King & Gamble. shrub. cultivated only 3829. f. climber. critically endangered. climber. tree. exotic. exotic. Urophyllum arboreum (Reinw. tree. exotic. f. shrub. honoriae F. Robinson. herb. ex Hook. =T. extinct 3811. exotic. vulnerable 3824. Dracaena reflexa Lam. Timonius flavescens (Jack) Baker. native. cultivated only. Urophyllum blumeanum (Wight) Hook. shrub... Tarenna odorata (Roxb. =Borreria ocymoides (Burm. shrub. tree. Aspidistra elatior Blume.) B.) Merr. cultivated only 3818. Dracaena compacta hort. exotic. native. climber. Urophyllum streptopodium Wall.. extinct Ruscaceae 3825. Uncaria attenuata Korth. Dracaena maingayi Hook. f. Robinson..f. critically endangered 3820. shrub. shrub.f. compressicaulis (Miq. ex King & Gamble. shrub.. shrub.. vulnerable 3821.) Boerl.. ex Baker. critically endangered 3802.. climber. Don) Hook. Dracaena granulata Hook. native. native. Tarenna ridleyi (Pears. var.. endangered 3822. 3798. Dracaena cantleyi Baker. cultivated only 3840. native. extinct 3812. f. exotic. naturalised 3814. shrub. native.. thalioides Makoy ex Regel 3830. Bailey. herb. Uncaria roxburghiana Korth. var. exotic. Tarenna fragrans (Nees) K. native. Timonius wallichianus (Korth. shrub. Dracaena goldieana hort.L. f. cultivated 3835. endangered 3801. var. shrub. Urophyllum macrophyllum Korth. shrub. Beaucarnea recurvata Lem. f. Spermacoce ocymoides Burm. shrub. ex King) Ridl. ex G. critically endangered 3799. shrub. Bull.. Dracaena aubryana Brongn. f. cultivated 3803.) Merr. Uncaria cordata (Lour. f.. cultivated.. f. shrub. shrub. Tarenna adpressa (King) Merr. critically endangered 3816. cultivated. critically endangered 3807. herb. Morren. glabrata (Blume) Ridsdale. Dracaena porteri Baker.) Ridl. cultivated only 177 . native.. extinct 3804. exotic. critically endangered 3800. native.. tree. native. native. Tarenna stellulata (Hook.) B. ex Blume) Korth. native. Urophyllum hirsutum (Wight) Hook. Uncaria callophylla Blume ex Korth. tree. Urophyllum trifurcum Pears. ex Hook.) Ridsdale. f. shrub. exotic.) Valeton.L.) DC. native. tree. shrub. shrub.... shrub. & V. ex W. ex E. cultivated only 3827.M. Hunter) Roxb.. shrub. exotic. cultivated 3808. vulnerable. glabrum Wall.. extinct 3810. exotic. critically endangered 3805. native. shrub.) Merr. endangered 3813. native. 3819. native. Urophyllum griffithianum (Wight) Hook.) Havil. exotic. native. exotic.. common 3841. Tarenna mollis (Wall. Dracaena elliptica Thunb. cultivated only 3826. Aspidistra lurida Ker Gawl. climber. native. native.. native. =D. shrub. cultivated only 3838. naturalised. Dracaena fragrans (L..

cultivated only 3864. Citrus limon (L. exotic. Muell. cultivated only 3886.) B. Wilson. Glycosmis perakensis V. cultivated only 3851. Flindersia pimenteliana F. exotic. native. Maclurodendron porteri (Hook.) P. Peliosanthes teta Andr..) Jack. Sansevieria trifasciata Prain. native. tree. Melicope glabra (Blume) T. ridleyi (Burkill) Swingle. herb. critically endangered 3881.) Spreng... Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer. exotic. cultivated Rutaceae 3855. exotic. herb. Dracaena surculosa Lindl. Hartley..) Planch.G. cultivated only. Glycosmis chlorosperma (Blume) Spreng. exotic. Flindersia ifflaiana F. cultivated only 3861.) Swingle. tree.. cultivated only 3884.G. shrub. exotic. exotic.) Jessp. shrub.. shrub. tree.L. cultivated only 3845. exotic. extinct. native. tree. Hartley. herb.. humilis (Andr. tree. var. Murraya paniculata (L. exotic. cultivated only 3859. native. cultivated only 3867. exotic. cultivated 3880.) Ten. shrub. native. chlorosperma. Merope angulata (Willd. Calodendrum capense Thunb. Triphasia trifolia (Burm. exotic.f. cultivated only 3877. 3876. Muell. shrub..) L. tree.. Ravenia spectabilis (Lindl. 3857. Glycosmis trifoliata (Blume) Spreng.. exotic. cultivated only 3865. exotic. cultivated only 3885. casual. Luvunga crassifolia Tanaka. cultivated only 3872.. exotic.) Swingle. climber. cultivated only 3856. Muell. Severinia buxifolia (Poir. Don. cultivated. Hartley. herb. herb. Dracaena sanderiana hort. tree.G. Linden. casual.) Craib var. =G. vulnerable 3852. Muell. vulnerable 3871. native. cultivated only 3862. tree. critically endangered... cultivated only 3854. Citrus maxima (Burm. Evodiella muelleri (Engl. shrub. climber. Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb. tree.... Hartley. herb. tree.) T. critically endangered 3883. cultivated only 3850.. Melicope denhamii (Seem. casual. climber. cultivated 3860. lanceolata Spreng. tree.) Osbeck. exotic.) T. cultivated only 3847. f. Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb. native. cultivated only 3853. tree. exotic. f.. et al. herb. native. tree. Melicope elleryana F.. 3842. Sander ex Mast. vulnerable 3875. Clausena brevistyla Oliv. shrub.) Merr. shrub. extinct 3844. exotic. tree.G. shrub. cultivated only 3843. exotic. Clausena excavata Burm. Ophiopogon jaburan (Siebold) Lodd. Meliosma lanceolata Blume. 3873. =Murraya koenegii (L.) Ker Gawl. cultivated only 3869. Citrus madurensis Lour.) Correa.Chong et al. common 3866. exotic. Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm.H. tree. Bailey. vulnerable 3846. =Euodia ridleyi Hochr. Dracaena umbratica Ridl. exotic.. Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn. tree. exotic. Melicope hookeri T. tree.. common Sabiaceae 3887. vulnerable 3878.G. tree. tree. shrub. cultivated only 3849. critically endangered 178 . Bergera koenigii L. Ophiopogon planiscapus Nakai. exotic. tree. Liriope muscari (Decne. Hartley. shrub. native. native.) DC.. exotic. Citrus paradasi Macfad. tree. cultivated only 3858. tree. native. cultivated only 3848. exotic. shrub. native. critically endangered 3879.) Burm. Reineckea carnea (Andrews) Kunth. ssp. native.) T. Paramignya scandens (Griff.. cultivated only 3863. Dracaena singapurensis Ridl. exotic. tree. Ophiopogon intermedius D. exotic. Citrus sinensis (L. Aegle marmelos (L. cultivated only 3882. exotic. ex Griseb. exotic. f. native. exotic. Flindersia brayleyana F. shrub.. cultivated only 3870. exotic. native. exotic. Naray. critically endangered 3874. cultivated only 3868.

Amesiodendron chinense (Merr.. Diploglottis berniana S.. tree. cultivated 3928. native. critically endangered. cultivated only 3903. Dovyalis caffra (Hook. tree. tree. extinct 3895. critically endangered 3911. Flacourtia inermis Roxb. cultivated only 3918. ssp. Koenig. common 3912. tree. tree. Casearia capitellata Blume. ridleyi (King) Beus. exotic.) Mabb. Dovyalis hebecarpa (Gardner) Warb. tree. Bailey. cultivated 3900. Guioa pleuropteris (Blume) Radlk. critically endangered 3902. cultivated 3892. Casearia tuberculata Blume. tree. exotic.. Arfeuillea arborescens Pierre. cultivated only 3929.) Warb. Salix babylonica L.. tree. critically endangered. common. cultivated only 3916. Guioa pubescens (Z.) Reausch. Viscum ovalifolium Wall. Allophylus cobbe (L.. tree.. native. cultivated only 3931. Osmelia maingayi King. native. Filicium decipiens (Wight & Arn. f. tree. Cupaniopsis foveolata (F. & M. cultivated only 3920. tree. naturalised.T. climber. Salix tetrasperma Roxb. cultivated 3921. native. extinct Santalaceae 3908. cultivated only 3907. vulnerable. native.) Maxim. clarkei. cultivated only 3901. Casearia lobbiana Turcz.. native. native. exotic. native. native. native. extinct 3904... & Harv. tree.) F. native. cultivated only 3898.. tree. extinct 3893. naturalised 3899..) Raeusch. extinct 3889. native.) Walp. tree.. Casearia clarkei King var. Sabia erratica van de Water. vulnerable 179 . native. Cupaniopsis curvidentata (Bailey) Radlk.) Benth. Flacourtia rukam Zoll. exotic. Guioa bijuga (Hiern) Radlk. cultivated only 3897.. vulnerable 3909.. Guioa lasioneura Radlk. tree. native. tree. exotic. Oncoba spinosa Forssk. native. native. cultivated only 3906.. tree. Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. exotic. common Sapindaceae 3913. f. tree. Viscum articulatum Burm.. climber. Homalium grandiflorum Benth. epiphyte. vulnerable 3910. critically endangered 3890.. native. cultivated only 3914. Dendrotrophe varians (Blume) Miq. Meliosma pinnata (Roxb. native. native.. epiphyte... cultivated only 3924. Muell. cultivated only 3923. Muell. shrub.) Thwaites ex Hook. f. exotic. tree. cultivated only 3926. native. shrub. Muell..M.) Hu. exotic. epiphyte.. shrub. Dendrotrophe buxifolia (Blume) Miq.. exotic. Homalium circumpinnatum F. & Moritzi. exotic. tree.) Radlk.. native. exotic. epiphyte.) Radlk.) Clos. Arytera divaricata F. & A. tree. exotic. cultivated only 3896. cultivated only 3927. critically endangered 3930.. cultivated only 3917. extinct Salicaceae 3891. vulnerable 3932. ex DC. exotic. fruticosa (Blume) Beus. casual. ssp. shrub. exotic. tree. cultivated 3925.. exotic. tree. Scleropyrum pentandrum (Dennst. cultivated 3919.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3888. tree. Reynolds.. cultivated only 3922. Diploglottis bracteata Leenh. shrub. exotic.. Scolopia macrophylla (W. shrub. exotic. tree.. tree. tree. Cardiospermum halicacabum L. Blighia sapida K.. Meliosma simplicifolia (Roxb. native. tree. exotic. tree. exotic. cultivated 3915. native. extinct.. exotic. Castanospora alphandii (F. tree. exotic. Dimocarpus longan Lour. tree. Arytera littoralis Blume. tree.. D. Osmelia philippina (Turcz. Flacourtia jangomas (Lour. critically endangered 3894. Acer palmatum Thunb. Muell. tree. endangered 3905. exotic.

) Baill. tree.. Nephelium cuspidatum Blume var. exotic.) Dubard.. exotic.) P. native. critically endangered. Palaquium microphyllum King & Gamble. tree. critically endangered.T. exotic. Chrysophyllum roxburghii G.. tree..) Radlk.. exotic. Mimusops elengi L. Toechima daemelianum Radlk. Endangered. tree. Mischocarpus pentapetalus (Roxb. cultivated only 3934. Mischocarpus grandissimus (F. cultivated 180 .R. Royen. cultivated only 3961. tree. native. tree. cultivated only 3960. Paranephelium macrophyllum King. Manilkara kauki (L. native. cultivated only 3952.J. Harpullia zanquebarica (J.J. exotic.. tree. critically endangered 3966. common. cultivated only 3974. tree. exotic. Madhuca motleyana (de Vriese) J.F. native.) H. exotic.. critically endangered.) Leenh.) Leenh. cultivated only 3970. Trigonachras acuta (Hiern) Radlk. Chrysophyllum cainito L. Macbr. Muell.. native. Nephelium costatum Hiern. cultivated only 3936. Mischocarpus sundaicus Blume.J. Nephelium lappaceum L. cultivated only 3940. critically endangered. tree. Synima macrophylla S. tree. tree. vulnerable. extinct 3947.) Leenh.T. exotic. native. Kirk.) Oken.. tree. exotic. Manilkara zapota (L. tree..) Burck.) J. native. Mimusops balata (Aubl. tree. native. native. extinct. Chrysophyllum oliviforme L. exotic.. Reynolds. Forst & G. native. native. extinct 3982. critically endangered. native. tree. tree. critically endangered 3958. Palaquium beccarianum (Pierre) P. Litchi chinensis Sonn. native. native. Palaquium hexandrum (Griff. tree. tree..F. Kirk) Radlk. tree. endangered 3945.) Leenh. tree. native. tree.. cultivated only 3955. casual. Lepisanthes rubiginosa (Roxb. Madhuca sericea (Miq. tree.J. cultivated only 3954. tree. critically endangered Sapotaceae 3959. tree. extinct 3942. ssp. Palaquium gutta (Hook. cultivated only 3978. tree. Lam. cultivated only 3965. cultivated only 3941.) C. extinct 3969. cultivated only 3953. cultivated 3973. cultivated only 3951. exotic.. tree. tree. tree. cultivated 3938. Palaquium oxleyanum Pierre. Xerospermum noronhianum (Blume) Blume.) Engl. tree. Palaquium obovatum (Griff. native. Schleichera oleosa (Lour.. Nephelium laurinum Blume. tree. Madhuca malaccensis (C..) Leenh. native. tree.B. cultivated only 3971. tree. native. exotic..Chong et al. eriopetalum (Miq. exotic.. Madhuca longifolia (L... native. endangered 3964. exotic. cultivated 3981. tree.. native. tree. critically endangered 3968. tree. Lepisanthes senegalensis (Juss. tree. tree. cultivated only 3935. critically endangered 3977. vulnerable 3943. Sarcopteryx martyana Radlk. Clarke) H. Lepisanthes alata (Blume) Leenh. cultivated 3948. native. tree. cultivated 3937. exotic. Xerospermum laevigatum Radlk. Forst. tree. Madhuca kingiana (Brace ex King & Gamble) H. Madhuca decipiens Sinclair.F. tree. native. Lam. Palaquium galactoxylum H. Nephelium ramboutan-ake (Labill. extinct 3963.. ex Poir.. exotic. tree. Lam. tree. critically endangered 3962. tree.) Radlk. tree. Palaquium ridleyi King & Gamble. critically endangered 3944. Lam. Lepisanthes amoena (Hassk. Madhuca sessilis (King & Gamble) Baehni. cultivated 3976. cultivated 3979. native. cultivated 3950. native. Toechima erythrocarpum Radlk. oliviforme. cultivated 3980. native. tree. exotic. Don. Pometia pinnata J. Gaertn. tree. critically endangered 3949. Reynolds. tree. Palaquium rostratum (Miq. exotic. exotic. Sarcotoechia serrata S. exotic. endangered 3957.. exotic. tree. Macbr. Palaquium leiocarpum Boerl. critically endangered 3967. extinct. cultivated only 3956.. cultivated only 3939. exotic. tree..) Baill. native. 3933. native. cultivated 3946. tree. Royen. native. Majidea zanguebarica J. cultivated only 3972. cultivated only 3975.

Houttuynia cordata Thunb.. Mazus pumilus (Burm.) Radlk. 4014. climber. Pouteria gardneriana (A.. critically endangered.) Daniell. shrub. shrub. DC. native. cultivated only 181 . native. herb. extinct 3996. common Solanaceae 4019. exotic. Russelia equisetiformis Schltdl. naturalised Simaroubaceae 4008. cultivated only 4001. Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pav. native. Pouteria maingayi (C. Palaquium xanthochymum (de Vr. critically endangered Scrophulariaceae 4000.) Merr.. vulnerable 3993. cultivated only 4003.M. cultivated 3994. Buddleja davidii Franch. cultivated Smilacaceae 4013. herb.) Steenis.) Pierre. & Cham.B. native. Br. Scoparia dulcis L.. native. Smilax calophylla Wall. cultivated only Saxifragaceae 3998. Brunfelsia americana L.. tree. exotic. Endangered. exotic. exotic. critically endangered 3991. Pouteria linggensis (Burck) Baehni. Pouteria malaccensis (C. exotic. shrub. cultivated only 4002. DC. DC. critically endangered 4009. exotic. critically endangered 3984. & C. exotic. ex A. extinct 4017. weed of uncertain origin 4004. Ruta graveolens L. endangered 4015. Saxifraga stolonifera Curtis. Smilax setosa Miq. exotic. exotic.. climber. exotic. critically endangered 3986. shrub. herb. climber. native. tree. indica auct. shrub.. extinct. Smilax megacarpa A. tree.. Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach. Kadsura scandens Blume.. native. Smilax leucophylla Blume.. climber. climber. cultivated 4011..) H. climber. cultivated only 3990. DC. Clarke.... exotic.) Nooteb. DC. tree. Russelia sarmentosa Jacq. shrub. native. exotic.B.. cultivated only 4012. tree. exotic. Quassia amara L. Brucea javanica (L. cultivated only Saururaceae 3997. Sarcosperma paniculatum (King) Stapf & King. tree. herb.) I.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3983. native. vulnerable 4010. extinct. cultivated 3992. Payena maingayi C. DC. tree.. native.E. Eurycoma longifolia Jack. cultivated only 3989. herb. Leucophyllum frutescens (Berland. Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni. Buddleja asiatica Lour. Payena obscura Burck. vulnerable. cultivated only 4007. critically endangered 3987. tree. Pouteria obovata (R. tree. native.) Radlk. tree.. tree. native. cultivated only Schisandraceae 3999. cultivated only 3995.. Clarke) Baehni.B. tree. cultivated only 4005. Moore & Stearn. native. exotic. Johnst. Clarke) Baehni. Pouteria sapota (Jacq. climber. vulnerable 4018. Payena lucida (G. native. non A. tree. exotic. Heterosmilax borneensis A. Quassia indica (Gaertn. native. Ailanthus integrifolia Lam.. critically endangered. cultivated only 3988. native. =H. climber. & Thonn. exotic. DC. cultivated only 4006. native. tree. Don) DC.. cultivated 3985. endangered 4016.) Baehni. native.. tree. climber. f. Smilax myosotiflora A. tree. native. native. tree.

shrub. shrub. ex DC. Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl. exotic.. exotic. shrub. Symplocos odoratissima (Blume) Choisy ex Zoll.. exotic. cultivated only 4022.) Benth. native. shrub. Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour. native. tree. Symplocos rubiginosa Wall. Solanum sarmentosum Nees. naturalised 4036. native. Physalis minima L. native. Solandra longiflora Tussac. Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal. ex Neumann) Schltdl. cultivated only 4029. tree.. critically endangered Stilbaceae 4043.. tree. tree. native.. native. native. exotic. cultivated only 4047. Clarke. native. extinct 4057. extinct 4052.. native. endangered 182 . benzoin. native. cultivated only Staphyleaceae 4038.... tree. herb. native. cultivated only 4046. tree. cultivated only 4025. tree. Cestrum nocturnum L. tree. Gomphandra quadrifida (Blume) Sleum. Solanum americanum Miller. tree. herb. cultivated only 4027. 4020.. cultivated only 4024.) Siebold & Zucc.Chong et al. Symplocos celastrifolia Griff. Moore. herb. extinct 4053. native. exotic. exotic. exotic. tree.B. Datura metel L. cultivated only. tree. extinct Symplocaceae 4050. weed of uncertain origin. Brunfelsia pauciflora (Cham. shrub. Strelitzia nicolai Regel & Körn... Symplocos lucida (Thunb. cultivated only 4035. Solanum torvum Sw. herb. exotic. shrub. Cestrum elegans (Brongn. Solanum melongena L.. vulnerable 4041.. Strelitzia reginae Aiton. shrub. extinct 4040. exotic. native. cultivated only 4026. native. critically endangered 4049. cultivated only 4028. shrub. Phenakospermum guyanense (Rich. exotic.. Stemonurus scorpioides Becc.B.. shrub. native. ferox L. cultivated only Styracaceae 4048.Don. exotic. =S. Capsicum frutescens L. tree.) Endl. cultivated 4030. exotic. Cantleya corniculata (Becc. naturalised 4037. Solanum wrightii Benth. herb. shrub. =B. exotic... cultivated only 4031. critically endangered 4054. critically endangered Stemonuraceae 4039. exotic. vulnerable 4055. shrub.. exotic. tree. Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn.. calycina Benth.. Nuxia floribunda Benth. exotic. ex Miq.. ex C. naturalised 4032. herb. cultivated only 4023. shrub. Nicotiana alata Link & Otto. shrub. shrub.) Sleum. exotic.. Capsicum annuum L. endangered 4051. cultivated only 4045. extinct 4056. tree. 4033. Symplocos fasciculata Zoll. cultivated only Strelitziaceae 4044.) Howard. exotic. cultivated only 4034. Styrax crotonoides C. Clarke. exotic. var. tree. Styrax benzoin Dryand. Solanum mammosum L. shrub. climber. Stemonurus malaccensis (Mast. tree. critically endangered 4042. ex D.. Symplocos barringtonifolia Brand. naturalised. & Schltdl. 4021. Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk. exotic.. Symplocos adenophylla Wall. exotic.) S. exotic. Cestrum diurnum L.

tree. exotic. climber. cultivated Typhaceae 4084.. cultivated only Urticaceae 4086. herb. Turnera ulmifolia L. native. extinct 4080. Enkleia malaccensis Griff. cultivated only 4082. naturalised. tree. herb. Aralidium pinnatifidum (Jungh.. tree. exotic. exotic.. Aquilaria microcarpa Baill. Typha latifolia L. shrub. Typha angustifolia L. native. extinct 4067. extinct 4065. herb. cultivated 4085.. native. Gordonia singaporiana Wall. Linostoma pauciflorum Griff. exotic. native. native. native. var. tree.. ex Benth... cultivated 4068.) Gaudich. native. Aquilaria hirta Ridl. naturalised. extinct Turneraceae 4081.. native. native. Trigoniastrum hypoleucum Miq. Mey. cultivated 4088. Schröt. Tetramerista glabra Miq... endangered 4060. critically endangered 4072. critically endangered. exotic. extinct. native. native.. endangered 4062. exotic. critically endangered 4069. native. Schima superba Gardner& Champ. climber.. tree. cultivated Trigoniaceae 4078. native. naturalised.) Miq. naturalised. Br. herb.A. Pyrenaria acuminata Planch.. naturalised Torricelliaceae 4077. cultivated only 4075. exotic. naturalised 4089. exotic.. tree.) Hallier.. shrub. exotic. cultivated 4083. Phaleria capitata Jack.. cultivated 4061. Elatostema repens (Lour. exotic. climber. native. Gonystylus confusus Airy Shaw. & de Vr. herb. Cecropia peltata L. Turnera aurantiaca Benth. native.. Wikstroemia indica C. native.. native. cultivated only 4076. tree. extinct Thymelaeaceae 4066. tree.. Thismia fumida Ridl. Boehmeria nivea (L. tree. exotic. native. Thismia aseroe Becc. critically endangered 4070. Gordonia multinervis King.. ex Ridl. pulchrum (N... endangered 4073. tree. Turnera subulata Sm. cultivated only 4074. Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. extinct. cultivated only Thismiaceae 4064. tree. exotic. Gordonia penangensis Ridl. Muell. Sciaphila maculata Miers.) H. extinct Triuridaceae 4079. tree.. endangered 4063. exotic. herb. E.. Gonystylus maingayi Hook. tree. Endangered. tree.. native. Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk. naturalised 4087. tree. Phaleria clerodendron F. herb. Sciaphila tenella Blume. extinct Theaceae 4059. tree. herb. cultivated 4071. herb. Wikstroemia ridleyi Gamble. shrub. cultivated 183 . vulnerable.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore Tetrameristaceae 4058. tree. f. f.

Ampelocissus gracilis (Wall. climber. extinct 4133.... exotic. 4106.E. Phyla nodiflora (L. shrub. exotic.. weed of uncertain origin Verbenaceae 4104. Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. extinct 4125. shrub. climber. cultivated 4131. shrub. Pilea cadierei Gagnep. climber.. Cissus nodosa Blume. native. tree. cultivated only 4098. climber. vulnerable 4128. extinct Vitaceae 4119.. cultivated only 4111. native. Lantana indica Roxb. critically endangered 4127. Ampelocissus elegans (Kurz) Gegnep. herb. climber. native. cultivated only 4110. weed of uncertain origin. native.. herb. critically endangered 4134. climber.. native. Cissus rostrata (Miq. shrub. Cissus repens Lam. Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr. climber.) Vahl. exotic. cultivated 184 . Poikilospermum cordifolium (Barg. critically endangered 4124. critically endangered 4132. cultivated only 4093. ex Miq. shrub. shrub. naturalised. native. cultivated only 4095. cultivated 4108.. Ampelocissus ascendiflora Latiff. Don. shrub. extinct 4121. extinct 4120. exotic. native. native. common. Lantana montevidensis (Spreng. Rinorea anguifera (Lour. exotic. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. exotic. exotic.) Vahl. critically endangered.. naturalised 4109.-Petr.. tree. Pouzolzia zeylanica (L. shrub. =D. native. native.. cultivated only 4103. critically endangered..) Gagnep. cultivated only. exotic. Pourouma cecropiifolia Mart. naturalised 4114. tree.) Merr. weed of uncertain origin 4091. Pellionia daveauana N. f. exotic. cultivated only 4094. native.) Planch.-Petr. shrub... Nothocnide mollissima (Blume) Chew. herb. Leea angulata Korth.) Burk. endangered 4123. Ampelocissus cinnamomea (Wall. cultivated only 4097.) Vahl.) Wedd.. native. Glandularia tenera (Spreng. tree. climber. Leea indica (Burm. Stachytarpheta indica (L. naturalised. climber. repens L. exotic. climber. native. climber. climber. cultivated 4112. cultivated 4118. climber. climber.. Duranta erecta L. tree..) Planch.. Laportea interrupta (L.) Merr. shrub. cultivated Violaceae 4117. extinct 4101. naturalised 4099. shrub. shrub. Poikilospermum microstachys (Barg. Forst. climber.) Greene.) Kuntze.. exotic..) Cabrera. native. cultivated only 4113. naturalised.) Briq. herb. climber. exotic. cultivated only 4105.) Wedd. native. epiphyte. naturalised 4116. exotic. Pipturus argenteus (G.) Chew. Cayratia mollissima (Wall. extinct 4100. shrub. epiphyte. epiphyte. exotic. cultivated only 4135.. cultivated 4126.) Benn. naturalised. exotic. Stachytarpheta mutabilis (Jacq. ex Laws. Cayratia trifolia (L. Leea guineensis G. exotic. exotic.. critically endangered.Chong et al.) Vahl. Pilea nummulariifolia (Sw. Br. exotic.) Liebm. Citharexylum spinosum L.. Ampelocissus polystachya (Wall.. Leea aequata L. 4090. Premna corymbosa Rottler & Willd. extinct 4092. Lantana camara L. native. Petrea volubilis L. herb. exotic.) Merr. native.. Cissus hastata Miq.) Planch.) Domin. cultivated only 4107. cultivated 4130. cultivated 4129. exotic. cultivated 4096. exotic. Pilea serpyllacea (Kunth) Liebm.. native. vulnerable 4102.. Rinorea lanceolata (Wall. Endangered. Pilea microphylla (L. & Guillaumin. shrub. native. Pilea involucrata Urb. tree... endangered 4122. weed of uncertain origin. native.) Planch. herb. climber. Cayratia novemfolia (Wall..) Kuntze. native. Ampelocissus thyrsiflora (Blume) Planch. cultivated 4115.

exotic. exotic. Elettariopsis curtisii Baker. exotic. critically endangered.. ssp. critically endangered 4162. cultivated only 4163. exotic.) Sw. Leea rubra Blume ex Spreng. Globba variabilis Ridl. exotic. native. Tetrastigma lawsoni (King) Burk. herb. Alpinia rafflesiana Wall. herb.) Planch. native. Prasanthk.H. cultivated only 4157. critically endangered.. Etlingera elatior (Jack) R. native.. native. cultivated only 185 . native. native.. herb.) Giseke. herb.. Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Siebold & Zucc. cultivated 4174. native.M. Globba leucantha Miq. herb. extinct. Hornstedtia conica Ridl. herb. ex Sm. exotic. herb. extinct 4175. cultivated only 4144. Sm.. Alpinia mutica Roxb.) Haw.-Ham. Sirirugsa & M. herb.. cultivated 4141. Schum. herb. Vitis vinifera L.) Laws. Kaempferia elegans (Wall. Alpinia zerumbet (Pers. native.. Mood & K.. cultivated only 4166.) B. cultivated 4181. tree. pendula var. Alpinia galanga (L.. climber. Sm. cultivated only Xyridaceae 4150. cultivated only 4159. shrub. cultivated 4137. extinct 4154. Globba winitii C.) Latiff. exotic. extinct 4170. Hornstedtia leonurus (J. Curcuma rubrobracteata Škorničk. Newman... Hedychium coccineum Buch. exotic.. Curcuma parviflora Wall.. weed of uncertain origin 4151. extinct 4156. Sm. Koenig. exotic.) Baker.F. casual. herb. König) Steud var. Koenig ex Retz. Xyris complanata R. native. Pterisanthes eriopoda (Miq. herb. herb. herb.M. exotic. Curcuma longa L. in Baker. native. exotic. cultivated only Xanthorrhoeaceae 4147. exotic. climber. critically endangered 4143. cultivated only 4149. cultivated only 4139. extinct 4140. herb. exotic. scyphifera. native. native. extinct 4161. peninsularis Holttum. Pterisanthes cissoides Blume. Curcuma rhabdota P. herb. Etlingera littoralis (J. exotic. Nothocissus spicifera (Griff.. climber. Amomum hastilabium Ridl. cultivated only 4172. Xyris pauciflora Willd.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 4136. native. pendula. exotic. climber. cultivated only 4169. cultivated only 4148. native. critically endangered 4153. Bull. Globba atrosanguinea Teijsm. herb. Xanthorrhoea preissii Endl. cultivated only 4167.. exotic.) Alston ex Mabb. climber. Amomum xanthophlebium Baker. herb. Globba pendula Roxb. exotic. herb. native. herb. extinct. cultivated only 4178. critically endangered 4138. Sabu &. & Binn. exotic. herb. Pterisanthes polita (Miq. herb. critically endangered 4145.. Etlingera punicea (Roxb.) Roscoe. cultivated only 4164. native. König) Retz. herb. M. cultivated only 4176. Haworthia fasciata (Willd. herb. vulnerable. extinct 4146. herb. herb. native.N. M. Br. Wright. Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst. var. Lim.. critically endangered 4142.. native. native. exotic. critically endangered 4179.) R.. climber. herb. Tetrastigma curtisii (Ridl.. cultivated only 4160. cultivated 4180.J. herb. herb... native.. climber. exotic. critically endangered 4171. ssp. climber. Burtt & R. extinct Zingiberaceae 4152. herb. Alpinia purpurata (Vieill.) Seusseng. native. Alpinia vittata W.. herb. herb. cultivated 4155. extinct 4158.. herb. cultivated only 4177. Xanthorrhoea glauca D. cultivated only 4165. herb. Tetrastigma dichotomum Planch.. climber. exotic. native. herb.. native. Cornukaempferia aurantiflora J. herb. critically endangered 4168. Alpinia aquatica (Retz. pusilla S. Larsen. Bedford.) K. critically endangered 4173. native.. Alpinia conchigera Griff. Hornstedtia scyphifera (J.) Planch. L. Hedychium coronarium J.

Zingiber zerumbet (L. exotic. cultivated 4191. Kaempferia galanga L. Endangered. Adiantum hispidulum Sw. casual. Extinct c. Zingiber griffithii Baker. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. extinct 4186. Casual c. Adiantum stenochlamys Baker. climber 6.. climber 5. exotic. author name(s). Bull.) Sm. Actinodaphne macrophylla (Blume) Nees. Flickingeria laciniosa (Ridl. phylum. native. 5). Magnoliophyta: Loganiaceae. herb. 3. native.. epiphyte 3. Plagiostachys lateralis (Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. f. Common EXOTIC SPECIES a.. Adenoncos sumatrana J. tree. Strychnos ridleyi King & Gamble. Thunbergia dasychlamys Bremek. 3.. Zingiber officinale Roscoe. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae.) DC. tree 8. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte 7.) Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. cultivated 11. Globally Extinct b. 4182...J.. exotic. extinct 4187. Scaphochlamys tenuis Holttum. epiphyte 10.. Acriopsis ridleyi Hook.. epiphyte 9.. exotic. Endangered e. Filicinophyta: Adiantaceae. The status categories are arranged as follows: 1. Sm. Kaempferia gilbertii W. native. herb. var. herb. Niels. herb. native. NATIVE SPECIES Globally Extinct 1. 4). herb. Adenoncos major Ridl. Zingiber puberulum Ridl. The synonym(s) of the recent literature are provided for selected species. herb 186 . Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. cultivated Zygophyllaceae 4192. Naturalised WEED OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN 2. herb. NATIVE SPECIES a.. Guaiacum officinale L. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. ovoideum Holttum. climber Extinct 4. Kaempferia rotunda L.) Hawkes. endangered 4189.Chong et al. epiphyte 2. herb. cultivated only 4183. Acacia kekapur I. Filicinophyta: Adiantaceae. exotic. Plagiostachys mucida Holtt. cultivated only PART 3 SPECIES LIST BY STATUS Each entry consists firstly its status in Singapore based on Table 2 (p. native. the species name. Cultivated Only b. critically endangered 4188.. family. cultivated only 4185. herb. Critically Endangered d. and habit (life form) based on the information sources indicated under Reference Sources (pp. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. herb. herb.. cultivated only 4190. cultivated only 4184. Acacia concinna (Willd. exotic. herb.

tree Aglaia macrocarpa (Miq. 23. epiphyte Aphanamixis sumatrana (Miq... 53. Magnoliophyta: Gesneriaceae. Magnoliophyta: Torricelliaceae. 28.) Planch. herb Ampelocissus ascendiflora Latiff. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. cultivated Albizia retusa Benth. Adinandra integerrima T. 27. herb Alseodaphne nigrescens (Gamble) Kostermans. 51. 21. tree. 22. climber 187 .) Müll. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.) Ridl. 35. tree Aglaia multinervis Pannell. epiphyte Agrostophyllum stipulatum (Griff.. epiphyte. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 15. Br.. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. Aeschynanthus radicans Jack. tree Aglaia tomentosa Teijsm. tree Aglaia oligophylla Miq.. climber Amylotheca duthieana (King) Danser. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. 52. epiphyte Anacolosa frutescens (Blume) Blume.. 37.. 41. Alangium ridleyi King. 20. shrub Aristolochia jackii Steud. 57. climber Aglaomorpha speciosa (Blume) Roos. tree Aglaia palembanica Miq. 47. 13. tree Aglaodorum griffithii (Schott) Schott. epiphyte Aquilaria hirta Ridl. 38. 56. f. Magnoliophyta: Loranthaceae. 59. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Anders.. shrub Alpinia conchigera Griff.. ex Dyer. Sm. 34. cultivated. 58.W. 19. shrub Ardisia ridleyi King & Gamble. 36. Magnoliophyta: Cornaceae. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. tree Anathallis acuminata (Kunth) Pridgeon & M. =A. 49.) Pannell. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. herb Aporosa penangensis (Ridl.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte Agrostistachys gaudichaudii Müll. epiphyte. 55.) Schltr.J. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. cultivated Ardisia crassa C. 29. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. 40. =Dendrobium acuminatum Kunth Anisoptera costata Korth. epiphyte Aglaia elliptica Blume. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. 33. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. 24. 44. tree Aglaia tenuicaulis Hiern..J.. 26. 48. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. =A.. climber Amomum hastilabium Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. & Binn. herb Alpinia mutica Roxb.) Miq. tree Aphyllorchis pallida Blume. tree Alyxia pilosa Miq.Chase... 30.. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Gesneriaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 32. lobbianus Hook. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.. in Baker. 42. 31. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Pentaphylacaceae. 50.. shrub Ardisia sessilis Scheff. Clarke. 43.Sm. tree Aeschynanthus parvifolius R. Magnoliophyta: Olacaceae.) Schltr.) Schuit. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. herb Antrophyum parvulum Blume. epiphyte Appendicula lucida Ridl. B. Arg. Magnoliophyta: Aristolochiaceae. tree. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. tree Appendicula anceps Blume. tree Agrostophyllum majus Hook. tree. 45. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. ssp. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. climber Ampelocissus thyrsiflora (Blume) Planch. 25.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 12. Magnoliophyta: Thymelaeaceae. cultivated Alchornea rugosa (Lour. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 39. & de Vr. tree Aralidium pinnatifidum (Jungh. epiphyte Appendicula uncata Ridl. shrub Ardisia singaporensis Ridl. Filicinophyta: Vittariaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. 54... Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 46.. 18..... Arg. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte Agrostophyllum stipulatum (Griff. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae.) Airy Shaw. epiphyte. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. herb Alpinia rafflesiana Wall. 17. epiphyte Appendicula cornuta Blume. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. bicuspidatum (J. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. tree Anoectochilus geniculatus Ridl. climber Ampelocissus cinnamomea (Wall. 16. 14. bicuspidatum J.

Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae..... 79. epiphyte Bulbophyllum pileatum Lindl. P.. Bulbophyllum aberrans Schltr. =B.) Miq. epiphyte. 105. epiphyte Bulbophyllum rugosum Ridl. herb Bolbitis sinuata (C.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Loranthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte Bulbophyllum limbatum Lindl. f.. 96. 63. epiphyte Asplenium nitidum Sw. f. f. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. herb Bromheadia aporoides Rchb. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. herb Brownlowia argentata Kurz. J. epiphyte Bulbophyllum cleistogamum Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.) Y. epiphyte Austrobuxus nitidus Miq.. 70.) Müll. epiphyte Bulbophyllum patens King ex Hook. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae..Chong et al. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. epiphyte Barringtonia conoidea Griff.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 68. 81. Sm. Cribb. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 67.) Rchb. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. Filicinophyta: Aspleniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte Bulbophyllum concinnum Hook. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. 78. epiphyte Bulbophyllum makoyanum (Rchb. J. 90. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. J.. 104. epiphyte Bulbophyllum ruficaudatum Ridl. 80. =B. Bulbophyllum purpurascens Teijsm & Binnend. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.) Müll. 84.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. herb Bromheadia scirpoidea Ridl. 76. epiphyte Bulbophyllum gracillimum (Rolfe) Rolfe. herb Blumea junghuhniana (Miq.. 89. f. 101. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae. 88.) Ridl. 60.f. herb Bromheadia truncata Seidenf. tree. 72. tree Baccaurea pubera (Miq. Arg.. 91. epiphyte Bulbophyllum restrepia Ridl. Ng & P. 86. 65.f. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. 77. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. 102. epiphyte Bridelia cinnamomea Hook. Bulbophyllum medusae (Lindl. f. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. 61. Cribb. Bromheadia alticola Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. shrub Bryobium hyacinthoides (Blume) Y. epiphyte Bulbophyllum botryophorum Ridl. Ng & P. tree Biermannia laciniata (Carr) Gary. herb Bromheadia borneensis J. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. =Eria hyacinthoides (Blume) Lindl.. 97. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. f. 106. 87. epiphyte Bulbophyllum flavescens (Blume) Lindl.. Bryobium pudicum (Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.) J.. latifolia King ex Hook. epiphyte Bulbophyllum lobbii Lindl. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. f.. 82.f. epiphyte Bulbophyllum lasianthum Lindl. griffithii Hook. =Cirrhopetalum makoyanum Rchb. epiphyte.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 92. tree Baccaurea macrophylla (Müll. epiphyte.. tree Baratranthus axanthus (Korth. J. 83. 75. 93. epiphyte Bulbophyllum blumei (Lindl..) Ridl. epiphyte Bulbophyllum acuminatum (Ridl. 85.) Müll. tree Asplenium macrophyllum Sw. Filicinophyta: Lomariopsidaceae. epiphyte 188 .. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. climber. Baccaurea pyriformis Gage. 66. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. tree Baccaurea lanceolata (Miq.. epiphyte Bulbophyllum pulchellum Ridl. P. Artocarpus maingayi King. Filicinophyta: Aspleniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. 95. 64. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae.) Boerl.. epiphyte Bulbophyllum nigropurpureum Carr. 69. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. epiphyte Bulbophyllum singaporeanum Schltr. Sm. 98. Arg. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. =Eria pudica Ridl.. =Cirrhopetalum concinnum Hook. epiphyte Bulbophyllum caudatisepalum Ames & Schweinf. Arg. Arg. 94. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 62. 99. Magnoliophyta: Picrodendraceae.. epiphyte. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. 74. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. 71.. 100.. epiphyte Bulbophyllum macrochilum Rolfe. epiphyte Bulbophyllum ovalifolium (Blume) Lindl. 73.. 103. Presl) Henn.

J...M. epiphyte Caesalpinia tortuosa Roxb.. 142.. ex T. herb. epiphyte Coelogyne testacea Lindl. herb Ceratolobus subangulatus (Miq. epiphyte Cleisostoma subulatum Blume. 144.. 116. ex Hassk.. 151. Schum. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. cultivated Cleisostoma halophilum (Ridl. 108. 131. 133.) Howard. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae. 117. Stevens. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 150. 112. climber Ceratostylis subulata Blume. 140. 135. tree Chilocarpus vernicosus Blume. 125. 109. shrub Cocculus orbiculatus (L. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae.. bracteatum (Wight) P. 134. 114. cultivated Chisocheton pauciflorus King. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. 126. 143. tree Calophyllum calaba L. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae. Bulbophyllum striatellum Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. f.. climber Calamus ornatus Becc. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte Bulbophyllum uniflorum (Blume) Hassk. 145. 128.) Gary.. 148. 115. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree. & Wyatt-Smith. f. 122. myrmecophilum (Ridl. epiphyte Coelogyne foerstermannii Rchb. 149. tree Chisocheton macrophyllus King. epiphyte Coelogyne septemcostata J. epiphyte Cleisostoma scortechinii (Hook. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 118.. 138. Moore) I.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 107. tree Claoxylon longifolium (Blume) Endl. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. epiphyte Bulbophyllum tenuifolium (Blume) Lindl. climber Callicarpa maingayi King & Gamble. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. climber Cantleya corniculata (Becc. epiphyte Coelogyne rochussenii de Vr. Turner. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. tree Cleistanthus malaccensis Hook. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte Coelogyne mayeriana Rchb. 127. Sm. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. epiphyte Commelina attenuata Koen. 123. climber Calamus luridus Becc. shrub Cheilocostus globosus (Blume) C. 121. 137. Magnoliophyta: Costaceae. f. =Costus globosus Blume var. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree Casearia clarkei King var. var. tree Casearia tuberculata Blume. 132. f. ridleyi (K. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae.. F. 152. epiphyte Chassalia pubescens Ridl. 129. climber Callerya dasyphylla (Miq. climber Coelogyne cumingii Lindl. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. 120. epiphyte Bulbophyllum vesiculosum J.. 110. tree Cinnamomum subavenium Miq. tree Cephalomanes superbum (Backh.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Sm. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. climber Calamus densiflorus Becc.) Garay. tree. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. epiphyte Coelogyne tomentosa Lindl. Magnoliophyta: Menispermaceae. 146.. cultivated Clerodendrum phyllomega Steud. tree Calophyllum biflorum Hend.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. f. & Wyatt-Smith.. climber Chionanthus macrocarpus Blume. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. tree Castanopsis javanica (Blume) A. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. tree Calophyllum costulatum Hend. climber Calamus javensis Blume.) Becc.) Moldenke.) DC. tree. 124. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. clarkei. tree Canthium molle King & Gamble. epiphyte Cleistanthus hirsutulus Hook..) Holttum Cheilosa montana Blume. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae. 111. Magnoliophyta: Stemonuraceae.. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. 113.. f..) Schot.. epiphyte Bulbophyllum vermiculare Hook. 153. 141. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. 147.J. var. 139.. 136.. 130. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. climber 189 . Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. 119. DC. Specht. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae.

