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**Telecommunication channels for Optical
**

OFDM System

Kamaljit Singh Bhatia, Dr. R. S. Kaler, Dr. T. S. Kamal, Dr. Rajneesh Randhawa

Dept. of ECE, Ravat-Bahra Institute of Engineering & Nano-Technologv, Hoshiarpur (Pb.) India

kamal¸er¸rediffmail.com,kamalbhatia.er¸gmail.com

Abstract: This paper Iorces on the monitoring and

compensation oI optical telecommunication channels

by using Optical add drop multiplexers (OADM) in

an Optical orthogonal Irequency division

multiplexing (OOEDM) system. An adaptive Iibre

nonlinearity precompensation (AENP) scheme is also

proposed to solve the Iibre nonlinearity in coherent

optical orthogonal Irequency division multiplexed

networks (CO-OEDM). Optical perIormance

monitoring (OPM) at end-terminals is applied to

channel identiIication in this paper. It is considered to

be high eIIiciency and a cost eIIicient technique in

low-dynamic system.

Keywords: Eibre nonlinearity, coherent optical

orthogonal Irequency division multiplexed networks,

optical perIormance monitoring

INTRODUCTION

Coherent optical orthogonal Irequency division

multiplexed networks (CO-OEDM) transmission

technique has gained much interest in the Iield oI

optical Iibre communication recently |1|-|6|. It is a

serious contender Ior the Iuture optical Iibre

transmission systems because it eIIectively removes

the inter-symbol interIerence Irom chromatic

dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion

(PMD) |2|. This system can apply Ilexible digital

signal processing algorithm to compensate the

chromatic dispersion the urge Ior

precise optical chromatic dispersion compensation

and reducing the cost oI the system construction and

operation. Its unique advantage has become

prominent in high-speed and long-haul optical Iiber

transmissions. However, there is limitation on the

perIormance in this system. The major reason Ior

such limitation originates Irom the nonlinearity

impairment (such as SPM (selI-phase modulation),

XPM (cross-phase modulation), EWM (Eour-wave-

mixing) and so on) in the optical Iiber. Due to

compact distribution oI sub-carriers, it is more severe

than that in the traditional system. Non-linear Iibre

eIIects should be mitigated iI the optical powers are

kept low |7|. This paper presents an optical

perIormance monitor (OPM) to estimate

nonlinearities Compensation. In order to identiIy the

level oI non-linearity, we propose to apply a

spectrum estimation oI a representative linear

system and an equivalent noise spectrum Ior the

non-linear distortion contribution. Simple signal

processing at the transmitter can be used to

implement compensation, and this processing

require asynchronous monitoring inIormation Irom

OPM, so it tentatively does not work over a wide

range oI high-dynamic systems because oI OPM

processing capacity. The computation cost that used

Ior dispersion compensation is the Eourier

transIorms in OEDM.

PRECOMPENSATION ALGORITHM

As the sampled spectra oI the TX and RX signals

represent by the sub-carriers oI OEDM symbols, the

calculations can be directly carried out on a number

oI OEDM symbols which are known to the receiver.

Obviously a certain number oI preamble symbols

have to be transmitted; alternatively one can think oI

analysis oI data aIter equalization and decision. Our

proposed monitoring technique in OPM is based on

a system identiIication approach which describes the

optical transmission path. An ensemble oI

corresponding signal spectra X(f) and Y(f) which are

derived by Eourier transIorm leads to the linear

transIer Iunction. The criterion oI minimum power

oI the noise-like signal should be used Ior the

estimate oI the linear transIer Iunction computation.

And the spectral power density oI nonlinearity could

also be estimated by another averaging process over

the ensemble oI input and output spectra. vnn (f) is

the expectation who measure Ior non-linearity

distortions.

[Page No. 517]

} , ) (

} ) ( ¦

) ( ' ). ( ¦

) ( . ¦, ) (

2

2

f X

f X E

f X f v E

f v E f

m

.. (1)

We integrate over the used Irequency band, and work

with signal powers rather than spectral power

densities over the discrete sub-carriers:

2

1

2

1

) ( .

