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M2M is the technology that establishes intelligent communication between things

• Introduction
 Basic Definitions  How it works  How it is different

• • • • • • •

Key features of M2M Applications of M2M Architecture and components of M2M Requirements for M2M Issues /concerns in M2M Standardization Efforts for M2M Conclusion

M2M is an anagram for... machine-to- machine It means communication and the bi-directional transfer of data between: · man and machine · machine and management systems M2M is also named as Machine Type Communication (MTC) in 3GPP. ..

BASICS…. M2M communication refers to technology that enables machines to be networked so data can be freely exchanged among these assets.. or to remotely monitor equipment . It can be in two ways : • Uplink to collect product and usage information • Downlink to send instructions or software updates. It is a form of data communication that involves one or more entities that do not necessarily require human interaction or intervention in the process of communication.

NOKIA . it can also mean 'mobile-to-machine' or 'machine-tomobile'. M2M refers to systems that let machines communicate with management systems or with people using compatible mobile terminals‘……….'In some applications..


How it works……. • • • • Collection of data Transmission of selected data through a communication network Assessment of the data Response to the available information ..

Important data about a machine can be uploaded to a computer system from the machine itself rather than being manually collected and uploaded by a human being. maintain.) for sending the information about its status and performance to a computer information system The information flow is automated and allows to remotely monitor. sensor. finished product etc.Its working …. M2M works by embedding a communication module. . or tag in a physical asset ( service.. and track these machines.

How it is different ?? The concept is not new In fact. the manufacturing and utility industries have deployed systems that connect machines to an IT network using sensor technology for several years.SCADA . Few examples : Closed loop plant-floor automation solutions Wide-area remote monitoring solutions -.

M2M communication.The difference lies …. The telemetry networks that enabled SCADA and similar applications were specifically built for and were the exclusive domain of the organizations that implemented these systems. . is accomplished using existing public wireless data networks and access methods such as wireless Cellular and Ethernet. on the other hand.

M2M is also different because It involves • new or different market scenarios • lower costs and effort • a potentially very large number of communicating terminals • little traffic per terminal .

move infrequently. • Monitoring: Not intend to prevent theft or vandalism but provide functionality to detect the events • Low Power Consumption : To improve the ability of the system to efficiently service M2M applications • Location Specific Trigger : Intending to trigger M2M device in a particular area like wake up the devices .KEY FEATURES • Low Mobility : M2M Devices do not move. or move only within a certain region • Time Controlled : Send or receive data only at certain pre-defined periods • Time Tolerant : Data transfer can be delayed • Packet Switched : Network operator to provide packet switched service with or without an MSISDN • Online small Data Transmissions: MTC Devices frequently send or receive small amounts of data.

Vending machine control. Alarm systems. Access control. Water. Car/driver security • Tracking & Tracing : Fleet Management. Heating. Lighting. Navigation. Remote diagnostics • Remote Maintenance/Control : Sensors. Industrial metering • Manufacturing : Production chain monitoring and automation • Facility Management : Home / building / campus automation . Elevator control. Asset Tracking. Traffic information. Grid control. Traffic optimization/steering • Payment : Point of sales. Vending machines. Vehicle diagnostics • Metering : Power. Gas. Supporting the aged or handicapped. Gaming machines • Health : Monitoring vital signs.Applications of M2M • Security : Surveillances. Valves. Pumps. Road tolling. Web Access Telemedicine points. Order Management. Pay as you drive.

Asset tracking in 2010 and expects to double by 2014.8 MILLION 7 MILLION 540 MILLION Connections in 2020. In revenue in 2020. .7 MILLION Active connected car subscribers in 2015 in Europe.Some facts 1. Management systems in active use by 2015 in North America. Stolen vehicle recovery and consumer telematics market by 2014 in Latin America.4 BILLION 157 BILLION 3. 28.

e. and WLAN. personal area network • M2M Gateway: Equipment that uses M2M capabilities to ensure M2M Devices inter-working and interconnection to the communication network. LTE.g. Through Gateways.ZigBee or Bluetooth/ Direct -embedded SIM. xDSL.Components of M2M • M2M Device: Device capable of replying to request for data contained within those devices or capable of transmitting data autonomously. • M2M Communication Networks (Network Domain): It covers the communications between the M2M Gateway(s) and M2M application(s). radio stack/FLA • M2M Area Network (Device Domain): Provide connectivity between M2M Devices and M2M Gateways.g. • M2M Applications: It contains the middleware layer where data goes through various application services and is used by the specific business-processing engines . WiMAX. e.