Cymodocea serrulata (R.) Mart.) Bakh. Cyrtostachys renda Blume. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. epiphyte 190 . Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. tree 170. Cryptocarya caesia Blume. 154. Heyne 156. Croton argyratus Blume.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. tree 176. ex Lindl. Crepidomanes minutum (Blume) K. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Dendrobium secundum (Blume) Lindl. Filicinophyta: Davalliaceae. f. tree 165.. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. tree. Cryptocarya kurzii Hook. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. herb 159. Dendrobium acerosum Lindl. climber 155. epiphyte 161.) Fischer ex Wydler. herb 172. Cryptocoryne ciliata (Roxb. cultivated 173. epiphyte 189.Br. cultivated 164. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Cryptostylis arachnites (Blume) Hassk.f. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. f. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Corymborkis veratrifolia (Reinw. epiphyte 181.. Coptosapelta griffithii Hook.. Davallia heterophylla J. Dendrobium indivisum (Blume) Miq.. Dendrobium aloifolium (Blume) Rchb. epiphyte 198.. Dendrobium salaccense (Blume) Lindl. Sm.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. Cyathea glabra (Blume) Copel. Connarus planchonianus Schellenb. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. f. epiphyte 194. =C. epiphyte 180. Dendrobium aciculare Lindl. epiphyte 190. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte 184. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte 183.. Heyne. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. f. Filicinophyta: Grammitidaceae. Dapania racemosa Korth. Daemonorops lewisiana (Griff. climber 171..) Gary..) Wagner & Grether. epiphyte 188. Coptosapelta parviflora Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte 204.. climber 175. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. Dendrobium pulchellum Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. herb 168.. tomentosa Valeton ex K..) Copel. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Dendrobium flexile Ridl. Dalbergia hullettii Prain.. epiphyte 197.f. Dendrobium bifarium Lindl. Iwatsuki. epiphyte 186. epiphyte 203. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Dendrobium spurium (Blume) J.Chong et al. Magnoliophyta: Oxalidaceae. Coptosapelta flavescens (Blume) Val. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. climber.. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte 163.) Aschers. & Magnus. epiphyte 179..... Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.. epiphyte 199. Dendrobium microglaphys Rchb. climber 158. shrub... Ctenopteris blechnoides (Grev. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. Crepidomanes pallidum (Blume) K. f. epiphyte 182. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte 162... epiphyte 196. Crepidomanes christii (Copel. Dendrobium leonis (Lindl. herb 160. Dendrobium hercoglossum Rchb. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae..) Rchb. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte 187. Dendrobium lamellatum (Blume) Lindl.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. f. Cordiglottis filiformis (Hook.J. tree 166. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. herb 167. Dendrobium grande Hook. Cystorchis variegata Blume. Dendrobium crocatum Hook.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. Davallia parvula Wall. Dendrobium pensile Ridl. Filicinophyta: Davalliaceae. epiphyte 191. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. climber 177. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Dendrobium prostratum Ridl. epiphyte 200. & Grev. epiphyte 201. Dendrobium pandaneti Ridl. climber 157. epiphyte 169. epiphyte 193. Cyathostemma hookeri King. ex K.. Magnoliophyta: Cymodoceaceae. ex Hook. Sm. Dalbergia parviflora Roxb. Dendrobium singaporense Hawkes & Heller. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte 195. Dendrobium pachyphyllum (Kuntze. herb 174. epiphyte 185. epiphyte 202.. Dendrobium setifolium Ridl.) Blume. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. f. f. epiphyte 192. Filicinophyta: Cyatheaceae. Dendrobium hendersonii Hawkes & Heller.. Dendrobium lobatum (Blume) Miq. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. climber 178.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Iwatsuki. Dendrobium planibulbe Lindl.

Dodonaea viscosa Jacq. climber 219. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Diplectria stipularis (Blume) Kuntze... tree 242. 209. Dipodium pictum (Lindl...f. Dracaena brachystachys Hook. f.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 205.) Rchb.. Magnoliophyta: Dioscoreaceae.) Hallier. Dissochaeta intermedia Blume. non (Retz. Deplanchea bancana (Scheff. herb. Dipodium scandens (Blume) J. Diospyros apiculata Hiern. Dendrochilum longifolium Rchb. E. =E.. Dissochaeta annulata Hook. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. tree 239. cultivated 234. sphegidoglossum Rchb. epiphyte 208. Didymocarpus puncticulatus Ridl. Endocomia canarioides (King) de Wilde. shrub 236. tree 238. herb 214. Didymoplexiella ornata (Ridl. Dioscorea tenuifolia Ridl.. tree 240. Sm... epiphyte 227. Elaphoglossum amblyphyllum P. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. epiphyte 191 . f. climber 232. Echinochloa picta (J. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. pallidiflavens. Dienia ophrydis (J. climber 226. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Eria bractescens Lindl. Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae.. ellipticum Ridl. Dendrochilum pallidiflavens Blume var... Dysoxylum carolinae Mabb. f. Elaeocarpus griffithii (Wight) A. Magnoliophyta: Loranthaceae. epiphyte 245. Elytranthe albida (Blume) Blume. f. Dilochia wallichii Lindl. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Filicinophyta: Lomariopsidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Engelhardtia serrata Blume.. f. Koenig) P.) H. epiphyte 210.) Ettingsh. Sm. tree 222. Magnoliophyta: Dioscoreaceae. cultivated 244. Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae..) Leenh.. herb 213. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae. Beauv. Elytranthe arnottiana (Korth. Konig) Seidenf.R. shrub 235. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. climber 212. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Michael.W.. tree. D. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. tree 221. climber 247.f.. Eria floribunda Lindl. tree 220. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. herb. Diospyros latisepala Ridl. Br. climber 218. Diospyros siamang Bakh. climber 233. Elatostema repens (Lour.. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Dischidia albiflora Griff. tree.) Miq.) Blume.. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae.) Steen. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. f. Dischidia hirsuta (Blume) Decne.. =Malaxis latifolia J. f. J. herb 217. Dendrobium villosulum Lindl... Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. epiphyte. shrub. epiphyte 243. epiphyte 207. Diplocaulobium longicolle (Lindl.. Dillenia indica L. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Loranthaceae. 206. flavidulum Ridl. stagnina auct. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae... Dischidia singaporensis Ridl. var. climber. epiphyte 230. Magnoliophyta: Loranthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Dichapetalaceae. climber 223. ex Triana. ex Hook.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Dichapetalum sordidum (Hook. epiphyte. epiphyte 224. cultivated 216. 241. tree 249. cultivated 211. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Dischidia complex Griff. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. epiphyte 231.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Gesneriaceae. tree 248. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Dysoxylum cyrtobotryum Miq..Gray. =D. Schröt. =D. epiphyte 229.) P. Dischidia bengalensis Colebr..) Garay. 215. Embelia dasythyrsa Miq. Dendrophthoe falcata (L.. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae.. Bell. Magnoliophyta: Juglandaceae. Eria javanica (Sw. Dendrobium stuposum Lindl.) Kraenzl.E. epiphyte 250. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. Dioscorea stenomeriflora Prain & Burk. epiphyte 246. Dracaena singapurensis Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. epiphyte 228. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. pulchrum (N. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. tree 237. epiphyte 251. Dysoxylum alliaceum (Blume) Blume. epiphyte 225. Dysoxylum acutangulum Miq..

epiphyte Flickingeria fimbriata (Blume) A. shrub Euthemis minor Jack. 279.. junghuhnii (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 292. & Thoms. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. climber Ficus albipila (Miq. 298.) Seidenf.. Magnoliophyta: Ochnaceae. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae... tree Gardenia griffithii Hook. =F. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. 295. 280.) van Beusekom.) King. shrub Globba pendula Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. 262. pendula. f. epiphyte Freycinetia confusa Ridl. cultivated. tree. herb Flickingeria angustifolia (Blume) Hawkes. 264. 272. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte Eria nutans Lindl.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. 293. Eria longirepens Ridl. 255. 289. 257.) Giseke. cultivated 192 . 273. 276. 261.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. 296. 270.) Vahl. f. epiphyte Eria tenuiflora Ridl. epiphyte Eriocaulon oryzetorum Mart. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. tree Gardeniopsis longifolia Miq. 287. 271. shrub Garcinia pyrifera Ridl. ssp. climber Gironniera hirta Ridl. 283. 259. 260. 291. climber Ficus pellucidopunctata Griff. tree. epiphyte Eria neglecta Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Gentianaceae.Chong et al. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 269. 266.J.) Hawkes. herb Eria pellipes Hook. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. 285. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Eriocaulaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. tree Ficus delosyce Corner. 277. 294.. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae. 265. f.. Magnoliophyta: Ochnaceae. shrub Fagraea acuminatissima Merr. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. cultivated Ficus annulata Blume. 290. 274. climber Friesodielsia glauca (Hook. 299.. 284. climber Geophila pilosa Pears. 288. tree Eustachys tenera (Presl) A. climber Erycibe festiva Prain.. climber Gaertnera vaginans (DC. strangler Fimbristylis nutans (Retz. epiphyte Flickingeria xantholeuca (Rchb. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 263. climber Erythorchis altissima (Blume) Blume.B. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. pendula var. shrub Genianthus maingayi Hook. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte. strangler Ficus excavata King. Koenig ex Retz. epiphyte Eria pannea Lindl. 256. herb Erycibe citriniflora Griff. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. tree Fagraea ridleyi King & Gamble. cultivated Fagraea ceilanica Thunb. f... Magnoliophyta: Gentianaceae. Magnoliophyta: Gentianaceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Stone. ssp. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Hawkes. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. herb. Magnoliophyta: Cannabaceae. 275. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. epiphyte Eria robusta (Blume) Lindl.D. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Clarke. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. 268. Sm. subgelderi. epiphyte Flickingeria bancana (J..) Merr. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae.. 267. splendens Blume Fagraea gigantea Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae. 281. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. 254. climber Etlingera littoralis (J..C. 252. herb Euonymus javanicus Blume. climber Ficus subgelderi Corner var. 278.. 286. 253.) Hawkes. strangler Ficus ruginervia L. epiphyte Eria pulchella Lindl. epiphyte Flickingeria fugax (Rchb.. herb Euthemis leucocarpa Jack. f. Magnoliophyta: Gentianaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. climber Freycinetia corneri B. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae. 297. strangler Ficus botryocarpa Miq. f. 258. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae..Camus. epiphyte Flickingeria comata (Blume) Hawkes. 300.) Steenis.. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. 282. climber Freycinetia javanica Blume.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. climber Erycibe maingayi C.

shrub Jasminum griffithii C. tree. 338. herb Glochidion glomerulatum (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Lycophyta: Lypopodiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. 310.. Magnoliophyta: Hernandiaceae.. 322. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Hernandiaceae. 304. tree Korthalsia laciniosa (Griff. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Br. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. 343. climber 193 . tree. climber Huperzia carinata (Desv. tree. DC. 319. Horsfieldia sparsa W. Lycophyta: Lypopodiaceae.. grandifolia.. de Wilde.N.) R. f. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.) Boerl. epiphyte. Clarke. tree Kokoona littoralis Laws. 333. Magnoliophyta: Cymodoceaceae. herb Halodule uninervis (Forsk. Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae. 350. climber Gymnosiphon aphyllus Blume. pusilla S. de Wilde. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. Glochidion wallichianum Müll.. Arg.. 317. climber Hoya coriacea Blume.. 342. 329.. 341. Magnoliophyta: Cymodoceaceae. 336. Magnoliophyta: Menispermaceae.J. 306..) Aschers.. 314. climber Jasminum longipetalum King & Gamble. 344. epiphyte Hoya finlaysonii Wight. fuscum (Müll. ex Wall. cultivated Ixora umbellata Valeton ex Koord. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae. =G. 315. 312. cultivated Knema rubens (Sinclair) W. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae.) Trevis. climber Korthalsia scortechinii Becc. climber. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. Magnoliophyta: Loranthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. 346. 327. climber Grenacheria fulva (Mez) Airy Shaw. epiphyte Hoya obtusifolia Wight. epiphyte Huperzia phyllantha (Hook. 326. shrub Gmelina philippensis Cham. climber Ixora concinna Hook. 316. f. C.B. 340. tree Glycosmis trifoliata (Blume) Spreng. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. & Moritzi var. 337. shrub. Anderson. herb Helicia excelsa (Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. 348.. Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae. Lycophyta: Lypopodiaceae. herb Heterosmilax borneensis A.. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 301. 323. 309. epiphyte Hoya revoluta Wight. 345. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. 331.Arg. 332. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. 313.) Bakh. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Smilacaceae. climber Justicia quadrifaria (Nees) T. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. 305. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. 339.. Glyptopetalum quadrangulare Prain ex King. DC. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Lim.) Trevis. Magnoliophyta: Burmanniaceae. & Arn. 328..) Boerl. indica auct. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae.J. 349. epiphyte Huperzia squarrosa (G.) Blume. 303. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae.) Holub.B. Lycophyta: Lypopodiaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae.) Dunn. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. herb Habenaria singapurensis Ridl. tree.. shrub Hypserpa nitida Miers. 325. Clarke) Mez. 318. tree Hoya campanulata Blume. cultivated Grammatophyllum speciosum Blume. f. Presl) Kubitzki. epiphyte Helixanthera parasitica Lour.. epiphyte Hymenophyllum polyanthos Sw. tree.) Mart. epiphyte Hypobathrum coniferum (Ridl. ssp. 335. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. =G. tree Glochidion kunstlerianum Gage.. herb Hetaeria obliqua Blume. =H. cultivated Knema glaucescens Jack. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. cultivated Hetaeria nitida Ridl. 320. 307.. 302. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae. cultivated Grenacheria amentacea (C. epiphyte Hernandia nymphaeifolia (C. 330. non A. 324. tree Helixanthera coccinea (Jack) Danser. 308. herb Kleinhovia hospita L.. 334. Chambers. tree Helicia robusta (Roxb. Globba variabilis Ridl. shrub Glochidion varians Miq. Forst. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. climber Illigera trifoliata (Griff. 321. epiphyte Hoya coronaria Blume. epiphyte Huperzia nummulariifolia (Blume) T. climber. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. lanceolata Spreng. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae. herb Halodule pinifolia (Miki) den Hartog. 347. Magnoliophyta: Loranthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. & Valeton. 311. ex Poir. cultivated Ixora grandifolia Zoll.

355.. tree Madhuca sessilis (King & Gamble) Baehni. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. cultivated Lepironia articulata (Retz. 381. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae. herb Lindsaea heterophylla Dryand.) Kuntze. epiphyte Lindsaea walkerae Hook. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae. herb Mapania squamata (Kurz) Clark. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae. tree Mangifera laurina Blume.. 390.. 385. 388. 396. herb Lindsaea repens (Bory) Thwaites var.. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. & Grev. herb Maschalocorymbus corymbosus (Blume) Bremek. 378. f. epiphyte Liparis tricallosa Rchb. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae.f. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. 352. 389. 369. Sm.. epiphyte Liparis wrayi Hook. tree Malaxis micrantha (Hook.) Soepadmo. 384. Lasianthus glaber Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. 362. tree Mangifera parvifolia Boerl. 374. 366. 373. 391.) Müll. herb Lindsaea divergens Hook. shrub Lecananthus erubescens Jack. climber Macaranga caladiifolia Becc. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliaceae.. 376. 386. shrub Lasianthus maingayi Hook.) A. cultivated Licuala triphylla Griff. herb Lindsaea borneensis Hook.) Mett. pectinata (Blume) Mett. 400.. herb Liparis elegans Lindl. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. 356. f. ex Blume) Blume. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. epiphyte Madhuca decipiens Sinclair. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. Clarke. shrub Medinilla crassifolia (Reinw. Magnoliophyta: Loranthaceae. 361. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.) A. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. climber Lindsaea ovata J. f. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 372. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae... Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. tree Litsea lanceolata (Blume) Kosterm. 367. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae. 353. 359... herb Lindsaea lucida Blume. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae.. tree Lithocarpus gracilis (Korth. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae. Clarke. shrub Loeseneriella macrantha (Korth. 395. climber Lindsaea parallelogramma Alderw. climber Macrosolen papillosus (Gamble) Danser. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. herb Mallotus macrostachyus (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. 370. 354. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. 397. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. ex Baker. 357. 371.. herb Macrolenes nemorosa (Jack) Bakh. Maytenus emarginata (Willd. & Koord. herb. tree Macaranga hosei King ex Hook. 383. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. shrub Lindernia caespitosa (Blume) Panigrahi. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae. tree Machaerina rubiginosa (Spreng. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.) Domin. epiphyte Lithocarpus cyclophorus (Endl. tree Mapania longiflora C.Chong et al. 368. tree Macaranga pruinosa (Miq. Camus. 392. climber Leea aequata L. =Urophyllum corymbosum (Blume) Korth. 387. f. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Linderniaceae. 394.. tree Magnolia maingayi King. tree Litsea gracilipes Hook. 360.Arg.) Koyama. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. 364..) D. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae.. herb Lindsaea orbiculata (Lam. shrub Leea rubra Blume ex Spreng. Hou. 379. f. 363. herb Mapania lorea Uittien. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. 393. 399. 398. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.B. epiphyte Liparis gibbosa Finet.B.... 375. tree Mangifera paludosa Kosterm. shrub Lasianthus pterospermus Wight.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae. 377. 365.. herb Mapania wallichii C. shrub Lasianthus stipularis Blume..C. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. 351. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae. Smith.. f. 382. shrub. herb Macodes petola (Blume) Lindl. 380. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte 194 . Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae.. Arg.) Müll. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. 358..

Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. climber Oberonia bertoldii King & Prantl.) Bakh.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 401.. 429. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. 417. ex Havil.) Maxim. 416. =M. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. tree Memecylon lancifolium Ridl. 439. 428. epiphyte 195 . 434. 441. shrub Memecylon globosum Bakh. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. 430. var. shrub Myrmecodia tuberosa Jack. =Eria obliqua (Lindl. Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae.. ex B. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. 408. 424..) King. 433.) Leenh. f. 431. shrub. 444.. tree. 411. tree Memecylon cinereum King.) Ridsdale. 410. f. 446. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. shrub Memecylon intermedium Blume. tree Metathelypteris dayi (Bedd. Memecylon acuminatum Sm. epiphyte Oberonia flabellifera Holtt. 432.) Seidenfaden.f. f. herb Microsaccus javensis Blume. epiphyte Miliusa longipes King. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.) DC. 420.. 438. epiphyte. tree. tree Micropera fuscolutea (Lindl.. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. 437. acuminatum. shrub Nephelium laurinum Blume. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. shrub Megistostigma glabratum (Kurz) Govaerts. 419. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. cultivated Nervilia punctata (Blume) Schltr. tree. tree Melodinus orientalis Blume. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 425. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae..) Burret.. tree Neesia malayana Bakh. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.) Hemsl. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. =M. 404. herb Nothaphoebe coriacea Kosterm.. climber Mussaenda maingayi (Hook. cultivated. f. 414. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 407. ridleyi (King) Beus.f. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. 426. tree. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. tree Neobalanocarpus heimii (King) P. 440. var. 423. tomentosa Heyne Morinda rigida Miq. 415. herb Neuwiedia griffithii Rchb. 412. tree Memecylon pauciflorum Blume. Ashton. climber Mucuna acuminata Grah. cultivated Memecylon pubescens (Cl. climber. herb.f.D. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. ssp. S. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. 421. 402. cultivated Meliosma pinnata (Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. 436. epiphyte Microsaccus sumatranus J. Medinilla radicans (Blume) Blume. 427.. 435.. mutabilis Hook. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. tree Nephelium ramboutan-ake (Labill... herb Microsaccus griffithii (Par. ex Baker. herb Microcos globulifera (Mast. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. herb Neuwiedia zollingeri Rchb. epiphyte Oberonia dissitiflora Ridl. epiphyte Oberonia ciliolata Hook. singapureana (Baker) de Vogel. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. f. 442. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. ex Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.f. tree Mischocarpus pentapetalus (Roxb. 413. 405. climber Mucuna gigantea (Willd. 447.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. cultivated Neonauclea pallida (Reinw. 409. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. tree Neesia altissima (Blume) Blume. Sm.) Gary. epiphyte Oberonia lunata (Blume) Lindl..) Holttum. climber Melaleuca cajuputi Powell. 418. 422. ssp. climber. malaccensis (Gand. Jacks. epiphyte Morinda citrifolia L. Sm.J. epiphyte Microsaccus ampullaceus J.) Radlk.) Lindl. Mycetia malayana (Wall. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. 406. 443. 403. cultivated Nauclea subdita (Korth.. tree Monogramma dareicarpa Hook.) Steud. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Mycaranthes obliqua Lindl. micranthus Hook.J. =M. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sabiaceae. tree Nothocnide mollissima (Blume) Chew.) Craib.. 445. & Rchb. Filicinophyta: Vittariaceae.

Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae. Koenig) Ormerod. shrub Pinanga simplicifrons (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. D. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. 464..) J. =P. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. 489. 487. 454. climber Piper pachyphyllum Hook. herb Pinanga disticha (Roxb.) Merr. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. 459. 484.) Becc.. cultivated Pinanga limosa Ridl.) K. climber Oxystophyllum carnosum Blume. epiphyte Ochreinauclea maingayi (Hook. Magnoliophyta: Olacaceae. climber Piper lanatum Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 475.. tree. 469. tree Ormosia sumatrana (Miq. 451. tree Peristylus lacertifer (Lindl. epiphyte. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae.. 448. 455. Oxystophyllum excavatum Blume.. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. climber Ophiorrhiza singaporensis Ridl. shrub Olax imbricata Roxb. 478. cultivated Phalaenopsis cornu-cervi (Breda) Blume & Rchb.. tree Osmelia maingayi King. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae. 453. 461. Oberonia lycopodioides (K.f. 468.. f. 486. shrub Piper chaba W. herb Peristylus maingayi (King & Pantl.. 490. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Sm. cultivated. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree Palaquium oxleyanum Pierre.. 456. epiphyte Oberonia stenophylla Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. 474.J. 473... Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 465. 476. cultivated Pinanga pectinata Becc.) Ridsdale. tree Pandanus rostratus Mart.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. 467.. f.) M. =Dendrobium excavatum (Blume) Miq. herb. climber Oxyceros scandens (Blume) Tirveng. 466. tree Oxyceros penangianus (King & Gamble) Tirveng. 481. tree Pandanus affinis Kurz. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. epiphyte. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. 458. herb Ormocarpum cochinchinense (Lour. forbesii (King) Jarrett. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.D. 483.. 463. climber Piper maingayi Hook. 457. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae..) Blume ex H. candidus J... Magnoliophyta: Philydraceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. climber 196 . Clem. Koenig) Ormerod. epiphyte. 480..) Fosb. 470. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. =Dendrobium sinuatum (Lindl. ssp. f. Magnoliophyta: Chrysobalanaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. ex Rchb. Schum. 450. shrub Parartocarpus venenosa (Zoll. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae. epiphyte Philydrum lanuginosum Gaertn. secunda (Blume) Lindl.. epiphyte Oberonia miniata Lindl. tree. 488. Hunter. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae. climber Pajanelia longifolia (Willd. =P.) K. tree Orophea hastata King. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. 462.. 485. 477. Ochthocharis borneensis Blume. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae. tree. herb Pholidocarpus kingianus (Becc..J. f. shrub Ochthocharis paniculata Korth. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Oxystophyllum sinuatum (Lindl. 482. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. epiphyte. 472.J. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.) J. 449. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.Chong et al. =Neisosperma oppositifolium (Lamk. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. shrub Ochthocharis javanica Blume. 460. tree Parinari rigida Kosterm. 479. Phrynium villosulum Miq. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae.A.. tree.. cultivated Phreatia plantaginifolia (K. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Schum. Wood & Omerod.) Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae.) Prain. Wendl. 492.) Linl. Sm. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree Ochrosia oppositifolia (Lam.. Peronema canescens Jack. Paederia verticillata Blume. & Sach. 471. shrub Pinanga subruminata Becc.. 491. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. shrub. cultivated Palaquium ridleyi King & Gamble. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. shrub Pandanus polycephalus Lam. =Dendrobium concinnum Miq. & Moritzi) Becc. 452.

. herb Planchonia grandis Ridl. 502..) Merr.. epiphyte Rourea acutipetala Miq. 500. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. Filicinophyta: Schizaeaceae. =R.. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Rhododendron longiflorum Lindl. f.. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae. Filicinophyta: Psilotaceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. histrionica (Rchb. climber Plagiostachys lateralis (Ridl.B. Clarke...-Petr.. tree Polyosma ridleyi King..) Alston. tree Platycerium ridleyi Christ. climber Ryparosa hullettii King.) Nooteb. 523. 504. ex Heyne. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. tree Platea latifolia Blume. 539. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. epiphyte Premna parasitica Blume. 510. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. 495.. herb Rhynchostylis gigantea (Lindl.. 507. 531. 505. 497. climber Rourea rugosa Planch.. Magnoliophyta: Boraginaceae. epiphyte Rhynchospora malasica C. epiphyte Pollia secundiflora (Blume) Backer. 498.) Ridl. herb Psilotum complanatum Sw. epiphyte Poikilospermum cordifolium (Barg. climber Renanthera elongata (Blume) Lindl. climber Sarcolobus globosus Wall. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae.) Kuntze. epiphyte Schizachyrium sanguineum (Retz. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.) Viguier.. Magnoliophyta: Simaroubaceae. 511. 538. 527. 520. 519. climber Premna punctulata C. Clarke) Ridl. 536.. epiphyte Schefflera lanceolata Ridl. epiphyte Plethiandra sessiliflora (Cogn. 529. Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae. herb Renanthera histrionica (Rchb. 494. shrub Salacia maingayi Laws. Magnoliophyta: Polyosmaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rosaceae. Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. tree Polyosma conocarpa Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 506. tree Schefflera cephalotes (C.B. tree.. epiphyte Poikilospermum microstachys (Barg.B. 509. 542.. 499. 518. herb Schizaea wagneri Selling.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 493..) Burk. herb Plagiostachys mucida Holtt. 541. f. climber Pseuderanthemum kingii (C. cultivated Quassia indica (Gaertn. tree Sarcostoma javanica Blume. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. 517.) Gary & Sweet. Smith... shrub Robiquetia spathulata (Blume) J. acutipetala.) Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. herb Polyalthia clavigera King. 512. Magnoliophyta: Polyosmaceae. Clarke. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae.. 521.) Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae. 522. 533. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. 525. Magnoliophyta: Sabiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. 524. Hoffm. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae. epiphyte Rinorea lanceolata (Wall. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. var. herb. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae.. 528. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. tree Pterisanthes cissoides Blume. epiphyte Plocoglottis lowii Rchb. epiphyte Pteleocarpa lamponga (Miq.) Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Violaceae..B. Magnoliophyta: Ericaceae. tree. herb Podochilus microphyllus Lindl. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.f. 508. climber Salacca affinis Griff. Piper ribesioides Wall. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.) Merr. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae. angulosus Kalkman. 535. Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae.) Bakh. tree Polystachya concreta (Jacq. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. 516.-Petr. 532... Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. epiphyte Schefflera ridleyi (King) Viguier. 515. 543. climber Pterococcus corniculatus Pax & K.. climber Pterospermum diversifolium Blume. ssp. shrub Sabia erratica van de Water. epiphyte Saurauia pentapetala (Jack) Hoogl. 513. climber Schefflera oxyphylla (Miq. 526. Magnoliophyta: Actinidiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. climber Rubus moluccanus L. 540. 530.) Halle. 514.J. 501. climber Premna ridleyi King & Gamble. 537. cultivated Reissantia indica (Willd. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 534. Magnoliophyta: Achariaceae. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae. 496. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae. Clarke) Harms. 503. Magnoliophyta: Icacinaceae. epiphyte 197 . climber Sarcosperma paniculatum (King) Stapf & King. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.

scortechinii. 571. 589. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Triuridaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. 564. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Perry. tree Syzygium scortechinii (King) P.I.) Amsh. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. cultivated Syzygium conglomeratum (Duthie) I. 579. 583.. Schizostachyum gracile (Munro) Holttum. herb Scolopia macrophylla (W. shrub Taeniophyllum filiforme J. Magnoliophyta: Symplocaceae. Smith. & C. herb Sphenodesme pentandra Jack. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. climber.J. tree Shirakiopsis indica (Willd. 545. 575.) Esser. 557. 567.) I. Hend. Magnoliophyta: Triuridaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. DC. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. climber Stereosandra javanica Blume.. & A. tree Syzygium pseudocrenulatum (M.) Merr. Magnoliophyta: Ericaceae.Chong et al. epiphyte Tarenna ridleyi (Pears. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.M. 563. 558. 585. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. climber Styphelia malayana (Jack) Spr. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. tree. 568. tree Syzygium leucoxylon Korth. cultivated Ternstroemia wallichiana (Griff. & L.. 569. ex King) Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Styracaceae. shrub Symplocos odoratissima (Blume) Choisy ex Zoll. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. 559. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. var. 588. 590. DC. Smith.B.) Siebold & Zucc. 578. shrub Styrax crotonoides C. tree Shorea collina Ridl. 561. shrub Schoenorchis micrantha Blume. 587. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae. tree Smilax megacarpa A.Chantaranothai & J. Forst.. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae.Parn.. Turner. tree Syzygium urophyllum Merr. & L.) Merr.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. 553. epiphyte Schoenorchis secundiflora (Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Gaur. 548. 565. 580.) J. tree... tree Syzygium myrtifolium Walp.) Pilger. gracile (Korth.) Hallier f. Syzygium griffithii (Duthie) Merr. Perry ssp. tree Syzygium glabratum (DC. 550. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. ex C. tree Ternstroemia bancana Miq. 556. climber Spatholobus maingayi King. Magnoliophyta: Smilacaceae.C. f. 555. Sciaphila maculata Miers.) Merr. tree Syzygium avene Miq. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. attenuatum. 582. 574. tree Syzygium attenuatum (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. 570. Turner var. Clarke.. tree Syzygium flosculiferum (M. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.M. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.J. climber Staurogyne griffithiana Kuntze.. 576. =Lucinaea morinda DC. tree Symplocos celastrifolia Griff.. Magnoliophyta: Loganiaceae. & L. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. herb Sciaphila tenella Blume. epiphyte Schradera morinda DC. Strophanthus singaporianus (Wall. tree Syzygium campanulatum Korth. 551.) P. tree 198 .. 554. conglomerata. tree Symplocos barringtonifolia Brand. 560. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. shrub Schizostachyum latifolium Gamble. herb Stictocardia tiliifolia (Desr. tree Syzygium kunstleri (King) Bahadur & R. 577. 547. Magnoliophyta: Symplocaceae. climber Strychnos axillaris Colebr. 552. 573.) Engl.. climber.R.. tree Symplocos lucida (Thunb. Perry. tree Syzygium leptostemon (Korth. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. Clarke. herb Stephanotis maingayi (Hook. 549..) Sreek. climber Sphaerocaryum malaccense (Trin. herb Scirpodendron ghaeri (Gaertn. 572.R. attenuatum var.M. Magnoliophyta: Symplocaceae. =S.) Veldekamp. Magnoliophyta: Symplocaceae. shrub Teijsmanniodendron pteropodum (Miq.Don) Gilg. 586. herb Scleria corymbosa Roxb. 581. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.) Clos.M. 562.. 546. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. =Ipomoea campanulata L. tree. 544.) Bakh. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.M.B. ex G. 566. Magnoliophyta: Pentaphylacaceae. Hend. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae... 584. Magnoliophyta: Pentaphylacaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.

Sm.f. epiphyte Thunbergia laurifolia Lindl. 621. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. 599..) Lindl. climber Uncaria attenuata Korth. climber Urophyllum macrophyllum Korth. 636. climber 199 . epiphyte Thelasis pygmaea (Griff. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae... Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte Thelasis micrantha (Brongn. Magnoliophyta: Thismiaceae. cultivated Willughbeia grandiflora Dyer ex Hook. climber Uncaria callophylla Blume ex Korth. 634. tree Vrydagzynea albida (Blume) Blume. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Tetrameristaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae..) Kraenzl. 616. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. 592. tree Trivalvaria macrophylla (Blume) Miq. 597.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. 640. epiphyte Trigoniastrum hypoleucum Miq. herb Ziziphus oenoplia (L. 605. 624. 635. 620. tree Tetrastigma leucostaphylum (Dennst. 594. 633.f. Magnoliophyta: Ericaceae. epiphyte Trichotosia vestita (Lindl.) Alston ex Mabb. Magnoliophyta: Lentibulariaceae. herb Vrydagzynea lancifolia Ridl.f. 631... Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. climber Willughbeia edulis Roxb... climber Urceola lucida (Wall. epiphyte Viburnum sambucinum Blume. 642.) Blume.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. climber. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. 602. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. 611. 606. herb Thottea dependens (Planch. Magnoliophyta: Ericaceae. herb Turraea breviflora Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.f. herb Willughbeia angustifolia (Miq. cultivated Timonius wrayi King & Gamble. tree Tropidia curculigoides Lindl.. 628.. 612. 626. climber Uncaria acida (Hunt. herb Zeuxine strateumatica (L.) Schltr. Don) Benth.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 591.. Magnoliophyta: Trigoniaceae. shrub Utricularia punctata Wall. ex Kurz. Filicinophyta: Vittariaceae.. 595. 609...) Kraenzl. climber Xanthophyllum wrayi King. ex Hook. shrub Xyris pauciflora Willd. DC. herb Vrydagzynea tristriata Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Polygalaceae. 627.. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. epiphyte Trichotosia velutina (Lodd.) Kraenzl. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. ex King & Gamble.) Markgraf. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 618. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Boraginaceae.) Mill.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. 596. climber Uvaria lobbiana Hook. epiphyte Vaccinium bracteatum Thunb. herb Thismia fumida Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Aristolochiaceae. epiphyte Thrixspermum centipeda Lour. 607. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Adoxaceae. 603... epiphyte Vaginularia trichoidea Fée..) Klotsch. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. climber Uncaria roxburghiana Korth.. ex Lindl. climber Trema angustifolia (Planch. shrub Trichotosia gracilis (Hook. f. 639. epiphyte Thrixspermum scopa (Rchb. Magnoliophyta: Lentibulariaceae. Tetramerista glabra Miq. shrub Thrixspermum acuminatissimum (Blume) Rchb.) J. ex G. f. var. epiphyte Thismia aseroe Becc. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. 622. 614. 617. 600. herb Uvaria curtisii King. 623.) Holtt. 615.J.. 629. 641.. climber Toxocarpus griffithii Decne. 613. Magnoliophyta: Thismiaceae. 601. climber.. climber Vaccinium acuminatissimum Miq.. epiphyte Thrixspermum ridleyanum Schltr. 608. 638. 632... 637. 625. shrub Vaccinium littoreum Miq.. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. 610. & Thoms. Magnoliophyta: Rhamnaceae.) Rchb. 593... acida. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. 598.f. 630. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.) Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Cannabaceae. shrub Tylophora squarrosa Ridl. herb Utricularia uliginosa Vahl. epiphyte Thrixspermum calceolus (Lindl. climber Thelasis carinata Blume. Magnoliophyta: Ericaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae... ex A. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. tree Tournefortia tetrandra Blume. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Xyridaceae. 604. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.. 619. shrub Urophyllum trifurcum Pears.

Aporosa falcifera Hook. tree 654. f. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. 675. Aglaia cucullata (Roxb. Alchornea villosa (Benth. climber 649. Anisophyllea griffithii Oliv. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.. den Berger. Aglaia rubiginosa (Hiern) Pannell. Alphonsea maingayi Hook.Arg. griffithii (C. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.) Planch. Aglaia malaccensis (Ridl.. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Aglaia spectabilis (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.. Aeschynanthus albidus (Blume) Steud.) Kurz.. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Alangium salviifolium (L. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. tree 657.) S. lucida. Amorphophallus prainii Hook.) Harms. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. tree 683. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae..) W. Alpinia aquatica (Retz. Clarke) Harms 667.) Roscoe. Aglaia odoratissima Blume. tree 200 . Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.. tree. Clarke) Harms 664.B. Aporosa lunata (Miq. Filicinophyta: Vittariaceae. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Actinodaphne glomerata (Blume) Nees.B. tree 646. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Anodendron candolleanum Wight. climber 678.) Müll. climber 662. herb 671. marginata Hassk. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. Adinandra acuminata Korth. epiphyte 647. Ancistrocladus tectorius (Lour. Alseodaphne intermedia Kostermans. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae...B..Clarke) Berhaman.) Pellegrin. climber 680. Magnoliophyta: Cornaceae. Anaxagorea javanica Blume.. tree 674. Anisoptera laevis Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. tree 673. f. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. tree. Magnoliophyta: Gesneriaceae.Chong et al. climber. tree 682. cultivated 677. ebecaceum (C. Clarke) Harms. tree. tree 645. Aglaia leucophylla King. tree 652.. Jain & Bennet. Albizia pedicellata Baker ex Benth.. Aglaia exstipulata (Griff.. Magnoliophyta: Pentaphylacaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ancistrocladaceae.) Airy Shaw var. tree 681. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. tree 661.) Merr. Aidia auriculata (Wall. Alangium uniloculare (Griff.) King.B. Aeschynanthus wallichii Benn. ebenaceum (C. Alangium nobile (C. Aglaia leptantha Miq. Acriopsis liliifolia (J. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cornaceae.. herb. S. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 687. Magnoliophyta: Cornaceae. Aporosa confusa Gage. =A. tree.) Leenh.G. Amischotolype mollissima Hassk. tree 660. miqueliana Müll. Theob. f. Antiaris toxicaria Lesch. Aglaia simplicifolia (Bedd. climber 684.) Polhill. Aglaia rufinervis (Blume) Bentv. Konig) Retz..... Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. tree 665. Aporosa lucida (Miq. & Thoms. tree 658. Aglaia sexipetala Griff. ex L. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. shrub 669. Aganope heptaphylla (L. tree 670. =A. Antrophyum callifolium Blume. Magnoliophyta: Simaroubaceae.. Alstonia pneumatophora Back. Alangium javanicum (Blume) Wangerin var. climber 650. 689.) Ridsdale. Critically Endangered 643.. Magnoliophyta: Gesneriaceae. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. tree 653. Ampelocissus polystachya (Wall. =A. tree 651. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. cultivated 668. Agelaea macrophylla (Zoll. tree 656. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. climber 666. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae.. cultivated 655. cultivated 685. tree 659. Alseodaphne bancana Miq. Magnoliophyta: Anisophyllaceae.) Pannell. Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae.) Wang. tree 688. epiphyte 686.. Arg. tree 663. tree. tree 672. climber 648. tree. Anisoptera megistocarpa Slooten. epiphyte 644. Magnoliophyta: Cornaceae. Ailanthus integrifolia Lam. tree. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Amomum xanthophlebium Baker. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae.. cultivated 679. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. herb 676. f. =A.

tree Ardisia crenata Sims.) Kurz. 721. tree.) Poir. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. tree Artocarpus lanceifolius Roxb. 713. 708. 724. cultivated Brackenridgea palustris Bartell. 727. epiphyte Bulbophyllum clandestinum Lindl. Sm. tree. 699. climber Artocarpus fulvicortex Jarrett. tree Bouea macrophylla Griff.) Müll. f.. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae. Arg. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.. shrub Ardisia lanceolata Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. shrub Ardisia tuberculata Wall... f. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. 736. 692.G.J. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. epiphyte. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. tree.J. Magnoliophyta: Chrysobalanaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae.. tree Artocarpus nitidus Trec. epiphyte Bulbophyllum gusdorfii J.. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae.) Spreng. 697. Apostasia nuda R. cultivated Artocarpus lowii King. D.) J. tree Bruguiera hainesii C. 730. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. 703. 735. Bulbophyllum flabellum-veneris (J.. cultivated Ardisia miqueliana Scheff. f. tree Breynia discigera Müll. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. tree.. 712. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. 722. =B.) Vierh.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. tree. 698. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. climber Artabotrys maingayi Hook. f. epiphyte. f.) Garay et al. 717. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. griffithii Hook. 201 .. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae... cultivated Baccaurea reticulata Hook. tree.. Rogers. climber Artabotrys crassifolius Hook. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae. griffithii (King) Jarrett.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. climber Archidendron bubalinum (Jack) I. ex A.. 711. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.) Schltr. 731. cultivated Barringtonia macrostachya (Jack) Kurz. 694. f. 716. cultivated Bulbophyllum apodum Hook. 695. C. =B.. shrub Argyreia ridleyi Prain. Nielsen. Konig) Aver. Magnoliophyta: Thymelaeaceae. 726. cultivated Barringtonia racemosa (L. tree. tree. tree Beilschmiedia tonkinensis (Lecomte) Ridl. 720.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 690. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. C. shrub Ardisia villosa Roxb. 710. ssp. f. 728. tree Bridelia pustulata Hook. tree. tree Baccaurea brevipes Hook. & Thoms. Sm. cultivated Arytera littoralis Blume.. cultivated Avicennia marina (Forsk.. f. 725. tree Baccaurea minor Hook.. 719. Arg. 702.. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 732. 718. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. tree. tree Barclaya motleyi Hook. tree Baccaurea hookeri Gage. tree Bruguiera sexangula (Lour. 700. cultivated Atuna racemosa Rafin. f. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. tree. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae. sessile (Koen.. marina. 701. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. 696. shrub Beilschmiedia kunstleri Gamble. =Cirrhopetalum gusdorfii (J. tree Baccaurea macrocarpa (Miq. cultivated Artocarpus hispidus Jarrett. Magnoliophyta: Ochnaceae. herb Aquilaria microcarpa Baill.. ex Trec. Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae.. 723. 691. Sm. var. tree Archidendron globosum (Blume) Nielsen. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. cultivated Baccaurea bracteata Müll.. Baccaurea maingayi Hook. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. Br. 715. tree.J. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.) Müll. tree Arachnis hookeriana (Hook. herb Barringtonia asiatica (L. 707. Arg. tree. & Thoms. johorense (Holttum) Garay et al. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. f. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Arg. 709. 734. tree.. cultivated Barringtonia reticulata (Blume) Miq.. f... Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. 733.. Magnoliophyta: Nymphaeaceae.. 705. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. 729. 704. tree Artocarpus gomezianus Wall. 693. 714. ssp. ex Oostr. 706. tree Baccaurea motleyana (Müll.. Arg.

