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Monitoring and Compensation of Optical

Telecommunication channels for Optical
OFDM System
Kamaljit Singh Bhatia, Dr. R. S. Kaler, Dr. T. S. Kamal, Dr. Rajneesh Randhawa
Dept. of ECE, Ravat-Bahra Institute of Engineering & Nano-Technologv, Hoshiarpur (Pb.) India
Abstract: This paper Iorces on the monitoring and
compensation oI optical telecommunication channels
by using Optical add drop multiplexers (OADM) in
an Optical orthogonal Irequency division
multiplexing (OOEDM) system. An adaptive Iibre
nonlinearity precompensation (AENP) scheme is also
proposed to solve the Iibre nonlinearity in coherent
optical orthogonal Irequency division multiplexed
networks (CO-OEDM). Optical perIormance
monitoring (OPM) at end-terminals is applied to
channel identiIication in this paper. It is considered to
be high eIIiciency and a cost eIIicient technique in
low-dynamic system.
Keywords: Eibre nonlinearity, coherent optical
orthogonal Irequency division multiplexed networks,
optical perIormance monitoring
Coherent optical orthogonal Irequency division
multiplexed networks (CO-OEDM) transmission
technique has gained much interest in the Iield oI
optical Iibre communication recently |1|-|6|. It is a
serious contender Ior the Iuture optical Iibre
transmission systems because it eIIectively removes
the inter-symbol interIerence Irom chromatic
dispersion (CD) and polarization mode dispersion
(PMD) |2|. This system can apply Ilexible digital
signal processing algorithm to compensate the
chromatic dispersion the urge Ior
precise optical chromatic dispersion compensation
and reducing the cost oI the system construction and
operation. Its unique advantage has become
prominent in high-speed and long-haul optical Iiber
transmissions. However, there is limitation on the
perIormance in this system. The major reason Ior
such limitation originates Irom the nonlinearity
impairment (such as SPM (selI-phase modulation),
XPM (cross-phase modulation), EWM (Eour-wave-
mixing) and so on) in the optical Iiber. Due to
compact distribution oI sub-carriers, it is more severe
than that in the traditional system. Non-linear Iibre
eIIects should be mitigated iI the optical powers are
kept low |7|. This paper presents an optical
perIormance monitor (OPM) to estimate
nonlinearities Compensation. In order to identiIy the
level oI non-linearity, we propose to apply a
spectrum estimation oI a representative linear
system and an equivalent noise spectrum Ior the
non-linear distortion contribution. Simple signal
processing at the transmitter can be used to
implement compensation, and this processing
require asynchronous monitoring inIormation Irom
OPM, so it tentatively does not work over a wide
range oI high-dynamic systems because oI OPM
processing capacity. The computation cost that used
Ior dispersion compensation is the Eourier
transIorms in OEDM.
As the sampled spectra oI the TX and RX signals
represent by the sub-carriers oI OEDM symbols, the
calculations can be directly carried out on a number
oI OEDM symbols which are known to the receiver.
Obviously a certain number oI preamble symbols
have to be transmitted; alternatively one can think oI
analysis oI data aIter equalization and decision. Our
proposed monitoring technique in OPM is based on
a system identiIication approach which describes the
optical transmission path. An ensemble oI
corresponding signal spectra X(f) and Y(f) which are
derived by Eourier transIorm leads to the linear
transIer Iunction. The criterion oI minimum power
oI the noise-like signal should be used Ior the
estimate oI the linear transIer Iunction computation.
And the spectral power density oI nonlinearity could
also be estimated by another averaging process over
the ensemble oI input and output spectra. vnn (f) is
the expectation who measure Ior non-linearity
[Page No. 517]
} , ) (
} ) ( ¦
) ( ' ). ( ¦
) ( . ¦, ) (
f X
f X E
f X f v E
f v E f

