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in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of







91305103003 91305103333 91305103335 91305103338

in partial fulfillment for the award of the degree of







SATHISH KUMAR.N” who carried out the project work

under my supervision.





Department of Civil Engineering, Ratnavel Subramaniam College of Engineering And Technology, Dindigul.

Department of Civil Engineering Ratnavel Subramaniam College of Engineering And Technology, Dindigul.

Submitted for viva-voce examination held on



” The generator works by spinning a rotor that is turned by a turbine. a strong need for updating the methods for determining establishing and as far as predictable. As a fluid flows through the blades a rotational force is created. but without addressing the general actual issue in view of energy demand. As a continuously available base-load energy supply option. hydropower is significant regenerative energy source. In today’s hydroelectric dams. future developments. with due consideration of ecological and economic aspects. . the restricted water is diverted to a turbine using a penstock and exits the turbine through the tailrace. ecology and globalization. A dam is an object that restricts the flow of water.CHAPTER 1 INTRODUCTION The growing energy demand worldwide on the one hand and the emerging ecological awareness on the other are leading to an increased demand for regenerative energy. with economic data (investment costs and revenue) having been updated. An electric generator is “any machine that converts mechanical energy into electricity for transmission and distribution. Water is the most abundant resource in the world. where electricity is produced. The backbone of most power generation system is the generator. The most efficient way to harness the power of water is to collect the potential energy. The turbine shaft is coupled to a generator. This force causes a torque on the shaft. Studies to determine new locations for hydropower plants have explored innovative avenues. it is important to utilize the power of flowing water. This is done by damming up a body of flowing water. however. The hydropower plants that are currently being realized or about to be realized are predominantly based on old studies. There is. The turbine is made up of a shaft with blades attached.

This generator can be used to power residential loads. can be used to restrict the flow of water.The height which the water falls (head) The efficiency of the plant to convert mechanical energy to electrical energy. From the source of the flowing water. With today’s technology it is possible to generate power with small scale parameters.The rotor is a shaft that has field windings. .The amount of water flow . small scale dam. From this the water can be piped to a turbine. a weir. One of the first steps in planning is to measure the power potential of the stream. The amount of power that can be obtained from a stream depends on: . The stator is a cylindrical ring made of iron that is incased by another set of field windings and is separated from the rotor by a small air gap. a micro generator can generate about 1 watt to 100 kilowatts. These windings are supplied with an excitation current or voltage. Since the turbine is coupled to the generator. the excitation current creates a magnetically induced current onto a stator. As the rotor turns. Hydroelectric generations can vary from 1 watt to 100’s megawatts. With low flow and low head parameters a micro generator can be used to produce electric power.

Basic data-ecological aspects: General information (e.CHAPTER 2 BACKGROUND The implementation of the requirements is effected through a framework plan. protected areas). Existing facilities: surveying using questionnaires and water registers.g. Selective in formation such as biological quality of rivers and streams. When elaborating the framework plan the following relevant data are incorporated: Basic data-energy aspects: Hydrology: gauge levels from hydrological yearbooks. distribution of sensitive species along a river stretch. . Linear information such as morphological structure. Topography: catchments area sizes and potential head conditions.

= = = = = Area of orifice or ports Cross-sectional area of penstocks Area of riser of differential surge tank Net cross-sectional area of surge tank Cross-sectional area of head race tunnel Thoma area of surge tank Velocity of propagation of pressure wave Diameter of head race tunnel Friction factor governing head loss [to be taken from IS : 4880 ( Part 3 ) . m P Ph = = = = = = = = = = = Factor of safety over Ath Acceleration due to gravity Gross head on turbines Net head on turbines Total head loss in head race tunnel system Total head loss in penstock system Length of head race tunnel Length of riser spill in crest Reciprocal of Poisson’s ratio for rock Power generated Pressure due to water hammer in the conduit upstream of surge tank Qd = Maximum discharge supplied by the surge tank in case of specified load acceptance R1 = Internal radius of the pressure conduit . g H Ho hr hrp L Ls.CHAPTER 3 NOMENCLATURE Ao AP At A.1976” ] J&h = c D F = = = F. A.

