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5/23/2011

PE 5662 Teknologi Manufaktur Lanjut (Advanced Manufacturing Technology)

Session : Finishing Processes

At the end of this lesson the students would be able to :
(i) Understand the significance of super finishing process (ii) State various applications of the super finishing process (iii) Illustrate various techniques of super finishing process

The finishing operations are assigned as the last operations in the single part production cycle : • Conventional or abrasive machining operations. • Cold flashless forging. Surface roughness values for fine grit size grinding comparison . • EDM • Powder metallurgy.5/23/2011 FINISHING OPERATIONS As the name of this group of abrasive operations suggests. etc. their objective is to achieve superior surface finish up to mirror-like finishing and very close dimensional precision.

i in which hi h a tool t l called ll d hone h carries out a combined rotary and reciprocating motion while the workpiece does not perform any working motion.5/23/2011 Honing H i is Honing i a finishing fi i hi process. instead. Lay y pattern p produced p by y combination of f rotary and oscillatory motion Honing tool . l b being i guided id d b by th the work k surface f 1. stroke length must cover the entire work length. fl t in floats i the th h hole. The honing head is not guided externally but. honing stones should not leave the work surface 2.

Length and position of the stroke 4. Honing stick pressure . Rotation speed 2. Oscillation speed 3.5/23/2011 Hole defects correctible by honing The critical process parameters are: 1.

Vc (iii) H Honing i ti time.5/23/2011 • Conventional abrasive honing stick. T . • High performance diamond and CBN • Honing stick with microcrystalline CBN. p (ii) Peripheral honing speed. maintain sharp g condition cutting • Single layer configuration with a brazed metal bond Superabrasive honing stick with single layer configuration The important p p parameters that affect material removal rate (MRR) and surface roughness (R) are : (i) Unit pressure.

5/23/2011 The unit pressure should be selected so as to get minimum surface roughness with highest possible MRR Effect of honing pressure on MRR and surface finish An increase of peripheral honing speed leads to enhancement of material removal rate and decrease in surface roughness g Shows that with honing time T. Effect of peripheral honing speed Effect of honing time on material removal rate and surface roughness . MRR decreases.

. Characteristics of lapping process: Use of loose abrasive between lap and the workpiece Usually lap and workpiece are not positively driven but are guided in contact with each other .5/23/2011 Lapping Lapping is basically an abrasive process in which loose abrasives function as cutting points finding momentary support from the laps. Material removal in lapping usually ranges from .1mm in certain cases. Fig. Scheme of lapping process R Relative l ti motion ti between b t th the lap l and d th the work k should h ld change continuously so that path of the abrasive grains of the lap is not repeated on the workpiece.08 0 08 to 0.03 03 mm but many reach 0.003 003 to .

5/23/2011 Figure : Scheme of lapping process .

grain size 5~100µm • Cr2O3. B4C3 grain size 5 5-60 60 µm • Diamond.5~5 V Vehicle materials for lapping • Machine oil • Rape oil • Grease Technical p parameters affecting g lapping pp g processes are: • Unit pressure • The grain size of abrasive • Concentration of abrasive in the vehicle • Lapping speed . hardwood hardened steel glass Abrasives of lapping: • Al2O3 and SiC. grain size 1~2 µm • B4C3. grain size 0. copper.5/23/2011 lap material : Cast iron soft steel. brass.

5/23/2011 Hand lapping Hand lapping of flat surface is carried out by rubbing the component over accurately finished flat surface of master lap usually made of a thick soft close-grained cast iron block. Manual lapping requires high personal skill because the lapping pressure and speed have to be controlled manually Manual Ring lapping of external cylindrical surface Manual Lapping of internal cylindrical surfaces .

flat surface cylindrical surface 2. In machine lapping. metal laps and abrasive powder held in suitable vehicles are used.and 3-Body Abrasion 2-body abrasion: grains are embedded in a surface 3-body abrasion: grains move freely between surfaces .5/23/2011 Lapping Machine Machine lapping is meant for economic lapping of batch qualities. where high accuracy is demanded.

5/23/2011 Lapping – Microchipping Clat a h Plastic zone Crad Lateral cracks – remove material Radial cracks – surface damage Lapping Finish Grinding Lapping .

such as bearings and seals.65 µm Final Ra (after lapping) = 0. Its high hardness promotes a series of applications in mechanical engineering. Initial Ra = 0.2 µm . 20 mmOD and 5 mm thickness.5/23/2011 Lapping Process Examples of Lapped Parts The workpieces made of aluminum oxide were rings having 12 mm ID.

The reciprocating motion of the stick is performed at higher frequency and smaller amplitudes. Superfinishing can be used to finish flat and external cylindrical surfaces. The result of these operating conditions is mirror like finishes with surface roughness values around 0.5/23/2011 Superfinishing A finishing operation similar to honing. but it involves the use of a single abrasive stick. Superfinishing is capable only of improving the surface f fi finish i h but b t not t di dimensional i l accuracy.01 µm. .

speed Example of a Polishing Machine .5/23/2011 P li hi Polishing Polishing is a finishing operation to improve the surface finish by means of a polishing wheel made of fabrics or leather and rotating at high speed.

5/23/2011 Examples of Polished Parts Polished disk drive heads compared to the size of a dimension Buffing Buffing is a finishing operation similar to polishing. . in which abrasive g grains are not g glued to the wheel but are contained in a buffing compound that is pressed into the outside surface of the buffing wheel while it rotates.

abrasive blasting Abrasive flow machining Thermal energy (laser.5/23/2011 Deburring Burrs Thin ridges (usually triangular) that form on the workpiece edges during production. can account for up to 10% of the part manufacturing cost Deburring Processes Manual (files and scrapers) Mechanical by cutting Wire brushing Abrasive belts Ultrasonic machining Electropolishing Electrochemical Machining Magnetic abrasive finishing Vibratory Finishing Shot blasting. can be detrimental to the part or its function Traditionally removed manually. plasma) .

5/23/2011 Deburring Processes Vibratory and Barrel Finishing Abrasive pellets are placed in a container with the workpiece. the burrs heat up much more rapidly than the solid part and melt away . especially useful for pieces with internal spaces that cannot be reached by other means Thermal Energy The workpiece is exposed to an instantaneous combustion reaction. the container is vibrated or tumbled Shot Blasting Abrasive particles are propelled at the workpiece at high velocity by an air jet or a wheel Deburring Processes Abrasive Flow Machining An putty-like substance with abrasive grains is forced around and through the workpiece.

5/23/2011 Summary Abrasive processes offer a way to increase surface finish and dimensional accuracy Deburring may be necessary for proper part fit and function .