) Verdc. tree.. Byttneria maingayi Mast. Castanopsis lucida (Nees) Soepadmo. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae. cultivated 777. Calamus laevigatus Mart. cultivated 739.. shrub 781. =Psychotria singapurensis (Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. herb 761. climber 743. f.. Calophyllum inophyllum L.) Baill. tree. Caelospermum truncatum (Wall. Caesalpinia bonduc (L. Cayratia novemfolia (Wall. tree 757.) Harms. ex Wall. Cerbera manghas L. tree. climber 744. Callerya eriantha (Benth. Castanopsis nephelioides King ex Hook. Burmannia championii Thw. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. Don. cultivated 771. Stevens.. Castanopsis megacarpa Gamble. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae.. tree 783. climber 746. herb 750. cultivated 760. Calamus ridleyanus Becc. Bulbophyllum macranthum Lindl.) Lam..... Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. paucijugus (Miq. tree 776. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Castanopsis malaccensis Gamble.. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae.. Chisocheton erythrocarpus Hiern. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Caesalpinia sumatrana Roxb.Turner 775. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. climber 742.. Castanopsis wallichii King ex Hook. Magnoliophyta: Chloranthaceae.. cultivated 753.) Burk. tree. cultivated 762. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. Schum. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. epiphyte. cultivated 773. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae.) A.Chong et al.) Ding Hou.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Chrysophyllum roxburghii G. ex Laws. cultivated 765. climber 745. shrub. Chisocheton patens Blume. wallichianum. Calophyllum wallichianum Planch. tree 759. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. tree 767. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree.. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Calophyllum sundaicum P. tree 202 . Davis. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. 737. tree 770.. shrub 763.. tree 764. Cinnamomum javanicum Blume.. climber 782. tree 755. var.M. Chionanthus ramiflorus Roxb.) Roxb. Calamus insignis Griff. f. tree 779. climber 749. Stevens. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae.) Mabb. Calophyllum macrocarpum Hook. Carex cryptostachys Brongn. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. tree. Calophyllum dispar P. Calophyllum rigidum Miq. Centotheca lappacea (L. Calamus oxleyanus Teijsm & Binnend. tree 747. Casearia lobbiana Turcz. Magnoliophyta: Burmanniaceae.. Chonemorpha fragrans (Moon) Alston. Magnoliophyta: Capparaceae. Calanthe pulchra (Blume) Lindl.. Castanopsis inermis (Lindl. cultivated 768.. Calamus lobbianus Becc. Bulbophyllum membranaceum Teijsm & Binnend. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. cultivated 774. F. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. ex K. tree. f. Cassine viburnifolia (Juss. herb 740. tree 752. Castanopsis schefferiana Hance. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree. Chisocheton pentandrus (Blanco) Merr. tree 769.. climber. tree 754. Capparis micracantha DC. tree 780. tree.. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. climber 772.P. f. & Hook. ssp. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. DC. & Tr... cultivated 756. Chloranthus erectus (Buch. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae. epiphyte 738. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. f. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.F. Canarium grandifolium (Ridl.) Desv. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Chisocheton sarawakanus (C. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.) Benth.) I. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.. Calophyllum soulattri Burm. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. cultivated 758. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae.-Ham. climber 741. Chassalia singapurensis (Ridl. Casearia capitellata Blume. cultivated 766. climber 748. herb.) Schot. tree 778. climber 751.

806. f.. tree Crypteronia griffithii C. 807. 799.J. 829. 800. 830. epiphyte 203 . climber Claderia viridiflora Hook. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. climber Daphniphyllum laurinum (Benth. herb Cystorchis javanica (Blume) Blume. 810. tree Cryptocarya impressa Miq. Cinnamomum sintoc Blume. Clarke. 822. rumphii Miq. 815. Magnoliophyta: Menispermaceae. 826. tree Cryptocoryne griffithii Schott. Magnoliophyta: Crypteroniaceae. 795.. Cyclea laxiflora Miers.... Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 809. tree Daemonorops kunstleri Becc.) A. 785. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 793. 818. climber Cyrtococcum accrescens (Trin. tree Crinum asiaticum L. Clarke.. 823. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae. climber Dalbergia velutina Benth. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae. tree Cycas edentata de Laub... Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.B. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.) Mull. 828. cultivated Cyrtandra pendula Blume.. climber. tree Cleistanthus oblongifolius (Roxb..) Stapf. 802.. 786. Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.. pubescens (Lindl. climber Connarus semidecandrus Jack.) Du Pay & Cribb.. 820. 816. 796. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.. cultivated Cissus rostrata (Miq.. 808. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. epiphyte Cymbidium finlaysonianum Lindl. climber Cymbidium bicolor Lindl.) Becc. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. 832. tree. herb Cynometra ramiflora L. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. climber Dalbergia junghuhnii Benth. =C.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. =C. 814. tree Cryptocarya ferrea Blume.B. cultivated Croton heterocarpus Müll. 821. & Hemp.. climber. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. herb Ctenolophon parvifolius Oliv. climber Cordia dichotoma G. 805. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. climber Daemonorops leptopus (Griff. tree. Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae. 797. cultivated. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. & Binnend. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 831. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. 819. Magnoliophyta: Hypericaceae. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. 788. Cycadophyta: Cycadaceae. Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae. tree Cratoxylum maingayi Dyer. 794. 790. tree. herb Cyrtococcum patens (L.. 801. cultivated Cotylelobium lanceolatum Craib. ssp. herb Dacryodes longifolia (King) Lam. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Ctenolophonaceae. ex Aschers. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Forst. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. 791. 833. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.. cultivated Cordia subcordata Lam.. tree Cryptocarya griffithiana Wight. climber Connarus monocarpus L. climber Connarus grandis Jack.) Kurz Coelostegia griffithii Benth. Magnoliophyta: Boraginaceae.) Planch. 817. tree Dehaasia incrassata (Jack) Kosterm.. herb.. 811. 824. tree Cissus nodosa Blume. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Lam. 827. f. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. climber Daemonorops sabut Becc. tree Combretum tetralophum C. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. Arg.. climber Daemonorops periacantha Miq. climber Connarus ferrugineus Jack. 812.. climber Daemonorops micracantha (Griff. herb Cleistanthus macrophyllus Hook. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. 813. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 784. tree Dendrobium indragiriense Schltr. epiphyte Cymodocea rotundata Ehrenb. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. cultivated Cissus repens Lam. 789. Arg. Magnoliophyta: Gesneriaceae.) Baill. tree Dacryodes rugosa (Blume) H. myrianthus (Hassk. tree.. 787. Magnoliophyta: Boraginaceae. Camus. epiphyte Dendrobium lobbii Teijsm.) Mart. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. Magnoliophyta: Daphniphyllaceae. 825. f. 804. 803. tree Cryptocarya rugulosa Hook. 798. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. tree Cyathocalyx sumatranus Scheff. Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae. tree. Magnoliophyta: Cymodoceaceae. 792.

tree Dysoxylum excelsum Blume. 840. Filicinophyta: Dipteridaceae. tree. f. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae.. 880. 879. epiphyte Dischidia cochleata Blume. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. 873. tree Dipterocarpus tempehes Slooten. 844. Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. 862. 848. Magnoliophyta: Putranjavaceae. 841. climber Diplospora malaccensis Hook.) K. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae..) Pax & K. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Dendrobium revolutum Lindl.. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. Magnoliophyta: Dioscoreaceae.. climber Dialium indum L. tree. 859.. tree. 870. Clarke. epiphyte Dolichandrone spathacea (L.. Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae. climber Diplectria viminalis (Jack) Kuntze. tree Diospyros coriacea Hiern. 883. tree Diospyros venosa Wall. 872. 878.. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.. shrub Drypetes laevis (Miq. 866. 835. Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae. tree Diospyros diepenhorstii Miq. cultivated Diospyros maingayi (Hiern) Bakh. 864. tree Diplectria divaricata (Willd... DC.. climber Dioscorea polyclados Hook. 871..) Kuntze. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. herb Dillenia excelsa (Jack) Gilg. tree Dillenia pulchella (Jack) Gilg. cultivated Dipterocarpus cornutus Dyer. tree. 852. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. penangianus (Foxw. Clarke. Magnoliophyta: Dioscoreaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae.) Rchb. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree Elaeocarpus rugosus Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. 851. Hoffm. 876.) Safford. 839. tree. tree Elaeocarpus acmosepalus Ridl.. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. cultivated Diospyros sumatrana Miq. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 874. tree Dysoxylum flavescens Hiern. 863. 865.. Magnoliophyta: Putranjavaceae. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. epiphyte Dipteris conjugata Reinw. 882.. tree Elaeocarpus macrocerus (Turcz. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. 854. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae..) Ashton. 860.f.. cultivated Dipterocarpus caudatus Foxw. Magnoliophyta: Dioscoreaceae. 849.) Merr.. tree Elettariopsis curtisii Baker. 842. tree Elaeocarpus palembanicus (Miq. cultivated Dipterocarpus palembanicus Slooten. shrub Desmos dumosus (Roxb. tree Dysoxylum densiflorum (Blume) Miq. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. tree Dischidia albida Griff. ex A. Magnoliophyta: Putranjavaceae. 845.. climber Desmos dasymaschala (Blume) Safford. indum. 834. 881. Schum. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. tree Drypetes pendula Ridl. herb Ellipanthus tomentosus Kurz. climber Dioscorea prainiana R. tree Drypetes longifolia (Blume) Pax & Hoffm. tree Dipterocarpus kunstleri King. cultivated Dioscorea glabra Roxb. 853.B. 867.) Bakh. shrub Didymoplexis pallens Griff. 855. tree. 861. epiphyte Dendrobium subulatum (Blume) Lindl. cultivated Diospyros ferrea (Willd. 850. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 877. 857. climber Diospyros clavigera C. 836.B. tree.. Magnoliophyta: Dioscoreaceae.) Benth. 847. climber. f. cultivated Dipterocarpus elongatus Korth.. 838. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. f. 875. Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae. shrub 204 . 869. 858. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree. epiphyte Derris scandens (Roxb. 843. cultivated Dracaena elliptica Thunb.) Corner. ssp. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae.. tree Diospyros confusa Bakh. 884. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Gesneriaceae. tree. climber Dioscorea hispida Dennst. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. var. 846. tree Didymocarpus platypus C. 837. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae... cultivated Dialium platysepalum Baker. Knuth. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. 856. 868. tree Dipodium paludosum (Griff. tree Dillenia reticulata King.. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae.Chong et al.

933.) King. 935. 892. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. var. tree 205 . & Thoms. tree.) Corner. tree. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. forbesii King & Gamble Epipremnum pinnatum (L. stylosa King. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. 891. tree. 898. 886. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. climber Embelia coriacea Wall. cultivated Ficus binnendykii Miq. 926. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae.) Royle. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. tree Ficus sinuata Thunb. Magnoliophyta: Pandaceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.) R. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. epiphyte Ficus subgelderi Corner var. cultivated Garcinia nigrolineata Planch.. tree. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. 931. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. 920. Ellipeia cuneifolia Hook. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Sm. cultivated Ficus dubia Wall. strangler Fimbristylis dura (Zoll.. strangler. 934. cultivated Erycibe griffithii C.. herb. cultivated Ficus bracteata Wall.B.. 924. Anderson. 899. strangler.) Miq. tree. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.. 906.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 885. strangler. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. climber.. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. cultivated Garcinia bancana Miq.. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. strangler Ficus consociata Blume. climber. f. climber Erycibe malaccensis C. Br. 887. 889. 932.. 908. ribesoides King..) Corner. 918. Magnoliophyta: Thymelaeaceae. tree Galeola nudifolia Lour.) Merr. =E. climber. borneensis (Miq. 897. 911. 912. climber Ficus lamponga Miq. 888.. tree. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. 909. strangler. strangler. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. tree Ficus kerkhovenii Valeton. Anderson. cultivated Garcinia forbesii King. rigida (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. ex C. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Clarke. herb Fimbristylis pauciflora R. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.B. 900. climber Etlingera punicea (Roxb. climber Epigynum ridleyi King & Gamble. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. DC. ex Miq. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. ex Miq.. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.. climber Ficus villosa Blume. 930. 890.. epiphyte Ficus pisocarpa Blume. 915. 923. climber Garcinia atroviridis Griff. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. ex King. 922. cultivated Ficus laevis Blume. climber Entada rheedei Spreng. 902.. herb Enkleia malaccensis Griff. epiphyte. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. sundaica. tree Garcinia maingayi Hook. 917. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. climber Ficus virens Aiton. climber Enhalus acoroides (L. cultivated Garcinia rostrata (Hassk. cultivated Ficus crassiramea Miq. Clarke. strangler Ficus recurva Blume var.. strangler Ficus sundaica Blume var. 903. Magnoliophyta: Hydrocharitaceae. cultivated Ficus sagittata Vahl. Magnoliophyta: Simaroubaceae. strangler Ficus trichocarpa Blume. cultivated Eurycoma longifolia Jack. 925. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. 907. 896.M. climber Ficus retusa L. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. cultivated Ficus deltoidea Jack. 901.. cultivated Fagraea auriculata Jack. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. herb Eulophia spectabilis (Dennst. ex Miq. shrub Galearia maingayi Hook.) Engl.. 928.f.. f. climber Ficus scortechinii King. climber Freycinetia angustifolia Blume. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. 927. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. cultivated Ficus xylophylla Wall. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. 914. 913. ex T.. 919. 921. ex T. & Mor. 904. 916. f. Magnoliophyta: Gentianaceae. tree Garcinia nervosa Miq.Clarke... Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. herb Finlaysonia obovata Wall. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. 910. cultivated Ficus glandulifera (Wall. climber Gaertnera viminea Hook.) Suresh. tree Ficus microsyce Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. 905. f. ex A. strangler Ficus obscura Blume var. strangler. 895. 929.. 893. 894. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.B.

f. climber Gonystylus maingayi Hook.S. Magnoliophyta: Hydrocharitaceae.. & Thoms. 964. cultivated. tree. 965.T. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.. tree. zippeliana (Miq.. 949. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. 966. 967. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. herb Hornstedtia leonurus (J. tree Hiptage sericea Hook. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Theaceae. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Br. var. 945. eugeniifolia (A. Magnoliophyta: Malpighiaceae. 936.) Merr. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. var. DC. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. climber Homalium grandiflorum Benth. herb Hedyotis capitellata Wall.. 980. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae.A. 942.. f. cultivated Horsfieldia brachiata (King) Warb. arborescens Blume Gnetum gnemon L. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. tree Gymnacranthera farquhariana (Hook. 977. 940.) Kosterm. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. cultivated Guioa bijuga (Hiern) Radlk. f. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree Heritiera javanica (Blume) Kosterm..) Boerl. tree Gymnacranthera farquhariana (Hook. Gnetophyta: Gnetaceae.. shrub Heritiera borneensis (Merr. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae.) Hook.. ex G.) Warb. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. 968... Magnoliophyta: Thymelaeaceae. climber Gnetum latifolium Blume. & Thoms. shrub Glochidion singaporense Gage. f. f. 969. var. 939. shrub. Glochidion rubrum Blume. 955. tree. 937. var.) Warb.) Warb. f.. tree 206 . shrub Glochidion zeylanicum Blume var. tree.T. Garcinia scortechinii King... peninsularis Holttum. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. climber Gynura procumbens (Lour. cultivated Horsfieldia grandis (Hook. var. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. tree.. 954. 976. 961. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.) Kosterm. & M. 941. climber Gnetum macrostachyum Hook. 948.Chong et al.) Hartog.Schouten. f. Schouten. tree Gordonia penangensis Ridl. 956. cultivated Hornstedtia conica Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. tree Horsfieldia crassifolia (Hook. & Thoms. 957. tree Gymnanthera oblonga (Burm. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. herb Helicia petiolaris Benn. tree Gymnacranthera forbesii (King) Warb. König) Retz. shrub Glochidion sericeum Hook. 975. tree Hopea sangal Korth. cultivated Horsfieldia punctatifolia J. herb Halophila ovalis (R.) Warb. 979. cultivated Gnetum gnemonoides Brongn. Gnetophyta: Gnetaceae. 947.) Warb. herb Glochidion borneense (Müll. 951.. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae. var. & Thoms. gnemon. cultivated Gastrodia javanica (Blume) Lindl. f. Green. Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae. 952.. subcarinata Corner. 978. =G. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Magnoliophyta: Hydrocharitaceae.) Aschers. 958. Gnetophyta: Gnetaceae. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae.) Warb. Br. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae.) R. tree.. 960. herb Gigantochloa ligulata Gamble. hypoleucum (Miq. =G. 972.) Sinclair. 962. tree. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. tree Horsfieldia irya (Gaertn. f. 959. Gnetophyta: Gnetaceae. Magnoliophyta: Hydrocharitaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. f. farquhariana.) Boerl.Gangop. climber Halophila minor (Zoll. 938. Gnetophyta: Gnetaceae.) P.. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. climber Gnetum microcarpum Blume. 950. 943. 963. 974. herb.. tree Gymnacranthera bancana (Miq. arborescens (Blume) Chakrab. 971. tree Hopea griffithii Kurz. tree Gymnacranthera farquhariana (Hook.. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. 944.Don. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. tree Heritiera sumatrana (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae.. 953.A..f.) R... Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. 946. shrub Globba leucantha Miq. tree Gardenia tubifera Wall. Arg. 973.. tree Glochidion lutescens Blume. Sinclair. 970. herb Halophila spinulosa (R.

cultivated 1027. W. ex A. ex Miq. Horsfieldia tomentosa Warb. tree 1005. shrub 1012. & Thoms.) Rehd.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. f. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. & Thoms. tree 1003.. ex Hook. tree. cultivated 1002. tree 999. Korthalsia rigida Blume.f.) Leenh. tree 1021. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. & Thoms. climber 996.. cultivated 1028. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.) Rehd... Lepisanthes senegalensis (Juss.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 981.) A. shrub 1013. Lithocarpus sundaicus (Blume) Rehder. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Leea angulata Korth. tree. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. Hydnophytum formicarum Jack. & Moritzi. Magnoliophyta: Opiliaceae. Lithocarpus bennettii (Miq. herb 987..) Woodson. Knema globularia (Lam. f. cultivated 1006. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Knema furfuracea (Hook. Litsea cordata Hook. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. malaccensis. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. f. de Wilde. epiphyte 986. Knema patentinervia (J. epiphyte.J.) Warb. tree 989. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. ex Poir. cultivated 1020. Magnoliophyta: Icacinaceae. f. cultivated 1014. cultivated 1022. Kokoona reflexa (Laws.. cultivated 991. tree. Kibara coriacea (Blume) Tulasne. ssp. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae.. tree. cultivated 990.f. Magnoliophyta: Monimiaceae. climber 1009. tree 1016. tree 1019. shrub 1017.. tree. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. tree 207 . Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Justicia vasculosa Wall. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. Jackiopsis ornata (Wall.. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Kopsia singapurensis Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Schisandraceae. climber 1007. cultivated 1023. tree. Lithocarpus hystrix (Korth. Kadsura scandens Blume. Hylophila mollis Lindl.. Intsia palembanica Miq. tree.. Iodes cirrhosa Turcz.) Rehd. Lasianthus cyanocarpus Jack. Intsia bijuga (Colebr. tree 1004.) Druce. cultivated 993. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. cultivated 982. tree 1001. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Lithocarpus encleisocarpus (Korth. tree. tree. Korthalsia flagellaris Miq. cultivated 1024. cultivated 988. Sinclair) W.) Warb. tree. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Lasianthus scabridus King & Gamble.) Hook. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae.) Rehder. Lijndenia laurina Zoll. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. climber 1008. cultivated 1018. climber 992. Horsfieldia wallichii (Hook. tree 994. Kibatalia maingayi (Hook. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. ex Hance) Rehder. tree 983. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. f.) Warb. Hoya diversifolia Blume. Lithocarpus conocarpus (Oudem. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. Lithocarpus wallichianus (Lindl. Irvingia malayana Oliv. Korthalsia echinometra Becc. Lithocarpus elegans (Blume) Hatus. & Thoms. Lasianthus ellipticus Wight.) Kuntze. Horsfieldia superba (Hook. Lecanorchis malaccensis Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.) Ding Hou.) Warb. f. Liparis ferruginea Lindl. epiphyte. tree. Magnoliophyta: Irvingiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. shrub 1010.. Lasianthus griffithii Wight. shrub 998. Lithocarpus cantleyanus (King ex Hook.. Lasianthus tomentosus Blume.) Ridsdale. tree 984.. ex Soepadmo.) Warb. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. Camus. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Knema hookeriana (Wall. cultivated 985. shrub 1011. Benn. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. herb 995. shrub. Lepionurus sylvestris Blume.. tree 1000.. Knema cinerea (Poir. Kandelia candel (L. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. tree 1026. ex Mart. tree. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae.) Kiew var.. Iguanura wallichiana (Wall.) Warb. shrub 997. Indigofera zollingeriana Miq. herb 1015.. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. malaccensis (Becc.. Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae. tree 1025.

Mastixia trichotoma Blume var. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Keng. Litsea myristicifolia (Wall. Litsea costalis (Blume) Kosterm. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. ex Nees) Hook. cultivated 1036.B.. tree 1060. Magnoliophyta: Nyssaceae. Memecylon oleifolium Blume. tree 1055. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae. Memecylon floridum Ridl. Clarke) King. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae... Merope angulata (Willd. Litsea erectinervia Kosterm. Memecylon paniculatum Jack. Memecylon corticosum Ridl.B.) H. tree 1034. Litsea robusta Blume. tree 1035. Mangifera magnifica Kochummen.. Macrolenes echinulata (Naudin) Bakh. cultivated 1062. Memecylon amplexicaule Roxb. Keng. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. cultivated 1049. tree. Hartley. tree 1068. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Litsea machilifolia Gamble. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Presl) Holttum. Memecylon minutiflorum Miq. Litsea costata (Blume) Boerl. ex B.) Walp. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliaceae. Memecylon fruticosum King. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae.J. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. Mastixia pentandra Blume ssp. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Magnolia villosa (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliaceae. tree 1042.M. Mangifera caesia Jack.. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.. Meliosma lanceolata Blume. Arg.) Benth. tree 1037.) Swingle.. Lam. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. tree 1058.. cultivated 1030. tree. Lam. tree 1032. shrub 1076. Luvunga crassifolia Tanaka. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. maingayi (C. tree 1064. shrub. tree 1057. tree 1046. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Clarke) Danser. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae.G. Macbr.. tree. Memecylon dichotomum (C.. tree 1052.. Memecylon excelsum Blume. herb 1054. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae.. Mesua elegans (King) Kosterm.. tree 1051. tree 1041. Magnolia elegans (Blume) H. tree 1072. climber 1040. Clarke. shrub 1071. tree 1045. cultivated 1050.. Madhuca malaccensis (C. Mangifera lagenifera Griff. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. shrub 1066. tree 1031. tree 1033.. scortechinii (King) K. f. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. epiphyte 1070. tree 1048. Memecylon cantleyi Ridl. climber 1038. cultivated 1065.. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. cultivated 1074. Magnoliophyta: Sabiaceae. tree 1069. Memecylon lilacinum Z. Madhuca sericea (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. tree 1075. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Lophopetalum beccarianum Pierre. tree 1077. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. tree.B. Litsea lancifolia (Roxb. Clarke. tree 1044. tree. Macaranga hullettii King ex Hook. shrub 1061. Memecylon garcinioides Blume. tree 1073. & Hook. tree 1047. tree 1056. Memecylon caeruleum Jack. Filicinophyta: Lomariopsidaceae. Jacks. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Mapania enodis (Miq.. Mallotus penangensis Müll. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae.D.F. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae.Chong et al. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Meliosma simplicifolia (Roxb. Meiogyne virgata (Blume) Miq. 1029..B. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. ssp. Memecylon campanulatum C. Clarke) H. Macaranga recurvata Gage. cultivated 1059. tree. Mezzettia parviflora Becc. tree 208 . Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. tree 1039.) C.) T. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Melicope hookeri T. f. f. Magnoliophyta: Nyssaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sabiaceae. climber 1043. Matthew. tree.J. tree. Madhuca motleyana (de Vriese) J. Hartley.G. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Litsea ferruginea Blume. tree 1067. herb 1053. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae.) H. fruticosa (Blume) Beus. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Melicope lunu-ankenda (Gaertn. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae..B.. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. cultivated 1063. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. f. Mapania bancana (Miq. & M..) Hook. Lomariopsis lineata (C.

tree 1095.) H.) Blume. Pandanus parvus Ridl. cultivated 1102. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae. Hoffm. tree 1086.. tree 1090. Orania sylvicola (Griff.. Magnoliophyta: Chrysobalanaceae. tree 1085. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. 1079. Nauclea officinalis (Pierre ex Pitard) Merr..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1078. tree. Magnoliophyta: Loganiaceae. climber 1082. Clarke) Maxw. tree 1091... f. tree. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae. tree 1120. Palaquium gutta (Hook. tree 1121. Myristica lowiana King. tetrodon Ridl. Nothocissus spicifera (Griff. Paracroton pendulus (Hassk. tree 1125. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae. climber 1117. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. var. climber 1100. Palaquium microphyllum King & Gamble. Wendl. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae.. tree 1080. tree. cultivated 1098. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. Parameria polyneura Hook. Palaquium rostratum (Miq. Pachycentria maingayi (C. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae.E. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. Parsonsia alboflavescens (Dennst. tree 1088. Pandanus yvanii Solms.) Pierre. cultivated 1108. cultivated 1094. Neuropeltis racemosa Wall. Payena obscura Burck. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Pachycentria constricta (Blume) Blume. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Myristica iners Blume. climber 1116. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. herb. cultivated 1112. cultivated 1096. climber 1118. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Clarke. Forst. tree 1122. shrub 1114. Pandanus houlletii Carriere. Payena lucida (G. cultivated 1092. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. =Ichnocarpus serpyllifolius (Blume) P. Norrisia maior Solered. cultivated 1081.. f. 1113. Morinda ridleyi (King & Gamble) Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae.) Moldenke. tree 1107. tree. Parartocarpus bracteatus (King) Becc. Paranephelium macrophyllum King.) Craib var. =P. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Nephelium costatum Hiern. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. Pinophyta: Podocarpaceae.f. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. tree 1089.) Baill. tree. Presl) Kuntze.. Forster. Parinari costata (Korth..I. herb. Pandanus singaporensis Kaneh. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Myristica cinnamomea King. Nephelaphyllum pulchrum Blume. epiphyte 1101. tree 1115. Moore. climber. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) Latiff. tree 1103.B.. Neuwiedia veratrifolia Blume.. tree.B. & Chun. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. tree. Neoscortechinia kingii (Hook. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. tree 1099. cultivated 1106. ridleyi (Burkill) Swingle. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae.) Baill. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Hypoxidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. cultivated 1124. Parinari oblongifolia Hook.. Myrialepis paradoxa (Kurz) Dransfield.) Mabb.. herb. Molineria capitulata (Lour. Don) DC.. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae.) Pax & K. Magnoliophyta: Chrysobalanaceae.. Micrechites serpyllifolius (Blume) P. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae.) Miq. Nephelium lappaceum L. Ormosia macrodisca Baker. climber 1123.. Palaquium hexandrum (Griff. Juss. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. cultivated 1109. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Myristica crassa King. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. tree 1084. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.) Burck. Microcos hirsutus (Korth. f.) Burret. epiphyte 1105. tree 209 . epiphyte 1104. tree 1119. shrub. cultivated 1087.. Ophioglossum pendulum L. Nenga pumila (Mart. tree 1093. tree.. shrub 1111. Myristica maingayi Hook. Filicinophyta: Ophioglossaceae. Paramignya scandens (Griff. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.I.. Nageia wallichiana (C. tree 1110. Payena maingayi C. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. pachystachya (Blume) Fernando. climber 1083. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. climber 1097. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. Parameria laevigata (A. Palaquium xanthochymum (de Vr.) H. Myristica maxima Warb. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.L. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.) Herb. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.

Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. ex Endl. shrub 1161. & G. Heyne. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. tree 1154. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. f.. Magnoliophyta: Rosaceae. Phaius tancarvilliae (Banks ex L'Hér... tree 1172. Berol. & T. cultivated 1132. Clark.) Nayar. shrub 1137. Piper pedicellosum Wall. Pomatocalpa diffusum Breda. tree 1143. DC. ssp. epiphyte 1141.. cultivated 1131.. climber.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. herb 1130.. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. tree 1145.) T. Pogonanthera pulverulenta (Jack) Blume. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Ptychopyxis costata Miq. tree 1168. Pouteria linggensis (Burck) Baehni. herb 1151. shrub 1163. Psychotria griffithii Hook. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. Pteroceras pallidum (Blume) Holtt. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae.. tree 1170.Chong et al. tree 1142. herb 1139. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Ptychopyxis caput-medusae (Hook.. & Thoms. climber 1134. shrub 1159. Pseudoclausena chrysogyne (Miq..) Planch. Polyalthia lateriflora (Blume) Kurz. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. cultivated 1128. tree.) Hook. Psydrax maingayi (Hook. tree 1165. climber 1136. Polyalthia rumphii Merr. cultivated 1146. DC. Polyalthia hookeriana King. climber 1133. Pterocymbium tubulatum (Mast. tree. Pterospermum lancifolium Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.P. Pemphis acidula J.Sm. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. herb 1135. climber 1167.. shrub 1156. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae. tree 1152. epiphyte.) J. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Piper macropiper Pennant. Phoebe grandis (Nees) Merr. climber 1160.) Kalkman var. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Pterisanthes eriopoda (Miq. Portulaca pilosa L..) J. tree.. tree 1148. Polyalthia jenkensii (H.. cultivated 1166. f. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. f. Polyalthia hypoleuca Hook.) Kurz. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. climber 1162. tree 1174.. tree 210 . tree. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.. Plocoglottis gigantea (Hook. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.. ex C. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Forst. Prunus arborea (Blume) Kalkman. tree. Polyalthia sumatrana (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.f. cultivated 1171. Psychotria cantleyi Ridl..R.) Laws.. tree 1153. f. Persea declinata (Blume) Kosterm.. & Valeton) Kalkman. Pternandra tuberculata (Korth. Piper flavimarginatum C. Polyalthia sclerophylla Hook. Phyllanthus emblica L. tomentosa (Koord.) Ridl. 1150. cultivated 1140. tree. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. f. oblanceolata Airy Shaw. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Prunus grisea (Blume ex Müll. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. shrub 1158.. cultivated 1147.. Magnoliophyta: Portulacaceae. Pterisanthes polita (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae.) Blume. climber. Piper muricatum Blume. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae. pilosa. Quercus argentata Korth. f. Magnoliophyta: Rosaceae. Psychotria helferiana Kurz. Peltophorum pterocarpum (DC. tree 1144.. latifolia (Lindl. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. & Thoms. Psychotria rostrata Blume.. herb 1138. tree 1173. tree 1155.J. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae.J.Br. Piper protractum C. Sm. f. Pterospermum javanicum Jungh. herb 1169. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. tree. tree.. var. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. & Thoms. cultivated 1129. Magnoliophyta: Polyosmaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. =P. DC. Psychotria angulata Korth. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Psychotria maingayi Hook. Plocoglottis javanica Blume. obovata Wall. Psychotria malayana Jack. cultivated 1127. Pinophyta: Podocarpaceae. Psychotria sarmentosa Blume.) Pierre. 1164. climber 1157.) Bridson. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Polyosma kingiana Schltr. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. shrub. 1126. =P. Podocarpus polystachyus R.) Backer ex K. Psychotria ridleyi King & Gamble. tree 1149.

R. Sauropus bacciformis (L. cultivated 1218. =Lucinaea membranacea King 1196. f.. Magnoliophyta: Achariaceae. Wong. Magnoliophyta: Santalaceae. tree. cultivated 1208. tree. Scaphium linearicarpum (Mast. Saprosma glomerulatum King & Gamble. ssp. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. Santiria conferta Benn. f. Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae. tree.. herb 1216.... Serianthes grandiflora Benth. Salacia grandiflora Kurz.) Sleum.) Jongkind. Rhaphidophora sylvestris (Blume) Engl.) Gagnep. climber 1184.) Pierre. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) Engl. Staurogyne kingiana C. shrub 1191.. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.) Kuntze. climber 1200.. Sindora coriacea Maingay ex Prain. acuminata (Steen.. Lycophyta: Selaginellaceae. Heim.. herb 1194. tree 1207. ex Hook. Shorea platycarpa F. herb 1197. Sonneratia ovata Back.) Mabb. Salacia viminea Wall.. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae. Magnoliophyta: Violaceae. cultivated 1217. Shorea ochrophloia Strugnell ex Symington. Shorea bracteolata Dyer. ex K. Rhopaloblaste singaporensis (Becc. tree. Spatholobus ridleyi King. ex Kurz) Dyer.. Magnoliophyta: Oxalidaceae. Selliguea heterocarpa Blume.. tree 1187.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1175. tree 1198. Magnoliophyta: Stemonuraceae. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae.. Stemonurus scorpioides Becc. Ryparosa scortechinii King. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Sarcotheca laxa (Ridl. climber 1220. Buchner & Greimler. Shorea gratissima (Wall. cultivated 1205. Stemonurus malaccensis (Mast. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Salacia korthalsiana Miq. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Staurogyne setigera (Nees) Kuntze... Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae. Rinorea anguifera (Lour.. climber 1185. herb 1221. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. herb 1222. climber 1213. climber 1177. tree 211 . tree. cultivated 1179... Magnoliophyta: Loranthaceae. Selaginella argentea (Wall. Scaphochlamys tenuis Holttum. tree. cultivated 1210. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. cultivated 1209. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. climber 1180.. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. tree 1223. Magnoliophyta: Oxalidaceae.) Spring. climber 1214. f. Sloanea javanica Szysz. tree. Shorea ovalis Blume ssp. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae. Br. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. climber 1186. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. shrub 1189. herb 1192. Schradera membranacea (King) Puff. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. shrub. Secamone elliptica R. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 1219. Radermachera pinnata (Blanco) Seem. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae. epiphyte 1202.) Hall. Smythea lanceata Summerh. Scleropyrum pentandrum (Dennst. Rourea asplenifolia (Schellenb. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae.) Airy Shaw. cultivated 1178. tree 1206.) Steen.B. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. tree 1176. Soejatmia ridleyi (Gamble) K.) Veldk.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. cultivated 1211.) Kunth var. herb 1215. cultivated 1204.. ex Laws. Sonneratia caseolaris (L. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. & Hook. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.Schum. Shorea gibbosa Brandis. epiphyte 1199. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Schefflera hullettii (King) Viguier. Sophora tomentosa L. tree 1212. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Salacia exsculpta Korth.) Leenh. cultivated 1182. sericea (Ridl.. climber. climber 1183. tree 1190. Sandoricum beccarianum Baill. Clarke. Scurrula parasitica L. climber 1181.) Benth. Magnoliophyta: Rhamnaceae. tree 1188..M.. herb 1201. tree 1193. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Schumannianthus dichotomus (Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Stemonuraceae. ovalis. tree 1203. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae. Sindora wallichii Benth. Rourea minor (Gaertn. tree. epiphyte 1195. Sonerila heterostemon Naudin.. Sonerila moluccana Roxb. tree. tree. Sarcotheca griffithii (Planch.

Tarenna stellulata (Hook. Filicinophyta: Lomariopsidaceae. cultivated 1238. Styrax benzoin Dryand. Taeniophyllum pusillum (Willd.B. climber 1266. var. Tarenna adpressa (King) Merr. obtusum Blume 1258. Syzygium pustulatum (Duthie) Merr. Cowan & Cowan var. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. herb 1237. climber 1233. ex A. Taxillus chinensis (DC. Parn. shrub. Syzygium pachyphyllum (Kurz) Merr. shrub 1261. Syzygium chloranthum (Duthie) Merr.) Seidenf. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. tree 1227. shrub 1259. tree 1236. Magnoliophyta: Cymodoceaceae. tree 1265. cultivated 1252. climber 1225.M. Syzygium singaporense (King) Airy Shaw. =S. tree. tree 1245. Clarke. Bonap. Turner.. & Ormerod. Suregada multiflora (A. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.) Wall. Turner 1242. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree 1239. rugosum. cultivated 1228.. Syzygium pseudoformosum (King) Merr. Teratophyllum ludens (Fee) Holttum. Teijsmanniodendron coriaceum (C. Syzygium rugosum Korth. tree. cultivated 1226. Syzygium maingayi Chantaran. bernardii (King) I. cultivated 1235. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Syzygium linocieroideum (King) I. Filicinophyta: Lomariopsidaceae. Moore. & J.. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Magnoliophyta: Dioscoreaceae. Symplocos cochinchinensis (Lour.) B. shrub 1263.. Syzygium claviflorum (Roxb. Syringodium isoetifolium (Aschers.M. tree. ex Duthie) I. Filicinophyta: Lomariopsidaceae..) Holttum. & L.) S. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. epiphyte. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. subdecussatum. f. Sterculia parvifolia Roxb. inophyllum DC. Syzygium papillosum (Duthie) Merr. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. ex Hook. Magnoliophyta: Symplocaceae. Perry. climber 1267.-Ham. Sterculia gilva Miq. Tarenna costata (Miq.f.M.Chong et al.L.M. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae..) Kurz. Magnoliophyta: Loganiaceae.M. & J. tree 1248. tree. Perry. tree 1251. tree 1260.. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. tree 1244.M. Magnoliophyta: Styracaceae..) Chatterjee 1230. var. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Sterculia cordata Blume. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Syzygium pendens (Duthie) I. Strychnos maingayi C. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.M. Strobilanthes palawanensis Elm. tree 1243.. tree 1249. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.M. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Sterculia macrophylla Vent.) Dandy. herb.. cultivated 1257. tree. Teratophyllum aculeatum (Blume) Mett. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. & L. personatum (Hassk.. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. var.. oblatum. tree 1255. epiphyte 1264. Clarke) Kosterm. tree 1247.) Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. ex Dillwyn) Mabb. Syzygium inophyllum DC. tree 1240. Syzygium duthieanum (King) Masam. Perry. Tacca leontopetaloides (L. Strophanthus caudatus (L.. tree 1246. tree. Syzygium pyrifolium (Blume) DC. Robinson.. ex A. Stereospermum colais (Buch.. benzoin.) Kuntze. tree 1256. Syzygium cinereum (Kurz) Chantaran. Turner. herb 1231.) Baill. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. shrub.. Syzygium pycnanthum Merr. & L. Teratophyllum rotundifoliatum (R. tree 1234.M. & L. B. Juss. Turner var. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. =T. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Syzygium oblatum (Roxb. Syzygium subdecussatum (Wall. tree 1253. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.) B. tree. Syzygium muelleri (Miq. cultivated 1262. climber 212 .. climber 1232.M. claviflorum.) Danser. Robinson. Stephania capitata (Blume) Spreng.Cowan & Cowan var. Tarenna odorata (Roxb. Perry. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.L. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. 1224. Parn.) Merr.M. tree 1254.) Wall. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Magnoliophyta: Menispermaceae. Perry. cultivated 1229. tree 1250. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. & L. =S.) Miq. Magnoliophyta: Loranthaceae. tree 1241. Tarenna mollis (Wall. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.

Xanthophyllum amoenum Chodat. f. compressicaulis (Miq.. Vitex negundo L. tree 1273. Trigonostemon heteranthus Baill.E. ex Hook. climber Endangered 1313. climber 1290. glabrata (Blume) Ridsdale. cultivated 1286.. f. Waterh. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.. tree 1295. f. tree 1306. ex Hook. Actinodaphne malaccensis Hook. Tetrastigma lawsoni (King) Burk. & Thoms.f. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. f.) Merr. epiphyte 1278.. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae.. Ternstroemia corneri H. Xylocarpus rumphii (Kostel. Ziziphus elegans Wall. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Terminalia belliricia (Gaertn. epiphyte 1277. Xerospermum laevigatum Radlk. tree.. shrub 1282. Wrightia laevis Hook.) Ridsdale. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Uncaria longiflora (Poir. tree. & Thoms. f. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.. Terminalia subspathulata King.. 1284. 1279. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Vatica pauciflora Blume. tree 1310. climber 1275. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. herb 1276. Thrixspermum amplexicaule (Blume) Rchb. cultivated 1305.) Roxb. Vitex vestita Wall. tree 1272. climber 1274. tree 1303. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Trigonostemon villosus Hook. Terminalia phellocarpa King. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Wilson & J. tree 1296. climber 1294. climber 1302. Thrixspermum trichoglottis (Hook. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.) Mabb. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Trevesia burckii Boerl. tree 1308. shrub 1292. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Pentaphylacaceae. Magnoliophyta: Polygalaceae. Uncaria lanosa Wall... climber 1291. tree. f. Xylopia magna Maing. Magnoliophyta: Polygalaceae. cultivated 1299. Timonius finlaysonianus (Wall. tree 1298. shrub 1285. =T. f. Zeuxine gracilis (Breda) Blume. Magnoliophyta: Hydrocharitaceae. climber 1289. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Thalassia hemprichii (Ehrenb. var. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Staphyleaceae. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae.. tree 1280. tree.. Xylopia fusca Maing. Urophyllum blumeanum (Wight) Hook. shrub.T..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1268. shrub. Tylophora indica (Burm. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Pentaphylacaceae. Tetrastigma curtisii (Ridl. tree 1287. f.f.... climber 1281. Vatica maingayi Dyer.) Seusseng.) Boerl. Tinospora macrocarpa Diels. =T. Timonius flavescens (Jack) Baker. f. climber 1288. Uvaria leptopoda (King) R. Vatica ridleyana Brandis. Willughbeia flavescens Dyer ex Hook. pteropoda (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree 1297. & Thoms. cultivated 1269. var.) Asch. tree 1304. Xerospermum noronhianum (Blume) Blume.. Fries.. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Vitex gamosepala Griff. Ternstroemia penangiana Choisy. tree.. Uvaria pauci-ovulata Hook. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rhamnaceae. Keng. Xanthophyllum ellipticum Korth. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. tree 1307.. Br. Don) Hook.. ex G.) Merr. shrub. tree 1309. f. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. longifolius Baill.) Kuntze.. tree 1283. herb 1312. tree 1300. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Urceola elastica Roxb. Tristaniopsis obovata (R. cultivated 1271. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Trigonopleura malayana Hook. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Willughbeia tenuiflora Dyer ex Hook. Magnoliophyta: Menispermaceae. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. tree 213 .) Peter G. ex Schau.. climber 1301.. Zeuxine clandestina Blume. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. climber 1293. herb 1311.. f. f.. cultivated 1270. Turpinia sphaerocarpa Hassk.

Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. B. var. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. tree 1323. Antidesma neurocarpum Miq. tree. cultivated 1342. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.) Müll... Calophyllum rufigemmatum Hend. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Brownlowia tersa (L. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Stevens. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae. Filicinophyta: Aspleniaceae. tree 1346. kunstleri King ex Gage 1341. tree 1355. Antidesma velutinosum Blume. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae..) Nicolson. tree 1329. Canarium pilosum Benn. shrub 1360. Bruguiera parviflora (Roxb.) Blanco. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. f. F. tree 1353. Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae. Bolbitis heteroclita (C. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae.) Gagnep. Magnoliophyta: Araceae.) A. tree 1343..) W.) Juss. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. climber 1338. & A. Magnoliophyta: Ochnaceae. austrocoriaceum (T. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Filicinophyta: Lomariopsidaceae. climber 1322. tree. Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae. cultivated 1362..) Planch. tree 1336. tree.. epiphyte. f. Artocarpus anisophyllus Miq. tree. cultivated 1330.) Rchb. Artabotrys suaveolens (Blume) Blume. climber 1319. cultivated 1361.) Iwatsuki. cultivated 1324. Gray. tree 1358. Amydrium medium (Z.) Holttum. & Wyatt-Smith. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae.) Parker. Artabotrys wrayi King.. tree. Ampelocissus elegans (Kurz) Gegnep. Aegiceras corniculatum (L.. shrub 1331. cultivated 1335.) Müll. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Artocarpus kemando Miq. Aporosa nigricans Hook.. Ardisia elliptica Thunb. Beilschmiedia madang Blume.. C.) Merr. Aporosa microstachya (Tul. 1314. Carallia brachiata (Lour. tree. Calophyllum rubiginosum Hend. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. tree. cultivated 1334. Filicinophyta: Lomariopsidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Canthium confertum Korth.. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Filicinophyta: Aspleniaceae. Bolbitis appendiculata (Willd. Aspidopterys concava (Wall. Breynia coronata Hook. tree 1326. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. tree 1347. shrub 1352. Aporosa subcaudata Merr. tree 1354. & Wyatt-Smith. epiphyte 214 . Archidendron microcarpum (Benth. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Presl) Ching. cultivated 1350. Baccaurea racemosa (Reinw. 1328. Artocarpus dadah Miq. climber 1321..) Nielsen. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. epiphyte 1339.. climber 1332... tree 1317. bracteosa Pax & K. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. Hoffm. Magnoliophyta: Malpighiaceae. cultivated. tree 1359.. =A. Callicarpa longifolia Lamk. cultivated 1318. Cephalomanes javanicum (Blume) Bosch... Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. tree. Filicinophyta: Adiantaceae. Aphanamixis polystachya (Wall. Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae.. Albizia splendens Miq.. Asplenium phyllitidis D. shrub 1348. cultivated 1325. Calophyllum lanigerum Miq. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae.. Actinodaphne pruinosa Nees. & M. Brackenridgea hookeri (Planch. Arg. f. tree 1349. Ampelocissus gracilis (Wall. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. tree.) Kosterm.. Ardisia teysmanniana Scheff. Cayratia mollissima (Wall. Asplenium batuense Alderw. climber 1320.. climber. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.. Don. Canthium glabrum Blume. climber 1351. Amphineuron opulentum (Kaulf. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Arg. climber 1333. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. =B. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. tree. cultivated 1340. ex Griff. tree 1357. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Baccaurea polyneura Hook. tree 1315. Baccaurea kunstleri King ex Gage. herb 1316. hookeri Gage. Calamus diepenhorstii Miq.. tree 1327. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. climber 1345. tree 1356. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae.. Adiantum flabellulatum L. Canarium patentinervium Miq. Bulbophyllum vaginatum (Lindl. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Canthium horridum Blume. f. tree. Whitmore) P. climber 1344. climber 1337.Chong et al.

