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Building Technology 1


• Fibrous substance which composes the trunk and branches of a tree that lies between the pitch and the bark.

• defined as the lignified water conducting, strengthening and storage tissues of branches, stem and roots of trees.
• wood is known as xylem.


heartwood • Hard dark-colored wood layer made of dead sapwood; it encircles the pith and supports the trunk and branches. pith • Central part of the trunk, composed of soft tissue that contains nutrients essential for sapling growth.

. its texture and color vary depending on the species. whose main function is to transport sap transformed by photosynthesis from the leaves throughout the rest of the tree. Phloem • Tissue located immediately below the bark.PARTS OF WOOD bark • Tree’s external protective layer.

from the roots to the leaves.PARTS OF WOOD cambium • Growth tissue that simultaneously produces the external phloem and the internal sapwood. composed of water and nutrient minerals. . sapwood • Relatively new layer of wood that is generally pale in color. it transports raw sap. thereby enabling the tree to increase in diameter.

the age of the tree can be determined by the number of rings.PARTS OF WOOD annual ring • Each of the concentric circles representing the layer of wood produced in one year. wood ray • Conduit connecting the pith to the core and circulating nutrients horizontally within the trunk. .

Properties of Wood as a Building Material • Strong material • Durable • Light in weight • Ease of working and fastening • With artistic and natural beauty .

• Wood is excellent non-conductor of heat. wood is stronger than other materials. . sizes and design. • Wood is easily worked out with tools and fabricated into many shapes.Advantages of Wood as Building Material • In proportion to weight. It is warm in winter and cool in summer.

sizes. . wood does not deteriorate if properly handled and protected. • The use of timber connectors in wide trusses and spans generally permit the use of small wood members.Advantages of Wood as Building Material • It is abundant in many shapes. • In terms of value. and as renewable resources. color.

• Neither heat nor cold or climate changes would seriously affect the physical properties of wood. • It has prompt resale value.Advantages of Wood as Building Material • It is not readily affected by changing styles. .

Strength of different wood varies in the following manner: • Resistant to compression • Stiffness or ability to resist bending stress • Strength in tension or ability to resist lengthwise stress • Shearing strength or ability of the fibers to resist rupture along or across the grain .Physical Properties of Wood 1. Strength.ability of wood in resisting stress and strain.


Knots and other defects in wood. 3. character and location of the knots or defects. .affects the strength more particularly the size. Weight.Physical Properties of Wood 2.heavy woods are generally stronger than lighter wood.

structural elements and degree of seasoning.the moisture content of the wood influences the flexibility to a considerable degree.expressed as resistance to indentation or to the saw or axe across the grain. .Physical Properties of Wood 4. Cleavability-resistance of wood to split along the grains 6. Hardness. Flexibility. 5. -generally dependent on the weight of the wood.

refers to the combined strength. resistance of the wood to the influence of mechanical wear. length of its life under a given condition.ability to resist decay . Toughness. Durability. .Physical Properties of Wood 7. shock resistance and pliability or flexibility of the wood. 8.

inside growing trees. .outward growing trees most preferred for lumbering • Indigenous. less preferred for lumbering because the center core of the log is soft and brittle in character.Classification of Wood Mode of Growth: • Exogenous.

mass & volume of the wood 1. .known as conifers or evergreen 1. it bears cones. and produces a sticky sap known as resin. Softwood. hence its name.Classification of Wood Density.or scalelike leaves all winter long.1 Conifers: Tree that usually retains its needle.

Classification of Wood 1.having foliage that remains green and functional throughout the year or through more than one growing season .2 Evergreen.

Classification of Wood Softwood .

Classification of Wood Softwood .

.Classification of Wood 2.shredding leaves annually or at the end of a growing season. Hardwood-generally deciduous with broad leaves Deciduous.

Classification of Wood Hardwood .

Classification of Wood Hardwood .

Classification of Wood Hardwood .

Classification of Wood Leaves: • Needle shape • Broad shape .

Classification of Wood Shade or color of wood: • • • • • • White Red Yellow Brown Orange Black. . etc.

Classification of Wood
Grain: • Straight grain

• Cross grain
• Fine grain • Coarse grain

Classification of Wood Grain
• When you cut a board across the grain (perpendicular to the grain direction and the growth rings), you reveal end grain.

• Cut wood parallel to the grain direction and tangent to the growth rings, and you’ll see plain grain (also called tangential or flat grain).

Classification of Wood Grain
• Cut it parallel to the grain direction but through the radius of the growth rings to see quarter grain (also referred to as radial grain). • Both flat grain and quarter grain are sometimes called long grain.

