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**Lecture 8: Distortion Metrics
**

Prof. Ali M. Niknejad University of California, Berkeley Copyright

c

2005 by Ali M. Niknejad

A. M. Niknejad

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 1/26

Output Waveform

In general, then, the output waveform is a Fourier series

ˆo1 cos ω1 t + V ˆo2 cos 2ω1 t + V ˆo3 cos 3ω1 t + . . . vo = V

ˆo V 100mV

10mV

1mV

Gain Compression Higher Order Distortion Products

100µV ˆo2 V 10µV ˆo3 V 1µV

1µV

10µV

100µV

1mV

10mV

ˆi V

A. M. Niknejad

University of California, Berkeley

EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 2/26

Fractional Harmonic Distortion The fractional second-harmonic distortion is a commonly cited metric ampl of second harmonic HD2 = ampl of fund If we assume that the square power dominates the second-harmonic HD2 = 2 S1 a2 2 a1 S1 1 a2 2 a S1 1 or HD2 = A. Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. Niknejad University of California. 3/26 . M.

Niknejad University of California. Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. M.Third Harmonic Distortion The fractional third harmonic distortion is given by ampl of third harmonic HD3 = ampl of fund If we assume that the cubic power dominates the third harmonic 2 S1 a3 4 HD3 = a1 S1 or 1 a3 2 HD3 = S1 4 a1 A. 4/26 .

Output Referred Harmonic Distortion In terms of the output signal Som . if we again neglect gain expansion/compression. 5/26 . Niknejad University of California. M. we have Som = a1 S1 1 a2 HD2 = Som 2 2 a1 1 a3 2 HD3 = Som 3 4 a1 On a dB scale. the second harmonic increases linearly with a slope of one in terms of the output power whereas the thrid harmonic increases with a slope of 2. A. Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p.

. 6/26 . we know the total power in the signal is related to the power in the harmonics v 2 (t)dt = T T j ˆoj cos(jω1 t) V k ˆok cos(kω1 t)dt V = j A. . Niknejad k T ˆoj cos(jω1 t)V ˆok cos(kω1 t)dt V University of California. Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. M. vo (t) = V By Parseval’s theorem.Signal Power Recall that a general memoryless non-linear system will produce an output that can be written in the following form ˆo1 cos ω1 t + V ˆo2 cos 2ω1 t + V ˆo3 cos 3ω1 t + .

Niknejad University of California. M.Power in Distortion By the orthogonality of the harmonics. 7/26 . Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. we obtain Parseval’s Them v 2 (t)dt = T j k 1 ˆoj V ˆok V δ jk 2 = 1 2 j ˆ2 V oj The power in the distortion relative to the fundamental power is therefore given by 2 V Power in Distortion Vo2 3 2 + o2 + ··· = 2 Power in Fundamental Vo1 Vo1 2 2 2 = HD2 + HD3 + HD4 + ··· A.

001%. T HD < 5% for most applications Analog Repeaters < . Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 8/26 .Total Harmonic Distortion We deﬁne the Total Harmonic Distortion (T HD) by the following expression T HD = 2 + HD 2 + · · · HD2 3 Based on the particular application.001%) Video is also pretty forgiving.1% A. RF Ampliﬁers < 0. M. we specify the maximum tolerable T HD Telephone audio can be pretty distorted (T HD < 10%) High quality audio is very sensitive (T HD < 1% to T HD < . Niknejad University of California.

M. 9/26 . Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. Niknejad University of California.Intermodulation Distortion So far we have characterized a non-linear system for a single tone. What if we apply two tones Si = S1 cos ω1 t + S2 cos ω2 t 2 3 So = a1 Si + a2 Si + a3 Si + ··· = a1 S1 cos ω1 t + a1 S2 cos ω2 t + a3 (Si )3 + · · · The second power term gives 2 2 a2 S1 cos2 ω1 t + a2 S2 cos2 ω2 t + 2a2 S1 S2 cos ω1 t cos ω2 t 2 2 S1 S2 = a2 (cos 2ω1 t + 1) + a2 (cos 2ω2 t + 1) + 2 2 a2 S1 S2 (cos(ω1 + ω2 )t − cos(ω1 − ω2 )t) A.