Filicinophyta: Woodsiaceae.) Merr. Filicinophyta: Woodsiaceae. & Grev. cultivated 1368. cultivated 1396. cultivated 1407. Magnoliophyta: Theaceae. roxburghiana Arn.. climber 1367. f. climber 1397.. cultivated 1401. Ceriops zippeliana Blume. tree 1374.) Mez. =C. Coscinium fenestratum (Gaertn. Diplazium prescottianum (Wall.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Daemonorops geniculata (Griff. tree. cultivated 1392. Guettarda speciosa L. Magnoliophyta: Cannabaceae. Filicinophyta: Woodsiaceae. cultivated 1405.W. f. ex C. Filicinophyta: Davalliaceae. shrub. tree 1402. Filicinophyta: Cyatheaceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Presl.J. tree. shrub. Dillenia grandifolia Wall. ex Hook. herb. cultivated 215 . Garcinia hombroniana Pierre. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae.) Ding Hou.) Fosberg. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. ex Miq.. Magnoliophyta: Cannabaceae. ex Hook.. herb 1386.) Mart. Johnst. Magnoliophyta: Hypericaceae. Elaeocarpus floribundus Blume. cultivated 1394. climber 1393. var. Cephalomanes obscurum (Blume) K. tree.) Griff. Gonocaryum gracile Miq. herb 1383. grandis (Miq. climber 1376. 1365. Ficus vasculosa Wall. cultivated 1395. Magnoliophyta: Hypericaceae. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Diplazium cordifolium Blume.) Bakh. Diplazium polypodiodes Blume. shrub 1406..) Colebr. & Schltdl. Garcinia griffithii T. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Gmelina elliptica Sm. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Chassalia curviflora (Wall. Magnoliophyta: Thymelaeaceae. tree. Schum. tree 1408. Croton oblongus Burm. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae.) Lam. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.) Blume.Forst) Bosch.. Durio griffithii (Mast. climber 1375. tree 1389. Fagraea racemosa Jack ex Wall. tree. cultivated. cultivated.. 1388..) Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae. Embelia canescens Jack. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. epiphyte 1378. tree. Cratoxylum formosum (Jack) Dyer.M. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Filicinophyta: Woodsiaceae. shrub. Gordonia multinervis King. Fissistigma lanuginosum (Hook. Diospyros argentea Griff. Donax canniformis (G. Dacryodes laxa (Benn. Anderson. tree. Geophila repens (L. f. epiphyte 1377. ex Mart. cultivated 1398. herb 1385. Dacryodes costata (A.. Magnoliophyta: Cardiopteridaceae. Filicinophyta: Davalliaceae. Diplazium riparium Holttum.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1363. Ficus globosa Blume.. Magnoliophyta: Menispermaceae. Gironniera subaequalis Planch. asiatica (Cham. climber. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Gaertnera obesa Hook.... Ficus apiocarpa Miq. Gonystylus confusus Airy Shaw. tree. Cratoxylum cochinchinense (Lour. Davallia pectinata Sm. Lam.) K. & Thoms. cultivated 1369. Davallia angustata Wall. Benn.. epiphyte 1370.. Diplazium sorzogonense C.. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. shrub 1366. f. & Thoms. decandra (Griff. climber 1410. herb 1382. cultivated 1380. herb 1364.) I.) T. tree 1409. Magnoliophyta: Theaceae. Diplazium malaccense C. tree 1372. Magnoliophyta: Gentianaceae. ex Ridl. herb 1381. tree. cultivated 1399. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.. Cyathea squamulata (Blume) Copel. ex Hook. tree 1403. Filicinophyta: Woodsiaceae. Ficus superba Miq. Gordonia singaporiana Wall. shrub.) Thw. tree. herb 1384. cultivated 1400. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. climber 1391. tree 1373. climber 1387. Clarke. Daemonorops grandis (Giff. shrub. cultivated 1390. laevifolius Blume 1371.. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Presl. Moore. =D. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Iwatsuki.) H. tree.. cultivated 1379. cultivated 1404. Forst. =C. Gironniera parvifolia Planch. C. Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae. tree. Crepidomanes humile (G.. strangler.. Grenacheria lampani (Scheff.. Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae.B. Filicinophyta: Woodsiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Glochidion littorale Blume. Dissochaeta pallida (Jack) Blume. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.

. Chr. Hoya latifolia G. tree 1457. epiphyte.. Knema laurina (Blume) Warb. tree. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae. Homalomena humilis (Jack) Hook. Filicinophyta: Dryopteridaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae.) Rehd. Magnoliophyta: Icacinaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Lumnitzera racemosa Willd. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. ex Schott. ridleyi (Gandoger) de Willde. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Knema intermedia (Blume) Warb.. cultivated 1415.Chong et al. pendula. tree. cultivated 1436. cultivated 1459. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. tree. Lumnitzera littorea (Jack) Voigt. cultivated 1433. Lycophyta: Lypopodiaceae.. Hopea mengarawan Miq. Litsea ridleyi Gamble. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Koompassia malaccensis Maingay ex Benth.. tree 1437. & Zoll. tree. paludosa J. tree 1439. Ilex maingayi Hook. cultivated 1413. Korthalsia rostrata Blume. shrub 1445. herb 1420.J. tree. f. tree 1438. climber 1434..f. Homalomena rostrata Griff. Lithocarpus ewyckii (Korth. tree. Sinclair. cultivated 1441. cultivated 1456. Horsfieldia sucosa (King) Warb. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. epiphyte 1425. Magnoliophyta: Araceae.. cultivated 1460. Lithocarpus lucidus (Roxb. cultivated 1452..Arg. Lindsaea cultrata (Willd. Linostoma pauciflorum Griff. herb 1419. Huperzia phlegmaria (L.J. Knema conferta (King) Warb.. Lasianthus constrictus Wight. Ixora lobbii King & Gamble. f. Iodes ovalis Blume.. tree..) Müll.) Kosterm. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. herb 1417. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. Knema curtisii (King) Warb. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae.. herb 1416. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. =Paragramma longifolia T. climber 1449. Lepisorus longifolius (Blume) Holttum. herb 1412. cultivated 1454. tree. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. Limacia oblonga Hook. Kramer. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.. Presl) C. tree 216 . Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae.. Homalomena pendula (Blume) Bakh. Knema malayana Warb. Knema communis J. tree 1458.) Holttum.. var.. climber 1448. Magnoliophyta: Menispermaceae. Ixora pendula Jack var. shrub 1432. Hymenophyllum acanthoides (Bosch) Rosenst. cultivated 1414. f.) Sw. Moore 1446. tree. Lophopetalum multinervium Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. epiphyte 1426.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree. f.. climber 1450. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Heritiera simplicifolia (Mast..) Rothm. Kunstleria ridleyi Prain. Heritiera elata Ridl. cultivated 1422. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. tree 1435. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. Bergius) Willd. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. Jasminum elongatum (P.U. Litsea grandis Hook.) Rehd. tree. Halophila beccarii Aschers. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. tree 1430. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. epiphyte 1429. Hymenophyllum serrulatum (C.. Hoya lacunosa Blume. climber 1451. epiphyte 1428. tree.. & Thoms. climber 1443. cultivated 1447. Litsea castanea Hook.. Hymenophyllum holochilum (Bosch) C. cultivated 1421. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. cultivated 1455.. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. ssp. tree. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Chr. Knema latericia Elm. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. herb 1418. f. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Lam. epiphyte 1427. cultivated 1440. Madhuca kingiana (Brace ex King & Gamble) H. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Heterogonium sagenioides (Mett. epiphyte 1423. Macaranga trichocarpa (Rchb. cultivated 1442. Homalomena sagittifolia Jungh.. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Thymelaeaceae. tree. Don.. climber 1431. 1411. cultivated 1453. tree.. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae. Magnoliophyta: Aquifoliaceae.. tree. climber 1444. epiphyte 1424. f. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. Litsea accedens (Blume) Boerl. Heritiera littoralis Aiton. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Hymenophyllum denticulatum Sw.. Magnoliophyta: Hydrocharitaceae. Licuala ferruginea Becc.. Sinclair. Lindsaea doryphora K. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. shrub 1461.

Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Nephelium cuspidatum Blume var. cultivated 1477. shrub 1468. shrub 1499. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.) K. tree. cultivated 1464. tree 1504. Nymphoides indica (L.) Merr. Prismatomeris tetrandra (Roxb.Br. ex Steud. tree 1473. Mangifera griffithii Hook. cultivated 1497.. Popowia tomentosa Maing. Keng. Forst. ex Hook. herb 1500.) Panigrahi 1495. tree. Polyalthia macropoda King.B.) Johansson. Pandanus monotheca Mart. malayana (Ridl. Rourea mimosoides (Vahl) Planch.. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Santiria tomentosa Blume. epiphyte 1476. Magnoliophyta: Chrysobalanaceae. tree.. tree 1483. tree 1474. herb..) Muell. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae.) Kuntze.) Govaerts.. Matthaea sancta Blume. Magnoliophyta: Theaceae. f. Heyne.) A. cultivated 1469. liliifera (L. singapurensis (Ridl. eriopetalum (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. var. Pentace triptera Mast. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae. Phymatosorus longissimus (Blume) Pichi Serm.-Vill. cultivated 1492.) N. Memecylon edule Roxb.. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae.) Holtt. climber 1480. Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae. tree 1479. tree.. tree 1478. Prismatomeris glabra (Korth.. cultivated 1506. Magnoliophyta: Chrysobalanaceae.M.. cultivated 1487..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1462. herb 1501. =Millettia pinnata (L. =M. Phrynium parvum (Ridl. tree. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. DC. tree 1471. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. ex A. tree 1507.. Piper porphyrophyllum (Lindl..) H. tree 1484.. cultivated 1490. Pinanga malaiana (Mart. Mussaendopsis beccariana Baill. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Pteris tripartita Sw. cultivated 1472. Pronephrium menisciicarpon (Blume) Holttum. Forst & G. Magnolia singapurensis (Ridl) H. Pellacalyx saccardianus Scort. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae. Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. climber 1491. Pometia pinnata J... Filicinophyta: Oleandraceae.. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.) K. Myristica elliptica Wall.) Beumée ex K. tree.Schum.) Noot. Pellacalyx axillaris Korth.) Pierre. climber 1503. & Thoms.) Scheff. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae... Parastemon urophyllus (Wall.) Benth. Memecylon megacarpum Furtado. tree.) Baill. Osmelia philippina (Turcz. & Thoms. herb 1465. cultivated 217 . Polyalthia glauca (Hassk. tree 1470.B. tree 1481.) F. shrub 1482. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. cultivated. Pyrenaria acuminata Planch. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Christ.f. climber 1489. cultivated 1467.. Keng var. tree 1496.) Merr. Mapania palustris (Hassk.f. Pyramidanthe prismatica (Hook.) Val. Maranthes corymbosa Blume. tree. Magnoliophyta: Menyanthaceae. Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. & Thoms. Pouteria maingayi (C. shrub. shrub 1498. Oxyceros fragrantissimus (Ridl. tree 1475. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. tree 1493. tree.. cultivated 1494.. Parishia paucijuga Engl. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae. Sandoricum koetjape (Burm. climber. herb 1502. Wong.. singapurensis (Ridl.. herb 1466. tree 1486. Ormosia bancana (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. 1463.) Merr. Microcos blattaefolia (Corner) Rao. Clarke.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.) Leenh.. Clarke) Baehni. Magnoliophyta: Monimiaceae. candollei (Blume) J.R. cultivated 1485. M. tree. climber 1505. Scaphium macropodum (Miq.. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. f. Filicinophyta: Pteridaceae. Pongamia pinnata (L. Nephrolepis acutifolia (Desv. ex Hook. DC. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. f.. Mussaenda glabra Vahl.. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Pandanus atrocarpus Griff. tree. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree. herb 1488. Filicinophyta: Pteridaceae.E.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Mapania kurzii C. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae. Pteris mertensioides Willd. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. ssp.

. ex Duthie) P.. Urceola brachysepala Hook. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae.M. Wilson & J.) Sm.. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Magnoliophyta: Smilacaceae. Filicinophyta: Adiantaceae. f. f. climber 218 . =Acmena acciminatissima (Blume) Merr. Magnoliophyta: Malpighiaceae. Trichomanes mindorense H. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. Chantaranothai & J. climber 1546. climber 1537. tree 1542. Syzygium filiforme (Wall. herb. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. shrub 1518. climber 1513.) Wall. f. Chantaranothai & J.) Peter G..M. tree 1519. cultivated 1544.. Syzygium ngadimaniana (M.. Tarenna fragrans (Nees) K. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. =U. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. herb 1533. climber 1515. & L. Parn. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. & L. Urophyllum hirsutum (Wight) Hook.R..T. Tristellateia australasiae A.f. Schizaea dichotoma (L. climber 1516.. Stachyphrynium latifolium (Blume) K. clavimyrtus (Koord. tree 1527. Tabernaemontana corymbosa Roxb. Tectaria semipinnata (Roxb. filiforme (Wall. maingayi D. Syzygium accuminatissimum (Blume) DC. tree 1528. Perry. tree 1541. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. ex J. Filicinophyta: Schizaeaceae. Tectaria griffithii (Baker) C.) Peter G. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. climber. ex A.. Filicinophyta: Dryopteridaceae... cultivated 1545. herb 1535. Uncaria cordata (Lour. Waterh. & J.) Holttum. Parn. Syzygium nemestrinum (M. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Tristaniopsis whiteana (Griff. Turner 1523. Turner. Presl) J. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae..R.) I.. Turner 1522. Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae.) Fass.M.) I. tree. Magnoliophyta: Symplocaceae.) C.Morton.. tree 1526. 1517. Sm. Filicinophyta: Schizaeaceae.M. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Schum. ex D. Turner.) I. Schizaea digitata (L. epiphyte 1538. Symplocos adenophylla Wall.) Merr. & Valeton) I... cultivated 1512. Filicinophyta: Dryopteridaceae. Ventilago malaccensis Ridl. tree 1525. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. & Thoms.M. Symplocos rubiginosa Wall. Rich. Wilson & J. Tectaria angulata (Willd. Shorea parvifolia Dyer. tree. var.. cerinum (M. Filicinophyta: Dryopteridaceae. Tectaria grandidentata (Ces. =S. & V.Chong et al. herb 1509. Smilax calophylla Wall. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.) C. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae. cultivated.J. DC. climber. herb 1511. Schum.T.V.. cultivated 1543. tree. griffithii (Baker) K.. Hend.M. Selaginella mayeri Hieron. Magnoliophyta: Symplocaceae. Syzygium incarnatum (Elmer) Merr. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Syngramma alismifolia (C. Christ. f. tree. Syzygium nigricans (King) Merr. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. Filicinophyta: Dryopteridaceae. cultivated. =S. Scorodocarpus borneensis Becc. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Syzygium ridleyi (King) P. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. herb 1534. Magnoliophyta: Smilacaceae. Trichomanes motleyi Bosch (Bosch). Hend. tree 1524..R. epiphyte 1539. Trichomanes sublimbatum Mull.Perry 1521. climber 1520. Perry. Scleria terrestris (L. ex Wall. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. epiphyte 1540. Tinomiscium petiolare Miers ex Hook. Berol. Tetracera arborescens Jack.M.Don. Waterh. singaporeana Holttum. climber 1548. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. filiforme. herb 1532. Middleton 1547. climber 1536.Chr. shrub 1549. cultivated. Triomma malaccensis Hook. Urceola torulosa Hook. ex Duthie) Chantaran. Magnoliophyta: Olacaceae. Smilax leucophylla Blume. herb 1531. tree. & L. Hend. shrub 1530. Parn. Sm.M. Filicinophyta: Dryopteridaceae. Tristaniopsis merguensis (Griff. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae.. Turner. Trigonachras acuta (Hiern) Radlk. cultivated 1529. Syzygium pauper (Ridl. 1508. Magnoliophyta: Menispermaceae. var. tree. Magnoliophyta: Rhamnaceae.. var. ex DC.) I.. cultivated 1514. Tectaria vasta (Blume) Copel. tree. Chr. tree. herb 1510. Lycophyta: Selaginellaceae.. =S.

.) Müll.... tree. climber Vulnerable 1559.. cultivated 1585. tree 1563. Ziziphus horsfieldii Miq. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Xanthophyllum discolor Chodat. Aidia densiflora (Wall. cultivated 1556. Magnoliophyta: Polygalaceae. var. Alstonia spathulata Blume. Adenanthera malayana Kosterm. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Xylocarpus moluccensis (Lam. Filicinophyta: Marattiaceae. Arg. 1587. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. herb 1567. tree. Aganope thyrsiflora (Benth.) Merr. Bhesa robusta (Roxb.. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. tree 1552. Artabotrys costatus King. Bauhinia semibifida Roxb. cultivated 1570. non Burm. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.E. herb. ovoideum Holttum. Roem. tree 1575. herb. Xanthophyllum stipitatum Benn. Angiopteris evecta (Forst. Arg. tree. Rich. ex G. Buchanania sessifolia Blume. & H. cultivated 1592. shrub 1561.f.. Blechnum finlaysonianum Wall.) Ding Hou. tree. f. Magnoliophyta: Passifloraceae. javanica (Miq. tree 1553.. tree 1572.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1550. Xanthophyllum griffithii Hook. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Blechnum serrulatum A.. Acanthus volubilis Wall. herb. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. f.) P. Br..) Masam. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. herb.. tree. var. & Grev. Aporosa prainiana King ex Gage. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Aporosa benthamiana Hook.) Polhill. Agelaea borneensis (Hook. tree. Aquilaria malaccensis Lamk. =B. Archidendron ellipticum (Blume) Nielsen. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. cultivated 1589. Blumeodendron tokbrai (Blume) Kurz. Magnoliophyta: Polygalaceae. tree 1583. Xanthophyllum obscurum Benn.. Filicinophyta: Blechnaceae. Don) de Wilde. Adenia macrophylla (Blume) Koord. Magnoliophyta: Polygalaceae. herb 1557.. Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae. epiphyte 1593. Zingiber griffithii Baker. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Filicinophyta: Aspleniaceae. cultivated 1569. cultivated 1581. tree. Caesalpinia crista L. Actephila excelsa (Dalz.) Meisn.. Antidesma coriaceum Tul. ex Benn. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. climber. Baccaurea sumatrana (Miq. Acanthus ebracteatus Vahl. Bouea oppositifolia (Roxb. cultivated 1560. cultivated 1580. tree 1588.. shrub 1590. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Simaroubaceae. cultivated 1582.. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. cultivated 1586. Asplenium tenerum Forst. Bulbophyllum trifolium Ridl. semibifida. Aglaonema nebulosum N. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. cultivated 1578.) Müll. f. climber 219 . cultivated 1558. Artocarpus rigidus Blume.. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. tree 1573. singaporeana (Wall. tree. ssp. tree 1551.) Blume. cultivated 1554. cultivated 1564. Magnoliophyta: Thymelaeaceae. indicum auct. cultivated 1579. epiphyte. tree 1577. tree.. erectum Meijden... Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae.. cultivated 1555. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Bridelia stipularis (L. climber 1566. climber.) Hoffm. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. cultivated 1571. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. shrub 1591. Zingiber puberulum Ridl. shrub.f. tree. Aporosa nervosa Hook. Aglaonema nitidum (Jack) Kunth. Archidendron contortum (Mart. cultivated 1584. cultivated 1576.. Archidendron jiringa (Jack) Nielsen. var. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.) M.. herb. tree. cultivated 1568. Magnoliophyta: Polygalaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Polygalaceae. tree 1574.) Merr. climber. Filicinophyta: Blechnaceae. ex Hook. var. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Brucea javanica (L. tree.. shrub 1562. climber 1565. Magnoliophyta: Rhamnaceae.) Nielsen. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Xanthophyllum affine Korth.

) Sw. tree 1597. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Dendrotrophe buxifolia (Blume) Miq. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Gmelin. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Daemonorops longipes (Griff. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.. climber. tree. climber 1639. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. climber 1609. Filicinophyta: Woodsiaceae.. herb 1631. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. climber 1638. tree 1598. shrub 1604.) Mart. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Dipterocarpus grandiflorus (Blanco) Blanco. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. oblonga (Wall. cultivated 1599. Diospyros buxifolia (Blume) Hiern. Diospyros pilosanthera Blanco var.) Mart. Cayratia trifolia (L. Daemonorops hirsuta Blume. tree 1630. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Filicinophyta: Cyatheaceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. herb 1615. climber. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. herb 1601. Stevens. Calophyllum tetrapterum Miq. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae.. Clerodendrum villosum Blume.) Sw. epiphyte 1622. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. tree 1636. Diospyros styraciformis King & Gamble. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree 1642. Dracaena granulata Hook. tree.. Daemonorops didymophylla Becc.. cultivated 1616. tree. epiphyte 1621. Dracaena maingayi Hook. 1619. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Dipterocarpus kerrii King. climber 1618. 1594. Calophyllum wallichianum Planch. Dissochaeta celebica Blume. cultivated 1607. Dipterocarpus sublamellatus Foxw. herb 1605.) Kuhn. var. ex Triana. f. Dendrotrophe varians (Blume) Miq. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. ex G. incrassatum (Hend. Arg. Derris amoena Benth. Cyathostemma viridiflorum Griff. shrub 1641. tree. Magnoliophyta: Santalaceae. herb 1632. cultivated 1637.. tree 1611. climber 1640. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. herb 1633. epiphyte 1626.R.Chong et al. climber 1595... Calamus erinaceus (Becc. Daemonorops angustifolia (Griff. tree 1603. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Filicinophyta: Davalliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Calophyllum teysmannii Miq. Decaspermum fruticosum J. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) Sw. Magnoliophyta: Santalaceae. Cyathocalyx ridleyi (King) Sinclair. Cynanchum ovalifolium Wight. tree... Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae.) C.) J. Cerbera odollam Gaertn. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Hypericaceae.. Dransf. cultivated 1635. Ceriops tagal (Pers. Dipterocarpus costulatus Slooten.... cultivated 1606. cultivated 1628.) Müll.. Cyathea latebrosa (Wall. Dissochaeta gracilis (Jack) Blume. Filicinophyta: Davalliaceae..) Copel. Forst. Filicinophyta: Hymenophyllaceae. Cleistanthus sumatranus (Miq. hystrix (Griff. tree. f. Filicinophyta: Davalliaceae. Diplazium tomentosum Blume. F. Davallia triphylla Hook. f.. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. var. Chassalia chartacea Craib. cultivated 1602. Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae..B. climber 1600. Cheilanthes tenuifolia (Burm. Davallia solida (G. climber 1614. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Filicinophyta: Adiantaceae. Clerodendrum deflexum Wall. Combretum sundaicum Miq. tree. =D. Davallia repens (L. Robins. tree 1629. epiphyte 1625.) Mart. cultivated 1608. maingayana (Baker) Prain.. Cansjera rheedii J. Filicinophyta: Woodsiaceae.) Schott.. Filicinophyta: Woodsiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. tree 1612. shrub.. cultivated 220 . Dracaena cantleyi Baker. tree 1610. cultivated 1624. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. & G. epiphyte 1623. climber 1627. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. Cyrtosperma merkusii (Hassk. Diplazium esculentum (Retz. tree. & Tr. Magnoliophyta: Opiliaceae. Cratoxylum arborescens (Vahl) Blume. & Wyatt-Smith) P. tree 1634. Cephalomanes singaporeanum Bosch. Dacryodes rostrata (Blume) Lam.) Domin. Dissochaeta punctulata Hook.F. climber 1617. Forst. tree 1596. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae. Don) Ng. Diplazium crennatoserratum (Blume) Moore. climber 1613. f. f. shrub 1620.

. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. f. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.Arg. f. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. Fissistigma latifolium (Dunal) Merr. Friesodielsia excisa (Miq. climber 1653. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. climber 1662. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. tree. Friesodielsia borneensis (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. climber 1659.) J. Magnoliophyta: Olacaceae. Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae. f. ex G. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. ex T. Magnoliophyta: Aquifoliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. epiphyte 1672. =Sticherus truncatus (Willd. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Erythropalum scandens Blume..) Burret. herb 1685. aurata. tree. herb 1654. tree 1680.. f. Dracaena umbratica Ridl. ex King. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Elaeocarpus polystachyus Wall. tree 1675. ex C. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. & Thoms. cultivated 1686. Endospermum diadenum (Miq. Fimbristylis polytrichoides (Retz. Galearia fulva (Tul.) Radlk. shrub 1674.. climber 1684.B. climber. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae. =G. cultivated 1678.. var. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. tree 1651. ovoideum (King) Sinclair. cultivated 1650.. Gomphandra quadrifida (Blume) Sleum. Goniothalamus tapis Miq. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Muell. Ficus aurata Miq. Sinclair. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. f. =I. cultivated 1649. tree. Goniothalamus ridleyi King. Magnoliophyta: Stemonuraceae. Grewia laevigata Vahl. Homalomena griffithii (Schott) Hook. tree 1687. Don. brunneum Hook.. Magnoliophyta: Pandaceae. Ilex latifolia Thunb. cultivated. Eriachne pallescens R.f. Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Glycosmis chlorosperma (Blume) Spreng.. climber 1664. climber 1660. tree. Flacourtia rukam Zoll. Goniophlebium percussum (Cav. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Horsfieldia polyspherula (Hook. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Euphorbia atoto Forst. shrub 1644. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. cultivated 1667. Glochidion zeylanicum Blume var. & Thoms.) Miq. Gaertnera grisea Hook. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.) Nakai. climber 1663. tree 1648.. tree 1679. Ficus chartacea Wall. Elaeocarpus nitidus Jack.f. Sm. Durio singaporensis Ridl.. & M. Goniophlebium subauriculatum (Blume) C. tree 1676. chlorosperma. Br. climber. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Gynochthodes coriacea Blume.. cultivated 1647. Friesodielsia biglandulosa (Blume) Steenis. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.) Steenis. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. shrub 1670. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. König) Steud var. King) J. cultivated 1646. shrub 1665. var. tree. f. Garcinia eugeniifolia Wall. Presl.) Airy Shaw. perakense (Müll. & Thoms.. Eleiodoxa conferta (Griff. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Histiopteris incisa (Thunb.) Merr. Clarke. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. & Thoms. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Hedyotis pinifolia Wall. tree. climber 1681.) Steenis.) R. f. cultivated 1661.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1643. Goniothalamus macrophyllus (Blume) Hook. scyphifera. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Hanguana malayana (Jack) Merr. herb.. Fissistigma fulgens (Hook. Br. shrub 1671. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. herb 1652. Gleichenia truncata (Willd. Anderson. var. & Moritzi.) Wagner & Grether. zeylanicum. herb 1657. shrub 1656. emend.... Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae. Fissistigma manubriatum (Hook. Dysoxylum cauliflorum Hiern. Elaeocarpus stipularis Blume.) Airy Shaw 1669. ex C. Guioa pubescens (Z.. tree 1655. herb 1683. tree. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. cultivated 1666. G. herb. Filicinophyta: Gleicheniaceae. Guioa pleuropteris (Blume) Radlk.) Merr. climber 1658. cultivated 1682.) Nakai 1668. tree 1645. macrophylla Blume 221 . epiphyte 1673. Goniothalamus malayanus Hook. tree 1677.. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Magnoliophyta: Hanguanaceae. tree. Hornstedtia scyphifera (J.

f. Lasianthus ridleyi King & Gamble.. Lophopetalum wightianum Arn. tree 1710. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. motleyana (Müll.. 1727. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. & Schult.) Müll. =N. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. f.G. Mischocarpus sundaicus Blume. epiphyte 1697. Filicinophyta: Schizaeaceae. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae.Arg. Neolitsea cassia (L. Lasianthus attenuatus Jack. Aiton) Herb ex Kurz var. tree.. Magnoliophyta: Hypoxidaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. =Hedyotis dichotoma Koen.Chong et al.. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Lasianthus appressus Hook. tree. Litsea firma Hook. shrub 1693. densifolius Miq.-Vill. cultivated 1699. Lindera lucida (Blume) Boerl. Nepenthes rafflesiana Jack ex Hook. tree.Arg. f. tree 1726. ex G. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Maclurodendron porteri (Hook. Limacia scandens Lour. tree 1721. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. cultivated 1704. shrub. affinis. cultivated 1729. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. herb. Ochanostachys amentacea Mast. Hedyotis philippinensis (Wild. herb. herb 1725. Lasia spinosa (L.) Sw. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. climber 1728. Mnesithea glandulosa (Trin) de Koning & Sosef. f. Mangifera macrocarpa Blume. Mangifera foetida Lour. Nepenthes ampullaria Jack.) Merr. tree. herb. Macaranga lowii King ex Hook. f. Magnoliophyta: Hydrocharitaceae. tree 1718.. cultivated 1705. cultivated 1714. tree 1690. Mangifera odorata Griff. cultivated 1703. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. ex C. f. cultivated 1711.. Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae. Magnoliophyta: Menispermaceae. shrub. ssp. Oldenlandia cristata (Willd. herb.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. 1698. tree. Filicinophyta: Schizaeaceae. Leuconotis griffithii Hook. Neesia synandra Mast. tree 1717..) ined. herb 1722. tree. Licuala spinosa Thunb. Labisia pumila (Blume) F. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Nypa fruticans Wurmb. tree.. 1694. Mapania cuspidata (Miq. Hartley. tree.. Hartley. Magnoliophyta: Nepenthaceae. shrub.) Cham. ssp.. tree. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae.) DC. cultivated 1724. climber. cultivated 1713.) Sinclair.f. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae.) T. 222 .) Sw.) Kosterm. shrub 1695. herb. Koilodepas longifolium Hook.. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree 1709. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Mesophlebion motleyanum (Hook. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Monocarpia marginalis (Scheff. climber 1707. Rob. =Hedyotis congesta R.. Lygodium longifolium (Willd. Don.) Holttum. cultivated 1730. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae. Melanochyla caesia (Blume) Ding Hou.. Ixonanthes icosandra Jack. & Schult.. f.) Holttum. Lasianthus perakensis King & Gamble.. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae.. cultivated 1691. Litsea umbellata (Lour. tree 1716. ex Spreng. cultivated 1723. Macaranga griffithiana Müll.. cultivated. Magnoliophyta: Olacaceae.) Thwaites. zeylanica (Nees) Merr. Lygodium circinnatum (Burm. Lecanopteris crustacea Copel. cultivated 1689. shrub. climber 1706. Oldenlandia affinis (Roem. cultivated 1701. T.) Merr. Melicope glabra (Blume) T. maingayi Dyer ex Hook. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.. Melanochyla bracteata King. Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae.Br..) Whitmore 1708. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.. cultivated 1731. =L. =M. Ex Griff. climber. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae.f. ex Roem.. latifolia. f. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Mesophlebion chylamydophorum (Rosenst. herb 1720. shrub 1696..) Uittien. griffithiana (Müll. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Najas indica (Willd. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. =L. tree 1715. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree 1712. ex W. cultivated 1692. climber 1700. epiphyte 1702. herb 1719. Magnoliophyta: Ixonanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.) Hieron. 1688. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. ex Roth 1732.G. Lindsaea parasitica (Roxb.B. herb.Arg. Molineria latifolia (Dryand. Magnoliophyta: Nepenthaceae.Arg. Melanochyla auriculata Hook.

Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. climber 1737.) Scheff. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. climber 1750. Pyrrosia angustata (L. Magnoliophyta: Rosaceae. herb 1743. Forst. Rourea fulgens Planch. DC. Rhaphidophora minor Hook. ssp. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.) Ridl. Rapanea porteriana Wall. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. Poikilospermum suaveolens (Blume) Merr. Pimelodendron griffithianum (Müll. Pternandra echinata Jack. herb 1765. shrub. Phaeanthus ophthalmicus (Roxb. Br. var. ellipticum. cultivated 1776. tree. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae.) Kuhn. esculentum (G. Oncosperma tigillaria (Jack) Ridl.. f. Premna serratifolia L. Porterandia anisophylla (Jack ex Roxb. Pteridium aquilinum (L. Psychotria ovoidea Wall. climber 1760. climber 1757. tree 1763. Rhaphidophora lobbii Schott. Pouteria malaccensis (C. Polyalthia cauliflora Hook. cultivated 1778.. =Anadendrum montanum (Blume) Schott 1774. Magnoliophyta: Araceae.. & Thoms. Pternandra coerulescens Jack. Pteris semipinnata L. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae.. f. Yamazaki. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Rothmannia macrophylla (R. Sinclair.. ex Hook. Rhizophora stylosa Griff. shrub.B. ex A. tree 1748.) Farwell. f. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Oxyceros longiflorus (Lam.. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. climber 1762. ex G. =P.. herb.. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. cultivated 1769. tree. Pouteria obovata (R. moluccanus. cultivated 1738...) T.. cultivated 1756. humilis (Andr. Don) J.) Baehni. tree. tree. Peliosanthes teta Andr.) Merr. Aiton. cultivated 1766. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae. Oncosperma horridum (Griff.. climber 1773. tree 1745.. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. climber. Pentaphragma ellipticum Poulsen var. esculentum (G.) Ridsdale. tree. Salacia chinensis L. Clarke) Baehni. Rubus moluccanus L. Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae. f.. Rhaphidophora maingayi Hook. climber 1777. Olea brachiata (Lour. climber. Parishia maingayi Hook.) Jessp. climber 1770. climber 1779.M. Polyalthia angustissima Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. climber 1771.. Br. tree 1775... shrub 1742.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 1733. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. climber 1761.. cultivated 1741. cultivated 1735. Magnoliophyta: Pentaphragmataceae. Rhaphidophora montana (Blume) Schott. tree 1740.T.) Engl. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. cultivated 1744. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Pavetta wallichiana Steud. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. climber 1780. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. f. tree 1753. tree 1755.. Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae.. tree 1758. shrub. Popowia pisocarpa (Blume) Endl. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. cultivated 1749. Parkia speciosa Hassk. epiphyte 1768. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. cultivated 1767. Pittosporum ferrugineum W. climber 1772. Phytocrene bracteata Wall. Wong. Magnoliophyta: Pittosporaceae. tree 223 . tree. Salacia macrophylla Blume. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. climber 1747.Forst. f. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae... tree 1754. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. cultivated 1736. tree 1752. Psychotria penangensis Hook. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Psydrax nitida (Craib) K. Pertusadina eurhyncha (Miq. ex Blume. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. f. cultivated 1759. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Magnoliophyta: Icacinaceae. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae...) Kuhn var. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.. Palaquium obovatum (Griff.. Santiria laevigata Blume. Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae. Plectocomia elongata Mart. epiphyte 1751. shrub. f.) Benth. tree 1734.) Bremek. Pothos lancifolius Hook. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Parishia insignis Hook.. herb. tree. Rhaphidophora korthalsii Schott. cultivated 1739.Arg. Filicinophyta: Pteridaceae. shrub 1746. Popowia fusca King. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.) Cockayne 1764.

Chong et al.

1781. Santiria rubiginosa Blume; Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae; tree 1782. Schefflera elliptica (Blume) Harms; Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae; epiphyte 1783. Schismatoglottis calyptrata (Roxb.) Zoll. & Moritzi; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; herb 1784. Schismatoglottis wallichii (Roxb.) Hook. f.; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; herb; cultivated 1785. Scleria sumatrensis Retz.; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1786. Scrotochloa urceolata (Roxb.) Judz.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 1787. Selaginella intermedia (Bl.) Spring; Lycophyta: Selaginellaceae; herb 1788. Selaginella roxburghii (Hk. & Grev.) Spring; Lycophyta: Selaginellaceae; herb 1789. Selaginella willdenowii (Desv.) Baker; Lycophyta: Selaginellaceae; climber 1790. Shorea curtisii Dyer ex King ssp. curtisii; Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae; tree; cultivated 1791. Shorea leprosula Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae; tree; cultivated 1792. Shorea macroptera Dyer ssp. macroptera; Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae; tree; cultivated 1793. Shorea pauciflora King; Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae; tree; cultivated 1794. Smilax myosotiflora A. DC.; Magnoliophyta: Smilacaceae; climber 1795. Sphaerostephanos polycarpus (Blume) Copel.; Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae; herb 1796. Sterculia hamiltonii (Kuntze) Adelb.; Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae; shrub; cultivated; =S. coccinea Jack 1797. Sterculia rubiginosa Vent.; Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae; tree; cultivated 1798. Streblus elongatus (Miq.) Corner; Magnoliophyta: Moraceae; tree; cultivated 1799. Strombosia ceylanica Gardn.; Magnoliophyta: Olacaceae; tree 1800. Strombosia javanica Blume; Magnoliophyta: Olacaceae; tree; cultivated 1801. Strychnos ignatii P.J. Bergius; Magnoliophyta: Loganiaceae; climber 1802. Swintonia schwenkii (T. & B.) T. & B.; Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae; tree 1803. Symplocos fasciculata Zoll.; Magnoliophyta: Symplocaceae; tree 1804. Syzygium glaucum (King) P. Chantaranothai & J. Parn.; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree; cultivated 1805. Syzygium palembanicum Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree 1806. Syzygium polyanthum (Wight) Walp.; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree; cultivated 1807. Syzygium syzygioides (Miq.) Merr. & L.M. Perry; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree 1808. Tabernaemontana pauciflora Blume; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; shrub 1809. Tacca integrifolia Ker Gawl.; Magnoliophyta: Dioscoreaceae; herb; cultivated 1810. Tapeinidium pinnatum (Cav.) C. Chr.; Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae; climber 1811. Tetracera akara (Burm. f.) Merr.; Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae; climber 1812. Tetracera fagifolia Blume; Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae; climber 1813. Tetracera macrophylla Wall. ex Hook. f. & Thoms.; Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae; climber 1814. Thelypteris truncata (Poir.) K. Iwats.; Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae; herb; =Pneumatopteris truncata (Poir.) Holttum 1815. Thottea grandiflora Rottb.; Magnoliophyta: Aristolochiaceae; shrub; cultivated 1816. Trichosanthes celebica Cogn.; Magnoliophyta: Cucurbitaceae; climber 1817. Trichosanthes wallichiana Wight; Magnoliophyta: Cucurbitaceae; climber 1818. Trichosanthes wawraei Cogn.; Magnoliophyta: Cucurbitaceae; climber; cultivated 1819. Urophyllum arboreum (Reinw. ex Blume) Korth.; Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae; shrub; cultivated; =U. glabrum Wall. 1820. Urophyllum griffithianum (Wight) Hook. f.; Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae; shrub 1821. Urophyllum streptopodium Wall. ex Hook.f.; Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae; shrub 1822. Uvaria grandiflora (Lesch. ex DC.) Roxb.; Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae; climber; cultivated 1823. Uvaria hirsuta Jack; Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae; climber; cultivated 1824. Vanilla griffithii Rchb. f.; Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae; climber; cultivated 1825. Vernonia arborea (L.) Willd.; Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae; tree; cultivated 1826. Xanthophyllum eurhynchum Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Polygalaceae; shrub 1827. Xanthophyllum vitellinum (Blume) Dietr.; Magnoliophyta: Polygalaceae; tree; cultivated 1828. Xylopia caudata Hook. f. & Thoms.; Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae; tree 224

Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore

1829. Ziziphus calophylla Wall. ex Hook.f.; Magnoliophyta: Rhamnaceae; climber Common 1830. Acanthus ilicifolius L.; Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae; shrub; cultivated 1831. Acrostichum aureum L.; Filicinophyta: Pteridaceae; herb 1832. Acrostichum speciosum Willd.; Filicinophyta: Pteridaceae; herb 1833. Actinoscirpus grossus (L. f.) Goetgh. & D. A. Simpson; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1834. Adenosma javanicum (Blume) Koord.; Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae; herb 1835. Adinandra dumosa Jack; Magnoliophyta: Pentaphylacaceae; tree; cultivated 1836. Aglaonema simplex Blume; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; herb 1837. Agrostistachys borneensis (Wight) Benth.; Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae; tree; cultivated; =A. longifolia (Wight) Benth. 1838. Allmania nodiflora R. Br. ex Wight; Magnoliophyta: Amaranthaceae; herb 1839. Allophylus cobbe (L.) Reausch.; Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae; shrub; cultivated 1840. Alocasia longiloba Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; herb; cultivated; =A. denudata Engl. var. denudata; A. denudata Engl. var. elongata Engl. 1841. Alstonia angustifolia Wall. ex A. DC.; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; tree; cultivated 1842. Alstonia angustiloba Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; tree; cultivated 1843. Alyxia reinwardtii Blume; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; climber 1844. Amischotolype gracilis (Ridl.) I.M. Turner; Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae; herb 1845. Amphineuron terminans (Hook.) Holttum; Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae; climber 1846. Anisophyllea disticha (Jack) Baill.; Magnoliophyta: Anisophyllaceae; shrub; cultivated 1847. Antidesma cuspidatum Müll. Arg.; Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae; tree; cultivated 1848. Aporosa frutescens Blume; Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae; tree; cultivated 1849. Aporosa symplocoides (Hook. f.) Gage; Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae; tree 1850. Archidendron clypearia (Jack) I. C. Nielsen; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree; cultivated 1851. Ardisia colorata Roxb.; Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae; shrub 1852. Arthrophyllum diversifolium Blume; Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae; tree; cultivated 1853. Artocarpus elasticus Reinw. ex Blume; Magnoliophyta: Moraceae; tree; cultivated; =A. scortechinii King 1854. Arundina graminifolia (Don) Hochr.; Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae; herb; cultivated 1855. Asplenium longissimum Blume; Filicinophyta: Aspleniaceae; epiphyte 1856. Asplenium nidus L.; Filicinophyta: Aspleniaceae; epiphyte; cultivated 1857. Avicennia alba Blume; Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae; tree; cultivated 1858. Avicennia officinalis L.; Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae; tree; cultivated 1859. Avicennia rumphiana Hallier f.; Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae; tree; cultivated 1860. Baccaurea parviflora (Müll. Arg.) Müll. Arg.; Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae; tree; cultivated 1861. Bhesa paniculata Arn.; Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae; tree; cultivated 1862. Blechnum orientale L.; Filicinophyta: Blechnaceae; herb 1863. Blumea riparia (Blume) DC.; Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae; herb 1864. Breynia racemosa (Blume) Mull. Arg.; Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae; climber 1865. Breynia vitis-idaea (Burm. f.) C.E.C. Fisch.; Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae; shrub 1866. Bridelia tomentosa Blume; Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae; tree; cultivated 1867. Bromheadia finlaysoniana (Lindl.) Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae; herb 1868. Bruguiera cylindrica (L.) Blume; Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae; tree; cultivated 1869. Bruguiera gymnorhiza (L.) Lamk.; Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae; tree; cultivated 1870. Buchanania arborescens (Blume) Blume; Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae; tree; cultivated 1871. Bulbostylis barbata (Rottb.) C. B. Clarke; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1872. Bulbostylis puberula (Poir.) C.B. Clarke; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb; cultivated 1873. Burmannia coelestis D. Don; Magnoliophyta: Burmanniaceae; herb; cultivated 1874. Calophyllum ferrugineum Ridl.; Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae; tree 225