Classification of Wood Grain

Classification of Wood Nature of the Surface when sawed: • Plain • Grained • Figured or marked .

These are known as figured grain.Classification of Wood Figured Wood grain isn’t always straight and even. many of which are strikingly beautiful. The longitudinal and ray cells sometimes grow in unusual patterns. .

these produce silver grain. such as this walnut crotch. . • Crotch figure.Classification of Wood Figured • A few wood species. When quartersawn. is cut from the part of a tree where the trunk divides into smaller limbs and branches. such as white oak. have especially prominent rays.

. This occurs in many species but is especially striking in maple.Classification of Wood Figured • Curly grain occurs when the longitudinal cells grow in waves. These are thought to be caused by a fungus that affects the growth of the longitudinal cells. • Bird’s eyes like those in this maple are caused by small dimples in the layers of cells.

. reversing direction every few growth rings. such as mahogany. is the result of a fungus • The longitudinal cells of certain species.Classification of Wood Figured • Larger dimples result in quilted figure. like the quilting in this soft maple. sometimes spiral around the trunk. too. This. This creates ribbon figure.

Classification of Wood Figured • Sometimes a tree produces a large growth on the side of the trunk or a branch. . these produce a burl figure such as this elm burl. When sliced. The cells seem to swirl around each other inside these growths.

The texture of the wood is determined by the relative size of the longitudinal cells. while those with smaller cells have a fine texture. and this also affects the appearance of the grain.Texture & Pattern • TEXTURE AND PATTERN The size. Wood species with large cells are said to have a coarse texture. . type. and arrangement of the wood cells differ with the species.

Texture & Pattern The pores in ring-porous hardwoods such as red oak create a strong grain pattern .

Texture & Pattern The pores in ring-diffuse hardwoods like mahogany are more evenly distributed and the grain pattern is less distinct .

The grain pattern is due to the color difference between the springwood and the summerwood. .Texture & Pattern Softwoods such as yellow pine have no pores.

The way in which they change depends on how they are cut from the tree.Changing Shape Because of the difference in tangential and radial movement. boards change shape as they expand and contract. .

the stock will shrink to a rectangle. . Depending on how it’s cut from the tree.Changing Shape The difference in tangential and radial movement has other important consequences. a board may change shape as it dries: • If the annual rings run side to side in square stock.

.Changing Shape • If the rings run diagonally from corner to corner. the stock will become diamondshaped.

Changing Shape • Round stock becomes oval as the tangential diameter shrinks more than the radial diameter. .

Changing Shape • Plain-sawn lumber tends to cup in the opposite direction of the growth rings because the outside face (the face farthest from the pith) shrinks a little faster than the inside face. .

both faces shrink equally and the board remains flat.Changing Shape • In quartersawn lumber. .

• Bucking.harvesting of the tree crops consisting a sequence of operations such as: • Cutting of the tree • Skidding.when logs are moved to an assembly area loaded to transport equipment then carried out of the forest to the sawmill.Preparation of Wood 1.process of sawing into smaller pieces after the removal of branches. Logging. .

when the log is dragged and carried down to an assembly area. • Sawing .Preparation of Wood • Skidded. • Lumbering.operation performed in preparing wood for commercial purposes. • Yarded. It involves logging which is the process of felling trees.when logs are delivered through the cable or a helium filled balloon. hauling and delivery to the sawmill.

.Methods of log sawing employed 1. Plain or Bastard cutting the logs entirely though the diameter with a parallel chord tangential to the annual rings.

Methods of log sawing employed 2.categorized into four methods of sawing: • Radial method • Tangential method • Quarter tangential • Combined radial & tangential . Quarter or rift sawing.

. and these boards show mostly mixed grain — flat grain near the center of the face and quarter grain near the edges.) Live sawing produces much wider boards than other methods.Methods of log sawing employed Live saw (This is sometimes called sawing through and through.

kind of rough lumber cut tangent to the annual rings of wood running the full length of the log containing at least one flat surface. • Slab.Definition of Terms • Surfaced or dressed lumber. S2s means smooth on two sides & s4s on four sides. . • S2s & s4s.planed or dressed lumber of which the number connotes the smooth a planed lumber having at least one smooth side.