M. Niknejad University of California.Second Order Intermodulation The last term cos(ω1 ± ω2 )t is the second-order intermodulation term The intermodulation distortion IM2 is deﬁned when the two input signals have equal amplitude Si = S1 = S2 Amp of Intermod a2 IM2 = = Si Amp of Fund a1 Note the relation between IM2 and HD2 IM2 = 2HD2 = HD2 + 6dB A. Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 10/26 .

7GHz. Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. Niknejad University of California. a “narrowband” system does not suffer from IM2 ? Or does it ? A. 11/26 .4GHz and two unwanted interfering signals appear at 800MHz and 900MHz. A weak signal in this band can be “swamped” by the distortion. Since 1. Apparently. M. Then we see that the second-order distortion will produce distortion at 100MHz and 1.Practical Effects of IM2 This term produces distortion at a lower frequency ω1 − ω2 and at a higher frequency ω1 + ω2 Example: Say the receiver bandwidth is from 800MHz − 2.7GHz is in the receiver band. signals at this frequency will be corrupted by the distortion.

A. A sharp input ﬁlter eliminates any interference outside of this band. 12/26 .9GHz . the signal is down-converted to a low intermediate frequency fIF Since ω1 − ω2 can potentially produce distortion at low frequency. The IF frequency is 1MHz Imagine two interfering signals appear at f1 = 1. potentially disrupting the communication. M. Niknejad University of California.0GHz.2. Notice that f2 − f1 = fIF Thus the output of the ampliﬁer/mixer generate distortion at the IF frequency.911GHz. Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p.Low-IF Receiver In a low-IF or direct conversion receiver.910GHz and f2 = 1. IM2 is very important in such systems Example: A narrowband system has a receiver bandwidth of 1.

M. 13/26 . Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. Niknejad University of California.2 4 (cos 3ω1.2 t) The cross terms look like 3 2 a3 S1 S2 cos ω1 t cos2 ω2 t 2 A.Cubic IM Now let’s consider the output of the cubic term 3 a3 s3 = a ( S cos ω t + S cos ω t ) 3 1 1 2 2 i Let’s ﬁrst notice that the ﬁrst and last term in the expansion are the same as the cubic distortion with a single input 3 a3 S1 .2 t + 3 cos ω1.

14/26 . M. Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p.Third Order IM Which can be simpliﬁed to 3 3 cos ω1 t cos ω2 t = cos ω1 t(1 + cos 2ω2 t) = 2 2 3 3 = cos ω1 t + cos(2ω2 ± ω1 ) 2 4 The interesting term is the intermodulation at 2ω2 ± ω1 By symmetry. then. then the intermodulation 2ω2 − ω1 ≈ ω1 A. Niknejad University of California. we also generate a term like 3 2 a3 S1 S2 4 cos(2ω1 ± ω2 ) Notice that if ω1 ≈ ω2 .

This is in contrast to IM2 where the frequency of the intermodulation was at a lower and higher frequency.Inband IM3 Distortion S (ω ) Interfering Signals wanted distortion product ω3 2ω1 ω1 ω2 ω2 2ω2 ω1 ω Now we see that even if the system is narrowband. 15/26 . The IM3 frequency can fall in-band for two in-band interferer A. the output of an ampliﬁer can contain in band intermodulation due to IM3 . M. Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. Niknejad University of California.

16/26 . Niknejad University of California. Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p.Deﬁnition of IM3 We deﬁne IM3 in a similar manner for Si = S1 = S2 Amp of Third Intermod 3 a3 2 = IM3 = Si Amp of Fund 4 a1 Note the relation between IM3 and HD3 IM3 = 3HD3 = HD3 + 10dB A. M.

Complete Two-Tone Response S (ω ) ω2 ω1 2ω2 2ω1 − − − − − − − − − ω1 + ω2 ω1 ω2 3ω1 2ω1 2ω2 ω2 3ω2 ω1 3ω1 2ω1 2ω2 ω2 2ω2 ω1 3ω2 2ω1 A. Berkeley ω2 ω1 ω 3ω1 3ω2 2ω1 + ω2 2ω2 + ω1 We have so far identiﬁed the harmonics and IM2 and IM3 products A more detailed analysis shows that an order n non-linearity can produce intermodulation at frequencies jω1 ± kω2 where j + k = n All tones are spaced by the difference ω2 − ω1 EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. M. Niknejad University of California. 17/26 .