Architecture .

Architecture .

M2M deployments limited to a local area can use Wi-Fi. or wireless LAN. In M2M. leverage existing public wireless data networks for wireless transport. role of mobile network is largely confined as a transport n/w .M2M Access Options M2M communication could be carried over mobile networks -GSM-GPRS CDMA EVDO networks iDEN (integrated digital enhanced network). the deployments that cover wide areas. wireless WAN. However.

unicast. GPRS and IP Access. • Message transmission scheduling: The M2M System shall be able to manage the scheduling of network access and of messaging.g.Requirements for M2M • M2M Application communication principles: It shall be able to allow communication between M2M Applications in the Network and Applications Domain. • Delivery modes : The M2M System shall support anycast. . by using multiple communication means. • Message Delivery for sleeping devices: The M2M System shall be able to manage communication towards a sleeping device. e. multicast and broadcast communication mode. and the M2M Device or M2M Gateway. SMS.

• Communication with devices behind a M2M gateway: The M2M System should be able to communicate with Devices behind a M2M gateway. requesting reliable delivery of a message. • Scalability: The M2M System shall be scalable in terms of number of Connected Objects. when other communication paths exist.Requirements… • Message communication path selection: The M2M System shall be able to optimize communication paths. based on network cost. • Abstraction of technologies heterogeneity: The M2M Gateway may be capable of interfacing to various M2M Area Network technologies. delays or transmission failures. shall be notified of any failures to deliver the message. . • Communication failure notification: M2M Applications.

• Continuous connectivity: The M2M System shall support continuous connectivity. • Confirm: The M2M System shall support mechanisms to confirm messages. • Communication integrity: It shall be able to support mechanisms to assure communications as well as Device integrity check for M2M services. the M2M System shall be able to use such mechanisms. • Priority: The M2M System shall support the management of priority levels of the services and communications services. for M2M applications requesting the same M2M service on a regular and continuous basis. confirmed or transaction controlled. A message may be unconfirmed.Requirements… • Mobility: If the underlying network supports seamless mobility and roaming. Pre-emption is possible .

after a power supply outage. and may be instructed realtime by the application to suspend/resume the radio transmission activity. subject to regulatory requirements. If anonymity is requested by an M2M Application from the M2M Device side and the request is accepted by the network. . the network infrastructure will hide the identity and the location of the requestor. e.Requirements … • Anonymity: shall be able to support .g.g. • Radio transmission activity indication and control: The radio transmitting parts (e. GSM/GPRS) of the M2M Device/Gateway should be able to provide a real-time indication of radio transmission activity to the application on the M2M Device/Gateway. a M2M Device or Gateway should immediately return in a full operating state autonomously. • Time Stamp: The M2M System shall be able to support accurate and secure and trusted time stamping. • Device/Gateway failure robustness: After a non-destructive failure.

URIs or IMSI).g. IP address of group of connected objects (including multicast address). temporary id. • The M2M System should be flexible in supporting more than one naming scheme.g. • It should be possible to reuse names for certain classes of devices or for devices operating in certain Resource constrained environments.e. location or combination thereof (e. • It should support identification of connected objects by their names. .Issues /concerns in M2M • The key concerns in M2M are related to addressing and security.164 addresses of connected objects (e. MSISDN). different names for the same entity). • The addressing schemes should include: IP address of connected objects. E. pseudonym (i.

unauthorized monitoring. making it unrealistic or impossible for operators or subscribers to send personnel to manage or service them. etc. • Deployment. It is likely that M2Mes will be deployed in very large quantities. hacking. tend to require remote management of their functionality.Concerns…. such as physical tampering. inexpensive. • M2M devices would typically operate unmanned and unguarded by humans and thus are subject to increased levels of security threats. and many of them will also be mobile. • Some M2M Equipment's (M2Mes) are typically required to be small. able to operate unattended by humans for extended periods of time. and to communicate over the wireless area network (WAN) or WLA .