mm moments internal pressure including water hammer. N/mm2 principal stresses. N/mm2 moment coefficient modulus of elasticity total circumferential stress. V’ Y’t = = = Outer radius of the pressure conduit Volume of water in surge tank corresponding to Z Volume of water in the conduit in a given time interval ∆t = V1. N/mm2 equivalent stress. downstream of surge tank = Water level in surge tank measured positive above reservoir level Zm C E fi fy l L M P P1 q1 Y rl S St = Maximum surge level above maximum reservoir level longitudinal stresses. upstream of surge tank V1* V2* Z = Velocity of flow in tunnel at any instant. N/mm2 height of stiffener ring or ring girder. mm hoop stress in pipe. upstream of surge Tank = Velocity of flow in conduit at any instant. N/mm2 total longitudinal stress. S. ∆t vo* = Velocity of flow in tunnel corresponding to maximum steady flow. N/mm2 total reaction at support. f2. mm span length of pipe. = = = = = = = = = = = = = = = Sa. mm mean radius of shell. N/mm2 radius of pipe shell. N/mm2 fi.At. = .R2. N shear stress.

ma coefficient of linear expansion or contraction of pipe shell material. self-weight of shell + weight of water. that is. . weight of shell + weight of water. per “C = coefficient of friction. N section modulus of pipe shell. that is.I t tl W = = = = temperature rise or drop. mm thickness of stiffener ring or ring girder. N/m2 WI z α µ = = = total weight. mm total distributed weight. “C thickness of pipe shell.

hydraulic and otherwise. considering seasonal variation in power generation to meet the region's demand during all seasons. are considered zero. with minimum submergence and economic costs. Effective head: It is losses subtracted from the gross head at installed capacity output. DEFINITIONS: Head: Water level is the highest possible water level at the station intake in full operation and with zero bypass flow. Gross capacity: Maximum capacity if all head losses. .and tail water. Total (gross) head: = Vertical distance between head.CHAPTER 4 OBJECTIVE The objective is to design a hydroelectric plant utilizing optimal energy in the water. Tail: Water level is the energy head of the water flowing out of the turbines.

. seepage rate etc.). environmental costs. generation head. installed generation capacity and seasonal power drafts. etc. cost of electrical machinery of various capacities. load factor. and dependability norm for storage capacity..) and economic data (civil construction costs for various types and heights of dam. water yield. Parameters: Input data consist of site specific data (discharge. and costs and submergence area are to be minimized. power house location. technical data (efficiency of turbine and generator. etc.). Decision variables: The decision variables determine the optimum storage capacity. can be used for implementing this design. pressure shaft alignment. net energy availability in the region (objective function) needs to be maximized subject to seasonal hydrological constraints.CHAPTER 5 DESIGN ASSUMPTIONS AND PARAMETERS: Assumptions: Detailed geological and topographical investigations carried out by the Department of Mines and Geology to determine the best site for the dam. evaporation rate. rehabilitation costs. etc.

Following an equation which computes monthly hydropower production as a function of volume of water discharged (Q). gross head of this water (H) and efficiency of the couple turbine generator (r). diversion or tail water lowering. Hydropower (kW) is given by: P (kW) = Q (m /s) x H (m) x ηtot x 9. Making a head useful for hydropower use needs a concentration by means of hydropower impoundment. At the point of concentration the powerhouse is situated.7 and 0.the thing we pay for .CHAPTER 6 HYDRO POWER Head is defined as the difference in elevation between two particular cross sections of the river.85).is power during a certain time period. between 0. The output of a hydropower plant is given in terms of power [kW] and electricity production [kWh].81 and approximately = Q x H x 7. The conversion of the energy potential of the river into electricity requires a turbine (potential and kinetic energy into mechanical energy) [rotation] and a generator [rotation into electrical energy]. .8 ηtot = total efficiency (ηturbine x ηgenerator x ηspeed increaser x ηtrafo) P Q H = electrical power output = rated discharge = net head 3 Electricity production .

Small hydropower plants have a generation capacity of between 1000 kW and 30 000 kW. CLASSIFICATION OF HYDROPOWER PLANT: Hydroelectric facilities range in size from large-scale power plants to small.The annual electricity production of a hydropower (HP) station is approximately calculated as E (kWh) = P (kW) x 4500 (h) The head of a HP station is mainly determined by geographical and topographical parameters.and micro-scale plants. The discharge varies due to the natural flow regime. Usually a Hydropower station runs at full load for roughly three months. . Micro hydropower plants have a generation capacity of less than 100 kW. Though the definitions may vary. The rest of the year according to the lesser discharge the station is operated at part load. hydropower plants can be classified as follows: Large hydropower plants have a generation capacity of more than 30 000 kW (or 30 MW). Mini hydropower plants have a generation capacity of between 100kW and 1000 kW.