. • Plank.Definition of Terms • a thick piece of lumber. • Flitch. • Board-is a piece of lumber less than 1 ½” thick and at least 4 inches a piece of lumber five inches or larger in its smallest a wide piece of lumber from 2 to 5 inches thick.

when the direction of the wood fibers are nearly parallel with the sides and edges of the board. . the grain marking which separates the adjacent rings is said to be fine grain.when annual rings are small. • Straight grained.Definition of Terms • Fine grain. When large. it is called Coarse-grained.

sticks. etc. • Board Lumber. • Timbers. planks.Definition of Terms • the term applied to wood after it was sawed or sliced into boards. Lumber less than 2” thick and less than 8” wide. Pieces 5” or more on the smallest dimension . for commercial purposes. Pieces less than 2” thick and at least 8” wide. • Strips. • Dimension Lumber. Pieces more than 2” and less than 5” in any dimension.

is the term applied to newly sawed lumber.Definition of Terms • Rough lumber. • the process of growing timber crops of a better and more valuable species as rapidly as possible through scientific forestry. .

composed of several heart shakes radiating from the center of the log in a star-like manner. • Star shakes.Defects in Wood 1.cracks or breaks across the annual rings of timber during its growth caused by excessive bending of the tree due to wind. . • Wind shakes or Cup shakes. • Knots.usually occur at the starting point of a limb or branch of the wood. Abnormal growth • Heart shakes are radial cracks originating at the heart of the logs.

• Wet rot-usually takes place sometime in the growth of trees caused by water saturation.Defects in Wood • the presence of moisture in seasoned wood caused by fungi. .

Usually resulting from imporper storage. .Defects in Wood (Man Made Defects) Bow • A curve along the face of a board that usually runs from end to end.

Defects in Wood (Man Made Defects) . Checks are usually restricted to the end of a board and do not penetrate as far as the opposite side of a piece of sawn timber.Check • A crack in the wood structure of a piece. This is easily overcome by removing the endpieces of the board. usually running lengthwise.

.Defects in Wood (Man Made Defects) Crook • Warping along the edge from one end to the other. This is most common in wood that was cut from the centre of the tree near the pith.

Defects in Wood (Man Made Defects) Cup • Warping along the face of a board across the width of the board. . This defect is most common of plain-sawn lumber.

often extending along the board's face and sometimes below its surface.Defects in Wood (Man Made Defects) Shake • Separation of grain between the growth rings. .

.Defects in Wood (Man Made Defects) Split • A longitudinal separation of the fibers which extends to the opposite face of a piece of sawn timber.

. This board is unworkable unless it is cut into smaller pieces and flattened with a jointer. Probably the worst of the defects.Defects in Wood (Man Made Defects) Twist • Warping in lumber where the ends twist in opposite directions.

.Defects in Wood (Man Made Defects) Wane • The presence of bark or absence of wood on corners of a piece of lumber.

Machine Burn Defects in Wood (Man Made Defects) • Discoloration of the wood due to overheating caused by friction. or walnut are more susceptible than others. Machine burn is caused by stopping or not feeding the wood across the blades at the correct rate of speed. machine burn can almost always be prevented by using sharp blades and correct feed rates. and either scorching the wood or the resins within it. Although species like cherry. pine. .

This is caused by insects boring through the wood. .Defects in Wood (Natural Defects) Worm hole.

Defects in Wood (Natural Defects) Blue Stain A discoloration that penetrates the wood fibre. . It is classed as light. medium or heavy and is generally blue or brown. It can be any colour other than the natural colour of the piece in which it is found.

white rot. pigmentation (or sapstain). and zone lines. spalting is any form of wood discoloration caused by fungi.Defects in Wood (Natural Defects) Spalt Typically found in dead trees. . There are three types of spalting that are typically incorporated into woodworking as design elements.

.Defects in Wood (Natural Defects) Pitch An accumulation of resinous material on the surface or in pockets below the surface of wood. Also called gum or sap.

Defects in Wood (Knot) Dead or Loose • Knot having annual rings not intergrown with those of the surrounding wood. • This is caused by a dead branch that was not fully integrated into the tree before it was cut down. .

a knot held firmly in place by growth or position .Defects in Wood (Knot) Tight Knot.

drying of wood .Seasoning of wood • Seasoning.

Methods of Seasoning Wood 1. Natural or air seasoning-one of the best methods of seasoning lumber although the period involved is relatively longer than the artificial seasoning method. • Air drying • Sun drying .

quick drying of wood • • • • Kiln drying Forced air or pressure drying Vapor drying Radio frequency dielectric drying .Methods of Seasoning Wood 2. Artificial seasoning.





Methods of Treating Lumber • • • • Tantalizing Permanizing Wolmanizing Bolidine salt .

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