.. (1)
We integrate over the used Irequency band, and work
with signal powers rather than spectral power
densities over the discrete sub-carriers:
) ( .
} ) ( ¦
)} ( ' ). ( ¦
) (

d X
d X E
d X d Y E
... (2)
In the Iollowing, an estimate oI vnn(f) comprises two
contributions: a noise-like signal due to non-linear
eIIects oI power N
along with actual additive noise
(power: N
). And we can extract the wanted ratios N
/S and N
/S using Iurther computation. The OEDM
precompensation method proposed here uses the low
walk-oII to an advantage because the transmission
path has low Chromatic Dispersion which can be
approximated compensation when calculating the
eIIects oI Iibre nonlinearity. Because Iibre dispersion
mitigates the eIIect oI nonlinearity because oI some
walk-oII, the eIIective length Ior precompensation
will be less than its dispersion less value. Actually a
single rectiIication is required Ior the entire nonlinear
computation. To represent Iibre nonlinearity, the
Iollowing revised calculation applies a phase
advance, 0(t) in proportion to the instantaneous
optical power P(t) , that is input to the Iirst Iibre span
o eff eff
n sL t P t ) /( 2 . ). ( ) (
0 2

Where s is the number oI Iibre spans, Leff is an
eIIective length oI each Iiber span Ior nonlinearity
compensation, n
is a nonlinearity coeIIicient, ·
the wavelength oI the carrier, and A
is the eIIective
core area oI the Iiber, ç
is the phase adjustment oI
The phase adjustment oI CD can be obtained by
solving nonlinear Schrdinger equations. Thus, now
equation reads:
f D
o o

where f
is the centre Irequency oI laser , D
dispersion parameters and v
is the phase shiIt
according to centre Irequency. This oIIset Ior
compensation could be estimated at the receiver,
where the instantaneous optical power is proportional
to the square oI the sum oI the Iields oI the
subcarriers, as would be detected by a photodiode.
applied in the electrical domain using a bank oI
hardware multipliers just aIter the inverse Iast
Eourier transIorm (EET). These will adjust the phase
oI each time sample in proportion to its magnitude
squared, as its magnitude squared modulates the
optical power, so it is implemented.
In this section, we evaluate the AENP using the
EPON topology. In order to achieve a realistic
network load, light path provisioning requests are
dynamically generated according to a Poison
process and uniIormly distributed among the source-
destination pairs. The data rate is 10 Gb/s and the
block length is 1024 bits, giving D÷128 subcarriers
oI OEDM symbols in an optical bandwidth oI 5
GHz with 4quadrature amplitude modulation
QAM). Each link comprises number oI
uncompensated 80-km spans. The Iiber has a loss oI
0.2 dB/km, a nonlinearity coeIIicient, n 2, oI
2.6·10-20 m2/W, and an eIIective cross section oI
80nm2. The optical ampliIiers compensate Ior the
16-dB Iiber loss in each span, and have a noise
Iigure (NE) oI 6 dB. The output power oI each
ampliIier is controlled to set the input power to each
80-km Iiber span. The coherent receiver used a 10-
mW local oscillator laser and is noiseless.
In general, an OADM consists oI a Iew Iilters, such
as interleaver and blocker. The interleaver usually
has an ITU standard channel grid (e.g., 50 GHz
spacing Ior a 10 Gb/s DWDM system) and uniIorm
passband bandwidth. The DWDM channel is
separated into an 'odd-channel¨ group and an
'even-channel¨ group by the Iirst interleaver,
thereIore relaxing the passband requirement on the
wavelength blockers. The second interleaver
combines the two groups oI channels. The adddrop
module consists oI a passive coupler and a
multiplexer/demultiplexer. The interleaver used here
is based on the optical band pass Iilter (OBPE)
proposed by Dingel and Aruga The OBPE is a
modiIied Michelson interIerometer in which one oI
its reIlecting mirrors is replaced by a Gires
Tournois resonator. A MichelsonGTE-based
interleaver can provide a wide, Ilat-top, square-like
Irequency response and zero ripple Iactor. It was
observed that the 1/3 dB bandwidth Ior a single
interleaver Iilter is 44/50 GHz, reduced to 33/36.5
GHz aIter 20 stages. The peak-to-peak GDR within
the 20 dB passband is 18 ps. Eigure 1 plots BER
versus SNR Ior both systems in the 4000-km single
link (Irom Urumchi to Beijing) and back to back
system. Eor a BER oI 10-3 (which can be improved
by Eorward-Error Correction coding), the AEND
More conveniently, it can be sent to transmitter and
[Page No. 518]
Monitoring and Compensation of Optical Telecommunication channels for Optical OFDM System
system requires a 3dB better SNR. This advantage oI
OEDM over AEDN reduces to zero Ior lower BERs,
but only iI the AEDN system`s threshold is optimized
to take advantage oI the low variance oI the zero-bits
Ior high extinction ratios. II the AEDN threshold is
placed midway between the 1 and 0 levels (as it
would Ior poor extinction ratios), OEDM has a 1.6-
dB advantage over AEDN at all OSNRs. Plots oI the
variance oI the symbols Ior OSNRs up to 20 dB
suggest that a BER Iloor does not occur Ior OEDM.
8Lk Vs SNk(d8)
4 8 12 16 20 24 28 32 36 40
4S00 km
4S00 km
w|th AINÞ
8ack to 8ack
Figure.1. BER versus SNR in single link
In Figure.2, we compare the perIormance among
the three scheme under various traIIic oI services
using the EPON. The blocking probability (BP)
denotes the eIIectivity Ior each scheme. The Iigure
shows that the BP without AENP are higer than
those two schemes unless under heavy traIIic load
(700 Erlang). Actually, on this occasion,
processing capacity is the biggest bottleneck in
AENP. The system with AENP also perIorms
similar to back to back under low traIIic load, and
even under middle, it still remains 99° restoration
probability in 600 Erlang. The service oI EPON in
normal use actually is the just one who has low-
dynamic and high stability Ieature.
BIocking ProbabiIity under Ioads
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10
Network Loads(ErIang)
(In Hundreds)