Low operating and maintenance costs. With out wasting or depleting it. The storage capacity combined with unique operational flexibility allows for optimized use of fossil fuel power plants. . and it does not generate any polluting or toxic waste by-products. Hydropower projects with reservoirs can store water to generate electricity for future use. Hydropower produces very few greenhouse gases and no other air contaminants. This storage capacity means that hydropower can support intermittent renewable sources of electricity. such as wind and solar power. hydropower facilities can provide the following social and economic benefits: Hydropower is a local resource and is not subject to the drastic fluctuation of international oil markets. In addition to having many environmental benefits.THE BENEFITS OF HYDROPOWER: Hydropower offers several environmental advantages: Hydropower uses the renewable power of naturally flowing water. as well as run-of-river hydropower. and long lifetime make small hydropower projects virtually inflation proof. and therefore leads to reduced greenhouse gas emissions and air pollutants from the electricity sector.

businesses and factories. penstocks (pipes).Hydropower projects have the flexibility to complement other renewable energy technologies and help support a larger deployment of the technologies. such as dams and water level controls. unlike other energy sources such as fossil fuels. the water rotates the turbines. a powerhouse and an electrical power substation. Hydropower plants provide inexpensive electricity and produce no pollution. The dam stores water and creates the head. A typical hydropower plant includes a dam. HOW HYDROPOWER WORKS? Hydropower converts the energy in flowing water into electricity. The quantity of electricity generated is determined by the volume of water flow and the amount of "head" (the height from turbines in the power plant to the water surface) created by the dam. water is not destroyed during the production of electricity. penstocks carry water from the reservoir to turbines inside the powerhouse. which drive generators that produce electricity. the more electricity produced. It can be reused for other purposes. the cost of developing small hydropower projects are competitive with those of other energy projects. When built in conjunction with existing infrastructure. The greater the flow and head. And. . reservoir. domestic and renewable source of energy. The electricity is then transmitted to a substation where transformers increase voltage to allow transmission to homes. Hydropower is a clean.

meaning they use one-way water flow to generate electricity.especially seasonal changes . Run-of-river plants: These plants use little. Conventional Most hydropower plants are conventional in design. Although some plants store a day or week's worth of water.1.cause run-of-river plants to experience significant fluctuations in power output. . (Figure No 1). stored water to provide water flow through the turbines. The Tazimina project in Alaska is an example of a diversion hydropower plant. weather changes .TYPES OF HYDRPOWER PLANTS 1. No dam was required. if any. 1. There are two categories of conventional plants:1 run-ofriver and 2: storage plants.

2 Small Hydropower Although definitions vary. 2. After water initially produces electricity.2.1. . Sizes of Hydroelectric Power Plants Facilities range in size from large power plants that supply many consumers with electricity to mall and micro plants that individuals operate for their own energy needs or to sell power to utilities. DOE defines small hydropower as facilities that have a capacity of 100 kilowatts to 30 megawatts. DOE defines large hydropower as facilities that have a capacity of more than 30 megawatts.3 Micro Hydropower A micro hydropower plant has a capacity of up to 100 kilowatts. 3. 3. farm. 3. Storage plants: These plants have enough storage capacity to off-set seasonal fluctuations in water flow and provide a constant supply of electricity throughout the year. some of the water is pumped into an upper reservoir and reused during periods of peak-demand. pumped storage plants reuse water. 3. During off-peak hours (periods of low energy demand). A small or micro hydroelectric power system can produce enough electricity for a home. Pumped Storage In contrast to conventional hydropower plants. Large dams can store several years’ worth of water. it flows from the turbines into a lower reservoir located below the dam. or village. ranch.1 Large Hydropower Although definitions vary.

pre cast concrete pipes. cross-sectional forms and size. design-uniform flow. Penstocks: Types of Penstocks. design consideration of surge tanks. anchors and supports. number of penstocks and equivalent penstock diameter. geometric design. economical diameter of penstocks. Surge Tanks: General function of a surge tank. grouting. Concrete Pipes: Applications. . Tunnels: Introduction. tunnel lining . Layout of lined canals. types of surge tanks. stresses in penstocks. tunnel support. canals in rocks.WATER CONVEYANCE SYSTEM Power Canals: Introduction. joints in pipeline. rock tunneling procedure. design of penstock. stability of surge tanks. valves. unlined canals in soft ground. reinforced concrete pipes. lined canal in soft ground. hydraulic design. location and construction. Lined canals.