} ) ( ¦

)} ( ' ). ( ¦

) (

D

d

D

d

nn

d X

d X E

d X d Y E

d

S

N

... (2)

In the Iollowing, an estimate oI vnn(f) comprises two

contributions: a noise-like signal due to non-linear

eIIects oI power N

nl

along with actual additive noise

(power: N

l

). And we can extract the wanted ratios N

nl

/S and N

l

/S using Iurther computation. The OEDM

precompensation method proposed here uses the low

walk-oII to an advantage because the transmission

path has low Chromatic Dispersion which can be

approximated compensation when calculating the

eIIects oI Iibre nonlinearity. Because Iibre dispersion

mitigates the eIIect oI nonlinearity because oI some

walk-oII, the eIIective length Ior precompensation

will be less than its dispersion less value. Actually a

single rectiIication is required Ior the entire nonlinear

computation. To represent Iibre nonlinearity, the

Iollowing revised calculation applies a phase

advance, 0(t) in proportion to the instantaneous

optical power P(t) , that is input to the Iirst Iibre span

o eff eff

n sL t P t ) /( 2 . ). ( ) (

0 2

..(3)

Where s is the number oI Iibre spans, Leff is an

eIIective length oI each Iiber span Ior nonlinearity

compensation, n

2

is a nonlinearity coeIIicient, ·

0

is

the wavelength oI the carrier, and A

eff

is the eIIective

core area oI the Iiber, ç

0

is the phase adjustment oI

CD.

The phase adjustment oI CD can be obtained by

solving nonlinear Schrdinger equations. Thus, now

equation reads:

2

2

f D

f

c

t

LD

o o

.(4)

where f

LD

is the centre Irequency oI laser , D

t

denotes

dispersion parameters and v

0

is the phase shiIt

according to centre Irequency. This oIIset Ior

compensation could be estimated at the receiver,

where the instantaneous optical power is proportional

to the square oI the sum oI the Iields oI the

subcarriers, as would be detected by a photodiode.

applied in the electrical domain using a bank oI

hardware multipliers just aIter the inverse Iast

Eourier transIorm (EET). These will adjust the phase

oI each time sample in proportion to its magnitude

squared, as its magnitude squared modulates the

optical power, so it is implemented.

PERFORMANCE EVALUATION

In this section, we evaluate the AENP using the

EPON topology. In order to achieve a realistic

network load, light path provisioning requests are

dynamically generated according to a Poison

process and uniIormly distributed among the source-

destination pairs. The data rate is 10 Gb/s and the

block length is 1024 bits, giving D÷128 subcarriers

oI OEDM symbols in an optical bandwidth oI 5

GHz with 4quadrature amplitude modulation

QAM). Each link comprises number oI

uncompensated 80-km spans. The Iiber has a loss oI

0.2 dB/km, a nonlinearity coeIIicient, n 2, oI

2.6·10-20 m2/W, and an eIIective cross section oI

80nm2. The optical ampliIiers compensate Ior the

16-dB Iiber loss in each span, and have a noise

Iigure (NE) oI 6 dB. The output power oI each

ampliIier is controlled to set the input power to each

80-km Iiber span. The coherent receiver used a 10-

mW local oscillator laser and is noiseless.

In general, an OADM consists oI a Iew Iilters, such

as interleaver and blocker. The interleaver usually

has an ITU standard channel grid (e.g., 50 GHz

spacing Ior a 10 Gb/s DWDM system) and uniIorm

passband bandwidth. The DWDM channel is

separated into an 'odd-channel¨ group and an

'even-channel¨ group by the Iirst interleaver,

thereIore relaxing the passband requirement on the

wavelength blockers. The second interleaver

combines the two groups oI channels. The adddrop

module consists oI a passive coupler and a

multiplexer/demultiplexer. The interleaver used here

is based on the optical band pass Iilter (OBPE)

proposed by Dingel and Aruga The OBPE is a

modiIied Michelson interIerometer in which one oI

its reIlecting mirrors is replaced by a Gires

Tournois resonator. A MichelsonGTE-based

interleaver can provide a wide, Ilat-top, square-like

Irequency response and zero ripple Iactor. It was

observed that the 1/3 dB bandwidth Ior a single

interleaver Iilter is 44/50 GHz, reduced to 33/36.5

GHz aIter 20 stages. The peak-to-peak GDR within

the 20 dB passband is 18 ps. Eigure 1 plots BER

versus SNR Ior both systems in the 4000-km single

link (Irom Urumchi to Beijing) and back to back

system. Eor a BER oI 10-3 (which can be improved

by Eorward-Error Correction coding), the AEND

More conveniently, it can be sent to transmitter and

[Page No. 518]