without AFNP
Back to Back
Figure 2. Blocking probability under various
networks load
In this paper, we have shown that the CO-OEDM
network is extended Ior the adaptive Iibre
nonlinearity precompensation to deal with optical
impairments Irom nonlinearity. The AENP
extends an OPM module to monitor the optical
power and identiIy system compensation.
Simulation shows that the AENP achieves better
perIormance under lowdynamic. ThereIore, the
AENP is a suitable nonlinearity precompensation
system in speciIied CO-OEDM networks.
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Dispersion and Polarization-Mode
Dispersion Monitoring Using Coherent
Detection" IEEE Photon. Technol. Lett., 17,
1561-1563 (2005).
|2.| W. Shieh, X. Yi, Y. Ma, and Y. Tang.,
"Optical perIormance monitoring in
coherent optical OIdm networks " Optics
Express, 15, 9936-9947 (2007)
|3.| W. Shieh and C. Athaudage, 'Coherent
optical orthogonal Irequency division
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|4.| X. Yi, W. Shieh, and Y. Tang, 'Phase
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919921, Jun. 2007.
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system "Chin. Opt. Lett. 8, 9(2010).
|6.| X. Liu, Y. Qiao, and Y. Ji., "Electronic
compensator Ior 100-Gb/s PDM-COOEDM
long-haul transmission systems "Chin. Opt.
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|7.| T. Li and I. Kaminow, Eds., Optical Eiber
Telecommunications IVB. San Diego, CA:
Academic, 2002, ch. 13.
[Page No. 519]
5th IEEE International Conference on Advanced Computing & Communication Technologies [ICACCT-2011] ISBN 81-87885-03-3