The headrace tunnel extending from the head pond to the surge tank has a length of 11860 m.75 m. For the drilling from the upstream end of the tunnel this brings the question of evacuation of the water which may come from eventual karstic springs. .42 m2) with a concrete lining.CHAPTER 7 TUNNELS 1. Hydraulic calculations were performed for several headrace tunnel alternatives. The original tunnel layout has a horizontal in the downstream direction. After all it is decided to keep the headrace layout in the feasibility study. INTRIDUCTION: Tunnels can be designed as underground passages made without removing the overlying rock or soil. It was seen that. Therefore it was proposed to investigate a change in the vertical profile of the tunnel. In order to shorten the construction time of the tunnel it was thought of working both from the upstream and the downstream end. where a high point created somewhere in the tunnel will allow to carry out the drilling works upslope going from both ends. The equivalent hydraulic diameter of the horseshoe section is approximately D = 4. It has a D shaped cross section (20. which was not envisaged in feasibility study. it is not possible to create a high point at almost equal distances from the two adits even by adding a penstock. Of course such a solution can only be feasible if the high point can be placed such that L1≈L2.

shape and supporting arrangements. Depending on their shape. Conveyance tunnels: Hydroelectric power station tunnels-these shall be referred as “hydraulic tunnels” in all further discussions. B. tunnels may be classified as: D-shaped Horse-shoe shaped Circular shaped Elliptical shaped Square or rectangular shaped . Water supply tunnels Sewer tunnels transportation tunnels in industrial plants. Depending on their purpose the following two main groups of tunnels may be distinguished: Traffic tunnels: Railway tunnels Highway tunnels Navigation tunnels A.CLASSIFICATION OF TUNNELS: Tunnels may be classified according to their purpose. Hydraulic tunnels can be further sub-divided into the following categories: Pressure tunnels Free flowing tunnels Free flowing cum-pressure tunnels C.

. (iii).J sections.THE SELECTION OF THE TUNNEL CROSS-SECTION IS INFLUENCED BY: The clearances specified in view of the vehicles and materials transported in the tunnel.g. Tunnels supported by R. tunnels may be classified as: i. If the rock conditions are favorable and the tunnel is required to be used for a short period of time. iv.S.ladden water under high velocities. Tunnels may also be classified as “lined” or “unlined” tunnels.. the tunnel may be left unlined. Geological conditions. hydraulic tunnels are invariably lined with cement concrete (Plain or reinforced) or short Crete. Tunnels supported by a combination of (i). iii. Tunnels supported by rock bolts. However. and The material and strength of tunnel lining. (E. Tunnels supported by short Crete. hydraulic tunnels discharging silt . Depending upon the type of supports. silt flushing tunnels) are required to be steel-lined. ii. (ii). e. a diversion tunnel constructed for the construction of a dam. in most cases. The method of driving the tunnel.g.

metamorphic rocks where the external or internal pressures. for sudden opening of the gates. or reduction of pressure. and Functional requirements. the water hammer corresponding to normal operation of the turbine may be very great and may require extra ordinary strength of the tunnel to withstand it and the violent fluctuations of pressure in the tunnel may seriously interfere with proper turbine regulation. SURGES IN TUNNELS Water hammer is created in long closed tunnels by the sudden closure of the turbine gates.TUNNEL CROSS SECTION Cross – section of a tunnel depends on the following factors: Geological conditions prevailing along the alignment. The water hammer pressure provides the necessary force to retard the flow in tunnel when load is rejected by the turbine. intact sedimentary rocks and massive external igneous. Structural considerations. . Hydraulic requirements. D-SHAPED SECTION: D-shaped section is found to be suitable in tunnels located in good quality. For very long tunnels. provides the necessary force to accelerate the water and is correspondingly objectionable for very long tunnels. the resulting negative water hammer. hard. compacted. Similarly.

to meet the safety requirements of a tail race tunnel. under such conditions. a surge tank may be provided downstream of the power house also. it generally becomes necessary to install supports to hold the rock which has a tendency to drop out of the roof of the opening . for tail race acceptance. Barton . Care should be taken that the pressure in the tunnel never becomes negative as. TUNNEL SUPPORT: When an underground opening is made. The steady state water level in the surge tank fluctuates up and down as the turbine rejects or accepts the load. even steel supports are being dispensed with and the present trend is to reinforce the rock by means of rock bolting and shortcreting. it is very essential to determine the sub-normal pressures in the surge tank for sudden acceptance of the the earlier day’s timber sections were used as temporary supported till permanent lining could be placed.The simplest means of eliminating the positive and negative water hammer pressures is to provide a surge tank at the lower end of the tunnel. rabcewicz and others. timber supports have now become almost obsolete. With the gradual availability of steel sections. However. More recently on the basics of work done by beiniiiawaski . maximum pressures occur at the time of load acceptance. the tunnel is likely to collapse. Methods of tunneling: Full face attack Top heading and benching Bottom heading and stopping Drift method. Hence. The tunnel should be designed to withstand the maximum excess pressure that is likely to occur. Similarly. . For head race tunnels full.