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1875. Calophyllum pulcherrimum Wall. ex Choisy; Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae; tree; cultivated 1876. Campnosperma auriculata Hook. f.; Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae; tree; cultivated 1877. Campnosperma squamatum Ridl.; Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae; tree 1878. Campylospermum serratum (Gaertn.) Bittrich & M.C.E. Amaral; Magnoliophyta: Ochnaceae; tree 1879. Canarium littorale Blume; Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae; tree 1880. Canavalia cathartica Thouars; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; climber 1881. Canavalia rosea (Sw.) DC.; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; climber 1882. Caryota mitis Lour.; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree; cultivated 1883. Cassytha filiformis L.; Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae; climber; cultivated 1884. Casuarina equisetifolia L.; Magnoliophyta: Casuarinaceae; tree; cultivated 1885. Centella asiatica (L.) Urb.; Magnoliophyta: Apiaceae; herb; cultivated 1886. Centotheca longilamina Ohwi; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 1887. Champereia manillana (Blume) Merr.; Magnoliophyta: Opiliaceae; tree; cultivated 1888. Christella arida (Don) Holttum; Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae; herb 1889. Christella subpubescens (Blume) Holttum; Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae; herb 1890. Chrysopogon aciculatus (Retz.) Trin.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb; cultivated 1891. Cinnamomum iners Reinw.; Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae; tree; cultivated 1892. Claoxylon indicum (Reinw. ex Blume) Hassk.; Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae; tree; cultivated 1893. Clausena excavata Burm. f.; Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae; shrub 1894. Clerodendrum inerme (L.) Gaertn.; Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae; climber; cultivated 1895. Clerodendrum laevifolium Blume; Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae; tree; cultivated 1896. Cnestis palala (Lour.) Merr.; Magnoliophyta: Connaraceae; climber 1897. Colubrina asiatica (L.) Brongn.; Magnoliophyta: Rhamnaceae; shrub; cultivated 1898. Commersonia bartramia (L.) Merr.; Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae; tree 1899. Costus speciosus (Koenig) Smith; Magnoliophyta: Costaceae; herb; cultivated 1900. Cratoxylum glaucum Korth; Magnoliophyta: Hypericaceae; tree 1901. Croton caudatus Geiseler; Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae; tree 1902. Cyathocalyx ramuliflorus (Maingay ex Hook.f. & Thoms.) Scheff.; Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae; tree 1903. Cyathula prostrata (L.) Blume; Magnoliophyta: Amaranthaceae; shrub; cultivated 1904. Cyclosorus interruptus (Willd.) H. Ito; Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae; herb 1905. Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb; cultivated 1906. Cyperus compactus Retz.; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1907. Cyperus digitatus Roxb.; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1908. Cyperus dubius Rottb.; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1909. Cyperus javanicus Houtt.; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1910. Cyperus laxus Vahl; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb; =C. diffusus Vahl 1911. Cyperus malaccensis Lam.; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1912. Cyperus procerus Rottb.; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1913. Cyperus radians Nees & Meyen; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1914. Cyperus stoloniferus Retz.; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1915. Cyperus tenuiculmis Boeck.; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1916. Dactyloctenium aegyptium (L.) Willd.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 1917. Dalbergia candenatensis (Dennst.) Prain; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; climber 1918. Dalbergia rostrata Hassk.; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; climber; cultivated; =D. pseudosissoo Miq. 1919. Davallia denticulata (Burm.) Mett.; Filicinophyta: Davalliaceae; epiphyte; cultivated 1920. Dendrobium crumenatum Sw.; Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae; epiphyte; cultivated 1921. Dendrolobium umbellatum (L.) Benth.; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 1922. Dendrophthoe pentandra (L.) Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Loranthaceae; epiphyte 226

Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore

1923. Derris trifoliata Lour.; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; climber 1924. Dianella ensifolia (L.) DC.; Magnoliophyta: Hemerocallidaceae; herb; cultivated 1925. Dicranopteris curranii Copel.; Filicinophyta: Gleicheniaceae; climber 1926. Dicranopteris linearis (Burm. f.) Underw.; Filicinophyta: Gleicheniaceae; climber; cultivated 1927. Digitaria bicornis (Lam.) Roem. & Schult.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 1928. Digitaria fuscescens (J. Presl) Henrard; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 1929. Digitaria longiflora (Retz.) Pers.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 1930. Digitaria mollicoma (Kunth) Henr.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 1931. Dillenia suffruticosa (Griff. ex Hook. f. & Thomson) Martelli; Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae; shrub; cultivated 1932. Dimeria ornithopoda Trin.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 1933. Dioscorea laurifolia Wall. ex Hook. f.; Magnoliophyta: Dioscoreaceae; climber 1934. Dioscorea pyrifolia Kunth; Magnoliophyta: Dioscoreaceae; climber 1935. Diospyros lanceaefolia Roxb.; Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae; tree 1936. Diplazium allantoideum M.G. Price; Filicinophyta: Woodsiaceae; herb 1937. Dischidia major (Vahl) Merr.; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; epiphyte 1938. Dischidia nummularia R. Br.; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; epiphyte; cultivated 1939. Dracaena porteri Baker; Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae; shrub 1940. Drynaria quercifolia (L.) J. Sm.; Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae; epiphyte; cultivated 1941. Drynaria sparsisora (Desv.) T. Moore; Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae; epiphyte 1942. Drypetes curtisii (Hook. f.) Pax & K. Hoffm.; Magnoliophyta: Putranjavaceae; tree 1943. Dyera costulata (Miq.) Hook. f.; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; tree; cultivated 1944. Elaeocarpus ferrugineus (Jack) Steud.; Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae; tree; cultivated 1945. Elaeocarpus mastersii King; Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae; tree; cultivated 1946. Elaeocarpus pedunculatus Wall. ex Mast.; Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae; tree; cultivated 1947. Elaeocarpus petiolatus (Jack) Wall; Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae; tree; cultivated 1948. Eleocharis dulcis (Burm. f.) Trin. ex Hensch.; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1949. Eleocharis spiralis (Rottb.) Roem. & Schult.; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1950. Embelia lampani Scheff.; Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae; climber 1951. Embelia ribes Burm. f.; Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae; climber 1952. Entada spiralis Ridl.; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; climber; cultivated 1953. Epipremnum giganteum (Roxb.) Schott; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; epiphyte 1954. Eragrostis atrovirens (Desf.) Trin. ex Steud.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 1955. Eragrostis montana Balansa; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 1956. Eragrostis unioloides (Retz.) Nees ex Steud.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 1957. Erycibe tomentosa Blume; Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae; climber 1958. Erythroxylum cuneatum (Miq.) Kurz; Magnoliophyta: Erythroxylaceae; tree; cultivated 1959. Eurya acuminata DC.; Magnoliophyta: Pentaphylacaceae; shrub 1960. Evolvulus alsinoides (L.) L.; Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae; herb 1961. Excoecaria agallocha L.; Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae; tree; cultivated 1962. Fagraea fragrans Roxb.; Magnoliophyta: Gentianaceae; tree; cultivated 1963. Fibraurea tinctoria Lour.; Magnoliophyta: Menispermaceae; climber; cultivated 1964. Ficus aurantiaca Griff. var. aurantiaca; Magnoliophyta: Moraceae; climber; cultivated 1965. Ficus caulocarpa (Miq.) Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Moraceae; strangler; cultivated 1966. Ficus fistulosa Reinw. ex Blume; Magnoliophyta: Moraceae; tree; cultivated 1967. Ficus grossularioides Burm. f. var. grossularioides; Magnoliophyta: Moraceae; tree; cultivated 1968. Ficus heteropleura Blume; Magnoliophyta: Moraceae; climber 1969. Ficus microcarpa L. f.; Magnoliophyta: Moraceae; strangler; cultivated 1970. Ficus variegata Blume; Magnoliophyta: Moraceae; tree; cultivated 1971. Fimbristylis complanata (Retz.) Link; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb


Chong et al.

1972. Fimbristylis cymosa R. Br. ssp. cymosa; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb; =Cyperus triceps (Rottb.) Endl. 1973. Fimbristylis ferruginea (L.) Vahl; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1974. Fimbristylis leptoclada Benth.; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1975. Flagellaria indica L.; Magnoliophyta: Flagellariaceae; climber; cultivated 1976. Floscopa scandens Lour.; Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae; climber 1977. Freycinetia sumatrana Hemsley var. sumatrana; Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae; climber 1978. Friesodielsia latifolia (Hook. f. & Thoms.) Steenis; Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae; climber 1979. Gahnia tristis Nees; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1980. Garcinia parvifolia Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae; tree; cultivated 1981. Gironniera nervosa Planch.; Magnoliophyta: Cannabaceae; tree; cultivated 1982. Glochidion superbum Baill.; Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae; tree; cultivated 1983. Gluta wallichii (Hook. f.) Ding Hou; Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae; tree 1984. Gmelina asiatica L.; Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae; shrub 1985. Goniothalamus tortilipetalus M.R. Hend.; Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae; tree 1986. Gymnanthera nitida R. Br.; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; climber 1987. Gynochthodes sublanceolata Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae; climber 1988. Gynotroches axillaris Blume; Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae; tree; cultivated 1989. Hedyotis auricularia L.; Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae; herb 1990. Heteropogon contortus (L.) P. Beauv. ex Roem. & Schult.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 1991. Hoya verticillata (Vahl) G. Don var. verticillata; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; epiphyte; cultivated 1992. Hydrocotyle sibthorpioides Lam.; Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae; herb; cultivated 1993. Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Steud.) Gilliland; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb; =H. acutigluma (Steud.) Gilliland 1994. Hypolytrum nemorum (Vahl) Spreng.; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 1995. Ilex cymosa Blume; Magnoliophyta: Aquifoliaceae; tree; cultivated 1996. Imperata conferta (J.Presl) Ohwi; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 1997. Indorouchera griffithiana (Planch.) Hallier f.; Magnoliophyta: Linaceae; climber; cultivated 1998. Iodes velutina King; Magnoliophyta: Icacinaceae; climber 1999. Ipomoea littoralis (L.) Blume; Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae; climber 2000. Ipomoea marginata (Desr.) Verdc.; Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae; climber 2001. Ipomoea mauritiana Jacq.; Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae; climber; cultivated 2002. Ipomoea obscura (L.) Ker Gawl.; Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae; climber 2003. Ipomoea pes-caprae (L.) R. Br.; Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae; climber; cultivated 2004. Ipomoea pes-tigridis L.; Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae; climber 2005. Ipomoea violacea L.; Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae; climber; =I. tuba (Schltdl.) G.Don 2006. Isachne kunthiana (Wight & Arn.) Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 2007. Isachne minutula (Gaudich.) Kunstl.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 2008. Ischaemum magnum Rendle; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 2009. Ischaemum muticum L.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb; cultivated 2010. Ixonanthes reticulata Jack; Magnoliophyta: Ixonanthaceae; tree; cultivated 2011. Ixora congesta Roxb.; Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae; shrub; cultivated 2012. Lecanopteris sinuosa (Wall. ex Hook.) Copel.; Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae; epiphyte 2013. Leea indica (Burm. f.) Merr.; Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae; tree; cultivated 2014. Lemna tenera Kerz; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; herb 2015. Lepisanthes rubiginosa (Roxb.) Leenh.; Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae; tree; cultivated 2016. Lepturus repens R. Br.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 2017. Licania splendens (Korth.) Prance; Magnoliophyta: Chrysobalanaceae; tree; cultivated 2018. Lindernia anagallis (Burm. f.) Pennell; Magnoliophyta: Linderniaceae; herb 2019. Lindsaea ensifolia Sw.; Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae; herb 2020. Lipocarpha chinensis (Osbeck) J. Kern; Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae; herb 228

Litsea elliptica Blume. ex Roxb. shrub. cultivated 2045. 2050. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.. cultivated. tree. cultivated.) R.. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae.) T.. climber. tree.) Goetghebeur. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.M. Presl. tree. Nepenthes gracilis Korth. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae. Filicinophyta: Ophioglossaceae. herb 2025. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. Melastoma malabathricum L. Magnoliophyta: Maesaceae.) Sw. Nothaphoebe umbelliflora (Blume) Blume. Pandanus odorifer (Forssk. epiphyte. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae.-Serm. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. herb 2052.) Mull. cultivated 2031.. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Filicinophyta: Oleandraceae. herb 2068. cultivated 2057. Melanthera biflora (L. tree 2067. herb 229 . Paederia foetida L.) Wild. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Filicinophyta: Schizaeaceae. epiphyte. Magnoliophyta: Campanulaceae. Microdesmis caseariifolia Planch. tree. tree. =P. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. cultivated 2047. Microlepia speluncae (L. herb 2060. tree.M.. Filicinophyta: Ophioglossaceae. ex Hook.. herb 2044. epiphyte 2036. Lipocarpha squarrosa (L. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree 2053. cultivated 2055. cultivated. Lycopodiella cernua (L. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. f. Morella esculenta (Buch. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. f. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Parinari elmeri Merr..) Mull. cultivated 2023.f. Johnst. climber 2048. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. herb 2059. Nephrolepis falcata (Cav. Paspalum vaginatum Sw. herb 2058... & Thoms.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2021. cultivated 2032. shrub. cultivated 2054. odoratissimus L.. Microsorum punctatum (L. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.) Kuntze. Ophioglossum reticulatum L. Macrosolen retusus (Jack) Miq. cultivated 2061. Arg.. Morinda umbellata L. climber 2027. Macaranga gigantea (Rchb. tree 2066.) Mull.) Tiegh. Magnoliophyta: Loranthaceae. tree. Merremia hederacea (Burm.f. cultivated 2051..) Mull. Filicinophyta: Schizaeaceae. herb 2063. Filicinophyta: Oleandraceae. Mallotus paniculatus (Lam. herb 2056. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.. climber 2029. cultivated 2035. shrub. Turner.) Benth. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. climber. herb 2022. tree 2034. Filicinophyta: Schizaeaceae. Lycophyta: Lycopodiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Chrysobalanaceae. Paropsia vareciformis (Griff. Lobelia zeylanica L. cultivated 2039. epiphyte 2037. Lygodium salicifolium C. climber 2043..-Ham. shrub 2038. Panicum luzonense Presl....... Magnoliophyta: Passifloraceae. Arg. =Wollastonia biflora (L.) Kuhn. Arg. Macaranga hypoleuca (Rchb. Lophatherum gracile Brongn. Macaranga bancana (Miq. Panicum sarmentosum Roxb. shrub. Br.) Copel. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.) Mast. Macaranga heynei I.. Ophioglossum nudicaule L.) C. Macaranga conifera (Zoll. Wedelia biflora (L. Macrosolen cochinchinensis (Lour. tree. Murdannia vaginata (L.f.. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Loranthaceae. f. Arg.. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae.) Brueckn.. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae.) Pic. Arg.. cultivated 2030. Maesa ramentacea Wall. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae...) Müll. tree 2049. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Arg.. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.-Ham. Mitrephora maingayi Hook. Chr. f. & Zoll. ex D. 2062... Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. climber. herb 2064. f. Nephrolepis radicans (Burm. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Magnoliophyta: Pandaceae. tree 2033. & Zoll. Lygodium flexuosum (L. Myristica esculenta Buch. Panicum repens L. tree 2040. Moore.. 2041.) DC.. Micrococca mercurialis (L. Mitrella kentii (Blume) Miq.-Ham. Macaranga triloba (Thunb. Lygodium microphyllum (Cav. Don) I.) Hallier f. Magnoliophyta: Nepenthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. cultivated 2042. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. herb 2065. herb 2046.. =Myrica esculenta Buch. climber 2028.) DC.) Mull. herb 2026. & Thomson) Heusden. Paspalum longifolium Roxb. Meiogyne monosperma (Hook.. Magnoliophyta: Myricaceae. Ottochloa nodosa (Kunth) Dandy. herb 2024..

F. tree.. Pyrrosia lanceolata (L. Santiria apiculata Benn. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. & Moritzi) Benth.) T. Pyrrosia piloselloides (L. f. epiphyte 2090. climber. Müll.. cultivated 2073... shrub 2078. cultivated 2079.) Merr. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. ex Blume. Filicinophyta: Psilotaceae. Scleria poiformis Retz. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. Piper sarmentosum Roxb. Psilotum nudum (L.. herb 2087. cultivated 2096. Phymatosorus scolopendria (Burm. Pycreus pumilus (L. epiphyte 2084. Pyrrosia longifolia (Burm. Pronephrium triphyllum (Sw. Magnoliophyta: Smilacaceae.. Rhizophora apiculata Blume. Sonneratia alba Sm.) Spring.) Engl. herb 2092. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. tree 2098. Tryon. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. Scleria ciliaris Nees. Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae. Pogonatherum crinitum (Thunb. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae. wightianum (J.) L. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. herb 2106. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae. Sida cordifolia L... climber 2102. Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rosaceae. Sphaerostephanos heterocarpus (Blume) Holttum. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. climber. climber 2103. cultivated 2077. Pronephrium repandum (Fee) Holttum. herb 2105. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. herb 2076. Magnoliophyta: Aizoaceae. cultivated 2074. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Goodeniaceae.) Kuntze. cultivated 2095. Scindapsus pictus Hassk. shrub. herb 2097. cultivated 2100.) Nees. Price. herb 2081.. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. epiphyte 2071. epiphyte 2089.F. Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae. Beauv.) Kerguélen.) Kalkm. cultivated 2114.. f.) M. tree..) Holttum. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.) P.. Pteridium aquilinum (L. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. tree.Chong et al. Pycreus polystachyos (Rottb.. Magnoliophyta: Loranthaceae. Premna foetida Reinw. herb. Perotis indica (L. Santiria griffithii (Hook. aquilinum (L. herb 2111. Koyama. Scindapsus hederaceus Schott. Prunus polystachya (Hook. Phymatosorus nigrescens (Blume) Pichi Serm. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. herb 2086.) Desv. Remirea maritima Aubl.. herb 2088. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae. Agargh) R. climber 2109. epiphyte 2107. Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae. tree 2099. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. cultivated 2101. Setaria parviflora (Poir. Ploiarium alternifolium (Vahl) Melchior.) Pic. brownii (Roem. cultivated 2093..) Roxb. Beauv. Spathoglottis plicata Blume.. Pleocnemia irregularis (C.) Less. tree. Filicinophyta: Pteridaceae. f. Rhodomyrtus tomentosa (Aiton) Hassk.. cultivated 2075. climber 2116. Spatholobus ferrugineus (Zoll. shrub. shrub. Pluchea indica (L.G. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Presl) Holttum. Pteris multifida Poir. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Smilax setosa Miq. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae.) Kunth.) Kunh var. Magnoliophyta: Bonnetiaceae. Lycophyta: Selaginellaceae.) P. Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae. 2069. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Rhizophora mucronata Lam. epiphyte 2091. cultivated 2108. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. epiphyte 2072. climber 2113. Filicinophyta: Dryopteridaceae.. Sesuvium portulacastrum (L. Selaginella ciliaris (Retz. climber.. Platycerium coronarium (J. herb 2112. herb 2082. shrub. Koenig ex O. cultivated 2094.) Kuhn 2085. tree.. & Schult. herb. cultivated 2083.. Scyphiphora hydrophylacea C. cultivated 2080. ex Jack) Danser.. herb 2104.. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Rhynchospora rugosa (Vahl) Gale ssp. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Gaertn. Scleria purpurascens Steud. tree.) Morton. Filicinophyta: Dennstaedtiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae... herb 230 . Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Serm. =P. epiphyte. herb.M. Scaevola taccada (Gaertn. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. herb 2070. Sauropus androgynus (L. cultivated 2115.) Farwell. Piper caninum Blume. cultivated 2110. Rhodamnia cinerea Jack. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Scurrula ferruginea (Roxb.

Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. herb EXOTIC SPECIES Cultivated Only 2155.) Hook.. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Filicinophyta: Dryopteridaceae.) H.) DC. Thuarea involuta (G. tree 2148. tree 231 .) Kunth. epiphyte 2146. Vitex pinnata L. cultivated 2135.) D. Xylopia malayana Hook. herb 2128. cultivated 2138. Timonius wallichianus (Korth. & Schult. Abelmoschus esculentus (L. shrub 2139..f.) Merr. epiphyte 2144. Tectaria singaporeana (Hook. & Schult.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2117. & Panz.. climber 2121. Abutilon pictum (Gillies ex Hook. cultivated 2126. climber 2149. & Thoms. Perry.. Filicinophyta: Vittariaceae. ex Corrêa. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. =Eugenia grandis Wight 2123. Br. tree. tree. Taenitis blechnoides (Willd. epiphyte 2143. f. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. herb 2118. Acacia cincinnata F. F. flaccidus (Roem. Sporobolus indicus (L.. Trema cannabina Lour... Zanthoxylum nitidum (Roxb. shrub 2156. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Filicinophyta: Pteridaceae. tree. Forst) R. climber 2142.M. herb 2120. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Vittaria ensiformis Sw.... Arg.) Valeton. Filicinophyta: Blechnaceae. cultivated 2131. cultivated 2145. shrub 2157. Trigonostemon malaccanus Müll. f. Hara.) R. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. tree. ex Roem. shrub 2136.. herb 2129. Zoysia matrella (L.) Bedd.) Merr. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. & L. tree. Themeda villosa (Poir.. Tetracera indica (Christm. herb 2134.) Walp. Triadica cochinchinensis Lour. tree. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Br.. Filicinophyta: Dryopteridaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. cultivated 2124. climber.. f. var.. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. Austin & Staples ssp. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Uvaria cordata (Dunal) Alston. tridentata. cultivated. Magnoliophyta: Olacaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Xenostegia tridentata (L. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. Tectaria barberi (Hook.. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. cultivated 2130. Vigna marina (Burm...) Merr.) Copel. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.. tree. Magnoliophyta: Santalaceae. cultivated 2133. Terminalia catappa L. Xanthophyllum rufum Benn. shrub. =Hibiscus tiliaceus L.) Copel.) Sol. ex DC. Ximenia americana L.) A. tree 2158. & Thoms. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Xylocarpus granatum J.) Sw. Magnoliophyta: Santalaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cannabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. cultivated 2151. tree. herb 2119. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae.. major (Büse) Baaijens. Br.) DC. epiphyte 2147. Syzygium lineatum (DC. Talipariti tiliaceum (L.) Merr. tree. cultivated 2122. Stenochlaena palustris (Burm. Thespesia populnea (L.) Miq. climber 2141.. Xylopia ferruginea (Hook.. Filicinophyta: Vittariaceae. climber. & Grev. Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae. Sporobolus indicus (L. Magnoliophyta: Polygalaceae.. tree. Br. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Cannabaceae. 2127. & Arn.. f. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Tylophora flexuosa R. climber 2140. shrub 2137. cultivated. Syzygium borneense (Miq. Viscum articulatum Burm. cultivated 2153. & Thoms.. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Acacia confusa Merr. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. climber 2154. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.. Muell.) Moench. cultivated 2125.) R. Sporobolus virginicus (L. Vittaria elongata Sw.... Viscum ovalifolium Wall. cultivated 2152. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. tree. herb 2132. Syzygium grande (Wight) Walp. tree. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Trema tomentosa (Roxb.) Fryxell. Syzygium zeylanicum (L. Koenig. Camus.) Veldk. cultivated 2150. var.

Alocasia cucullata (Lour. =A. Acer palmatum Thunb. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. godseffiana Mast. Agathis dammara (Lamb. tree 2184. Magnoliophyta: Alliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. herb 2173. shrub 2171. =Veitchia merrillii (Becc. Acalypha amentacea ssp.. Albizia chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. Wendl. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Weber. Magnoliophyta: Agavaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. shrub 2164. Arg. shrub 2176. 2194. Don. shrub. Aechmea fulgens Brongn.. tree 2166. Acalypha hispida Burm. Aglaia formosana Hayata. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. Wendl. =A.) Delile. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Wendl. costatum N. shrub 2191.C.) H. shrub 2167. Afzelia quanzensis Welw. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. N.E. Presl.. herb 2168. Agave angustifolia Haw. wilkesiana (Müll.) Roem. Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae. var. Agave americana L. tree 2160. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae.) H. herb 2195. f.. shrub 2193. Page. Actinorhytis calapparia (Blume) H.) Baker... Agathis robusta (C. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. herb 2190. M. tree.) Becc.) Müll. tree 2199. & H.A. Aidia cochinchinensis Lour. Acalypha chamaedrifolia (Lam.) Correa. costatum. Aeschynanthus speciosus Hook. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Filicinophyta: Adiantaceae. 2159. Muell. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae.. tree 2183. herb 2197.E.. tree 2170. ex Becc. Magnoliophyta: Gesneriaceae. & Drude... reptans Sw. tree 2196..Arg. Magnoliophyta: Agavaceae. Filicinophyta: Adiantaceae. f. Magnoliophyta: Agavaceae. herb 2188. shrub 2200. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. herb 2187. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae..) Kuntze. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Afrocarpus gracilior (Pilg. A. Aechmea chantinii (Carriere) Baker.) Rich. Afgekia sericea Craib. Moore ex F. Aglaia odorata Lour. Magnoliophyta: Agavaceae. Adonidia merrillii (Becc. Adansonia digitata L. shrub. Aglaonema costatum N. tree 2169. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Pinophyta: Araucariaceae. tree 2178. Ajuga reptans L. shrub 2165. Aglaonema tenuipes Engl. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Allamanda oenotherifolia Pohl. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Bailey. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. climber 2201. Acalypha variegata Rusby. =A. herb 2204. Allamanda blanchetii A.. Alloxylon flammeum P. Allamanda schottii Pohl.E.) C. Aegle marmelos (L. Allium sativum L.Moore 2174. herb. Acacia nilotica (L. herb 2189. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. climber 2202.) F. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae.. H. Pinophyta: Podocarpaceae. Adiantum raddianum C. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Don. Adiantum trapeziforme L. shrub 2177. Albizia lebbeck (L. Allagoptera campestris (Mart. Agave tequilana F. tree 2182. foxii Engl. shrub 2203. Pinophyta: Araucariaceae. Aechmea fasciata (Lindl. wilkesiana Müll. climber 2180. tree 2205. DC.. Adenium obesum (Forssk. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Cunn. Afzelia xylocarpa (Kurz) Craib.) Fosberg.. tree 2198. Pinophyta: Araucariaceae. Acoelorraphe wrightii (Griseb.Arg. climber 2179. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. herb 2172.. Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae. Br. 2162. tree 2192. ex G. shrub 2175. tree 2161. herb 232 . Aglaia duperreana Pierre..Chong et al. tree 2185.. Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae. Br. Agave attenuata Salm-Dyck.. & Schult. tree 2181. Weston & Crisp. tree 2186. Magnoliophyta: Acoraceae.) Benth. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Acorus gramineus Sol. 2163. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae..) G. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. Acacia holosericea A. Agathis borneensis Warb. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Araceae.

Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae. tree 2230. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. tree 2245.) B. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Greg. & W..) R.. herb 2240. Aloe variegata L. & Drude.B. tree 2249. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. herb 2236. shrub 2215. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae.. Foster. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Araucaria cunninghamiana Aiton ex A. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Araucaria heterophylla (Salisb.) Nicholson. herb 2210. Araucaria hunsteinii K. Annona squamosa L. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae... shrub 2238. tree 2243. Pinophyta: Araucariaceae. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Anemopaegma chamberlaynii (Sims) Bureau & K. B. herb 2209..) Schult. =A. ex Oliv. Anthurium andraeanum Linden ex Andre.. Alpinia purpurata (Vieill. tree 2247.. Burtt & R.) Schwantes.. f. f. Br. Araucaria columnaris (G. C. Annona muricata L. Aptenia cordifolia (L.. tree 2244. Schum. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. tree 2218. Pinophyta: Araucariaceae. shrub 2221. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Alternanthera paronychioides A. herb 2220. tree 2217. herb 2233. Forst. Alpinia vittata W. herb 2241. Wendl. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. herb 2235.) Hu. tree 2251. tree 2248. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.) Wendl. herb 2234. var.-Hil.. Archidendron lucyi F. Alpinia zerumbet (Pers. E..) Seem.. shrub 2242. herb 2239. tree 2229. Ananas nanus (L. Alternanthera ficoidea (L. Nielsen. Cunn. herb 2223. Bull. shrub 2208. & Drude.) P.. Anisoptera scaphula Pierre. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Arachis pintoi Krapov. Sm. Anthurium crystallinum Linden & Andre. Beauv. Aphelandra sinclairiana Nees.. herb 2222. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. herb 2226. B. Muell. Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae. Sm. Br. Archidendron lucidum (Benth. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Arachis hypogaea L. f. St. Anthurium plowmanii Croat. tree 2231. tree 2212.) I. Magnoliophyta: Amaranthaceae.) K. Alstonia spectabilis R.. glabra N.. Amorphophallus paeoniifolius (Dennst.) Exell & Torre. Aloe vera (L. Aralia elata (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. C. Br. Amsonia tabernaemontana Walter. Amherstia nobilis Wall. Anubias barteri Schott var. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.) Burm. tree 2227. tree 233 .. Ananas bracteatus (Lindl. tree 2228. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.) L. Archontophoenix cunninghamiana (Wendl. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. shrub. Pinophyta: Araucariaceae. Amblygonocarpus andongensis (Welw. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Asphodelaceae. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Pinophyta: Araucariaceae.) H... Amorphophallus variabilis Blume. Schum. Muell. tree 2213. Araucaria bidwillii Hook. Magnoliophyta: Amaranthaceae. tree 2216. Angelonia salicariifolia Bonpl. Archontophoenix alexandrae (F. Magnoliophyta: Anisophyllaceae. Anisoptera curtisii Dyer ex King. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Archidendron ramiflorum (F. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. striatus M. Magnoliophyta: Aizoaceae.) Hook. Schum. Aphelandra squarrosa Nees. & Schult. tree 2246. Amesiodendron chinense (Merr. Annona cherimola Mill. tenella Colla 2214. climber 2224..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2206.. herb 2211. L. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Magnoliophyta: Asphodelaceae.. herb 2219. herb 2225. Anisophyllea corneri Ding Hou. Sm. shrub 2207. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.) Franco. shrub 2237. Muell. M. tree 2250.) Kosterm.. tree 2232. Angelonia biflora Benth. Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae. Alstonia scholaris (L. Pinophyta: Araucariaceae..

Arenga hookeriana (Becc. tree 2297. Magnoliophyta: Aristolochiaceae. herb 2290. Areca vestiaria Giseke. Wendl. tree 2293.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree 2256. Artocarpus camansi Blanco. herb 2289. tree 2255. Muell. Asterogyne martiana H. Aristolochia labiata Willd. shrub 2286..Chong et al.) Sandwith. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. herb 2278. & Zucc. Muell. Palmer & Steyerm.. Arfeuillea arborescens Pierre. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae. Rob. Arenga microcarpa Becc. Aristolochia acuminata Lam.-Ham. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. Baccaurea ramiflora Lour. shrub 2257. herb 2280. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. shrub 2296. =Bambusa variegata Siebold ex Miq.. f. Attalea cohune Mart. shrub 2267. Magnoliophyta: Aristolochiaceae. Asparagus setaceus (Kunth) Jessop. climber 2272. climber 2270.) Craven. tree 2299. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. A. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. tree 2259. & Kit. Aristolochia ringens Vahl. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. White) L.. Asclepias syriaca L. Asystasia chelonoides Nees.. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. tree 2260.) Whitmore. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. herb 2287. Ardisia humilis Vahl.. 2271.) Makino. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. S. tree 2258. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. epiphyte 2291. Filicinophyta: Aspleniaceae.. climber 2277. tree 2254. tree 2262. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. shrub 2253. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae..J. Areca ipot Becc. Arundo donax L. Magnoliophyta: Asparagaceae. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Asparagus densiflorus (Kunth) Jessop. Areca triandra Roxb.. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. herb 2279.) Bhandari. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Aspidistra lurida Ker Gawl. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.. tree 2298. Magnoliophyta: Aristolochiaceae. tree 2285. Artabotrys hexapetalus (L. shrub 2265. herb 2294. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Atractocarpus benthamianus (F. Artemisia vulgaris L. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. L. f. Ardisia wallichii A. Areca concinna Thwaites. climber 2274. Arrabidaea corallina (Jacq. Muell.. Artocarpus odoratissimus Blanco. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) Puttock. ex DC. kansana (Vail) E. tree 2295. Asteromyrtus symphyocarpa (F.) Bojer. ex Drude. herb 2284. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae. DC. Arundinaria variegata (Siebold ex. tree 2282... Muell. herb 2288. var. tree 2261. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Arenga tremula (Blanco) Becc. Arenga undulatifolia Becc. Artemisia lactiflora Wall. Aspidistra elatior Blume. Johnson & B. ex Buch.. tree 2269. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae... Arenga brevipes Becc... Jacobs. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. tree 2266. shrub 2263. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Aristolochia elegans Mast.. climber. G. climber 2273. Magnoliophyta: Aristolochiaceae. Aristolochia gigantea Mart.. tree 2300. climber 2276. Areca macrocarpa Becc. Areca guppyana Becc. =A. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. T. climber 2275. tree 2281. Artemisia scoparia Waldst. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Briggs. shrub. Argyreia nervosa (Burm. tree 2292. Areca alicae W. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. tagala Cham. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Hill ex F. Athertonia diversifolia (C. Ardisia comosa (de Wit) Taton. 2283. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Asplenium thunbergii Kunze.) Drude. shrub 2264. Arytera divaricata F. Arenga pinnata (Wurmb) Merr.. shrub 2268. Attalea insignis (Mart. Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae. Azadirachta excelsa (Jack) M.. herb 234 . Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Aristolochiaceae. Bacopa caroliniana (Walter) B. 2252. Magnoliophyta: Asparagaceae. Miq.

.) H. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae. Bauhinia acuminata L.. tree 2347. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Perrier. Moore. f. Blighia sapida K.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. shrub 2308. Bauhinia monandra Kurz. Bauhinia forficata Link. Begonia rex Putz. Br. Bignonia violacea DC. tree 2309. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Baphia massaiensis Taub. Wendl. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Magnoliophyta: Basellaceae. Billbergia pyramidalis (Sims) Lindl. herb 2345. climber 2333. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Bauhinia galpinii N. tree 2316.. Muell.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. climber 2320. Magnoliophyta: Begoniaceae. Blechnum gibbum (Lab. tree 2338. shrub 2336. Bauhinia integrifolia Roxb.. var. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Berchemia discolor (Klotzsch) Hemsl. Magnoliophyta: Begoniaceae. & H.) Raeusch... tree 2344. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Basella alba L... herb 2341. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae. climber 2342. Bentinckia nicobarica (Kurz) Becc. shrub 2310. Barringtonia acutangula (L. climber 2325. herb. tree 2324. Bauhinia kochiana Korth... Bambusa multiplex (Lour. tree 2334. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. tree 2314. Bauhinia purpurea L. Barleria repens Nees. Billardiera heterophylla (Lindl. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Bauhinia bidentata Jack... D. Begonia cucullata Willd. tree 2330. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 2319. Bolusanthus speciosus (Bolus) Harms.. Bauhinia tomentosa L. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae. Bischofia javanica Blume. tree 2339. shrub 2306. ex Schult & Schult. Cayzer & Crisp. Bactris guineensis (L. Baikiaea insignis Benth. tree 2346. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Barleria cristata L. W. Koenig.) L. tree 2303.. Bauhinia hookeri F. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Barringtonia edulis Seem.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. shrub 2331.) Gaertn. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.. tree 2327..) Wall.. E. Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Barringtonia scortechinii King. tree 235 . tree 2351. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. tree 2321... Bauhinia divaricata L.. shrub 2307. Begonia masoniana Irmsch. =B. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Beccariophoenix madagascariensis Jum. climber 2318. shrub 2302. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. herb 2337. Bambusa tuldoides Munro. shrub 2348. Bismarckia nobilis Hildebrandt & H. shrub 2312. cucullata. Beaumontia jerdoniana Wight. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. tree 2329. Blainvillea acmella (L. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. tree 2317. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Barleria obtusa Nees. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae.. Barringtonia calyptrata R... semperflorens Link & Otto 2335. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Bambusa lako Widjaja. Bixa orellana L.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 2315. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Bixaceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2301. shrub 2305.. shrub 2323. E. Bignonia capreolata L. Bidens alba (L.) Mett... shrub 2322. Bertholletia excelsa Bonpl. climber 2332. Br. Baeckea frutescens L. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Barleria lupulina Lindl. Beaumontia grandiflora (Roxb. Bambusa ventricosa McClure. herb 2350. Magnoliophyta: Begoniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae. tree 2340. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Magnoliophyta: Pittosporaceae. climber 2343. Beaucarnea recurvata Lem.) DC. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.) Philipson. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Bauhinia variegata L. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. ex Benth. herb 2349. Magnoliophyta: Rhamnaceae. tree 2328. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Filicinophyta: Blechnaceae. climber 2326. shrub 2311. herb 2313. tree 2304.

Watson. Brownea coccinea Jacq. Calathea roseopicta (Linden) Regel. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. =B. Muell. 2352. Caladium bicolor (Aiton) Vent.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Bunchosia armeniaca (Cav. Buddleja davidii Franch. tree 2372.. tree 2377. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malpighiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. Bombax oleagineum (Decne. tree 2366. tree 2384. herb 2393. tree 2360.. Magnoliophyta: Malpighiaceae.) Taub. Calathea makoyana E. Brownea crawfordii W. Breynia disticha J. Bulbine frutescens (L. Brunfelsia americana L.. tree 2361. Velasquez & G. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. capitella (Jacq.) Willd. tree 2356. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae.. Calathea majestica (Linden) H. herb 2375. Byrsonima crassifolia (L. herb 2390. herb 2394. Caesalpinia ferrea Mart. herb 2396. leiocarpum. tree 2358. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.. Borassus flabellifer L. tree 2355. Bridelia micrantha (Hochst. Brownea rosa-de-monte Bergius.R. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 2376. ex S. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.) Willd. Brachychiton acerifolius (A..) Kunth. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Caesalpinia sappan L. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Bucida buceras L. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae..) Schult. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. shrub 2373. herb 2389.A. herb 2397. Caesalpinia coriaria (Jacq. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Butea monosperma (Lam. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Borassodendron machadonis Becc. Butia capitata (Mart.. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. shrub 2380. flava Bailey & Rehder 2383.) DC. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. herb 2399. herb 2374.) A. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.A. shrub 2398. shrub 2357. calycina Benth. tree 2365. Mitch. tree 2363.. Forst. herb 2387. Macbr. Magnoliophyta: Scrophulariaceae. Calathea lutea (Aubl. shrub 2395. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae.. =C. Burkea africana Hook.. herb 2386. Don) Macarthur. Calathea picturata (Linden) K. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. herb 2385. ssp. var.. Watson. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. herb 2391. Cunn. ex Tul. Robyns.. Caesalpinia pulcherrima (L. Gómez) Alwan & Stace. tree 2354. Calathea loeseneri J. Forst.) Becc. shrub. tree 2381. herb 2388. Brachychiton rupestris (T. tree 2370. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. Buddleja asiatica Lour. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. ex G. tree 2382. Magnoliophyta: Asphodelaceae. Magnoliophyta: Araceae..) Sw.. Morren. Calathea insignis Petersen.) Benth. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Calathea ornata (Linden ex Lem. tree 2364. Calathea crotalifera S. Brahea edulis H. Watson. tree 2378.) Sw. & G.Chong et al. Magnoliophyta: Nyctaginaceae. pulcherrima (L. Calathea leopardina Regel. shrub 2392. Bull) Regel. Caladium lindenii (Andre) Madison. Calathea bella (W. var. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae.. nivosa (W. 2369... Caladium humboldtii (Raf.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. ex Lindl.) Korn. Kenn. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Bull) Small 2362. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae. Kenn. Bougainvillea glabra Choisy. Magnoliophyta: Scrophulariaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. shrub 236 . shrub. Calathea orbifolia (Linden) H..) D. tree 2371.F. Bombax ceiba L. Brachychiton discolor F... tree 2359. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae.) Schott.) K. Brownea grandiceps Jacq. Agostini. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. tree 2353. Schum. Wendl.. Bucida molinetii (M. Calathea crocata E.. =B. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Brunfelsia pauciflora (Cham. Morren & Joriss. tree 2367. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae..) Baill. & Schltdl. Buchanania lucida Blume. tree 2379. climber 2368. Koch & Linden.

Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) Dowe & M.) Schot. Calodendrum capense Thunb. tree 2415. Calocephalus brownii (Cass. elegans (Alexander ex H.Dransf. Mathieu) Planch...) Benth. climber 2426. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. emarginata (Humb. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 2414. Campsis radicans (L. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae.E. Caryota maxima Blume ex Mart. shrub 2409. herb 2433. shrub 2435. tree 2430. var. Callistemon pallidus (Bonpl. shrub 2410.) W. herb 2443. ex K. Callistemon sieberi DC. tree 2425. emarginata (Humb. tree 2416.) DC. herb 2402. Aiton. Hunt.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. & Bonpl. & Thomson.) Hook. f. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae.. tree 2428. shrub 2434. tree 2431. Caryota cumingii Lodd. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae.) G. Carpobrotus edulis (L.D.. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.) Hook. Caryota no Becc. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. & Linden. tree 2436.) H.. tree. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree 237 . Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. herb 2411.) Engl. Canarium oleosum (Lam. tree 2419. Calyptrocalyx micholitzii (Ridl. herb 2412. Canarium odontophyllum Miq.. tree 2445. tree 2432. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. fasciata Petersen. Magnoliophyta: Cannaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae. 2408.) A. Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae. ex Wild. Calliandra tergemina (L. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Capsicum annuum L. =Millettia reticulata Benth. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Gillett. herb 2405. Magnoliophyta: Aizoaceae.) L. 2406. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Calliandra haematocephala Hassk. shrub 2401. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae.T. Ferrero. shrub 2440..) L.) Barneby. shrub 2407. Camoensia scandens (Welw. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. & Bonpl..) Seem ex Bureau. Moore) D. tree 2420.) N. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Caryota rumphiana Mart.. tree 2423. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. herb 2403. Canna glauca L.. shrub.) Koern. Magnoliophyta: Cyclanthaceae. Moore. Muell. Calathea rufibarba Fenzl. shrub 2418. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. tree 2438. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. ex Willd. Magnoliophyta: Rhizophoraceae. Br. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae... Muell. shrub 2439.E. f.) Benth. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree 2441.... Calotropis gigantea (L. tree 2447. Calophyllum sil Lauterb. Calyptronoma occidentalis (Sw. Capsicum frutescens L. Maturb.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2400.. Callistemon viminalis (Sol. R. Canarium vulgare Leenh.) Woodson. Heatubun & J. Calpurnia aurea (Aiton) Benth.. climber 2427.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Callicarpa tomentosa (L. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Don. tree 2429.. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. tree 2424... Callisia gentlei Matuda var. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. Callistemon citrinus (Curtis) Skeels. Carallia suffruticosa Ridl.. herb 2404. ex Gaertn. var. Carphalea kirondron Baill.. Callicarpa pedunculata R. DC. Carpentaria acuminata Becc. tree 2422.) J.) F. Callisia fragrans (Lindl. =C. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. tree 2437. Calathea rotundifolia (Koch. Carludovica palmata Ruiz. E. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree 2417. ex Mart. Cananga odorata (Lam. Br. Calathea veitchiana Veitch ex Hook. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae. Calathea warscewiczii (L. Callerya reticulata (Benth. shrub 2442. Calathea zebrina (Sims) Lindl. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Canarium indicum L. tree 2444. f. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae.. Schum. Caryota zebrina Hambali.. Cardwellia sublimis F. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae.. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Carapa guianensis Aubl. Carissa macrocarpa (Eckl. & Pav. herb 2413. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae... Calycophyllum spruceanum (Benth..B. tree 2446. shrub 2421.. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Callisia repens (Jacq.