18/26 . Niknejad University of California. M. This can be written as m m s(t) = S2 cos ω2 t + cos(ω2 − ωm )t + cos(ω2 + ωm )t 2 2 The ﬁrst term is the RF carrier and the last terms are the modulation sidebands A.Distortion of AM Signals Consider a simple AM signal (modulated by a single tone) s(t) = S2 (1 + m cos ωm t) cos ω2 t where the modulation index m ≤ 1. Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p.

Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. M. video cable tuners) The modulation of a large AM signal transfers to another carrier going thru the same amp Si = S1 cos ω1 t + S2 (1 + m cos ωm t) cos ω2 t wanted interferer CM occurs when the output contains a term like K (1 + δ cos ωm t) cos ω1 t Where δ is called the transferred modulation index A.g.Cross Modulation Cross modulation occurs in AM systems (e. Niknejad University of California. 19/26 .

Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 20/26 .Cross Modulation (cont) For So = a1 Si + a2 Si2 + a3 Si3 + · · · . M. Niknejad University of California. the term a2 Si2 does not produce any CM The term 3 = · · · + 3a S cos ω t (S (1 + m cos ω t) cos ω t)2 is a3 Si 3 1 1 2 m 2 expanded to 2 cos ω1 t(1 + 2m cos ωm t + m2 cos2 ωm t)× = · · · + 3a3 S1 S2 1 2 (1 + cos 2ω2 t) Grouping terms we have in the output a3 2 So = · · · + a1 S1 (1 + 3 S2 m cos ωm t) cos ω1 t a1 A.

Niknejad University of California. Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p.CM Deﬁnition unmodulated waveform (input) modulated waveform due to CM Transferred Modulation Index CM = Incoming Modulation Index a3 2 CM = 3 S2 = 4IM3 a1 = IM3 (dB) + 12dB = 12HD3 = HD3 (dB) + 22dB A. 21/26 . M.

Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. The output voltage is simply Vo = VCC − IC RC Therefore the distortion is generated by IC alone. 22/26 . The biasing is omitted for clarity. M.Distortion of BJT Ampliﬁers VCC RL vo + vs Consider the CE BJT ampliﬁer shown. Niknejad University of California. Recall that IC = IS eqVBE /kT A.

M.BJT CE Distortion (cont) Now assume the input VBE = vi + VQ . The current is therefore given by IC = IS e VQ VT e vi VT IQ Using a Taylor expansion for the exponential 1 2 1 3 e = 1 + x + x + x + ··· 2! 3! x 1 vi + IC = IQ (1 + VT 2 vi VT 2 1 + 6 vi VT 3 + ···) A. Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. where VQ is the bias point. 23/26 . Niknejad University of California.

Berkeley 2 IQ 3 IQ EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. Niknejad University of California. M. 24/26 .BJT CE Distortion (cont) Deﬁne the output signal ic = IC − IQ IQ 1 q vi + ic = VT 2 kT 2 2 IQ vi 1 q + 6 kT 3 3 + ··· IQ vi Compare to So = a1 Si + a2 Si2 + a3 Si3 + · · · qIQ a1 = = gm kT 1 q a2 = 2 kT 1 q a3 = 6 kT A.

we have the following result ˆi 1 qv HD2 = 4 kT where v ˆi is the peak value of the input sine voltage For v ˆi = 10mV. Ge.Example: BJT HD2 For any BJT (Si. HD2 = 0. Niknejad ˆ i c IQ = 0. SiGe. M. GaAs). Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p.4. 25/26 . HD2 = 10% University of California.1 = 10% We can also express the distortion as a function of the ˆ output current swing i c ˆ 1i 1 a2 c S = HD2 = om 2 a2 4 IQ 1 For A.

M.3mV. A. That’s a pretty small voltage. Berkeley EECS 142 Lecture 8 p. 26/26 . Niknejad University of California. For practical applications we’d like to improve the linearity of this ampliﬁer.Example: BJT IM3 Let’s see the maximum allowed signal for IM3 ≤ 1% 3 a3 2 1 S1 = IM3 = 4 a1 8 qv ˆi kT 2 Solve v ˆi = 7.

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