(b) Rib and post. and. (f) Invert strut in addition to those shown in types (a) to (d). (e) full circle rib. (d) Rib. TYPES OF STEEL SUPPORT SYSTEMS: Tunnel support system by way of steel ribs may be classified into the following: (a) Continuous rib. The bridge action period for cohesion less and or completely crushed rock is almost zero. . (c) Rib and wall plate. The time which the loosened rock takes to drop out and also the amount of rock expected to fall depend upon the “bridge action period” of the rock. The bridge action period “to” be defined as the time which elapses between blasting and the beginning of collapse of the unsupported roof. wall plate and post.THE NEED FOR TUNNEL SUPPORT: The necessity of tunnel support arises from the fact that the excavated rock has a tendency to drop out of the roof of the tunnel. It may range from a few hors to a few weeks.

. the basic elements are: (a) Ribs (b) Posts (c) Invert strut (d) Wall plates (e) Crown bars (f) Truss panels (g) Bracings and spreaders (h) Blocking DESIGN PROCEDURE: Construction of load diagram Construction of force polygon Determination of thrusts and Computation of stresses in the arch rib Lining in tunnels is a very important component and makes up for 30 to 40 percent of the total cost of tunnel. in cases where it has served the purpose e. diversion tunnels the lining could be avoided..CONSTITUENTS OF TUNNEL SUPPORTS: Every type of tunnel support system consists of two or more different elements. each of which serves a different function. However.g. Tunnels forming part of water conductor system have to be invariably lined with cement concrete-plain or reinforced: or steel lined.

Steel lining consists of a steel plate of adequate thickness provided to the inner surface of the tunnel and serves the following purposes: To prevent water loss fro the tunnel. To prevent leakage of water. steel lining is provided where the tunnel has to withstand high pressures. To protect the turbines by preventing loose rock particles falling into the water and being carried to the turbines. .CONCRETE LINING: The function of concrete lining is one or more of the following: To reduce head losses in the system. Which is not taken by the rocking. To provide protection from seepage of water from the surrounding mass like rock. concrete etc. STEEL LINING General: As briefly described earlier. To resist the bursting pressure of water carried by the tunnel. and To provide a smooth surface for flow of water. To protect steel ribs from deteriorating. To take that part of the internal pressure.

1m 204.CHAPTER 8 HYDRO PROJECT IN UTTARAKHENT DESIGN DATAS: FRL MWL MDDL Length of HRT = = = = 1017.5 – 16.4 188.86Km D Shape 3 3 x 33 MW 810 204.60 Cumec Proposed shape of HRT = NO of units Power TWL Net head = = = = = Gross head = Design discharge = .00 1020.00 1009.50 11.5m 59.

2m ( MDDL – TWL ) + 2/3 ( FRL – MDDL ) ( 1009.905 D2 59.’.6 x 204.905 ) 4.6 / ( 3 x 0.58 D 17M A/P 0.1.81 x 103 x 59.5 x 0.5 – 810 ) + 2/3 ( 1017 – 1009.68m 4.5 ) 204.92 110 MW Q/V = = = . Q = VxA A 0.75m 3. dia D D = = = = . HYDRAULIC DESIGN: Discharge .5m γQHη 9. Vetted perimeter P P Hydraulic Radius = = = Net head =H = = H Hydro power P = = = Power = TFL at the end of the tunnel = total head – friction loss .’.2528 D 1.’.

425x106 > 4000 .014 32 x 0.’.75 / 1x10-2 1.Mannings Formula: hf where N Take N = = Rugosity Co – efficient ( for inner tunnel ) 0.’. hf = hf = .4 188m TYPE OF FLOW Reynold No = R = = ρVD / µ 1000 x 3 x 4.0142 x 11. inner end of the tunnel TFL = = 188.4m = V2 x N2 x L / R4/3 .86 x 103 / 1.’.24/3 16.5 – 16. it is a turbulent flow .1m = 204.