. Don. Cassia renigera Benth. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. f. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Burtt. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Cinnamomum aromaticum Nees. Magnoliophyta: Agavaceae. tree 2494. tree 2493.. Chamaedorea elegans Mart.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Castanospora alphandii (F. Citharexylum spinosum L. Chamaedorea metallica O. Fraser. tree 238 . tree 2460.. Chamaerops humilis L.. St. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. shrub 2469.Chong et al. tree 2483. Castanospermum australe A. tree 2491. Br. bichetii Backer 2482.F. Cassia bakeriana Craib. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. herb 2488. Magnoliophyta: Casuarinaceae. tree 2478. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. 2448. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. f. tree 2457. Chlorophytum laxum R. herb. Br. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Christia vespertilionis (L. Moore.) Bakh. Cestrum diurnum L. tree 2473. Chrysophyllum cainito L.. Chukrasia tabularis A. tree 2459. Casuarina cunninghamiana Miq. Chisocheton longistipitatus (Bailey) L. Chambeyronia macrocarpa (Brongn. tree 2456.D.. shrub 2468. Chamaedorea microspadix Burret. tree 2452.. Cereus hildmannianus K. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae. tree 2451.) Roberty. herb 2485. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Chonemorpha penangensis Ridl. tree 2474. Sm. tree 2492. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Cannabaceae. Cassia roxburghii DC.. Juss. Cestrum elegans (Brongn.) J. Chrysothemis pulchella Decne. tree 2486. tree 2490. tree 2462.E. Ceiba speciosa (A. herb 2479. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Agavaceae. Magnoliophyta: Casuarinaceae. Chamaedorea seifrizii Burret.. tree 2455.. Cunn. tree 2477. Chlorophytum comosum (Thunb.) F.) Ravenna. herb 2489.S. Cercestis mirabilis (N. amaniense (Engl. & C. tree 2495.. shrub 2470. Citrus aurantiifolia (Christm... Presl. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae. tree 2472. Magnoliophyta: Gesneriaceae. Casuarina nobilis Whitmore.. Cassia javanica L. shrub 2449. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Cestrum aurantiacum Lindl.-Hil. Poulsen. herb. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Casuarina junghuhniana Miq. Presl.) Voss. tree 2496. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. Centratherum punctatum Cass. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae..) B. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae.. shrub 2476. Cinnamomum burmannii (Nees and T. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Catalpa ovata G. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae. f. tree 2458.. Br. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. shrub 2467.L. Magnoliophyta: Araceae.. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae.E. ssp. tree 2461. tree 2454. Chrysophyllum oliviforme L. herb 2466.) Vieill. & A. Cinnamomum camphora (L. Choerospondias axillaris (Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.) Bogner.. 2481.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. herb 2480. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. tree 2463. Chlorophytum filipendulum Baker ssp. Cook ex H. Hill. herb.. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae..) Swingle. Schum. Magnoliophyta: Verbenaceae.E.W. Chrysopogon zizanioides (L. Cestrum nocturnum L. Magnoliophyta: Casuarinaceae. Cassia grandis L. ex Neumann) Schltdl. tree 2487. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. f. herb 2464. Citrus madurensis Lour. Muell. =C. tree 2450. climber 2484. Magnoliophyta: Agavaceae. Cassia artemisioides DC. Chlorophytum capense (L. 2465.. Muell. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Chamaedorea cataractarum Mart.. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. amaniense Engl. ex Becc. =Rhektophyllum mirabile N. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Cassia fistula L. tree 2453. =C. Celtis africana Burm. Magnoliophyta: Agavaceae. Nees) Blume.. Magnoliophyta: Cactaceae.) Nordal & A. Cinnamomum verum J.) Jacques.. shrub 2471. shrub 2475. oliviforme.

) M. shrub 2509. Coccothrinax crinita (Griseb.) Osbeck. Lawson. flava Urb.. climber 2533. Clerodendrum indicum (L.. Coreopsis grandiflora Hogg ex Sweet. Coprosma rugosa Cheeseman. Magnoliophyta: Ranunculaceae.. tree 2527. Cochlospermum religiosum (L. climber 2530. Wendl. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree 2516. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Johnson. shrub 2507. Corymbia maculata (Hook... tree 2502. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. shrub 2543. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae.) K. tree 2503.. Coffea liberica W. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae.. Clinostigma samoense H. Cornukaempferia aurantiflora J. Moore. Cordia caffra Sond. Citrus paradasi Macfad. Clematis heynei M. Clerodendrum buchananii (Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. tree 2523. climber 2519. shrub 2511. Bull ex Hiern. Magnoliophyta: Boraginaceae. Coccoloba uvifera (L. tree 2517.) Walp. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Clerodendrum wallichii Merr. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Don. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Clappertonia ficifolia (Willd. tree 2536. Magnoliophyta: Laxmanniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Boraginaceae. tree 2525. Muell.E.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae..) Schott & Endl. Magnoliophyta: Bixaceae. Clerodendrum splendens G.. Clytostoma callisgtegioides (Cham. Cordia superba Cham. tree 2535. Cleistanthus schlechteri Hutch... Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Clusia rosea Jacq. Hill & L. tree 2500. tree 2498. Clianthus puniceus (G. Cola nitida (Vent. climber 2505. Clerodendrum bungei Steud. tree 239 . Columnea tulae Urb. Clausena brevistyla Oliv.) H. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. A. Magnoliophyta: Polygonaceae. Coprosma australis Robinson. herb 2546. Larsen.. tree 2540. shrub 2501. Combretum erythrophyllum (Burch.) K.. Coreopsis tinctoria Nutt. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Wendl.) Spreng. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.. climber 2504.) Decne.. Corymbia papuana (F. Rau.. tree 2515. shrub 2514. Clerodendrum calamitosum L. tree 2521. tree 2520. Combretum comosum G. & H. shrub 2510. shrub 2539. shrub 2532. shrub 2538. Don) Lindl.A.. tree 2524. Don. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Cola gigantea A. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. shrub 2508. Combretum constrictum (Benth.) Endl. Clematis aristata Ker Gawl.) Sond.. Clerodendrum chinense (Osbeck) Mabb. Citrus maxima (Burm. ex Kerch. tree 2547.S.. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. shrub 2531. Clusia colombiana Pipoly.) L. tree 2518. Clerodendrum quadriloculare (Blanco) Merr. shrub 2506. shrub 2512. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 2542.) Becc. Copaifera officinalis (Jacq.) Kuntze. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Mood & K. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 2537. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. Cochlospermum vitifolium (Willd.A.D. Combretum grandiflorum G.A. Citrus sinensis (L. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. Johnson.) L. Cordyline australis (G. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Copernicia prunifera (Mill. Clitoria fairchildiana R. Chev.. Copernicia baileyana Léon. tree 2529. Don. Forst. Magnoliophyta: Ranunculaceae. Cordia sebestena L.. Howard.) Bureau & Schum. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Colvillea racemosa Bojer.D. climber 2528.. herb 2544. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Gesneriaceae. var.... Magnoliophyta: Boraginaceae. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. herb 2545.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2497. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.) Merr. tree 2534. shrub 2513.. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Hill & L. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Magnoliophyta: Bixaceae. tree 2522. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. tree 2499. tree 2526. tree 2541. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae.S..A.) Alston. Froehner... Copernicia alba Morong. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Coffea canephora Pierre ex A.

. herb 2554. Williams. Cuphea hyssopifolia Kunth. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Ctenanthe oppenheimiana (E. Corymbia ptychocarpa (F. Costus malortieanus H. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. shrub 2585.. shrub 2573.. herb 2574. tree 2550. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Costus amazonicus (Loes. Crinum album Herb. Sirirugsa & M.F. Crinum jagus (J. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae. tree 2549. Corypha utan Lam.. Magnoliophyta: Costaceae.S. herb 2563. Wendl. herb 2558. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae. Costus curvibracteatus Maas. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae...D.. Curcuma rubrobracteata Škorničk.. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Magnoliophyta: Costaceae.F.D. Magnoliophyta: Costaceae.) Domin. Dietr. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Cycadophyta: Cycadaceae. Hill & L. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Prasanthk. Johnson... Cycas siamensis (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Costaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Thomps. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae.) J.) Nees. herb 2562. Cymbopogon calcicola C. Cyclanthus bipartitus Poit. Corymbia torelliana (F. herb 2579. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Hill & L. Cuphea ignea A. Crescentia cujete L.D. 2548. herb 2576. Cycadophyta: Cycadaceae. herb 2595.) K.. Croton tiglium L. M.S. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae. Cupaniopsis foveolata (F. herb 2587. herb 2588. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Sabu &. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae. Crossostephium chinense (L. Muell.. tree 2592. Magnoliophyta: Costaceae. tree 2591.) Dandy.) Stapf. Muell.. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Costus woodsonii Maas. herb 2596. herb 2580. Cotinus coggygria Scop. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Schum. Filicinophyta: Cyatheaceae. Muell. herb 2556.) Beer. Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae. Costus erythrophyllus Loes.-Ham.) Sw. Magnoliophyta: Costaceae. Magnoliophyta: Costaceae. Costus spicatus (Jacq.. Crossandra infundibuliformis (L. Magnoliophyta: Costaceae.) Makino. Cymbopogon flexuosus (Nees ex Steud.) Radlk..S. Curcuma longa L. herb 2561. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. herb 2571. shrub 2564. Costus varzearum Maas. Cryptanthus bromelioides Otto & A..) K. Johnson. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae. Corymbia polycarpa (F. Costus stenophyllus Standl. Cycadophyta: Cycadaceae. Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae. Cupaniopsis curvidentata (Bailey) Radlk. shrub 2572. Costus productus Gleason ex Maas. Muell. shrub 2584. DC. Cryptostegia grandiflora R.. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) K. tree 2567.) K. tree 2593.) J.) de Laub. Cyathea cooperi (Hook.. tree 2551. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Crinum moorei Hook.. tree 2575.. herb 2569. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae.A. Crinum xanthophyllum Hannibal. herb 2570. Curcuma parviflora Wall. & L. herb 2557. tree 2553. Johnson. Cycas revoluta Thunb.. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Ctenanthe setosa (Roscoe) Eichl. Corypha umbraculifera L. Magnoliophyta: Capparaceae. f. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. herb 2568.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae. climber 2578. Watson. herb 240 . tree 2582. Curcuma rhabdota P. Magnoliophyta: Costaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Cryptanthus zonatus (Vis. Forst. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae.. herb 2586. tree 2565..A. Magnoliophyta: Cyclanthaceae. Hill & L..F. Macbr.O. Crateva religiosa G. Morren. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. herb 2555. herb 2594. Crossandra pungens Lindau. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. herb 2560. Cymbopogon citratus (DC. tree 2590. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.A. tree 2566. herb 2581. Couroupita guianensis Aubl.E. herb 2589.Chong et al. tree 2583. tree 2552. Hubb. Br. Muell... Ctenanthe lubbersiana (E. Newman.. Cosmos sulphureus Cav. ex F. herb 2559. Cycas pectinata Buch. Morren) Eichler ex Petersen. herb 2577.

Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae..L. shrub 2622. Dalbergia odorifera T. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.T. Magnoliophyta: Colchicaceae.H. Didymochlaena truncatula (Sw. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree 2632.. herb 2601. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. Dictyosperma album (Bory) H. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Br. tree 2639. Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae. Dialium cochinchinense Pierre. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae. herb 2600. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 2638. Mikan. climber 2643.. Dichorisandra thyrsiflora J. Distylium racemosum Siebold & Zucc. Dalbergia cultrata Benth. Dalbergia cochinchinensis Pierre.. Muell..R. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Dovyalis hebecarpa (Gardner) Warb. tree 2628. tree 2614. Magnoliophyta: Cunoniaceae. Diospyros tristis King & Gamble. tree 2631.) Kostel. tree 2604.. tree 2610. DC. Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae. Diospyros oblonga Wall. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Dalbergia latifolia Roxb.C. herb 2619. Gaertn. Diospyros blancoi A. Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook. Diospyros durionoides Bakh. Deplanchea tetraphylla (R.. herb 2620..Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2597. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. tree 2635. Dillenia albiflos (Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. ex G. tree 2641. Pinophyta: Podocarpaceae. & Harv. Don. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. Darlingia ferruginea J. Diospyros horsfieldii Hiern. tree 2617.) Merr. tree 2599.. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) Martelli. Dipterocarpus chartaceus Symington. tree 241 . Dissotis rotundifolia (Sm. Muell. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Burtt. tree 2598. tree 2616. Chen.W.) Hoogl.. tree 2603. Bailey. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae..F. shrub 2647...C. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. tree 2607.. Cynometra malaccensis Meeuwen. tree 2612. Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae.) Triana. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.. climber 2606. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae. Dalbergia oliveri Prain. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. tree 2637. tree 2648. Dalbergia sissoo DC. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. Diploglottis bracteata Leenh. Dipterocarpus baudii Korth. Dorstenia contrajerva L. tree 2634.) Raf. herb 2623. Deckenia nobilis H. Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae. tree 2608. tree 2630. Forst & G. Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.. tree 2615. f. shrub 2611. tree 2609. Cyperus alternifolius L. Dillenia alata (R. tree 2640. Forst. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. tree 2633. tree 2646. shrub 2644. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. Dacrycarpus imbricatus (Blume) de Laub.) Sweet ex Klatt. Dipterocarpus costatus C. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. tree 2625. Filicinophyta: Dryopteridaceae. Dipterocarpus apterus Foxworthy. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae.. & Thomson. tree 2624. Dianella caerulea Sims. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Datura metel L. Dillenia ovata Wall. tree 2613.) Ducke..) Warb.. f. tree 2626. Pearsen. Magnoliophyta: Hemerocallidaceae. tree 2629. Dalbergia negrensis (Radlk.. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae..) J. Dichondra repens J. tree 2602. Dillenia philippinensis Rolfe. Dietes bicolor (Steud. climber 2645. Dipterocarpus oblongifolius Blume... Diospyros discolor Willd. Dillenia ingens B. Reynolds. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Wendl. Dischidia pectenoides H. herb 2618. tree 2621. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ebenaceae. tree 2636. tree 2627. Cynometra cauliflora L. Cyperus papyrus L. Magnoliophyta: Iridaceae. Wendl. Disporum cantoniense (Lour. Dialium schlechteri Harms. & Drude ex Scheff. ex Hook. Diploglottis berniana S. tree 2642. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 2605.F... Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Davidsonia pruriens F. ex DC. Dovyalis caffra (Hook. Sm. Br. Diospyros malabarica (Desr. Magnoliophyta: Hamamelidaceae.) F. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. ex Seem.

shrub. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. Dransf. var. Dypsis sanctaemariae J. & H. Dypsis cabadae (H. tree 2690. Dracaena goldieana hort. tree 2681. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae.. Sander ex Mast.F. tree 2672. herb 2685. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. Duabanga grandiflora (Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Dypsis lutescens (H. shrub 2654. Dypsis lastelliana (Baill. Dransf. Dransf.Chong et al. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. 2665. Durio graveolens Becc. Elaeocarpus grandiflorus Sm. tree 2697. Magnoliophyta: Musaceae..W. & Rolfe. shrub 2658. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) Gaertn. tree 2680. herb 2683.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) J.. Forst. shrub 2657.E. Perrier) Beentje & J. shrub 2695. tree 2686.R. tree 2663.) Beentje & J. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae. Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Dracaena loureiroi Gagnep.. Wendl. Duranta erecta L. Enterolobium cyclocarpum (Jacq. Elaeocarpus dentatus (J.M. Muell. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae. tree 2692. tree 2688.. Dracaena compacta hort.M. Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Verbenaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. Francis. tree 2699.M. Bailey. thalioides Makoy ex Regel 2651. Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth.) Beentje & J. Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae. Elaeis guineensis Jacq. herb 2694. Dypsis pinnatifrons Mart.. Echinocactus grusonii Hildm. Eleutherococcus nodiflorus (Dunn) S. Endiandra longipedicellata C. Dryobalanops oblongifolia Dyer. Forst. tree 2666. Dracontomelon dao (Blanco) Merr. Dracaena marginata Lam. Dypsis ambositrae Beentje. shrub 2653. Dracontomelon duperreanum Pierre.) Barneby & J. Echinodorus palaefolius (Nees & Mart. White & W. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree 2664. Dypsis mcdonaldiana Beentje. Dracaena reflexa Lam.) Griseb. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Dracaena angustifolia Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae. Elaeocarpus angustifolius Blume. & G. tree 2675. ex Baker. & F. Morren. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Drymophloeus oliviformis (Giseke) Mart.. tree 2691. Elaeocarpus bancroftii F. Ensete superbum (Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree 2670. herb 2684. Dransf.) Vahl.) Beentje & J. Dransf.Y. tree 2668. tree 2677. tree 2676. Dysoxylum pettigrewianum F. Dypsis madagascariensis (Becc. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Dypsis leptocheilos (Hodel) Beentje & J. tree 2662. Dracaena sanderiana hort.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Dracaena surculosa Lindl. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. tree 2669. Elaeocarpus apiculatus Mast.. Macbr. ex W. herb 242 . Eleusine coracana (L.. Hu. shrub 2650. tree 2667. Bailey. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.F. Endiandra impressicosta C. Dransf..) Cheesman. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. =D.D. Dypsis hovomantsina Beentje. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae.K. Dypsis decaryi (Jum. Moore) Beentje & J. Bailey. 2649.. shrub 2652. Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Ebenopsis ebano (Berland. tree 2693. shrub 2656.) Walp. tree 2678. tree 2660. Magnoliophyta: Alismataceae. Dransf.T. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Dracaena aubryana Brongn. tree 2698. tree 2689. tree 2659. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae.. Dypsis rivularis (Jum.. Dransf. shrub 2655. shrub 2674.. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae. tree 2661. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Pontederiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.) Beentje & J. Magnoliophyta: Elaeocarpaceae. tree 2696.. Elaeocarpus hainanensis Oliver. tree 2671. Magnoliophyta: Cactaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Dypsis nodifera Mart. Grimes. Elateriospermum tapos Blume. honoriae F.. ex DC. Dypsis paludosa J.. tree 2687. Bull. Allen. =D. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. repens L. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Dryobalanops aromatica C. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. Gaertn. ex E.. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae.) Kunth. tree 2679. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. shrub 2673. Dransf. tree 2682.

Erythrina variegata L.. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Eranthemum nigrum Linden. Eucalyptus globulus Labill.. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. tree 2713.. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. tree 2708. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. tree 2720. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. tree 2721. Euterpe edulis Mart. Euphorbia lactea Haw. Eucalyptus platyphylla F. tree 243 . Euphorbia milii Des Moul. tree 2725. Muell. Euphorbia neriifolia L. Muell.Don 2718. tree 2710. Eucalyptus umbrawarrensis Maiden. shrub 2746. shrub 2741. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Equisetophyta: Equisetaceae. tree 2735. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus moluccana Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Eucalyptus apodophylla Blakely & Jacobs. Euterpe oleraceae Mart. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 2742. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 2722.. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.. Erythrophleum suaveolens (Guill. Eugenia stipitata McVaugh.. shrub 2740. Erythrina fusca Lour. Equisetum scirpoides Michx. Episcia cupreata (Hook.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 2712. Eucalyptus botryoides Sm. Epipremnum amplissimum (Schott) Engl. tree.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. shrub 2707.. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Eucalyptus alba Reinw. Eucalyptus microcorys F.. Mey. Eucalyptus pilularis Sm. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. herb 2737. Erythrina latissima E. Eucalyptus deglupta Blume. Eucrosia bicolor Ker Gawl.) Lindl. Muell. Magnoliophyta: Cactaceae. herb 2705. herb 2748. tree 2733. & Binn. Muell. tree 2728. Magnoliophyta: Rosaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. tree 2739. tree 2714. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 2749. Eugenia reinwardtiana (Blume) DC..... shrub 2743... Magnoliophyta: Gesneriaceae. Muell.) Haw.M. Erythrina caffra Thunb. Erythrina vespertilio Benth. tree 2738. Eusideroxylon zwageri Teijsm. Euphorbia antiquorum L. herb 2719.. Erythrina humeana Spreng. tree 2711. Erythrina speciosa Andrews.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2700. shrub 2706. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Eugenia uniflora L. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae..) Hanst. Equisetum hyemale L. Erythrina crista-galli L. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. tree 2726. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae... Eucalyptus camaldulensis Dehnh. tree 2736.. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Euphorbia pulcherrima Willd. tree 2729. Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. tree 2727. tree 2723. Eriobotrya japonica (Thunb. Eucalyptus robusta Sm.) Stapf. tree 2709. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. shrub 2744. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Equisetophyta: Equisetaceae.. guineense G. tree 2715. tree 2717.. shrub 2745.. ex Klotzsch. tree 2732. Euphorbia tirucalli L. & Perr.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Eranthemum wattii (Bedd. herb 2703. tree 2750. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae... Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae... Euclinia longiflora Salisb. tree 2730. Epiphyllum oxypetalum (DC. Sm. Erythrina lysistemon Hutch. tree 2734. shrub 2747.. tree 2716. Eucalyptus exserta F.. Eucalyptus pellita F. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae. herb 2701. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae. Euphorbia cotinifolia L.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. herb 2702. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. ex Blume. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Eucalyptus herbertiana Maiden. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. herb 2704.. tree 2731.) Brenan. Etlingera elatior (Jack) R. tree 2724. Eucalyptus pachyphylla F. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. =E. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.

Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae.. Ficus natalensis Hochst. herb 2777. tree 2765.M. shrub 2801.B. tree 2795.) Müll. Flindersia brayleyana F. strangler 2766. Garcinia malaccensis Hook. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. 2751. Garcinia prainiana King. Bailey. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Falconeria insignis Royle. f. Muell. Veitch) Brummitt. Fittonia albivensis (Lindl...) Thwaites ex Hook. tree 2800. Fagraea crenulata Maingay ex C. =F. Muell. tree 2782.L. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae.) Steenis & B. Turner & P.. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae..M.. tree 2758. Arg. Magnoliophyta: Agavaceae. Freycinetia multiflora Merr.. Winkler. Garcinia gummi-gutta (L. Flindersia pimenteliana F. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Ficus buxifolia De Wild.) Decne. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. tree 2792. climber 2770. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. tree 2771.. tree 2781. & King ex King. tree 2788.. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. tree 2776. Excoecaria indica (Willd.. Ficus vaccinioides Hemsl. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.. tree 2762. Gardenia carinata Wall.) B. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae.. Ficus destruens F. tree 2775. Ellis.. gigantea Vent. Ficus racemosa L. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. herb 2772. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Ficus auriculata Lour. Gardenia scabrella Puttock. Berg. tree 2756. ex DC. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. tree 2790. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. tree 2796.. tree 2768. tree 2767. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. tree 2763.. tree 2759. Garcinia cowa Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. tree 2778. Magnoliophyta: Gentianaceae. tree 2780. & Voss. Ficus francisci H. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Magnoliophyta: Burseraceae. Firmiana malayana Kosterm.T. Ficus radicans Roxb. Galphimia glauca Cav. Clarke.. tree 2791. tree 2779. Franciscodendron laurifolia (F. Gardenia gjellerupii Valeton. ssp. tree 2797. tree 244 . Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Gardenia ovularis F.) I. White. Garcinia cymosa (K. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. leprieurii (Miq. shrub 2757... Ficus punctata Lam...M. Fuchsia hybrida hort. Robson. Garcinia xanthochymus Hook. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae..) N. shrub 2786. Ficus lyrata Warb. Garcinia subelliptica Merr. C.. tree 2794. Ficus irregularis Miq. f. Ficus celebensis Corner. Filicium decipiens (Wight & Arn. climber 2774. shrub 2799. Ficus kurzii King. Ficus crassipes F. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. Gardenia jasminoides J. Muell. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.) Kurz.) Miq. Garcinia dulcis (Roxb.. Fatsia japonica (Thunb. Ficus pleurocarpa F.. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. & Planch. herb 2784. Ficus stricta (Miq. Flindersia ifflaiana F. herb.. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. tree 2787. Hyland. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. strangler 2773. tree 2761.Chong et al. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. 2785.) Haw. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree 2760. ex C. Evodiella muelleri (Engl. Excoecaria cochinchinensis Lour. Muell.F. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Garuga pinnata Roxb.. shrub 2753. tree 2793. Furcraea foetida (L. tree 2752. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae. ex hort.) C.. Muell. Magnoliophyta: Malpighiaceae. Garcinia nitida Pierre. Ficus barteri Sprague. shrub 2798. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Muell. Magnoliophyta: Onagraceae. ex Sieb. tree 2764. Flacourtia inermis Roxb. tree 2754. Bailey. Stevens. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. f.. Garcinia macrophylla Mart. tree 2769. Linden. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree 2755. tree 2789. climber 2783. Schum.

.. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Xanthorrhoeaceae. tree 2810. Naray. herb 2838. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. tree 2825. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. herb 2828. Arg.. Gluta malayana (Corner) Ding Hou. herb 2843. tree 2832. Moore) L. tree 2813.. Gymnostoma papuanum (S. tree 2809. Magnoliophyta: Casuarinaceae.. climber 2842. herb 2841. Helianthus annuus L. herb 2837. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. herb 245 . Guzmania lingulata (L.A. herb 2836. Gmelina arborea Roxb. Heliconia chartacea Lane ex Barreiros. herb 2804. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. Berg... herb 2845.A.S. herb 2807. Guzmania dissitiflora L. herb 2808. Magnoliophyta: Zygophyllaceae.A. Bip. herb 2814. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Gigantochloa hasskarliana (Kurz) Backer ex Heyne.) Mez.) L.. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Graptophyllum pictum (L. herb 2849. Heliconia densiflora Verl.) Pax & K..S.) Cabrera. f. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Glandularia tenera (Spreng.) Griff.. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae.) Faden. Magnoliophyta: Amaranthaceae. Gynura segetum Merr. tree 2817.S.. Glycosmis perakensis V. tree 2834. Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae.. herb 2848. =Vernonia amygdalina Delile 2830. Grevillea pteridifolia Knight.) Haw.. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae... Gmelina macrophylla (R. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Casuarinaceae. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae. shrub 2818. Wright. Gomphrena globosa L. tree 2833. Grevillea robusta A. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae.. shrub 2839... tree 2819..H. shrub 2806. Guazuma ulmifolia Lam. herb 2846. Kress. Hedychium coronarium J. shrub 2805. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae. Grevillea banskii R. tree 2823. tree 2821. Magnoliophyta: Casuarinaceae. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. tree 2812.B. herb 2815. tree 2824. Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae. Gymnostoma sumatranum (Jungh. herb 2850. Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae.) DC.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2802. Sm. herb 2844. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae. herb 2835. Gymnostoma rumphianum (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Casuarinaceae. Br. Gustavia superba O. ex Sm. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae. Gymnostoma nobile (Whitmore) L. herb 2829. Johnson. tree 2811.) Blume. Hoffm. Cunn. Heliconia bihai (L. Gynura pseudochina (L. Hedera helix L.. Br. Heliconia dielsiana Loes. Gynura aurantiaca (Blume) DC. Hamelia patens Jacq. Johnson. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae. Grammatophyllum scriptum (L. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. tree 2840. shrub... Geogenanthus poeppigii (Miq. Kirk) Radlk.-Ham. ex de Vriese) L. Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae. Globba atrosanguinea Teijsm. Gymnanthemum amygdalinum (Delile) Sch. Harpullia zanquebarica (J. Gustavia augusta L. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae. Johnson. Guioa lasioneura Radlk.. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae. ex Walp.. Gustavia gracillima Miers. & Binn.. Guaiacum officinale L. tree 2820.) Benth. Habranthus gracilifolius Herb. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Verbenaceae. Globba winitii C. Grevillea baileyana McGill. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae. Glochidion ferdinandi (Müll. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Br. Hedychium coccineum Buch. Heliconia caribaea Lam.) L. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae. Heliconia danielsiana W. Br. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. ex R. herb 2847. Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae.. Gerbera jamesonii Bolus ex Hook. shrub 2816. tree 2827. Haworthia fasciata (Willd. shrub 2826. Koenig. herb 2851. tree 2822. tree 2831... Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. herb 2803. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae.J.A. Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae. Heliconia bourgaeana Petersen. Johnson.S.. Grevillea dryandri R.

) Kurz. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.M. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Hydrangeaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Heliconia latispatha Benth. f. Heliconia marginata (Griggs) Pitier. Moore & F. Magnoliophyta: Polygonaceae.. f. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae. herb 2858.. Hoya kerrii Craib. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) Hook.. Hopea pubescens Ridl. tree 2879. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Heliconia rostrata Ruiz & Pav. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae.. Anderson. Bailey.. herb 2860. Hydrocotyle javanica Thunb..) Kunth... tree 2868. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Achariaceae.. Br.. Heliconia vellerigera Poepp.) Herb. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. tree 2886. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae.) Becc. herb 2862. climber 2890..H. Hibiscus sabdariffa L. Hoya multiflora Blume. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. tree 2885. Heliconia mariae Hook. Howea belmoreana (C.. =H. Hibiscus tricolor Dehnh. Hemigraphis repanda (L. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. climber 2889. Hibiscus syriacus L. tree 2897. Schum. herb 2881. Heliconia stricta Huber. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. climber 2895. Heliconia lankesteri Standl. herb 2861.. 2852. climber 2876. Homalocladium platyclados (F.Chong et al. shrub. tree 2884. shrub 2873.. Hoffmannia discolor (Lem.) T. Bailey. Hoya carnosa (L. & Thomson. Hydrangea macrophylla (Thunb. Hosea lobbiana Ridl. Houttuynia cordata Thunb. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. herb 2864. climber 2893.) Hemsl.. ex Hiern.. tree 2900. Muell. Daniels & F.) K. Muell. Magnoliophyta: Malpighiaceae.. Hoya scortechinii King & Gamble. herb 2882. shrub 2869. Heritiera peralata (Bailey) Kosterm. Bailey.O. Heliconia lingulata Ruiz & Pav. Baker & Loo.) L. tree 2896. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Saururaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Hopea wightiana Wall. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. tree 2898. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. bullata L. tree 2891. shrub 2874. Hemigraphis alternata (Burm. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Hippeastrum reticulatum (L'Hér. climber 2892. Homalomena rubescens (Roxb.G. Homalanthus novoguineensis (Warb.. Hopea nutans Ridl. herb 2855. Heliconia indica Lam. climber 2878. Hiptage benghalensis (L. Hydnocarpus anthelminthicus Pierre ex Laness. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.... Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.S. herb 246 . tree 2887. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae.) R. Hydrocotyle umbellata L. herb 2853. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae. herb 2857. Holmskioldia sanguinea Retz. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae.) Hallier f. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Achariaceae. ex Wight & Arn. Heliconia episcopalis Vell. Hydnocarpus castaneus Hook. tree 2888. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. Hura crepitans L. herb 2863. Hydriastele costata F.) Ser. Stiles. f. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae. Hibiscus schizopetalus (Mast. Heliconia wagneriana Petersen. f. tree 2867.. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Williams 2877. Homalium circumpinnatum F. Hopea odorata Roxb. Hopea helferi (Dyer) Brandis. Hibiscus mutabilis L. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.M.. Homalomena wallichii Schott.. shrub 2866. tree 2901. Hibiscus acetosella Welw. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae.. herb 2859. tree 2880. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae.J. herb 2854. shrub 2871. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. herb 2856. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Hydriastele beguinii (Burret) W. shrub 2899. Heterospathe minor Burret. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae. herb 2902. herb 2883. herb 2875. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae.. f. Heliconia mathiasiae G. climber 2894. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae. shrub 2872. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae. shrub 2870. shrub 2865. Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae..

f. shrub 2944. Moore..E. climber 2921. Hymenocallis caribaea (L.B.) H.. Justicia carnea Lindl. tree 2947. shrub.. climber 2916. herb.) Aiton. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae.) Andrews. herb 2915.. Impatiens walleriana Hook. Inga jinicuil G.) Salisb. tree 2913. Bailey... Inocarpus fagifer (Parkinson) Fosberg. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae. Hyophorbe verschaffeltii H. =Belamcanda chinensis (L. ex Salisb. Jasminum azoricum L. tree 2911. tree 2931. Ipomoea carnea Jacq. Magnoliophyta: Balsaminaceae. shrub 2935. Moore.. tree 2942. Pinophyta: Cupressaceae. shrub 2945. shrub 2933. Nicholson 2951. Jacaranda acutifolia Bonpl. Jasminum laurifolium Roxb.. & L. f. Magnoliophyta: Iridaceae. herb 2907. Hylocereus undatus (Haw. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Wendl. Jatropha integerrima Jacq. =Jacobinia carnea (Lindl. Iris laevigata Fisch.. tree 2905... Hymenaea courbaril L. Justicia betonica L. Inga velutina Willd.. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae. 2923. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae.) F. Ixora chinensis Lam. & Schult. Sm.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. shrub 2927.. Jasminum sambac (L.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 2903. shrub 2928. Magnoliophyta: Cactaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Hymenosporum flavum (Hook... Magnoliophyta: Balsaminaceae. shrub 2950. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae... shrub 2946. tree 2932. ex G.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. climber 2934. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae..) Herb. Jasminum mesnyi Hance. Jasminum rex Dunn. shrub 2925. f. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. Justicia gendarussa Burm. shrub 247 .) DC. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. shrub 2949.) Salisb. f. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Ipomoea tricolor Cav. Dransf.. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae. climber 2939. Justicia brandegeeana Wassh. Isolepis cernua (Vahl) Roem.. herb 2917. tree 2919. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.. Jatropha podagrica Hook.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Hyophorbe vaughanii L. shrub 2937. Ixora finlaysoniana Wall. climber 2904. tree 2906. Jatropha multifida L. Jasminum grandiflorum L.E. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. climber 2936. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. shrub 2924. Jacaranda semiserrata Cham. Jacaranda cuspidifolia Mart. tree 2948. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae. Muell. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Balsaminaceae. Jatropha gossypifolia L. Hyophorbe lagenicaulis (L. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Iridaceae. Jasminum humile L.. tree 2918. Jasminum multiflorum (Burm. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae. =J.. Johannesteijsmannia altifrons (Rchb... climber 2922. Magnoliophyta: Iridaceae. shrub 2941. Hymenocallis littoralis (Jacq. Impatiens repens Moon. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. shrub 2929. Johannesteijsmannia lanceolata J. =Scirpus cernuus Vahl 2926. tree 2912. tree 2930. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree 2914. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae. & Zoll. Ixora javanica (Blume) DC. climber 2940. Bailey) H. Don. Iris domestica Goldblatt & Mabb. tree 2910.) G. Hymenocallis speciosa (L. Iris pseudacorus L. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae. herb 2908. tree 2920. Don. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Hymenaea verrucosa Gaertn. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Pittosporaceae. climber 2938. Hyphaene coriacea Gaertn. Juniperus chinensis L. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae. Jatropha curcas L. pandurifolia Andrews 2943. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. Impatiens balsamina L. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. herb. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.H. shrub.) Britton & Rose... Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. herb 2909.H.

tree 2962.. Presl. tree 2975. shrub 2960. Justicia vulgaris Bert. Lagerstroemia loudonii Teijsm. Kalanchoe blossfeldiana Poelln. Lagerstroemia speciosa (L. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae. shrub 2994. ex Schult. Leonurus japonicus Houtt. Bull) H. Magnoliophyta: Crassulaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cucurbitaceae. tree 2986. DC. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Kopsia flavida Blume. Kopsia arborea Blume. shrub 2996. Leptospermum brachyandrum (F. Laccospadix australasica H. Kigelia africana (Lam. tree 2970. Leptospermum liversidgei R. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae.. Leucophyllum frutescens (Berland.. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae.) I.) Druce. Lansium domesticum Corrêa.. Lespedeza bicolor Turcz.. Kaempferia elegans (Wall.G. tree 2984. Kopsia fruticosa (Ker Gawl..C. Moore. herb 2958. Bailey.) Benth. tree 2972. Latania lontaroides (Gaertn. Kerriodoxa elegans J. Lagerstroemia tomentosa C. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. shrub 3000. Khaya grandifoliola C.. shrub 2953. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae. herb 2955. tree 2968. Lagenaria siceraria (Molina) Standl. Licuala grandis (hort. herb 2989. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae. Pinophyta: Zamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Leea guineensis G..) C. Kaempferia gilbertii W. Khaya anthotheca (Welw.. herb 2987.) Pers. Zhu.M. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. Muell. Magnoliophyta: Lecythidaceae. Latania loddigesii Mart. tree 2966. Baker & H. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae.M.. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae. var. DC.. 2952. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. shrub 2954. Lepidozamia hopei (W. Don.. Kaempferia rotunda L. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae. Lepisanthes amoena (Hassk. tree 2993. Johnst. tree 2991.. Khaya senegalensis (Desr. Bailey.) H.) Leenh. tree 2977. tree 2965. shrub 2988. Leptospermum petersonii F.. & Binn.. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.) Briq. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Lantana montevidensis (Spreng. Dransf. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae..M. Bull. shrub 3001. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.. herb 2959. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. herb 2957.E. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Chrysobalanaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. tree 2973. Koompassia excelsa (Becc. Juss. Licuala bintulensis Becc. Karomia tettensis (Klotzsch) R.) Baker.. ex W. Magnoliophyta: Scrophulariaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. DC. tree 2980. tree 2985.. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Wendl. Licuala cordata Becc. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. tree 2981. tree 2992. tree 2976. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Fern. herb 2956. Lagerstroemia langkawiensis Furtado & Montien. tree 2990. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae.) Fritsch.. tree 2969.T. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae.C. tree 2983.) A. f. Lagerstroemia archeriana F. tree 2974. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae..) Engl.. Licania tomentosa (Benth. Magnoliophyta: Verbenaceae. Justicia guttata Wall.. tree 2963. tree 2995. Magnoliophyta: Hyacinthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. albiflorus (Migo) Y. shrub 2961. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae...Chong et al. tree 2964.. Ledebouria botryoides (Baker) J. tree 2999. tree 248 ... Lannea grandis (Dennst. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) Taub. Lepisanthes alata (Blume) Leenh. tree 2978. tree 2979. Lecythis ollaria Loefl. Kaempferia galanga L. climber 2971. Lagerstroemia floribunda Jack. Lagerstroemia duperreana Pierre ex Gagnep. Leptospermum polgalifolium Salisb.. Manning & Goldblatt.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. shrub 2997. Lagerstroemia indica L.) A. shrub 2998. tree 2967. Latania verschaffeltii Lem. Sm. Hill) Regel.. shrub 2982. Wendl..

Magnoliophyta: Magnoliaceae. tree. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. climber 3043. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. =M.) Pers.) R. tree 3016. ex A. Loropetalum chinense (R. Ligustrum sinense Lour. Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae. 3048. shrub 3009. Wilson & J...F. Lobelia cardinalis L. Rich. Licuala peltata Roxb. tree 3015. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. herb 3038... Pinophyta: Zamiaceae. Hara. & Bonpl. var.. Vidal. Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae. Livistona humilis R. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. rubrum Yieh. tree 3028. Litsea garciae S.. herb 3010. Kirk. tree 3046. Livistona mariae F. Lytocaryum weddellianum (H. shrub 3005.) Merr.) Mart. tree 3034. shrub. Livistona tahanensis Becc. Lysimachia procumbens Baudo. Liriope muscari (Decne. Lithocarpus rassa (Miq. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Campanulaceae.. tree 3011.) Mull. Br.M. Magnolia figo (Lour. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.T. Gentry. tree 3027. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Bailey. Br. Licuala lauterbachii Dammer & K. tree 3017. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. shrub 3029... Livistona australis (R.) J.) Rehder. var. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) H. Muell. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae.. tree 3013. Litsea bindoniana F. tree 3019. pumila Andrews 3049.) A. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Livistona lorophylla Becc. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malpighiaceae. tree 3023. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. Ludisia discolor (Ker Gawl. tree 3014. ex Pierre. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) Peter G. liliifera. Licuala orbicularis Becc. Magnoliophyta: Rhamnaceae.) Baill. Livistona muelleri F. Br. tree 3018. Loeseneriella pauciflora (DC. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Lodoicea maldivica (J. climber 3032. Waterh. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Livistona saribus (Lour. Lophostemon confertus (R. tree 3021. Licuala mattanensis Becc. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3002. Macrozamia moorei F.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Wong.C. Magnolia liliifera L. Madhuca longifolia (L. Arg. tree 3030. tree 3031. tree 3022.F. ex Drude. tree 3045.) Spreng. Br. Magnolia champaca (L. Licuala paludosa Griff.. tree 3033. tree 3040. Magnoliophyta: Magnoliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Caprifoliaceae. Wendl. Livistona robinsoniana Becc. Magnoliophyta: Hamamelidaceae. Muell. Licuala ramsayi (F... Dransf.) DC. tree 3041. Livistona chinensis (Jacq. tree 3042. Luculia grandiflora Ghose. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree 3006.M.. Magnoliophyta: Onagraceae. Schum.. Litchi chinensis Sonn. tree 249 . ex Mart. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Celastraceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Lonicera japonica Thunb. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. 3047. =Michelia figo (Lour. Bailey. Muell..) A.. Livistona merrillii Becc. =Michelia champaca L.) Toledo. & K. shrub 3035.H. Macfadyena unguis-cati (L. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. tree 3025. Magnoliophyta: Myrsinaceae.) L.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. tree 3044.. tree 3020. Lophanthera lactescens Ducke. Sm. Livistona drudei F. tree 3007. Ludwigia sedioides (Humb. herb 3039.. tree 3024.. Br.) Domin. Livistona decipiens Becc. tree 3012.. Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae... Chev.) Oliv.) Mart. tree 3008. Majidea zanguebarica J. tree 3026. Gmel. Macbr. Muell.. shrub 3036. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae.) A. herb 3037. shrub 3003.. tree. tree 3004. Macaranga tanarius (L. Macadamia integrifolia Maiden & Betche. Livistona endauensis J. Maesopsis eminii Engl. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Muell. Livistona rotundifolia (Lam.H.

Chong et al.