Some more concerns…. • Today’s telecoms networks are designed mainly for human to human communication • At present for human to machine and machine to machine communication standardization are limited to standalone system not involving the mobile networks and other general transport models • Today’s wireless networks are not truly fit for an intended purpose: they do not and cannot enable the optimum delivery of M2M and IoT applications. The networks of MNOs are colossally over-engineered for most of the M2M applications .

This led to the development of lightweight protocols like MQTT (Message Queue Telemetry Transport) and CoAP (Constrained Application Protocol). not intermittent payloads of under 30 bytes only. The real issue is intrinsic: in order to take M2M and the IoT to the next level and enable a cost-effective. requiring a throughput of 100 bps. long-term future. the communications overhead can be 500 to 600 bytes – well over an order of magnitude higher.Issues that are of concern…….. Further. a new kind of network is needed. Cellular networks are designed for voice and high-volume data traffic. It has to be dedicated to M2M and the IoT .

.The Optical Network • Low cost and low energy consumption – needed to increase battery life • Ease of use – including device management and integration with IT systems • Frequency independence – thereby facilitating cost-effective worldwide coverage • Embedded subscriber identification – no SIM cards. no need for subscriber lifecycle management The new network has to be designed from the bottom up using a relatively new technology and a new business model.

which employs the license free ISM bands . Cell density is based on an average rural range of about 30-50 km . low-data rate application fire detection and automatic meter reading (AMR) • RF modules embedded in the meters----no need to have SIM cards . A Game Changer ?? Completely dedicated to low throughput Machine-to-Machine/ Internet of Things applications. • Unlike Wireless Modems..UNB . • A patented radio technology that is currently based on UNB (Ultra Narrow-Band). It enables the cost-effective transmission of data over a very narrow spectrum to and from connected objects . minimizing the number of antennas (base stations) needed for wide area coverage. • Energy consumption is 200 to 600 times lower than an equivalent cellular network. 3-10 km for urban areas. and the ratio of payload data to protocol data is normally between 20 to 50 percent. • Each base station can handle up to a million battery-operated devices. UNB modems do not require multi-band air interfaces and SIM cards • Low-throughput.

‘Machine to Machine (M2M) communication’. including smart metering. eHealth. is capable of supporting a very wide range of services. ‘Machine oriented communication (MOC)’. ‘Smart ubiquitous networks (SUN)’. ‘Ubiquitous sensor networks (USN)’. • The standardization in the direction of special handling or optimization of the network for M2M specific service will lead for better support of M2M communications. with its evolved functionality. • The development of a ‘horizontal’ platform which is application-agnostic but which.Standardization Efforts for M2M • ETSI’s has been established Machine-to-Machine Communications Technical Committee (TC M2M) : developing an end-to-end architecture to support multiple machine-tomachine type applications. city automation. etc. (ETSI Technical Report(TR) outlining potential ‘use cases’ in each of 5 areas ) • The standardization efforts in ITU are being addressed under various banners like ‘Internet of Things (IoT)’. consumer applications and car automation. .

London-based Telit communications specializes in the development of wireless M2M technology and claims to be a “one-stop-shop” for M2M connection modules and managed services including connectivity. a cloud-based backend service provider. Written by Jonathan Brandon Telit is moving into the cloud-based M2M service provision space with its latest acquisition In a bid to expand its service portfolio global machine-to-machine (M2M) provider Telit today announced that it will be acquiring ILS Technology. 2013 .M2M firm Telit buys cloud platform ILS Technology September 4. for $8. .5m.

Most MNOs were late to the M2M table. Vendors are expected to profit from selling both M2M-capable devices. For service providers it is an opportunity as low-bandwidth services can be readily overlaid onto the current user services network. .Conclusion: M2M as an application holds the promise of bringing benefit to both telecom operators and vendors. and from the network expansion brought about by increased throughput. may be because the ARPUs were very low compared to voice and data traffic….