375m 2.1x106/13 kg/cm2 1.4)x(0.75/2 2.23)/12 0.75+0.5 t/m3 5.1 2.5x1 (4.25 x (B) 0.2) = From table 4.0 t/m3 2.0007 m4 1.2m 4.l no:2) = = 16.25x 4.57 t 0.25x(4.6154x106 t/m2 bd3/12 (1 x 0.22) Internal radius of tunnel (r) . STRUCTURAL DESIGN: Internal diameter of tunnel Thick of lining (t) = = = = Mean radius of tunnel lining (R) = = Young’s modulus of lining material (E) = = Moment of inertia (I) (considering 1m strip of lining) = = = Unit weight of water (W) Unit weight of concrete (Wc) Total rock load on mean dia (P) Pressure p = = = = 4.2.15x1.75+0.75+0.375+0.287x2.2+0.2(S.75m 0.475m 2.

0167 Wr2R = .2203 Wr2R = 0.2 x2.0334 Wct R2 = .4 x 0.0.7403 = 0.68 cm Actual thickness of lining provided = 20 cm Including over break in rock.945 450 900 .0167 Wr2R = 0.1.0755 = .0.125 PR = 5.295 = .0. d = 9945/(13 x 100) Q = 13 = b = 100 cm 7.278 Due to conduit weight = 0.4406 x 2.475 = 5. Total thickness of concrete lining up to the payline = 30 cm Hence the depth is considered to be adequated.172 1350 Zero 1800 = 0.097 = 0.0.125 PR = 0.4 x 0.0.’.4752 = .3448 Wct R2 = 1.2 x 2.0334 Wct R2 = 0.0970 = .125 PR = .278 Zero = .0.427 .698 Now m = Qbd2 .475 = 3.0. .06 x 2.0334 x 2.1724 Wr2R = 2.218 0.4752 = 1.1963 Wr2R = .0.125 x 17.2203 x 1 x 2.33 = 0.3927 Wct R2 = .0138 Due to contained water = 0.407 Total 9.BENDING MOMENTS φ 00 Due to uniform vertical load = 0.1546 = 8.33 = .4406 Wct R2 = 0.9.3752 x 2.5.

510 = 0.066 = 0.’.0833 Wr2 = 0.6732 WctR = 0.749 = 0.062 Zero Zero .003 Zero Maximum radial shear .551 0.551/(100 x 20) = < 5 kg/cm2 Hence the design is safe .25 P = 4.142 Zero = 0.1667 WctR = 0.0.1980 = 0.739 Zero SHEAR φ 00 450 900 1350 1800 Due to uniform vertical load Zero = .8.551 t 4.2.708 7.28 kg/cm2 Zero = .4488 Wr2 = .3366 Wr2 = 2. Shear stress = 8.25 P = .142 Zero = Due to conduit weight Due to contained water Total Zero = .8976 WctR = .

519 = .0.48 0.668 8.NORMAL THRUST φ 00 450 900 1350 1800 Due to uniform vertical load Zero = 0.7869 Wr2 = 4.1667 WctR = 0.1667 WctR = .772 Maximum negative thrust .1.314 = .837 2.3.866 = 0.0.2146 Wr2 = .25 P = 0.0.4376 WctR = 0.8.574 Total .25 P Due to conduit weight = 0.24 kg/cm2 5 kg/cm2 Tensile stress in concrete at crown = 8.1332 WctR = 1.5708 WctR = 1.346 = 1.0.198 Due to contained water = .8.5834 Wr2 = .82 = .48 x 1000/(100 x 20) = < Hence the design is safe .678 = .5 P = Wr2 = .4277 Wr2 = .0.1.198 = 1.48 t ( which indicates tension at the crown) 4.041 Zero = .2.3.620 = .

29 mm = 0.1309 x WctR4/EI = 0.0252 x Wr2R3/EI = 1.9 mm = 0.HORIZONTAL DEFLECTION φ 00 450 Due to uniform vertical Due to conduit weight load Zero Zero = 0.10 mm = 0.88 900 = 0.06545 x Wr2R3/EI = 5. .01473 x PR3/EI = 3.13090 x WctR4/EI = 2.67 mm Zero Due to contained water Zero = 0.59 mm Zero Total Zero 5.504 x WctR4/EI = 0.34 1350 = 0.17 mnm 5.02108 x Wr2R3/EI = 1.81 mm = O.43 1800 Zero Zero Deflections are with in permissible limits.17 mm = O.04167 x PR3/EI = 8.95 mm 16.01473 x PR3/EI = 3.