3050. Malpighia glabra L.; Magnoliophyta: Malpighiaceae; shrub 3051. Malvaviscus arboreus Cav.; Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae; shrub 3052. Malvaviscus conzattii Greenm.; Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae; shrub 3053. Mandevilla sanderi (Hemsl.) Woodson; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; climber 3054. Manilkara kauki (L.) Dubard; Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae; tree 3055. Manilkara zapota (L.) P. Royen; Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae; tree 3056. Maniltoa browneoides Harms; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 3057. Maniltoa lenticellata C.T. White; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 3058. Maniltoa polyandra (Roxb.) Harms; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 3059. Mansoa alliacea (Lam.) A.H. Gentry; Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae; climber 3060. Mansoa hymenaea (DC.) A.H. Gentry; Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae; climber 3061. Maranta arundinacea L.; Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae; shrub 3062. Maranta leuconeura E. Morren; Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae; herb 3063. Matisia cordata Bonpl.; Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae; tree 3064. Medinilla astronioides Triana; Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae; shrub 3065. Medinilla cummingii Naudin; Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae; shrub 3066. Medinilla magnifica Lindl.; Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae; shrub 3067. Megaskepasma erythrochlamys Lindau; Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae; shrub 3068. Melaleuca alternifolia (Maiden & Betche) Cheel; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree 3069. Melaleuca armillaris (Sol. ex Gaertn.) Sm.; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree 3070. Melaleuca bracteata F. Muell.; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree 3071. Melaleuca dealbata S.T. Blake; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree 3072. Melaleuca decora (Salisb.) Britten; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree; =M. gensitifolia Sm. 3073. Melaleuca leucadendra (L.) L.; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree 3074. Melaleuca quinquenervia (Cav.) S.T. Blake; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree 3075. Melaleuca saligna Schauer; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree 3076. Melaleuca styphelioides Sm.; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree 3077. Melaleuca viridiflora Sol. ex Gaertn.; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree 3078. Melampodium leucanthum Torr. & A. Gray; Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae; herb; =M. paludosum Kunth 3079. Melia indica Brand; Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae; tree 3080. Melicope denhamii (Seem.) T.G. Hartley; Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae; shrub; =Euodia ridleyi Hochr. 3081. Melicope elleryana F. Muell.; Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae; tree 3082. Melinis nerviglumis (Franch.) Zizka; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 3083. Melissa officinalis L.; Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae; shrub 3084. Mentha arvensis L.; Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae; shrub 3085. Mesua ferrea L.; Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae; tree 3086. Mesua ferruginea (Pierre) Kosterm.; Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae; tree 3087. Metroxylon salomonense (Warb.) Becc.; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3088. Miconia calvescens DC.; Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae; shrub 3089. Miconia macrophylla Triana; Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae; shrub 3090. Micranthemum micranthemoides (Nutt.) Wettst.; Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae; shrub 3091. Millettia leucantha Kurz; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 3092. Millingtonia hortensis L. f.; Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae; tree 3093. Mimusops balata (Aubl.) C.F. Gaertn.; Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae; tree 3094. Mirabilis jalapa L.; Magnoliophyta: Nyctaginaceae; herb 3095. Mischocarpus grandissimus (F. Muell.) Radlk.; Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae; tree 3096. Monocostus uniflorus (Poepp. ex Petersen) Maas; Magnoliophyta: Costaceae; herb 3097. Monstera obliqua Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; climber 3098. Montrichardia arborescens (L.) Schott; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; herb 3099. Moringa oleifera Lam.; Magnoliophyta: Moringaceae; tree 250

Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore

3100. Morus alba L.; Magnoliophyta: Moraceae; tree 3101. Mucuna bennetti F. Muell.; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; climber 3102. Mundulea sericea (Willd.) A. Chev.; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 3103. Murdannia bracteata (C.B. Clarke) J.K. Morton ex D.Y. Hong; Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae; herb 3104. Murraya paniculata (L.) Jack; Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae; shrub 3105. Musa acuminata Colla var. sumatrana; Magnoliophyta: Musaceae; herb 3106. Musa beccarii N.W. Simmons; Magnoliophyta: Musaceae; herb 3107. Musa ornata Roxb.; Magnoliophyta: Musaceae; herb; =M. rosacea hort. 3108. Musa uranoscopos Lour.; Magnoliophyta: Musaceae; herb 3109. Musa velutina H. Wendl. & Drude; Magnoliophyta: Musaceae; herb 3110. Musella lasiocarpa (Franch.) C.Y. Wu ex H.W. Li; Magnoliophyta: Musaceae; herb 3111. Musgravea heterophylla L.S. Sm.; Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae; tree 3112. Mussaenda erythrophylla Schumach. & Thonn.; Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae; climber 3113. Mussaenda frondosa L.; Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae; climber 3114. Mussaenda philippica A. Rich.; Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae; shrub 3115. Myrciaria jaboticaba (Vell.) O. Berg; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; tree 3116. Myristica fragrans Houtt.; Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae; tree 3117. Myristica guatteriifolia A. DC.; Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae; tree 3118. Myrtus communis L.; Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae; shrub 3119. Nageia nagi (Thunb.) Kuntze; Pinophyta: Podocarpaceae; tree 3120. Nauclea orientalis (L.) L.; Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae; tree 3121. Nautilocalyx lynchei (Hook. f.) Sprague; Magnoliophyta: Gesneriaceae; shrub 3122. Nelumbo nucifera Gaertn.; Magnoliophyta: Nelumbonaceae; herb 3123. Neolamarckia cadamba (Roxb.) Bosser; Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae; tree 3124. Neolitsea dealbata (R. Br.) Merr.; Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae; tree 3125. Neomarica caerulea (Ker Gawl.) Sprague; Magnoliophyta: Iridaceae; herb 3126. Neomarica gracilis (Herb) Sprague; Magnoliophyta: Iridaceae; herb 3127. Neomarica longifolia (Link & Otto) Sprague; Magnoliophyta: Iridaceae; herb 3128. Neonauclea purpurea (Roxb.) Merr.; Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae; tree 3129. Nephrolepis cordifolia (L.) C. Presl; Filicinophyta: Oleandraceae; herb 3130. Nephrolepis duffii T. Moore; Filicinophyta: Oleandraceae; herb 3131. Nephrolepis exaltata (L.) Schott; Filicinophyta: Oleandraceae; herb 3132. Nephrosperma vanhoutteanum (H. Wendl. ex Van Houtte) Balf. f.; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3133. Nerium oleander L.; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; shrub 3134. Newbouldia laevis (P. Beauv.) Seem. ex Bureau; Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae; shrub 3135. Nicotiana alata Link & Otto; Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae; shrub 3136. Norantea guianensis Aubl.; Magnoliophyta: Marcgraviaceae; climber 3137. Normanbya normanbyi (W. Hill) L.H. Bailey; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3138. Nuxia floribunda Benth.; Magnoliophyta: Stilbaceae; tree 3139. Nyctanthes arbor-tristis L.; Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae; herb 3140. Nymphaea rubra Roxb. ex Andrews; Magnoliophyta: Nymphaeaceae; herb 3141. Ochna kirkii Oliv.; Magnoliophyta: Ochnaceae; shrub 3142. Ochroma pyramidale (Cav. ex Lam.) Urb.; Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae; tree 3143. Odontadenia macrantha (Roem. & Schult.) Markgr.; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; climber 3144. Odontonema cuspidatum (Nees) Kuntze; Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae; herb; =O. strictum hort. 3145. Olea europaea L.; Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae; tree 3146. Oncoba spinosa Forssk.; Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae; shrub 3147. Ophiopogon intermedius D. Don; Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae; shrub 3148. Ophiopogon jaburan (Siebold) Lodd. et al.; Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae; herb 251

Chong et al.

3149. Ophiopogon japonicus (Thunb.) Ker Gawl.; Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae; herb 3150. Ophiopogon planiscapus Nakai; Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae; shrub 3151. Opuntia cochenillifer (L.) Mill.; Magnoliophyta: Cactaceae; herb 3152. Opuntia scheeri F.A.C. Weber; Magnoliophyta: Cactaceae; herb 3153. Orania palindan (Blanco) Merr.; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3154. Orchidantha fimbriata Holtt.; Magnoliophyta: Lowiaceae; herb 3155. Orchidantha maxillarioides (Ridl.) K. Schum.; Magnoliophyta: Lowiaceae; herb 3156. Ormosia pinnata (Lour.) Merr.; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 3157. Oroxylum indicum (L.) Vent.; Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae; tree 3158. Orthosiphon aristatus (Blume) Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae; herb 3159. Osmanthus fragrans Lour.; Magnoliophyta: Oleaceae; shrub 3160. Osmoxylon lineare (Merr.) Philipson; Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae; shrub 3161. Otacanthus caeruleus Lindl.; Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae; herb 3162. Ottelia alismoides (L.) Pers.; Magnoliophyta: Hydrocharitaceae; herb 3163. Oxalis regnelli Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Oxalidaceae; herb 3164. Pachira aquatica Aubl.; Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae; tree 3165. Pachira insignis (Sw.) Savigny; Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae; tree 3166. Pachypodium lamerei Drake; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; shrub 3167. Pachystachys lutea Nees; Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae; shrub 3168. Pachystachys spicata (Ruiz & Pav.) Wassh.; Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae; shrub 3169. Palaquium beccarianum (Pierre) P. Royen; Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae; tree 3170. Palaquium galactoxylum H.J. Lam; Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae; tree 3171. Palaquium leiocarpum Boerl.; Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae; tree 3172. Palisota mannii C.B. Clarke; Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae; shrub 3173. Pancratium zeylanicum L.; Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae; herb 3174. Pandanus dubius Spreng. var. dubius; Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae; tree 3175. Pandanus gemmiferus H. St. John; Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae; shrub 3176. Pandanus pygmaeus Thouars; Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae; shrub 3177. Pandanus tectorius Parkinson; Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae; shrub 3178. Pandanus utilis Bory; Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae; shrub 3179. Pandorea jasminoides (Lindl.) K. Schum.; Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae; climber 3180. Pangium edule Reinw.; Magnoliophyta: Achariaceae; tree 3181. Paramacrolobium coeruleum (Taub.) J. Léonard; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 3182. Parashorea densiflora Sloot & Symington; Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae; tree 3183. Parastemon spicatum Ridl.; Magnoliophyta: Chrysobalanaceae; tree 3184. Parkia biglandulosa Wight & Arn.; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 3185. Parkia javanica (Lam.) Merr.; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 3186. Parkia timoriana (DC.) Merr.; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 3187. Parmentiera aculeata (Kunth) Seem.; Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae; tree 3188. Parmentiera cereifera Seem.; Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae; tree 3189. Parthenocissus tricuspidata (Siebold & Zucc.) Planch.; Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae; herb 3190. Passiflora amethystina J.C. Mikan; Magnoliophyta: Passifloraceae; herb 3191. Passiflora biflora Lam.; Magnoliophyta: Passifloraceae; climber 3192. Passiflora coccinea Aubl.; Magnoliophyta: Passifloraceae; climber 3193. Passiflora edulis Sims; Magnoliophyta: Passifloraceae; climber 3194. Passiflora palmata Lodd.; Magnoliophyta: Passifloraceae; climber 3195. Pavonia multiflora A. St.-Hill.; Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae; shrub 3196. Pedilanthus tithymaloides (L.) Poit.; Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae; herb 3197. Pelagodoxa henryana Becc. ex Bois; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3198. Pelargonium graveolens L'Hér.; Magnoliophyta: Geraniaceae; herb 3199. Pellaea rotundifolia (G. Forst.) Hook.; Filicinophyta: Adiantaceae; herb 3200. Pellionia daveauana N.E. Br.; Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae; shrub 252

Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore

3201. Peltophorum africanum Sond.; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 3202. Peltophorum dasyrrhachis (Miq.) Kurz; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 3203. Peltophorum dubium (Spreng.) Taub.; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 3204. Pennisetum alopecuroides (L.) Spreng.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 3205. Pennisetum glaucum (L.) R. Br.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 3206. Pennisetum macrostachys (Brongn.) Trin.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 3207. Pennisetum setaceum (Forssk.) Chiov.; Magnoliophyta: Poaceae; herb 3208. Pentace curtisii King; Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae; tree 3209. Pentas lanceolata (Forssk.) Deflers; Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae; shrub 3210. Pentaspadon motleyi Hook. f.; Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae; tree 3211. Pentaspadon velutinus Hook. f.; Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae; tree 3212. Peperomia argyreia (Miq.) E. Morren; Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae; herb 3213. Peperomia caperata Yunck.; Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae; herb 3214. Peperomia clusiifolia (Jacq.) Hook.; Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae; herb 3215. Peperomia obtusifolia (L.) A. Dietr.; Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae; herb 3216. Peperomia sarmentosa A. Dietr.; Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae; herb 3217. Peperomia scandens Ruiz & Pav.; Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae; herb 3218. Pereskia aculeata Mill.; Magnoliophyta: Cactaceae; herb 3219. Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC.; Magnoliophyta: Cactaceae; shrub 3220. Pereskia corrugata Cutak; Magnoliophyta: Cactaceae; herb 3221. Pereskia grandifolia Haw.; Magnoliophyta: Cactaceae; shrub 3222. Pericopsis mooniana (Thwaites) Thwaites; Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae; tree 3223. Perilla frutescens (L.) Britton; Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae; herb 3224. Peristrophe hyssopifolia (Burm. f.) Bremek.; Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae; herb 3225. Persea americana Mill.; Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae; tree 3226. Persea thunbergii (Siebold & Zucc.) Kosterm.; Magnoliophyta: Lauraceae; tree 3227. Persicaria capitata (Buch.-Ham. ex D. Don) H. Gross; Magnoliophyta: Polygonaceae; herb 3228. Persicaria odorata (Lour.) Soják; Magnoliophyta: Polygonaceae; shrub 3229. Persicaria perfoliata (L.) H. Gross; Magnoliophyta: Polygonaceae; herb 3230. Persoonia toru A. Cunn.; Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae; shrub 3231. Petraeovitex wolfei J. Sinclair; Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae; climber 3232. Petrea volubilis L.; Magnoliophyta: Verbenaceae; climber 3233. Phaleria capitata Jack; Magnoliophyta: Thymelaeaceae; tree 3234. Phaleria clerodendron F. Muell. ex Benth.; Magnoliophyta: Thymelaeaceae; tree 3235. Phenakospermum guyanense (Rich.) Endl. ex Miq.; Magnoliophyta: Strelitziaceae; herb 3236. Philodendron bipinnatifidum Schott ex Endl.; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; climber; =P. selloum K. Koch 3237. Philodendron erubescens K. Koch & Augustin; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; climber 3238. Philodendron lacerum (Jacq.) Schott; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; herb 3239. Philodendron mamei André; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; climber 3240. Philodendron panduriforme (Kunth) Kunth; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; climber 3241. Philodendron undulatum Engl.; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; herb 3242. Philodendron wendlandii Schott; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; herb 3243. Philodendron xanadu Croat, Mayo & J. Boos; Magnoliophyta: Araceae; climber 3244. Phoenicophorium borsigianum (K. Koch) Stuntz; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3245. Phoenix canariensis hort. ex Chabaud; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3246. Phoenix dactylifera L.; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3247. Phoenix paludosa Roxb.; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3248. Phoenix reclinata Jacq.; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; shrub 3249. Phoenix roebelenii O'Brien; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3250. Phoenix rupicola T. Anderson; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3251. Phoenix sylvestris (L.) Roxb.; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 253

Chong et al.

3252. Phormium tenax J.R. Forst & G. Forst.; Magnoliophyta: Hemerocallidaceae; shrub 3253. Phryganocydia corymbosa (Vent.) Bureau ex K. Schum.; Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae; climber 3254. Phyllagathis rotundifolia (Jack) Blume; Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae; herb 3255. Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels; Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae; tree 3256. Phyllanthus cochinchinensis Spreng.; Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae; shrub 3257. Phyllanthus cuscutiflorus S. Moore; Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae; shrub 3258. Phyllanthus myrtifolius (Wight) Müll. Arg.; Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae; shrub 3259. Phyllanthus pulcher Wall. ex Müll. Arg.; Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae; shrub 3260. Phytolacca acinosa Roxb.; Magnoliophyta: Phytolaccaceae; herb 3261. Pigafetta elata (Mart.) Blume ex H. Wendl.; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3262. Pigafetta filaris (Giseke) Becc.; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3263. Pilea cadierei Gagnep. & Guillaumin; Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae; herb 3264. Pilea involucrata Urb.; Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae; herb 3265. Pilea nummulariifolia (Sw.) Wedd.; Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae; climber 3266. Pilea serpyllacea (Kunth) Liebm.; Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae; shrub 3267. Pinanga caesia Blume; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3268. Pinanga coronata (Blume ex Mart.) Blume; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; shrub 3269. Pinanga densiflora Becc.; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; shrub 3270. Pinanga dicksonii Blume; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; shrub 3271. Pinanga kuhlii Blume; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; shrub 3272. Pinanga ligulata Becc.; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; tree 3273. Pinanga patula Blume; Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae; shrub 3274. Pinus caribaea Morelet; Pinophyta: Pinaceae; tree 3275. Pinus elliottii Engelm.; Pinophyta: Pinaceae; tree 3276. Pinus kesiya Royle ex Gordon; Pinophyta: Pinaceae; tree 3277. Pinus luchuensis Mayr; Pinophyta: Pinaceae; tree 3278. Pinus merkusii Jungh. & de Vriese; Pinophyta: Pinaceae; tree 3279. Piper nigrum L.; Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae; climber 3280. Piper pseudolindenii C. DC.; Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae; shrub; =P. magnificum (C. DC.) Trel. 3281. Pisonia alba Span.; Magnoliophyta: Nyctaginaceae; shrub 3282. Pisonia grandis R. Br.; Magnoliophyta: Nyctaginaceae; tree 3283. Pitcairnia angustifolia Sol.; Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae; herb 3284. Pitcairnia bromeliifolia L'Hér.; Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae; herb 3285. Pitcairnia sanguinea (H.E. Luther) D.C. Taylor & H. Rob.; Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae; herb 3286. Pittosporum pentandrum (Blanco) Merr.; Magnoliophyta: Pittosporaceae; tree 3287. Pittosporum tobira (Thunb.) W.T. Aiton; Magnoliophyta: Pittosporaceae; tree 3288. Placospermum coriaceum C.T. White & W.D. Francis; Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae; tree 3289. Platycerium grande (Fée) Kunze; Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae; epiphyte 3290. Platycladus orientalis (L.) Franco; Pinophyta: Cupressaceae; tree 3291. Pleiocarpa mutica Benth.; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; tree 3292. Plumbago auriculata Lam.; Magnoliophyta: Plumbaginaceae; shrub 3293. Plumbago indica L.; Magnoliophyta: Plumbaginaceae; shrub 3294. Plumeria alba L.; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; tree 3295. Plumeria obtusa L.; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; tree 3296. Plumeria pudica Jacq.; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; tree 3297. Plumeria rubra L.; Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae; tree 3298. Podocarpus elatus R. Br. ex Endl.; Pinophyta: Podocarpaceae; tree 3299. Podocarpus henkelii Stapf ex Dallim. & A.B. Jacks.; Pinophyta: Podocarpaceae; tree 3300. Podocarpus macrophyllus (Thunb.) Sweet; Pinophyta: Podocarpaceae; tree 254

shrub 3334. shrub 3312. herb 3317. herb 3306.. tree 3329.. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae.. Pouteria caimito (Ruiz & Pav.. Pseuderanthemum bicolor Radlk. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Pogonatherum paniceum (Lam. Don. Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae. Podocarpus rumphii Blume. shrub 3311. Punica granatum L. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Pseuderanthemum reticulatum hort.. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. herb 3327. Magnoliophyta: Portulacaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Pritchardia pacifica Seem. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. tree 3321. Pseuderanthemum carruthersii (Seem. Pseuderanthemum laxiflorum Hubbard ex L. Pouteria gardneriana (A. tree 3319. Pinophyta: Podocarpaceae. DC.) Gibbs. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae. Portulacaria afra (L. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Pterospermum acerifolium (L. & Thoms.. Br.) Herb. herb 3305. Pontederia cordata L.) Harms. tree 3345.H. Muell. Muell. Pseudobombax ellipticum (Kunth) Dugand. Ptychosperma sanderianum Ridl. Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni. tree 3314. Prosopis chilensis (Molina) Stuntz. ex Murray.. Pseuderanthemum andersonii Lindau. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. Moore & Stearn. Magnoliophyta: Pontederiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae.. tree 3324. Prumnopitys amara (Blume) de Laub. tree 3325.) H. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Quassia amara L. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. tree 3338. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Porana volubilis Burm.E. Pseuderanthemum graciliflorum Ridl. Portulaca grandiflora Hook.H. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae..) Guillaumin. tree 3307. shrub 3337. shrub 3336. Bailey. herb 3309. & Drude.. Presl) Fern. Polyalthia stenopetala (Hook. herb 3310. tree 3351..) Thwaites. Pourouma cecropiifolia Mart.. tree 3326.) Hack.. Pseuderanthemum kewense L. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cunoniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Agavaceae.. Pterocarpus rohrii Vahl. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae. tree 3308. Pullea stutzeri (F. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. climber 3339. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Ptychosperma lineare (Burret) Burret. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae. Bailey. Filicinophyta: Polypodiaceae. shrub 3340. Quercus acutissima Carruth. Proiphys amboinensis (L. tree 3344. ex Hook. Magnoliophyta: Simaroubaceae. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae. tree 3320. tree 3303. tree 3302. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae.) Willd. Pseudomussaenda flava Verdc. Pritchardia thurstonii F.. Wendl.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. f. Polianthes tuberosa L. tree 3322. tree 255 . Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae... shrub 3313.) Finet & Gagnep.) R. Polyscias cumingiana (C. Polyscias fruticosa (L. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae... Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3301. Polyscias balfouriana (André) L. herb 3318. shrub 3335. Pinophyta: Podocarpaceae. Bailey. Pterocarpus macrocarpus Kurz. Pinophyta: Podocarpaceae. shrub 3347. climber 3316. Polypodium punctatum Thunb.. Premna corymbosa Rottler & Willd. & H. Pseudosindora palustris Symington.. Polyalthia longifolia (Sonn. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Podranea ricasoliana (Tanfani) Sprague. Magnoliophyta: Portulacaceae. shrub 3330. tree 3323. tree 3342.-Vill. shrub 3331. f. Pseuderanthemum atropurpureum L.) Radlk.) Jacq. Pseudogynoxys chenopodioides (Kunth) Cabrera. Pterygota alata (Roxb. tree 3341.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree 3328.) Radlk. Radermachera glandulosa Miq. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree 3348. Bailey.. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Polypodium polycarpon Cav. Podocarpus neriifolius D. shrub 3350. shrub 3333. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fagaceae. climber 3304. herb 3315. tree 3343. Magnoliophyta: Verbenaceae. Polyscias nodosa (Blume) Seem. tree 3346. shrub 3349.H. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Pouteria sapota (Jacq...H. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. shrub 3332.

tree 256 .. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. shrub 3365. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Ruspolia hypocrateriformis (Vahl) Milne-Redh. Ruellia tweediana Griseb. 3352. tree 3354.. Rotheca serrata (L. tree 3374.. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. Roystonea oleracea (Jacq. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Cook. Ruspolia seticalyx (C. Sabal mauritiiformis (H. f. herb. shrub 3397. & Drude. ex Benth. Sabal causiarum (O. Ruta graveolens L. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Reinhardtia gracilis (H. tree 3355. tree 3400. Russelia sarmentosa Jacq. shrub 3375..) Burret. Ravenia spectabilis (Lindl.Chong et al. Wendl. Rudbeckia fulgida Aiton.) Burret var.) Lindau. tree 3370. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. shrub 3367. Muell.. Ruellia rosea Hemsl.. Thomas.. Magnoliophyta: Scrophulariaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. shrub 3379.. shrub 3394.) Sweet. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Randia fitzalanii F. Ravenala madagascariensis Sonn. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Rotheca myricoides (Hochst. shrub 3359. Ruttya fruticosa Lindau. Ruellia macrantha Mart. Rollinia mucosa (Jacq. shrub 3380. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) Hyl. & Cham. Ruellia ciliosa Pursh. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. tree 3371. tree 3369. shrub 3385.. Rhynchospora latifolia (Baldwin ex Elliott) W. =Dichromena latifolia Baldwin ex Elliott 3372.E. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Reevesia thyrsoidea Lindl.F. shrub 3362. Wendl. Rhododendron indicum (L. shrub 3364. Moore. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. tree 3382. tree 3368. shrub 3377. tree 3381. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Rhodosphaera rhodanthema (F. Magnoliophyta: Ericaceae.. shrub 3384.) Steane & Mabb.F. tree 3358. shrub 3356. herb. Ruellia affinis (Schrad.) Baill. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. =R. Raphia australis Oberm. herb 3396. shrub 3392. Ruellia tuberosa L. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Rhapis excelsa (Thunb. =Clerodendrum macrosiphon Hook... Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. herb 3383. Rondeletia leucophylla Kunth.. Moore. Rhopalostylis sapida H. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Scrophulariaceae. Russelia equisetiformis Schltdl. Rotheca incisa (Klotzsch) Steane & Mabb. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae.F. ex Nees. Rondeletia strigosa (Benth. Raphia farinifera (Gaertn. Rhopaloblaste ceramica (Miq.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. herb 3395. Magnoliophyta: Strelitziaceae. brittoniana Leonard 3391. Ravenea rivularis Jum.) Steane & Mabb. climber 3363. Perrier.) Hemsl.. shrub 3393. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. & H.. Rhapis humilis Blume. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Ruellia amoena Sessé & Moc. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Scrophulariaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae.. Ruellia malacosperma Greenm. shrub 3398. ex Griseb. Henry ex Rehder. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. shrub 3386. & H. Wendl. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) Engl.) O. tree 3360..E. Clerodendrum incisum Klotzsch 3378.) A. herb 3373.. Ruellia colorata Baill.. shrub 3388.. Rondeletia odorata Jacq. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) Griseb. & Strey.W. shrub 3399. Rhapis multifida Buffet. Magnoliophyta: Linaceae. Clarke) Milne-Redh. shrub 3389. rostrata (Burret) H.. shrub 3390. Reineckea carnea (Andrews) Kunth. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.. Ruellia simplex C. shrub 3376. Rauvolfia tetraphylla L. Karst. shrub. Roystonea regia (Kunth) O... Reinwardtia indica Dumort. shrub 3366. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae.B. tree 3357. Wright... Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. climber 3387. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Rhynchospora nervosa (Vahl) Boeck. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Muell. herb 3361.) Planch. Cook) Becc. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Rhopaloblaste augusta (Kurz) H. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Cook. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. tree 3353.

. shrub 3441. f. herb 3439.. multiflorus. Sedum mexicanum Britt. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Irwin & Barneby. Irwin & Barneby. herb 3407. herb 3405.) Oken. Saraca indica L. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.S. Moore. Senna pendula (Willd. Selaginella erythropus (Mart.) S. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. shrub. Senna pallida (Vahl) H. Magnoliophyta: Crassulaceae.S. Sedum sexangulare L. Sapium glandulosum (L. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae. tree 3431. climber 3420. Schizolobium parahyba (Vell. Irwin & Barneby.S. Irwin & Barneby. Salix babylonica L. shrub 3408. shrub 3446. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae. Magnoliophyta: Crassulaceae.T. Sarcotoechia serrata S.. herb 3436. Saxifraga stolonifera Curtis. Veitch ex Mast. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. tree 3449.S. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Saraca thaipingensis Cantley ex Prain.S.) R... herb 3443.... shrub 3451. Veitch ex Mast. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Saritaea magnifica (Sprague ex Steenis) Dugand.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. shrub 3447. Schefflera arboricola (Hayata) Merr. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Wright ex Becc. Irwin & Barneby.E.) Druce. tree 3403. Schefflera elegantissima (hort..T. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. shrub 3448. Senna fruticosa (Mill.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3401. Clausen. Lycophyta: Selaginellaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.) H. Lycophyta: Selaginellaceae. Saraca declinata (Jack) Miq. Irwin & Barneby. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. herb 3406. herb 3426. Schinus terebinthifolius Raddi. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. ssp. Sedum sarmentosum Bunge.. cauliflora Baker. herb 3412. tree 3404.. herb 3438. tree 3414. Salacca magnifica Mogea. herb 3423. shrub 3442. Br. Wendl. tree 3410. Magnoliophyta: Goodeniaceae. Senna sulfurea (Collad. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Saintpaulia ionantha H.) Spring. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Magnoliophyta: Crassulaceae. Schefflera versteegii Harms. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Irwin & Barneby. Schoutenia accrescens (Mast.. Salvia splendens Sellow ex Schult. tree 3450.S. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Lycophyta: Selaginellaceae. Selaginella emmeliana F. Magnoliophyta: Theaceae.) Pers. shrub 3425. Schotia latifolia Jacq. Sabal palmetto (Walter) Lodd. Schmitz. tree 3419. herb 3440.) Morong. Magnoliophyta: Saxifragaceae. Magnoliophyta: Crassulaceae. Senna polyphylla (Jacq. shrub 3422. tree 3417. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.E. tree 3432. tree 3421. tree 3445.) H. Schima superba Gardner& Champ. Reynolds. tree 3416. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Schaueria flavicoma N. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Blake. tree. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae. Serenoa repens (W. tree 3429. Senna sinqueana (Delile) Lock. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree 3402. Selaginella cuspidata (Link) Link. herb 3413. Sansevieria cylindrica Bojer. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Sedum rubrotinctum R. Senna multijuga (Rich. ex Schult.) H... tree 3433. Bartram) Small. Scadoxus multiflorus (Martyn) Raf. Sagittaria latifolia Willd. Sabal yapa C.) Merr. & Schult.) H. shrub 3427. Senna siamea (Lam. Magnoliophyta: Alismataceae. 3415. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae.) Lowry & Frodin. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae. Sabal minor (Jacq. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.) H.) H. Sarcopteryx martyana Radlk. Vig. Sedum nevii A. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 3444. herb 3437. Magnoliophyta: Gesneriaceae. tree 3435. Sanchezia speciosa Leonard. Satakentia liukiuensis (Hatus. Magnoliophyta: Crassulaceae. tree 3434. Sauropus spatulifolius Beille. shrub 257 . Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 3418.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Alismataceae. Scaevola albida (Sm. tree 3409.) H..F. Schleichera oleosa (Lour.. herb 3411. =S. Sagittaria sagittifolia L.S. herb 3424. =Dizygotheca elegantissima (hort. & Guillaumin 3428. tree 3430. Gray. Salix tetrasperma Roxb.

tree 3470. climber 258 . Severinia buxifolia (Poir. tree 3479.. tree 3495. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Spathiphyllum cannifolium (Dryand. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. 3453.. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. shrub. Sterculia oblongata R.. Magnoliophyta: Malpighiaceae. herb 3475. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. tree 3474. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.. Shorea ciliata King. herb 3480. Spondias pinnata (J. Magnoliophyta: Gesneriaceae. tree 3487. tree 3472. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Sterculia stipulata Korth. Stictocardia discolor Ootstr. tree 3500. tree 3462. Br. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Stenocarpus sinuatus Endl. tree 3469.. Stephanotis floribunda Brongn. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. f. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Solanum melongena L.) Schott. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. herb 3485.. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.) H. f. Spathoglottis gracilis Rolfe ex Hook. tree 3494. Shorea palembanica Miq.. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Spondias dulcis Sol. Shorea faquetiana Heim. climber 3490.) Codd. =S. 3452. Sindora siamensis Miq. tree 3492. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. herb 3477. Shorea multiflora (Burck) Symington. herb 3483.) Benth. coccinea (Jack) C. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. Sesbania grandiflora (L. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. tree 3486. tree 3465. tree 3459. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.. tree 3497. f. herb 3484. tree 3460. Shorea sumatrana (Sloot) Desch. tree 3499.. ex G. foetida (L. tree 3496. tree 3473. Sterculia monosperma Vent. climber 3476. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. tree 3464.) Ten. Sterculia balanghas L. Shorea smithiana Symington.. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Spathoglottis kimballiana Hook. Stigmaphyllon ciliatum (Lam. tree 3488. et al. Sterculia foetida L. f. Solanum mammosum L. Juss.S. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Sterculia ceramica R. tree 3493.. tree 3458. Solandra longiflora Tussac. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.) Kurz.... Shorea macrophylla (de Vriese) P. Magnoliophyta: Rosaceae. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) Bertoni. tree 3468. Don. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Shorea glauca King. Karst. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.) Pers.. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. tree 3454. tree 3471. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae. Sterculia nobilis Sm.. Stereospermum fimbriatum (Wall.) A.. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Br. Don) DC. tree 3463. herb 3482. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae. Ashton. f. Shorea laevis Ridl. climber 3489.) Hiern.) Lam. Magnoliophyta: Menispermaceae. Stephania erecta Craib.. Sterculia apetala (Jacq. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.. Shorea roxburghii G. tree 3491.) Thunb. Phengklai. Sinningia speciosa (Lodd. Shorea maxima (King) Symington.. Magnoliophyta: Proteaceae... Solanum wrightii Benth.. Shorea talura Roxb.. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae. tree 3455. Shorea materialis Ridl. Sindora echinocalyx Prain. Spathiphyllum wallisii Regel. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Koenig ex L. Spiraea japonica L. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. tree 3467. ex Parkinson.. Sesbania punicea (Cav. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae. Solenostemon scutellarioides (L. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. climber 3502. tree 3466. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Serissa japonica (Thunb. Shorea platyclados Slooten ex Endert. herb 3481. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. tree 3457. tree 3461. tree 3498. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. herb 3501... tree 3456. herb 3478. Sterculia lanceolata Blume var. Shorea seminis Slooten.Chong et al.. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Shorea acuminata Dyer.

Tabebuia aurea (Silva Manso) Benth. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae.) Baill. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. f. herb 3509. tree 3537.) Standl.) B. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. ex Roem. Syzygium angophoroides (F. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Muell.. forte.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3503. Magnoliophyta: Strelitziaceae.) Merr. tree 3525. Strophanthus gratus (Wall. Synima macrophylla S.) Craven & Biffin. Strophanthus preussii Engl..L.) Jacq. Syzygium fibrosum (F. & L. Tabebuia heterophylla (DC. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae.) A. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.) Britton.M. Nesom. Tabebuia pallida (Lindl. tree 3521. Hyland. tree 3515. f. Tagetes patula L.) Miers. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. & Schult. climber 3511. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Tabebuia chrysotricha (Mart.. Hyland) Craven & Biffin. tree 3539. tree 3547. =Aster laevis L. Tabebuia ochracea (Cham. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.) Glassman. herb 3507. & L. Strobilanthes dyeriana Mast. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. tree 3514. shrub 3545. Magnoliophyta: Dioscoreaceae. Swintonia floribunda Griff. Strelitzia reginae Aiton. Tabernaemontana macrocarpa Jack.) Juss. Syagyrus romanzoffiana (Cham.) Daniell. Magnoliophyta: Strelitziaceae. Hyland.. tree 3524. Syzygium samarangense (Blume) Merr. Syzygium hemilampra (F. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. herb 3508. Tacca plantaginea (Hance) Drenth. herb 3510. Tabernaemontana pachysiphon Stapf. herb 3506.B. tree 3541. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Tabebuia serratifolia (Vahl) G. Perry. tree 3530. herb 3550. tree 3533. Syzygium antisepticum (Blume) Merr.T. & Hook. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. laeve. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Syzygium nervosum DC. Syzygium alliiligneum B. tree 3504. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Streblus ilicifolius (Vidal) Corner. Strobilanthes crispus Blume. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. tree 3538.M... Talinum fruticosum (L.) B. Perry. & Pax. Magnoliophyta: Dioscoreaceae. Perry. herb 259 .) Sond. tree 3527. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. Imlay. Tacca chantrieri André. Tabebuia haemantha (Betero ex Spreng.. & Thonn. Nicholson. Muell. tree 3526.. tree 3505. Hyland ssp.M. Hyland. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. herb 3549. Bailey) T.. Symphyotrichum laeve (L.) R.. tree 3536.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Swartzia pinnata (Vahl) Willd. Syzygium resa (B. tree 3535. tree 3542. Love & D. herb. tree 3543. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. Syzygium unipunctatum (B. Perry. Gray. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.. ex S. & L. tree 3529. Tabebuia chrysantha (Jacq.G. Strobilanthes cusia (Nees) J. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Reynolds. tree 3516. Syzygium aromaticum (L. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Muell. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. herb 3519.) DC. 3520.) Standl. tree 3531. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Syzygium aqueum (Burm. Syzygium minutiflorum Miq.. tree 3532. Symphyotrichum dumosum (L. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. tree 3544. tree 3523.) Glassman. tree 3517. Hyland) Craven & Biffin.M. Love var. Synsepalum dulcificum (Schumach. Moore. shrub 3540. Magnoliophyta: Portulacaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Tabernaemontana divaricata (L. tree 3546..) G. tree 3518. herb 3548. & Hook. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Br. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Syzygium forte (F. Swietenia mahogani (L. Stromanthe sanguinea (Hook. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. tree 3528.) Alston.M. shrub 3512. Nicholson. Muell. Syzygium wilsonii (F. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Syagyrus schizophylla (Mart. Hartley & L. Strongylodon macrobotrys A. climber 3513. ex DC. Strelitzia nicolai Regel & Körn. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.) B. tree 3534. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.) G. tree 3522.

Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Terminalia sericea Burch. Tipuana tipu (Benth. Tradescantia pallida (Rose) D. Terminalia pyrifolia Kurz. herb 3579. Thrinax radiata Lodd. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Treculia africana Decne. herb 3592. herb 3595. Mey. tree 3565. Thalia geniculata L. tree 260 .. Tibouchina semidecandra (Schrank & Mart. tree 3591. tree 3560. herb 3569. Trachelospermum asiaticum Nakai.) L. tree 3596.A. climber 3590. Tillandsia usneoides (L. tree 3584. Terminalia brassii Exell. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae.R. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Magnoliophyta: Dilleniaceae. herb. shrub 3578..) Spach 3554. tree 3587.) Cogn.) Cogn.. Hunt. Tetracera loureiri Pierre ex Craib. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae. Pinophyta: Taxodiaceae.) D. =T. Tecoma stans (L. herb 3585. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae.. tree 3580. tree 3553.. Torenia fournieri Linden ex E. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. Magnoliophyta: Costaceae. Terminalia calamansanai (Blanco) Rolfe. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae.) K. tree 3588.Chong et al. Anderson. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Toona sinensis (A..) K. herb 3583.) Juss. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae.. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. ex Trec. Magnoliophyta: Polygonaceae.) T.. Thunbergia kirkii Hook. tree 3563. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae.) Taub. Thymophylla tenuiloba DC.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 3555. Magnoliophyta: Linderniaceae. ex DC. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. tree 3561.) Merr. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. 3551. Tradescantia spathacea Sw.. Terminalia muelleri Benth. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Tapeinochilos ananassae (Hassk. shrub 3558. tree 3567. herb 3570. climber 3566. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. herb 3589. Hunt 3594. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. f. & Thonn. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. R. Tibouchina urvilleana (DC. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. & C. shrub 3577. pendula (Schnizl. Trapa natans L. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. tree 3562.) M. climber 3568.. Terminalia ivorensis A. Thevetia peruviana (Pers. Thunbergia battiscombei Turril. Schum. Tectona grandis L.) Lindl. Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae. Triplaris cumingiana Fisch. Koch. Thunbergia erecta (Benth.) K. Tetrastigma dichotomum Planch. tree 3574. Juss. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae.) P. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae..... tree 3599. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae... Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. tree 3575. Magnoliophyta: Polygonaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae. f. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Tradescantia zebrina hort.. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. shrub 3573. tree 3559. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. ex Schult.. Wilson... herb 3552.) Rich. Triphasia trifolia (Burm. Toechima erythrocarpum Radlk. Tecoma capensis (Thunb. Chev. Tithonia diversifolia (Helms.. ex Spreng... tree 3564. Schum. =Tecomaria capensis (Thunb. herb 3593.. Fourn. Tillandsia cyanea Linden ex K. herb 3582. Gray. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. ex Bosse. Telosma cordata (Burm.) Kuntze. Schum. Tephrosia grandiflora (Aiton) Pers. & Schult. Thrinax parviflora Sw. Terminalia kaernbachii Warb.. climber 3557. shrub 3581. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae. tree 3597. Toechima daemelianum Radlk. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. ex Kunth. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae.. Tetrapleura tetraptera (Schumach.. f. Trichilia emetica Vahl... shrub. tree 3598. Triplaris americana L. tree 3572. ex DC. Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd. Taxodium distichum (L. f. tree 3571. f. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Thalia dealbata Fraser ex Roscoe.) A. Roem. Trachycarpus takil Becc.. Theobroma cacao L. shrub 3576. tree 3586. tree 3556.

. herb 3609. Mey. et al. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. herb 3641. Uncaria sinensis (Oliv. Tristaniopsis exiliflora (F..) Kuntze. Vatica oblongifolia Hook... Beauv. var. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Orb. Magnoliophyta: Xanthorrhoeaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae.. tree 3628.T.B. Don) Hutch. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Tulbaghia violacea Harv. & Arn. shrub 3632.) Benth.. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Francis. xylocarpa. f.D. Wilson & J. tree 3604. climber. shrub 3610.. tree 3638. Victoria amazonica (Poepp. Triplaris weigeltiana Kuntze. herb 3637. Waterh. Vatica heteroptera Symington... Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Verschaffeltia splendida H.T. herb 3643. herb 3623.) L. Muell. Zamia pumila L. herb 261 . shrub 3635. Waterh.T. Wilson & J. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Typhaceae. climber 3626. Tripsacum dactyloides (L. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree 3630. climber 3615.. tree 3617. Wendl. tree 3636.. herb 3622. Washingtonia filifera (Linden ex André) H. Magnoliophyta: Nymphaeaceae.) Peter G. Magnoliophyta: Agavaceae.) Raf. Trophis scandens Hook. tree 3616. Sm. tree 3605. f. Clarke.) Taub. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae.. Typha latifolia L. Washingtonia robusta H.) Peter G. Whitfieldia elongata (P.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.) B. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.) Havil. Magnoliophyta: Turneraceae. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Wendl.) J.) Lem. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.. herb 3608. herb 3625. White & W. Magnoliophyta: Agavaceae.J. Magnoliophyta: Haemodoraceae. Victoria cruziana A. White & W. Typhonodorum lindleyanum Schott. Zea mays L. herb 3603. Francis) L. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. tree 3639.A.. tree 3620. Zamioculcas zamiifolia (Lodd. Wrightia antidysenterica (L.. Waterhousea floribunda (F. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Wodyetia bifurcata A. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Sowerby. herb 3612.. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Wrightia dubia (Sims) Spreng. tree 3642.. =Clitoria racemosa G. Vigna racemosa (G. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. Vanilla planifolia Andrews. herb 3627.. Magnoliophyta: Alliaceae. Xanthostemon verticillatus (C. Xanthostemon youngii C. Magnoliophyta: Thymelaeaceae. Tristaniopsis beccarii (Ridl. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. tree 3613. Br. herb 3640. Wikstroemia indica C. Yucca gloriosa L... Bedford. Xanthostemon chrysanthus (F. Vriesea splendens (Brongn. Vitis vinifera L. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Nymphaeaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae. Xiphidium caeruleum Aubl.) Peter G. Xylia xylocarpa (Roxb.) C. tree 3606. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. herb 3611. Turnera aurantiaca Benth.S. shrub 3631. Wendl.. Irvine. tree 3621.D. tree 3629. Tristaniopsis laurina (Sm.. tree 3601. herb 3602.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Yucca aloifolia L.. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae.K.) R. Muell. tree 3618. Pinophyta: Zamiaceae. herb 3647. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae.. Pinophyta: Zamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae.. Turraea obtusifolia Hochst. Zamia fufuracea L. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.. tree 3633.) Engl. Vinca minor L.C. Veitchia joannis H.T. Vatica rassak Blume. Xanthorrhoea preissii Endl. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. shrub 3634. Don 3624. Tripogandra multiflora (Sw. herb 3644.D. tree 3619. Magnoliophyta: Polygonaceae.. tree 3646. Magnoliophyta: Dipterocarpaceae. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Vatica umbonata Burck. climber 3614.. tree 3645. Wilson & J. Hyland.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3600. climber 3607. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. & Dalziel.T. Wendl. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Muell. Waterh. Vallaris glabra (L. Magnoliophyta: Xanthorrhoeaceae. Xanthorrhoea glauca D..