Monitoring and Compensation of Optical Telecommunication channels for Optical OFDM System

system requires a 3dB better SNR. This advantage oI

OEDM over AEDN reduces to zero Ior lower BERs,

but only iI the AEDN system`s threshold is optimized

to take advantage oI the low variance oI the zero-bits

Ior high extinction ratios. II the AEDN threshold is

placed midway between the 1 and 0 levels (as it

would Ior poor extinction ratios), OEDM has a 1.6-

dB advantage over AEDN at all OSNRs. Plots oI the

variance oI the symbols Ior OSNRs up to 20 dB

suggest that a BER Iloor does not occur Ior OEDM.

8Lk Vs SNk(d8)

0.00001

0.0001

0.001

0.01

0.1

1

4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40

SNk(d8)

8

L

k

4S00 km

w|thout

AINÞ

4S00 km

w|th AINÞ

8ack to 8ack

Figure.1. BER versus SNR in single link

In Figure.2, we compare the perIormance among

the three scheme under various traIIic oI services

using the EPON. The blocking probability (BP)

denotes the eIIectivity Ior each scheme. The Iigure

shows that the BP without AENP are higer than

those two schemes unless under heavy traIIic load

(700 Erlang). Actually, on this occasion,

processing capacity is the biggest bottleneck in

AENP. The system with AENP also perIorms

similar to back to back under low traIIic load, and

even under middle, it still remains 99° restoration

probability in 600 Erlang. The service oI EPON in

normal use actually is the just one who has low-

dynamic and high stability Ieature.

BIocking ProbabiIity under Ioads

0.00001

0.20001

0.40001

0.60001

0.80001

1.00001

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Network Loads(ErIang)

(In Hundreds)

B

I

o

c

k

i

n

g

P

r

o

b

a

b

i

I

i

t

y

without AFNP

With AFNP

Back to Back

Figure 2. Blocking probability under various

networks load

CONCLUSION

In this paper, we have shown that the CO-OEDM

network is extended Ior the adaptive Iibre

nonlinearity precompensation to deal with optical

impairments Irom nonlinearity. The AENP

extends an OPM module to monitor the optical

power and identiIy system compensation.

Simulation shows that the AENP achieves better

perIormance under lowdynamic. ThereIore, the

AENP is a suitable nonlinearity precompensation

system in speciIied CO-OEDM networks.

REFERENCES

|1.| B .Eu, and R. Hui., "Eiber Chromatic

Dispersion and Polarization-Mode

Dispersion Monitoring Using Coherent

Detection" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 17,

1561-1563 (2005).

|2.| W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, and Y. Tang.,

"Optical perIormance monitoring in

coherent optical OIdm networks " Optics

Express, 15, 9936-9947 (2007)

|3.| W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, 'Coherent

optical orthogonal Irequency division

multiplexing ,¨ Electron. Lett., vol. 42, no.

10, pp. 587589, May 2006.

|4.| X. Yi, W. Shieh, and Y. Tang, 'Phase

estimation Ior coherent optical OEDM,¨

Photon Technol. Lett., vol. 19, no. 12, pp.

919921, Jun. 2007.

|5.| Y. Qiao, Z. Wang, and Y. Ji., "Blind

Irequency oIIset estimation based on cyclic

preIix and virtual subcarriers in CO-OEDM

system "Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 9(2010).

|6.| X. Liu, Y. Qiao, and Y. Ji., "Electronic

compensator Ior 100-Gb/s PDM-COOEDM

long-haul transmission systems "Chin. Opt.

Lett. 9 , 3 ,(2011).

|7.| T. Li and I. Kaminow, Eds., Optical Eiber

Telecommunications IVB. San Diego, CA:

Academic, 2002, ch. 13.

[Page No. 519]

5th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies [ICACCT-2011] ISBN 81-87885-03-3

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