5 mm = 0. .54 mm = 0.02694 x PR3/EI = 5.26 mm = 0.04167 x PR3/EI = 9.34 mm Due to contained water Zero = 0.56 mm 32.VERTICAL DEFLECTION φ 00 450 Due to uniform vertical Due to conduit weight load Zero Zero = 0.0833 x PR3/EI = 18.96 mm = 0.0564 x PR3/EI = 12.09279 x WctR4/EI = 1.31 mm = 0.50 mm Deflections are with in permissible limits.73 mm 900 = 0.06958 x Wr2R3/EI = 5.1309 x Wr2R3/EI = 9.2 mm 1350 = 0.09268 x Wr2R3/EI = 6.2618 x WctR4/EI = 4.9 mm = 0.18535 x WctR4/EI = 3.0464 x Wr2R3/EI = 3.08 mm = 0.89 mm Total Zero 10.77 mm 22.52 mm 1800 = 0.94 mm 16.13917 x WctR4/EI = 2.

485-per m3 G = Mean unit price of grouting = Rs. 250/.m3 A = Total cost of tunnel per meter length.per cum L = Unit price of concrete lining = Rs.014 for concrete lined tunnel ) R = Hydraulic mean radius ( D/4 for circular tunnel) Q = Equivalent discharge = 120 m3/sec U = Value of one unit of power = 0. d = Mean he of Lining.10 e = Overall efficiency of plant = 0.290/.CHAPTER 9 FOR ECONOMICAL DIMENTIONS FOR TUNNELS Using the following symbols and assumptions: D = Tunnel Diameter in meters. E = Mean unit price of tunnel excavation Rs. C = Contingencies [percentage of total cost = 5%] S = Supervision charges [percentage of total cost = 15%] O = Operating and maintenance cost = 10% Y = Life project in years = 5 years P = Depreciation factor ( for straight line method = 1/50) N = Rate of interest ( 8%) B = Manning’s co-efficient (0.85 .

Economical diameter of tunnel as per hand book of hydroelectric engineering by Dr. P.S.Nigam is given by D7.33 = (19.35Q3n2e x 4x105)/[(E+0.36)L x O] D = Diameter of tunnel Q = Discharge through tunnel = 59.6 m3/sec n = Rigidity co-efficient = 0.014 e = overall efficiency = 85% u = cost of power = 16 paisa/unit

CONSTRUCTION COST AND FIXED CHARGES: (a) Cost of excavation: = [E(D+2d)2]/4 Rs/m (b) Cost of lining = L [ (D+2d)ss-D2]/4 Rs/m (c) Cost of grouting: = g(D+2d) That fore total cost per linear meter. A A A = E[D+2d]/4 + L[(D+2d)2-D2]/4 + g(D+2d) = [ED2/4] + EDd + Ed2 + Ld2 + LDd + gD + 2gd = [ED2/4] + D[Ed + Ld + g] + Ed2+ Ld2 + 2gd

This must be increased by ‘C’ for contingencies and by S for supervision charges. Overall cost = A (1+c) x (1+s)/m

Annual charges of tunnel due to supervision & interest = A (1+c) x (1+s) x (P+N)/m

OPERATION & MAINTENANCE COST: Gross grass annual cost and expressed operation & maintenance cost = A (1+c) x (1+s) x O Value of annual cost: Loss of head due to friction per M length = h = n2 v2/R4/3 = n2 Q2/ [(D2/4)2 x (D/4)4/3] h = 101.12 D-16/3 n2Q2

Power Loss = 9.8 Qh x e Total number of hours of separation per year = 7925 hours = 9.8 eTQ(101.12D-16/3 n2 Q2) = 1000 en2 TQ3D-16/3U That fore total annual cost. T1 = A(1+c) x (1+s) x (P+N) + A(1+c) x (1+s) x O+1000en2TQD-16/3 x w

Where A = ED2/4 + D[Ed + Ld + G] + Ed2 + Ld2 + 2Gd

For the economy dT1/dD = 0

Difference the above [ED/2 + d(E+L) + g] x (1+c) x (1+s) x (p+N) - [(1000 x 16)/3] x n2Q3TUeD-16/3 = 0 (OR) [D+2d(E+L)+G]/E = [322000/3] x {[(n2Q3TUeD-19/3)]/ [E(1+c)x(1+s)x(P+N)} (OR) (32000/3) en2Q3 x [T.U/E(1+c).(1+s).(p+N)] x D-19/3 = D + [2d(E+L)+G]/E (OR) mD-19/3 = D + K (OR) loge m D-19/3 = D + K (OR) loge m D-19/3 = loge (D + K)