. herb. cultivated 3679.. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rhamnaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rutaceae.D. cultivated 3690..) Merr. cultivated 3693. cultivated 3676. cultivated 3664. herb 3689. Alpinia galanga (L. tree 3653. Magnoliophyta: Amaranthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. ex Thiele..f. Callerya atropurpurea (Wall. cultivated 262 . tree.H. et al. Acalypha siamensis Oliv. Areca catechu L. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.. herb. cultivated 3688. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. cultivated 3670.) Burm. cultivated 3691. tree. cultivated 3665. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. cultivated. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.) A. cultivated 3671. Zoysia tenuifolia Willd.Chong et al. =Samanea saman (Jacq. Andira inermis (W. Bailey. tree. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae. 3648. tree 3654. Zingiber officinale Roscoe. herb 3650. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. cultivated 3684. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. tree. Magnoliophyta: Oxalidaceae.. tree.. Zephyranthes citrina Baker. cultivated 3692.. herb Casual 3657. cultivated 3686. Clerodendrum paniculatum L. Antidesma bunius (L. ex J..) Gaertn. Artocarpus integer (Thunb. Braun & Asch. cultivated. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae.. 3662. Carica papaya L. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. tree. tree.. cultivated. tree. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.. cultivated 3678.) Sw. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. tree. cultivated 3687... shrub. herb. Magnoliophyta: Polygonaceae. tree. Celosia argentea L. Citrus limon (L.. tree. cultivated 3673.) Wight & Arn. cultivated 3667. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Acroceras munroanum (Balansa) Henr. Aglaonema commutatum Schott. & Arn. =Millettia atropurpurea (Wall. Anacardium occidentale L. Ananas comosus (L. tree. Magnoliophyta: Bromeliaceae. ex B. Congea tomentosa Roxb. Zoysia japonica Steud. Artocarpus altilis (Parkinson) Fosberg. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Zephyranthes candida (Lindl. herb 3651. tree. Abelmoschus moschatus Medik. Codiaeum variegatum (L. Magnoliophyta: Caricaceae. herb 3649. herb.) A. cultivated 3666. cultivated 3681... Juss.) Spreng. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Averrhoa carambola L. herb. f.) Herb.. Magnoliophyta: Annonaceae. herb 3656. shrub. cultivated 3663. Baphia nitida Lodd. shrub.. Aleurites moluccana (L. =Murraya koenegii (L. Annona reticulata L.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae. herb 3660. Centipeda minima (L..) Merr. cultivated 3658. Jacks. climber. Albizia saman (Jacq. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. cultivated 3668. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. cultivated 3672. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Ceiba pentandra (L. Azadirachta indica A. Bambusa heterostachya (Munro) Holtt. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. cultivated 3694.) Merr. cultivated 3674. Magnoliophyta: Oxalidaceae. tree 3655. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. 3683. cultivated 3685.. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. shrub. tree..) Spreng. Juss. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Antigonon leptopus Hook.. climber. Averrhoa bilimbi L. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae.. Wright) Kunth ex DC.. Zombia antillarum (Descourt. tree. C. Wendl. tree. cultivated 3677. Magnoliophyta: Rhamnaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Colocasia esculenta (L. Bambusa vulgaris Schrad. Zephyranthes carinata Herb. Ziziphus nummularia (Burm.) L..) Merr. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. tree. climber. cultivated 3659.. ex Gage. Bergera koenigii L. cultivated 3669.) Benth. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Araceae.. cultivated 3675. cultivated 3661. climber. Calliandra surinamensis Benth.. Allamanda cathartica L. Clerodendrum thomsoniae Balf.. 3682. herb 3652..) Schot. Artocarpus heterophyllus Lam..) Schott.) Willd. shrub. Castilla elastica Sessé. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. cultivated 3680. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. herb.. Ziziphus mauritiana Lam. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. tree.

Magnoliophyta: Malpighiaceae.-Ham. Epipremnum aureum (Linden ex André) Bunting. cultivated 3709. Malpighia coccigera L. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Almeida 3716. Hygrophila auriculata (Buch. cultivated 3711. Magnoliophyta: Combretaceae. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. cultivated 3703.. Magnoliophyta: Colchicaceae. Sch.. cultivated 3722. tree. climber. cultivated 3712.. maculata (Lodd. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. cultivated 3708. Kalanchoe pinnata (Lam. Magnoliophyta: Polygonaceae. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Gigantochloa thoii K. cultivated 3702. herb. Eryngium foetidum L.. cultivated 3731.) Ker Gawl.) Hiern 3726. Dracaena fragrans (L. seguine.. climber. tree. Magnoliophyta: Crassulaceae. =D. Gloriosa superba L. Persicaria hydropiper (L. climber. cultivated 3699. schulli (Buch. cultivated 3739. Durio zibethinus L. shrub. Cordyline fruticosa (L. Psidium guajava L. Magnoliophyta: Sapotaceae. Pandanus amaryllifolius Roxb. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Hibiscus rosa-sinensis L. cultivated 3740. Philodendron hederaceum (Jacq. Monstera deliciosa Liebm. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. cultivated 3696. shrub.M. herb. Magnoliophyta: Laxmanniaceae. cultivated 3732.Koch & Sello 3730. Quisqualis indica L. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. climber. Wong. climber. tree. Pachystachys coccinea (Aubl. Magnoliophyta: Apiaceae.R.) M. climber. shrub. cultivated 3719. shrub. cultivated 3738. cultivated 3718... cultivated. R.. Magnoliophyta: Anacardiaceae. Dieffenbachia seguine (Jacq.) Delarbre. =H... Magnoliophyta: Heliconiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. cultivated 263 . tree. shrub. =Jacobinia coccinea (Aubl. Saccharum officinarum L. herb. Magnoliophyta: Cucurbitaceae... herb 3728. cultivated 3713.. cultivated 3707. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. cultivated 3734.. cultivated 3710. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. shrub. Sansevieria trifasciata Prain. strangler. Anders. Heliconia psittacorum L.) Schott var. herb..) Nees. climber. Almeida & S.) Harms.. herb. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. M. Braun & K. Schizostachyum zolleringi Steud.. Lawsonia inermis L.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3695. shrub. shrub. Piper betle L. cultivated 3706. tree. Momordica charantia L. cultivated 3704. cultivated 3714. =P. cultivated 3729. tree.. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. H.. spinosa T. tree.. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Paspalum plicatulum Michx.-Ham. cultivated. shrub. herb. herb. cultivated 3733.) Kunth ex Walp..) Sweet. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae. shrub. Ficus elastica Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Araliaceae. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.) Pers. Dendrocalamus asper (Schult. ex Hornem. climber. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.M. Ficus pumila L.. cultivated. tree. Magnoliophyta: Araceae..) Backer ex Heyne. tree. herb. Mangifera indica L. cultivated 3701. strangler. Gigantochloa wrayi Gamble. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. cultivated 3720. shrub. cultivated 3723.. Magnoliophyta: Ruscaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Costaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. picta Schott 3700. cultivated 3705. cultivated 3735. cultivated 3724. cultivated 3737. cultivated 3727. Magnoliophyta: Clusiaceae. Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. cultivated 3721. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Almeida. Costus lucanusianus J.) Schott. cultivated 3697. cultivated 3736. climber 3725. herb 3717. Magnoliophyta: Pandanaceae. herb. Schefflera actinophylla (Endl.) A. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. f. Schizostachyum brachycladum Kurz.. Almeida & S. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Pterocarpus indicus Willd. Mimusops elengi L. scandens K. Ficus benghalensis L.. Hygrophila phlomoides Nees. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae. Ipomoea batatas (L. Chev. shrub. Garcinia mangostana L. herb. cultivated...) Lam. Congea velutina Wight.) M. cultivated 3715. D. Dimocarpus longan Lour. cultivated 3698.) Benth... Schizostachyum jaculans Holttum.. shrub..

cultivated 3780.. Acacia mangium Willd. cultivated 3753. tree 3743. Aniseia martinicensis (Jacq. Filicinophyta: Adiantaceae. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.) Benth.. Ageratum conyzoides L. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Vernonia elliptica DC.) Rchb. ssp. Jacks. herb.) H. var.. ex Nees. climber. & Schult. ficoidea (L.. ex Hook. Swietenia macrophylla King. herb. Acacia auriculiformis A. cultivated 3747. climber 3779.) Merr. Thyrsostachys siamensis Gamble. var. DC. Zingiber zerumbet (L. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. cultivated Naturalised 3760. Thunbergia grandiflora Roxb. Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. tree. herb. Magnoliophyta: Amaranthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Zingiberaceae. Nicholson.) Veldk. Tamarindus indica L. cultivated 3771.S.. lividus L. herb 3777... tree. Andrographis paniculata (Burm. cultivated 3750. Magnoliophyta: Amaryllidaceae. herb. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae.) Griseb. Syzygium malaccense (L..) DC... cultivated 3744. ex Benth.. 3775. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae. cultivated 3781. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Zephyranthes rosea Lindl.. Spathoglottis unguiculata (Labill.) Costea. cultivated 3754.. cultivated 3742. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae... Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. f.) G. M. shrub. Amaranthus blitum L. Cunn. herb 3768. Abrus precatorius L.) Benth. cultivated 3763. tree. cultivated 3759.) Choisy.) H. f. Anderson ssp. Asystasia gangetica (L. tree. cultivated 3756.) Alston.) Kuntze. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Alstonia macrophylla Wall.) T. Magnoliophyta: Marantaceae. Senna spectabilis (DC. Ammannia baccifera L. cultivated 264 . tree. Beauv. cultivated 3755.Br. 3741. Adenanthera pavonina L. Magnoliophyta: Meliaceae. & L. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. climber.. Vitex trifolia L. Magnoliophyta: Amaranthaceae. Amaranthus spinosus L. Alternanthera bettzickiana (Regel) G... Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. f.) Hook. Sporobolus indicus (L. Syzygium jambos (L. bettzichiana (Regel) Backer 3773. Don. herb. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. oleraceus (L. Filicinophyta: Adiantaceae. cultivated 3752. shrub. Wrightia religiosa (Teijsm. herb 3764. S. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. herb 3770. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. cultivated 3757. =A.. climber. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Arenga westerhoutii Griff. tree. pyramidalis (P. & Thomson. herb 3758. Magnoliophyta: Amaranthaceae. herb 3774.. Aeschynomene indica L. herb 3769. herb 3767. Irwin & Barneby. f. herb 3745. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Amaranthaceae. Tinospora crispa (L. gangetica. =A. herb. Perry. Alternanthera philoxeroides (Mart. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Ex Roem. Senna surattensis (Burm.. Alocasia macrorrhizos (L. cultivated 3765. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. cultivated 3748. cultivated 3749. & Binn. Adiantum fructuosum Spreng. cultivated 3762. herb 3766.. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Asclepias curassavica L. tree 3772. tree... Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. cultivated 3761. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. herb. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. herb. tree. shrub. herb. cultivated 3751. Tabebuia rosea (Bertol. ex G.) R. Xanthium inaequilaterum DC.) Wall. Magnoliophyta: Menispermaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. herb. herb 3776. Aeschynomene americana L. Thaumatococcus daniellii (Benn. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. cultivated 3778.) Sm.) R. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. ex B. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae. Irwin & Barneby. Br. Adiantum latifolium Lam. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree.Chong et al. f. shrub. D. climber. cultivated 3746. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.

climber 3790. cultivated. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. climber. intrusa (Forssk. herb. =C. Chloris barbata Sw.K. cultivated 3816. Don. Magnoliophyta: Cannaceae.Br. cultivated 3809. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. =A. Magnoliophyta: Chrysobalanaceae.M. shrub 3789. herb 3807. climber.. herb 3808. herb 3822.M. Magnoliophyta: Cleomaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Axonopus fissifolius (Raddi) Kulm.. Canna indica L.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Fowler.) S. asiatica R. Don.) Gaudich.) Greene.. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. cultivated 3811. =C. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae.. cultivated 3792. Clitoria laurifolia Poir. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Cleome viscosa L. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Axonopus compressus (Sw. Centrosema pubescens Benth. micrantha (Nees) Ensermu. Bacopa monnieri (L.. herb. Azolla pinnata R. shrub 3812. tree. shrub..King & H. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Coccinia grandis (L. tree. cultivated 3791. Cardiospermum halicacabum L.. Cecropia pachystachya Trécul. Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae. Crotalaria incana L. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. shrub. Cleome gynandra L. Magnoliophyta: Sapindaceae. & Schult. Magnoliophyta: Melastomataceae. Cleome rutidosperma DC. cultivated 3795. herb. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae..) T. Magnoliophyta: Cleomaceae.) Millsp. bialata Roxb. herb. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. 3797... cultivated 3814. cultivated 3813. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. 3823.) Beauv. =A.) Voigt. Croton bonplandianus Baill. Catharanthus roseus (L. shrub. 3820. Magnoliophyta: Cucurbitaceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.. echinatus auct. Boehmeria nivea (L. nemorum Nees. =Cassia mimosoides L.. cultivated 3799. Saunders & K.) D.) Millsp. 3802. Magnoliophyta: Cleomaceae.) Moensch.) Irwin & Barneby var. herb 3817. climber. shrub.. cultivated 3815. herb. Bidens pilosa L. herb. glabrata (Vogel) Irwin & Barneby 3800. herb. shrub.. Cenchrus echinatus L.. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. 3801. ssp. Filicinophyta: Salviniaceae. caroliniana Willd.. Chamaecrista leschenaultiana (DC. cultivated. Anderson ssp. & Schult. herb. herb 3810. Chamaesyce hirta (L. cultivated 3784. Magnoliophyta: Cleomaceae. Cleome aculeata L.. herb 3787.. cultivated 3794. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. =Euphorbia hirta L. Crotalaria alata Buch. cultivated 3793. =C.. non L. Magnoliophyta: Boraginaceae. Crotalaria juncea L..) Roem.. Chamaecrista mimosoides (L. cultivated.) R.. Coix lacryma-jobi L. 3803. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.. Clidemia hirta (L. Don. Moore.. herb 265 .. A. herb 3788. herb 3819. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Clitoria ternatea L.) Degener. herb 3804. Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Carmona retusa (Vahl) Masam. Asystasia gangetica (L.) G. shrub 3821. Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae. sparsiflorus Morong 3824. Magnoliophyta: Boraginaceae. Corchorus aestuans L. =C.Rob. =A. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Crassocephalum crepidioides (Benth. mucronata Desv. tree 3796. Chromolaena odorata (L. Cecropia peltata L.) Pennell. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Chrysobalanus icaco L. herb 3805. affinis Chase 3785.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3782. =Euphobia hypericifolia L. 3786. climber.-Ham ex G. Magnoliophyta: Apocynaceae.. Croton hirtus L'Hér. Calopogonium mucunoides Desv.. herb. Cordia cylindristachya (Ruiz & Pav. shrub 3806. ssp. herb. Crotalaria pallida Aiton.) Blume 3783. herb. patellaria (Collad. =C. herb 3798. cultivated 3818. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Cocos nucifera L. shrub. shrub. Chamaesyce hypericifolia (L.. Cenchrus brownii Roem. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. nictinans (L.

. Cyperus sphacelatus Rottb. herb 3831. 3847.) R. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. tree 3846. tree. Falcataria moluccana (Miq. shrub 3860.F. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. herb 3854.) Sch. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Dichanthium annulatum (Forssk.. Flueggea virosa (Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Don. Ipomoea triloba L.) Wolf 3836. Eleusine indica (L. herb 3856. herb 3843. Eleutheranthera ruderalis (Sw..) DC. ex DC..) Baill. herb 3832. Sinclair.. Kyllinga polyphylla Willd...) Solms. Diodia ocymifolia (Willd.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.) Willd. herb 3841. herb 3827. And Kük. Erechtites hieracifolius (L. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. herb 3842. Hydrocera triflora (L. Anderson. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Hemigraphis primulifolia (Nees) Fern. cultivated. Br. herb 3835. Cuphea carthagenesis (Jacq. 3826. Bip... Duchesnea indica (Andrews) Focke. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. =Cyperus aromaticus (Ridl.. Indigofera suffruticosa Mill.. Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. ex A. ex Kunth. climber. Erechtites valerianifolius (Link ex Spreng. cultivated 3838. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. herb 3839. shrub 3829. shrub 3857. cultivated 3850. herb 3833. cultivated 3866.) G.. herb.Nielsen 3844.) J. =Laurentia longiflora (L. Lemna perpusilla Torr. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Indigofera hirsuta L. herb 3828.) Barneby & J. Magnoliophyta: Campanulaceae. herb 3853.. Indigofera spicata Forssk. strangler.) M. herb 3830. Grimes... Don.. herb 3848. herb. ex Wild.) Poit. Ipomoea quamoclit L..) Sweet. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. & Schult. cultivated.) Raeusch.) Müll. Hemigraphis confinis T.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Macbr. climber. Flacourtia jangomas (Lour.. herb 266 . Hyptis capitata Jacq. ex Willd.) Wight & Arn. Drymaria cordata (L. herb 3855. cultivated 3864. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Hevea brasiliensis (Willd. herb.. herb. =Securinega virosa (Roxb. herb 3868. Magnoliophyta: Pontederiaceae.) Voigt. Lantana camara L... Magnoliophyta: Cucurbitaceae. cultivated 3849.C. Hippobroma longiflora (L. Jacaranda obtusifolia D. shrub. Lantana indica Roxb. Digitaria didactyla Willd. shrub 3859. Magnoliophyta: Verbenaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Arg.) Fosberg.) L. ex Schultes. Magnoliophyta: Verbenaceae. Magnoliophyta: Caryophyllaceae..) Stapf.) J. Magnoliophyta: Rosaceae. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae.J. herb 3858.) Bremek. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.Chong et al. cultivated 3861. climber. tree 3852. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. =Potentilla indica (Andr. Ipomoea cairica (L. climber 3863. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. cultivated 3862. Ficus religiosa L. Leonotis nepetifolia (L.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Roem. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. shrub 3867. Cucumis maderaspatanus L. Indigofera tinctoria L. herb 3837. Hyptis brevipes Poit. Magnoliophyta: Lythraceae.) Peterm.. Juss.-Vill.W. =Mukia maderaspatana (L.. Euphorbia heterophylla L. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. cultivated. Magnoliophyta: Dioscoreaceae.. herb 3840. Desmanthus virgatus (L... 3851. ex Roem. Magnoliophyta: Myristicaceae..) Raf. Paraserianthes falcataria (L. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree. climber. Horsfieldia parviflora (Roxb. =Albizia falcataria (L. climber. Albizia moluccana Miq. Magnoliophyta: Salicaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Dioscorea sansibarensis Pax.) Mattf. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. cultivated 3834.) Gaertn. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.) Willd.) I.. Diodia sarmentosa Sw. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. tree. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Eclipta prostrata (L. 3825. cultivated 3845. Magnoliophyta: Balsaminaceae. Hyptis suaveolens (L. 3865. shrub.

. Manihot carthagenesis (Jack) Müll.. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Pistia stratiotes L. Oxalis barrelieri L. Magnoliophyta: Onagraceae. Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae. Filicinophyta: Adiantaceae. =Panicum maximum Jacq. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.) Sw.Arg..) Urb.J.) Schult. climber 3877. & Thonn.. Forst. Magnoliophyta: Araceae.) Wedd. cultivated 3874. climber. climber. climber 3878. Phyllanthus debilis Klein ex Willd. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. climber 3876. Megathyrsus maximus (Jacq. Lygodium japonicum (Thunb. shrub 3887. cultivated 3910. Phyllanthus amarus Schumach.. climber.E. Neptunia oleracea Lour. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Neptunia plena (L. Lobelia chinensis Lour. Passiflora suberosa L. herb 3898. Hara... Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Polygonaceae.. 3881.. Filicinophyta: Schizaeaceae. Magnoliophyta: Passifloraceae.) Urb. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. 3882..) Lourteig. =M. Ohashi.) DC. Metroxylon sagu Rottb. glaziovii Müll. Limnocharis flava (L. herb. herb. Macroptilium lathyroides (L.. =O. shrub. 3879. herb. Don) Wettst.) Pruce 3891. Oxalis corniculata L. Gross var.K. cultivated 3896. cultivated. =Rhynchelytrum repens (Willd. Peperomia pellucida (L.. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. 3885. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. 3893. Pityrogramma calomelanos (L.) Kunth. Magnoliophyta: Linderniaceae. cultivated 3892. herb. herb. shrub 3875.) DC. Arg. 3894. Wright. Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. cultivated. herb 3903. tree. Passiflora foetida L. herb. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. =M. Mimosa diplotricha C.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3869. herb 3904.) Liebm.. climber. ex Murr. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Phyllanthus urinaria L. cultivated 3871. herb. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Mimosa bimucronata (DC.. Lindernia nummulariifolia (D.W. shrub. herb.) Benth. Pennisetum polystachion (L. tree 3911. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Mikania micrantha Kunth.) H. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae. tree. cultivated 3884. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.) Lam. herb 3902. glaziovii (Müll. Piper aduncum L. herb 3905.) H. Magnoliophyta: Campanulaceae. Melinis repens (Willd. Hubb.. sessiliflora (Benth. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae.. Mimosa pigra L. cultivated 3909.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Oxalidaceae. herb.) C. Magnoliophyta: Oxalidaceae. Passiflora laurifolia L.. Bergius. shrub 3912. Magnoliophyta: Passifloraceae. =Hedyotis corymbosa (L. tree. tree. 3886. cultivated 3880. chinensis... Simon & S. herb 3889. invisa Mart. Macroptilium atropurpureum (DC. Mitracarpus hirtus (L. Magnoliophyta: Polygonaceae. Ludwigia peruviana (L. cultivated 3872.) H. herb 3870. herb 3908. Arg. Persicaria chinensis (L.) Buchenau.. cultivated 3895. Pennisetum purpureum Schumach. Magnoliophyta: Piperaceae. herb 267 .) Link. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Manihot esculenta Crantz. cultivated 3883. Magnoliophyta: Phyllanthaceae.) Zizka.L. cultivated. cultivated 3900. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. natans (L. herb.. cultivated 3913. herb. sepiaria Benth. Magnoliophyta: Oxalidaceae...) Kuntze.. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. herb 3906. shrub.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. shrub. =L. Magnoliophyta: Limnocharitaceae. herb. =N. Jacobs. herb 3907. corymbosa DC. cultivated 3890. Oxalis debilis Kunth var.) de Wit.) Allem.. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Persicaria orientalis (L.. Muntingia calabura L.) DC. cultivated 3888. corymbosa (DC. climber. Pilea microphylla (L.) Wettst. cultivated 3899. 3873. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. tree. Pipturus argenteus (G. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Ohwia caudata (Thunb. Mimosa pudica L.f. cultivated. ssp. Leonurus sibiricus L. Magnoliophyta: Passifloraceae. =Desmodium laburnifolium (Poir.) Spach.) B. Paspalum conjugatum P. =M. Desmodium caudatum (Thunb. Oldenlandia corymbosa L. 3897. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. cultivated 3901.

=Panicum laxum Sw. & Thonn.) C.) DC. Wendl. =Sparganophoros vaillantii DC. ex anon. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae. Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L. Sesbania cannabina (Retz. 3914.) H. Spermacoce latifolia Aubl. =S. Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Solanum torvum Sw. Stachytarpheta indica (L. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. shrub. Sesamum radiatum Schumach. =S. Pseudarthria viscida Wight & Arn. 3933. Sesamum indicum L. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.. Filicinophyta: Salviniaceae. Polygala paniculata L.S.. =Wedelia trilobata (L. herb 3925.) Vahl. orientale L. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.) Griseb. cultivated 3919.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. herb 3939. Salvinia molesta D. cultivated. Borreria latifolia (Aubl... herb. Struchium sparganophorum (L. shrub... cultivated 3922. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Pedaliaceae. Complaya trilobata (L. Scoparia dulcis L.) Link. =Cassia occidentalis L. f. f. Solanum sarmentosum Nees. herb 3940.. climber 3923.. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Saccharum spontaneum L. Irwin & Barneby. cultivated 3924. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. =Cassia obtusifolia L. herb 3951. herb 3917. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.) Hitch.S.) Kunth. Magnoliophyta: Verbenaceae.. 3941. shrub.) Zuloaga. Porophyllum ruderale (Jacq. Spermacoce laevis Lam. Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Ptychosperma macarthurii (H. Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walter) Kuntze. Magnoliophyta: Portulacaceae. Magnoliophyta: Scrophulariaceae.. shrub 3954. 3957. Magnoliophyta: Verbenaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. dimidiatum auct. Spermacoce ocymoides Burm. herb..) Benth. Magnoliophyta: Verbenaceae. =Cassia tora L. Magnoliophyta: Portulacaceae. herb. Jeffrey 268 . tree. Magnoliophyta: Arecaceae. Sparganophorus sparganophora (L. Plantago major L..) H. shrub.) Vahl. 3931. herb. shrub. Senna occidentalis (L. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae. cultivated 3955. shrub. =S. herb 3927. Senna tora (L..) Clayton. Rivina humilis L.) C. herb. herb.) DC. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. shrub 3943. shrub 3938. ex Hook. herb 3946. shrub. shrub. =Borreria ocymoides (Burm. Jeffrey..) K.. herb 3952. 3947. Spermacoce assurgens Ruiz & Pav. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae. herb 3921. cultivated 3953. 3956. =Cassia alata L. Senna obtusifolia (L. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. 3934.) Brongn. Mitch. Setaria barbata (Lam. cultivated.) Strother 3950. f. Wendl. Beauv. herb 3930. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.Schum.. Magnoliophyta: Brassicaceae. Senna alata (L. 3949.. non (L. herb 3918.Chong et al. herb 3926. Spathodea campanulata P. Stachytarpheta mutabilis (Jacq.) Pers.) Vahl. ferox L. Magnoliophyta: Plumbaginaceae. herb. Magnoliophyta: Bignoniaceae. Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc. Magnoliophyta: Verbenaceae.) Pruski. herb.. 3936. cultivated 3937. =Borreria alata (Aubl. herb..) H.S.) Roxb.. Sphagneticola trilobata (L. Magnoliophyta: Polygalaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. herb 3920. =Cassia hirsuta L. Portulaca oleracea L. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Ricinus communis L. Magnoliophyta: Pedaliaceae.. Rottboellia cochinchinensis (Lour. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Portulaca quadrifida L. Senna hirsuta (L.) Vahl. shrub 3942.) Roxb. cultivated 3945. Plumbago zeylanica L. cultivated. Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae... Solanum americanum Miller.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae.. tree. 3935. Sporobolus tenuissimus (Schrank) Kuntze. cultivated 3915. 3932. herb 3928. Magnoliophyta: Phytolaccaceae.. =Borreria laevis (Lam. herb.. herb 3944. Steinchisma laxa (Sw. cultivated 3916. herb.) Cass. Solanum lasiocarpum Dunal. tree. Irwin & Barneby. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Rorippa heterophylla (Blume) Williams. herb 3929. 3948.

Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Turneraceae. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. cultivated 3963. shrub 3972.) Gaertn. f.) DC. herb. Zornia diphylla (L. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Thysanolaena latifolia (Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. Nguyen.) Brongn. herb 3959. climber 4002. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. herb 3987. Adenostemma viscosum J. Syngonium podophyllum Schott. Magnoliophyta: Thymelaeaceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.K. herb 3980. Acalypha lanceolata Willd. ex DC.) Honda.. Magnoliophyta: Hydrocharitaceae.) DC. ex Hornem. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Cook & Luond. alternifolia (Miq. Filicinophyta: Pteridaceae. Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae.) R. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. tree.. climber. Alternanthera sessilis (L. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. herb 4003. herb.... herb 3979. herb. Magnoliophyta: Turneraceae. cultivated 3988. herb. herb 3982. Achyranthes aspera L. R. Magnoliophyta: Amaranthaceae. Acmella uliginosa (Sw. shrub 3971.) S.. herb. Magnoliophyta: Hydrocharitaceae.) Merr..) C. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.... Wikstroemia ridleyi Gamble.) DC. Alloteropsis cimicina (L. herb 3990.. Adenosma inopinatum Prain. Ceratopteris thalictroides (L. Magnoliophyta: Typhaceae.f. herb 3994. Anisomeles indica (L.) DC. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. herb 3991. herb. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.) Schott. Br. herb 3992. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. T. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Urochloa mutica (Forssk. herb 3960.) Gaertn. cultivated 3968. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae.) Skeels.. Abutilon indicum (L. Bothriochloa bladhii (Retz. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Blumea balsamifera (L..) Maxim. cultivated 3996. Blumea membranacea DC. cultivated 3993. Stylosanthes guianensis (Aubl.. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. herb. cultivated 3966.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Talinum paniculatum (Jacq. cultivated 3969. cultivated 3970. herb 3999. =B.) Herb. Magnoliophyta: Iridaceae.) Cass. Alysicarpus vaginalis (L. var. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae..) Merr. Vigna unguiculata (L. cultivated 3964. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Forst. Typhonium trilobatum (L. Boerhavia diffusa L. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. herb. herb 3989. Hunter) Roxb. Synedrella nodiflora (L. herb. shrub. herb 3998. Youngia japonica (L. cultivated 3995. ex DC. & G.. herb 3976. Magnoliophyta: Orobanchaceae. shrub 3981. cultivated 3973.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae..) Sweet. cultivated 3974. cultivated 3975. aubertii. Tephrosia noctiflora Bojer ex Baker. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Forst. herb 3997. cultivated 3962.. var. Magnoliophyta: Myrtaceae. herb 269 . herb 4001.) Walp. herb 4004. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Portulacaceae. Magnoliophyta: Nyctaginaceae. Thunbergia fragrans Roxb. Triumfetta rhomboidea Jacq. Adenosma indicum (Lour. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. herb. Thunbergia alata Bojer ex Sims.) Hall. Magnoliophyta: Amaranthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Bonamia semidigyna (Roxb. herb 3961.) Stapf.) Hartog 4000. Syzygium cumini (L. shrub. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Uraria crinita (L.. shrub.Q. Blyxa japonica (Miq.) Desv. herb 3985.. Trimezia martinicensis (Jacq. cultivated 3978. climber. herb. shrub 3965. Stylosanthes humilis Kunth.. herb 3986. herb WEED OF UNCERTAIN ORIGIN 3983. Blumea lacera (Burm. cultivated 3984.. Turnera subulata Sm. Tridax procumbens L..) Pers. climber. Acalypha indica L. Turnera ulmifolia L. alternifolia (Miq.. Magnoliophyta: Araceae.) Kuntze. cultivated 3967. Uncaria gambir (W. Centranthera tranquebarica (Spreng..) Sw.) T. Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae. Triumfetta tomentosa Bojer..D. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Blake.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 3958. Blyxa aubertii Rich. climber 3977. Typha angustifolia L..

.) Cronquist. herb.. herb 4031. climber. var. herb 4011. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. & Schult. Forst & G. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. f. cultivated 4051. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Br. Cyperus pilosus Vahl.) A. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. calliblepharata (Henrard) Veldk.) DC. Cyanotis cristata D. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. cultivated 4050.) Schult.. Dioscorea bulbifera L. cultivated 4043. herb 4020. cultivated 4009... & Schult. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae.. Cyperus distans L. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Beauv.. herb 4008. herb 4026. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae. Cyperus cyperoides (L. Cyperus iria L. cultivated 4033. Desmodium triflorum (L. 270 . Cuscuta australis R.. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae.. herb. Cyperus haspan L. herb 4048. Digitaria nuda Schumach. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. herb 4019. climber.) den Hengst. Dioclea hexandra (Ralph) Mabberley var. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Presl) Miq. Eragrostis amabilis (L. Cyperus imbricatus Retz. Elephantopus scaber L. Desmodium heterophyllum (Willd. Cyperus compressus L. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. herb 4035. Emilia sonchifolia (L. Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae. cultivated 4016. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. shrub 4032.. Echinochloa colona (L. Camus. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae.) Kuntze.. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. herb 4023. Christella dentata (Forsk.) DC. herb 4018. herb 4037.. Forst. f.. Diplacrum caricinum R. ex Nees... shrub. =E. Digitaria ciliaris (Retz. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Cissus hastata Miq. Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Christella parasitica (L. herb. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. herb 4044.. herb 4039. herb 4010. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Cyperus trialatus (Boeck. herb 4006. herb 4022. Cyperus elatus L. 4005. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae.) Link. cultivated 4014. herb 4053. herb 4021. herb 4047.. Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae. Magnoliophyta: Dioscoreaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae.) P. herb.) J. Dentella repens J. Crotalaria retusa L. herb 4036.. Digitaria violascens Link. Suringer. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. climber 4042.) Millsp. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Cyperus difformis L.. Conyza bonariensis (L. herb 4007.) Roem. Eleocharis ochrostachys Steud. herb 4046. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Cyperus cuspidatus Kunth. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae.. Dichanthium caricosum (L. herb 4038.) Wight & Arn. Digitaria setigera Roem. herb 4030. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae.Chong et al..R. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Commelina benghalensis L. climber..) Koeler. herb 4049.. herb 4028. javanica (Benth. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae. herb 4029. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. herb 4041. Cyperus cyperinus (Retz. var.) Kern. herb. Br. herb 4024. Echinochloa crus-galli (L.) Urb. herb. herb 4027. Chamaesyce thymifolia (L.. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.. cultivated 4052. Magnoliophyta: Vitaceae. cultivated 4015. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. herb. Desmodium heterocarpon (L. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Eleocharis geniculata (L.. setigera. Cyperus rotundus L.. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. viscosa (Retz.) Lev. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.) DC. Eleocharis retroflexa (Poir. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Digitaria radicosa (C. herb 4034.) Trin. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. herb 4040. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. cultivated 4025.. Digitaria setigera Roem. Cyperus exaltatus Retz.. Don. Enydra fluctuans Lour.. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. herb 4012. herb 4017. Crotalaria quinquefolia L.. herb 4045. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.V.) Brownsey & Jermy.) DC. herb 4013. & Schult. Commelina diffusa Burm.

herb 4056. Eulophia graminea Lindl.) R. Br. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Clarke.. herb 4067. herb 4081. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. climber. Magnoliophyta: Fabaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. herb 4099.) P. Flemingia strobilifera (L.. dichotoma. Hypericum japonicum Thunb. Leucas lavandulifolia Sm. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae.B. aromatica (Lam. Hibiscus surattensis L. Eragrostis pilosa (L. Justicia procumbrens L. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Haloragaceae. Hubb. herb 4085. herb 4072. Leucas zeylanica (L. Magnoliophyta: Eriocaulaceae.) Lam..) R. herb 4096. Fimbristylis acuminata Vahl. Eriocaulon wildenovianum Moldenke. herb 4055.) Vahl.) Dandy ex Hutch. Ischaemum barbatum R. Kyllinga brevifolia Rottb. Beauv. Magnoliophyta: Eriocaulaceae.. herb 4091.) Chew.) Nees. cultivated 4064. Fuirena umbellata Rottb... Ischaemum ciliare Retz.. herb. & Dalziel. Eriochloa procera (Retz. herb. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. cultivated 4087. herb 4065. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. herb 4068. ssp. herb 4069. herb 271 .. Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae. Ipomoea aquatica Forssk. herb 4092. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Hedyotis verticillata (L. herb 4070.B. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Fimbristylis umbellaris (L. Hygrophila meianthos C. Kyllinga melanosperma Nees. Fimbristylis dichotoma (L. Isachne globosa (Thunb. Eragrostis brownii (Kunth) Nees. Magnoliophyta: Hydrophyllaceae.) C. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Kyllinga nemoralis (J.) P. Magnoliophyta: Hydrocharitaceae. Fimbristylis schoenoides (Retz.) Vahl. Limnophila chinensis (Osbeck) Merr. herb 4095. Ischaemum timorense Kunth. Fimbristylis obtusata (C. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. strangler.. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Aiton. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. herb. Ischaemum rugosum Salisb. Hydrolea zeylanica (L.-Ham. & G.. herb 4102. Gymnopetalum chinense (Lour. herb 4101. Magnoliophyta: Boraginaceae. Hydrilla verticillata (L. Eriocaulon truncatum Buch. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.) Vahl. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Br.E... herb. Fimbristylis tetragona R..) Merr. herb 4090. cultivated 4074. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Imperata cylindrica (L. f. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Ficus benjamina L. cultivated 4086..) Vahl ssp. herb 4076... f. Clarke) Ridl.) Kern. herb 4075. Magnoliophyta: Orchidaceae.. herb 4059.. & Schult... Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Leersia hexandra Sw.) Royle. Fimbristylis ovata (Burm. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. herb 4084. Fimbristylis tristachya R.) Kuntze. cultivated 4094. ex Mart.) Orchard. herb 4073. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Erycibe leucoxyloides King ex Prain. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. herb 4088.. Yamaz. Isachne pulchella Roth ex Roem. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae.R.) W. ex Steud. herb 4058. Magnoliophyta: Moraceae. herb 4100. herb 4078. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Br. Br. Beauv. herb 4057. herb 4098. herb 4089. herb 4093. Br. cultivated 4061. Gonocarpus chinensis (Lour. herb 4066. climber 4060.. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Hypericaceae. Forst. herb 4077. Fimbristylis griffithii Boeck. herb 4082.. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Forst. Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae. Fimbristylis fusca (Nees) C. Laportea interrupta (L. shrub.. cultivated 4062. herb 4097. shrub 4080. herb 4079. herb 4063. Magnoliophyta: Cucurbitaceae.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 4054. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Clarke. Leptochloa chinensis (L. herb 4083. Fimbristylis littoralis Gaudich.T.) T. Heliotropium indicum L. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae..B.. Hygrophila ringens (L. herb 4071.

Oldenlandia biflora L. cultivated 4126. Magnoliophyta: Scrophulariaceae. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. Merremia umbellata (L. herb 4141. =N. Raven.L.) Kunth. Murdannia nudiflora (L. cultivated.. herb 4150. Magnoliophyta: Pontederiaceae. & Schult. Panicum auritum J. Filicinophyta: Pteridaceae. herb 4107. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae... Magnoliophyta: Polygonaceae.) Pennell. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Peristrophe acuminata Nees. Presl ex Kunth.. Ocimum americanum L. Melochia corchorifolia L.) Roxb. herb. Pogostemon auricularius (L.. cultivated 4143.) Wettst. herb. Magnoliophyta: Pontederiaceae. Lindernia crustacea (L. cultivated 4136. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Magnoliophyta: Linderniaceae. 4137. Magnoliophyta: Onagraceae. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. herb 4135. climber 4120. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. herb 4111. Lindernia antipoda (L. Magnoliophyta: Convolvulaceae. herb 4148. Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae. herb 4125. f.. Nephrolepis auriculata (L.. karka (Retz.) Roxb.. herb 4132. herb 4123. herb 4105. herb 4106. Oldenlandia trinervia Retz. f. f. Magnoliophyta: Linderniaceae. Lindernia ruellioides (Colsm.. biserrata (Sw. Limnophila villosa Blume.. herb 4117. Paspalum scrobiculatum L.) Brenan.) H. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. herb. Polygala glaucoides L. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Oldenlandia pumila (L. Najas malesiana Delile. herb 4114. herb 4144..) Hallier f.. Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae.) F.. herb 4113. Merremia hirta (L. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. herb 4109. Magnoliophyta: Linderniaceae.. Magnoliophyta: Urticaceae. herb. herb 4131. Magnoliophyta: Hydrocharitaceae. Muell.) DC. f. Ocimum basilicum L. Nephrolepis hirsutula (G. Limnophila sessiliflora (Vahl) Blume. Magnoliophyta: Molluginaceae.) Greene. 4103. cultivated 4133. herb 4118. Pouzolzia zeylanica (L. Ocimum tenuiflorum L. Magnoliophyta: Linderniaceae.) C. Magnoliophyta: Polygalaceae. herb 4138. cultivated 4134. Mikania cordata (Burm. Ludwigia prostrata Roxb. herb 4149. herb 4122. Presl. 4145. Physalis minima L.) Schott 4130.) Merr. herb 4112.. Filicinophyta: Oleandraceae. Lindernia viscosa (Hornem. Filicinophyta: Oleandraceae.Chong et al. herb 4139.) Müll. shrub 4119. herb 4108.) Merr. Presl ex Nees. Magnoliophyta: Onagraceae..) Pennell. Ludwigia adscendens (L. cultivated. Ludwigia hyssopifolia (G. ex Retz. Rob. cultivated 272 . Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. climber 4121. Arg.) C. Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae. Magnoliophyta: Onagraceae. herb 4128.. Hara. f. =Hedyotis herbacea L. herb. Magnoliophyta: Linderniaceae..) Alston. =P. Magnoliophyta: Verbenaceae. Forst.) Hassk.) Trimen. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae..) Steud. Magnoliophyta: Solanaceae.) B. Limnophila laxa Benth. gracilis (Danser) H.) Trin. Lipocarpha microcephala (R. Br. herb. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. Pteris ensiformis Burm.. Hara var. herb 4115. Mollugo pentaphylla L. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. herb 4140.) Bremek. Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq.) P. Oldenlandia herbacea (L. cultivated 4147. herb.. Mazus pumilus (Burm. cultivated 4146. Phragmites vallatoria (Retz. Persicaria barbata (L.. Magnoliophyta: Lamiaceae. herb 4116.) H. Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae. Don) Exell. Magnoliophyta: Linderniaceae. herb 4129. Magnoliophyta: Onagraceae. Phyla nodiflora (L.. Peristrophe roxburghiana (Roem.. herb. Monochoria vaginalis (Burm. herb 4124. herb.) Steenis. herb 4127.. herb 4110. Monochoria hastata (L...) Benn. Lindernia ciliata (Colsm.) Solms. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Oldenlandia diffusa (Willd. Lindernia elata (Benth. herb. herb. herb 4104. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Hara.) Bold. herb 4142. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Microcarpaea minima (Koen. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.H.. Microstachys chamaelea (L. ex Steud. Magnoliophyta: Commelinaceae. Magnoliophyta: Euphorbiaceae.

cultivated 4161.. herb 4164. herb 4176. Williams) C.. herb 4172.) Veldkamp.. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.. Schoenus calostachyus (R.. Camus. herb 4180. herb 4158. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Utricularia aurea Lour. Blake. Filicinophyta: Pteridaceae. herb 4152. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Utricularia caerulea L. Magnoliophyta: Xyridaceae. Ruellia repens L.. Magnoliophyta: Linderniaceae. shrub 4167. Borreria repens DC.) Karth. Magnoliophyta: Polygalaceae. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. herb 4188. Br. Vernonia cinerea (L. Vernonia patula (Aiton) Merr. Scleria oblata S. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. biflora. Magnoliophyta: Araceae.. Sida acuta Burm. Striga asiatica (L. Magnoliophyta: Orobanchaceae.. cultivated 4160.T. herb 4162.. Spermacoce exilis (L. Wolffia globosa (Roxb. Magnoliophyta: Lentibulariaceae. herb. herb 4192. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Sida rhombifolia L. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Borreria setidens (Miq.. Sphaeranthus africanus L. Torenia polygonoides Benth. herb 4177. Br. Schoenoplectus mucronatus (L. herb 273 .. herb 4165.. Magnoliophyta: Plantaginaceae. Utricularia gibba L. Adams. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Spermacoce articularis L.) Bold. Magnoliophyta: Lentibulariaceae. Rhynchospora corymbosa (L.) Holttum. herb 4175. Scleria levis Retz. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae.O. shrub 4181. Typhonium flagelliforme (Lodd. Salomonia cantoniensis Lour. Sphaerostephanos unitus (L. herb 4186. Br. Rhynchospora rubra (Lour. Pycreus sanguinolentus (Vahl) Nees ssp. Urena lobata L. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. Filicinophyta: Thelypteridaceae. herb 4179. herb 4163. Waltheria indica L. herb 4155. Magnoliophyta: Araceae. herb 4157. Williams..D. Webster. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae.) Sprague. herb 4182.D. Sacciolepis indica (L.) R. herb 4185.. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Malvaceae. f. Magnoliophyta: Araceae.) Less. Br. herb 4170. shrub 4191.) Makino. Typhonium roxburghii Schott. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. cultivated 4178. Utricularia bifida L. herb 4173. herb 4169. shrub 4168. Xyris complanata R. Utricularia minutissima Vahl.. herb 4183. Scleria rugosa R. ssp.) Schleid. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae. Magnoliophyta: Araceae.) Palla ex A. Sigesbeckia orientalis L.) Kuntze.) Poir. herb 4153. Kern. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae.. Spirodela polyrhiza (L. herb 4156. Saccharum arundinaceum Retz. =Borreria exilis L.Checklist of the Total Vascular Plant Flora of Singapore 4151. Magnoliophyta: Asteraceae.. herb 4190. Magnoliophyta: Acanthaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae.. Scleria biflora Roxb.) Chase. f. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. herb 4184.. Stemodia verticillata (Mill.O. Sacciolepis myosuroides (R. herb 4166. herb. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Rubiaceae. Urochloa subquadrifida (Trin.) Blume.) Britton. Themeda arguens (L. herb.. herb 4189. herb.. Magnoliophyta: Lentibulariaceae. 4171. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Magnoliophyta: Cyperaceae. Pteris vittata L. herb 4174. Magnoliophyta: Poaceae..) Hack. Urochloa glumaris (Trin. herb 4187.. Magnoliophyta: Lentibulariaceae..) Hartog & Plas. herb 4159. Magnoliophyta: Lentibulariaceae. cyrtostachys (Miq..) A.. herb 4154.