05)(0.02+0.16) / (350x(1+0. m = (32000/3) x en2Q3 x [(T x U) / E(1+C)(P+N)(1+S)] m = (32000/3) x [(0.9240 x 108 loge = 19. loge m-19/3 x 2(D-1)/(D+1) = loge K + 2D/(2K+D) (OR) 2D/2(K+D)+(19/3) x 2(D-1)/(D+1) = loge m .4(350+750) + 250] / 350 .93x8400x0.loge k) = 0 By substituting the volume assumed we hence.loge K By multiplying (2K+D)(D+1) We obtain 2D(D+1)+(38/3) x (2K+D)(D-1) – (2K+D)(D+1) x (loge m.10)] m = 1.24 K = [2 x 0.07)(1+0.85x0.(OR) loge m (–19/3) x loge D = loge (D + K) By substituting loge D = [2(D+1)/(D+1)] loge (D + K) = loge K + 2D/(2K+D) then.0142x56.

526xD)(D-1)-(6.58 m .172 2D(D+1) + (38/3)(6.24-1. D = 2.loge = 1.556+D)(D+1) (19.425) = 0 Solving this equation we will get.

S.I.S. (f) After determined the rock mass classification and the stand up time arrive at the support requirements in the table 10.I.2 from tunnel design manual. (e) Having accessed the rock mass classification determined the expected standard time figure 10. (c) Once the basic. .R METHOD: BIENIAWSKI (OR) C. rock mass value has been arrived at adjust for the joint orientation.8 from tunnel design manual. (d) Arrived at the total rock mass rating and the classify the rock mass accordingly.DESIGN OF TUNNEL C.R METHOD: (a) Access the various parameters (b) Access the rating of each the above parameters using table ten percentages from tunnel design manual.

(iii) Roof support.G. Q = [RQD/Jn] x [Jr/Ja] x [Jw/SRF] (ii) Work out the value of De called the equivalent dimension using the relationship .I METHOD: Design of rock bolts and facing of rock bolts. Proof = (2/Jr)(Q)-1/3 (iv) Depending upon the value of rock mass quality. structural number = Jt.3 from tunnel design manual. Water reduction factor SRF = Stress reduction factor Dc = Equivalent dimension . (i) Access various rock parameters and there corresponding values using table 10. roughness number = Jt.BARTON’S N. DESIGN: (1) Q = [RQD/Jn] x [Jr/Ja] x [Jw/SRF] RQD = Rock quality of designation Jn Jr Ja Jw = Jt. Alteration number = Jt.

4 [from tunnel manual] Value of ESR = 1. Determination of thrusts T = 63000 kg .4 (iii) Roof pressure Proof = [2/Jr] x Q-1/3 = (2/2) x (12)-1/3 = 0.(ii) Dc = excavation span.125 (1) Provide rock bolt 3m long @ 1.5 m c/c.44 kg/cm2 (v) substituting (1) value for (i) Q = [RQD/Jn] x [Jr/Ja] x [Jw/SRF] = (72/6) x (2/2) x (1/1) = 12 Very good rock. Dia & Height/Excavation support ratio Table 10. Using table 10.6 Excavated diameter of tunnel Dc = 5m = 3.

6 x 63000 = M max = Maximum 3m in kg.800 kg.76 cm2 fr = (T/A) + (M max/Z) kg/cm2 .608 kg.sq root (17502 – (150/2)2 h = 1..6 cm T = Thrust in kg = 6300 kg Mt = Bending moment in kg.sq root [R2-(c/2)]2 h = 1750 .6 cm3 x RST x 300 x 140 A = in the rib = 0.00.86 x 100800 = Z = section modulus of the rib in cm3 Z = 8603.Computations of stresses in the area Rib C = Chords length between following point in cm C = 150 cm In our case R = Radius of neutral axis of the rib in cm R = 1750 cm h = Rise of arc between blocking points in cm h = Mt = hT = 1.

76 kg/cm2Since allowable stress in the rib is 1150 kg/cm2 The Design considers being safe.72 fr = = (63000/56. Hence ok.94 + 11.76) + (100800/8603. .6) fr = 1109.

ROCK MASS CALCULATION: i) Q = ( RQD x Jr x Jw ) / ( Jn x Ja x SRF ) Where RQD = Rock quality designation Jr Ja Jw = Joint roughness number = Joint alteration number = Joint water reduction factor SRF = Stress reduction factor Dc ii) = Equivalent dimension Dc = Excavation span. Dia ( or ) Height / Excavation support ratio [ESR] iii) Root Pr Proof = 2 x Q-1/3/ J6 = 2 x 12-1/3/ J6 = 0.5m C/C .44 Kg / Cm2 iv) Q = ( RQD x Jr x Jw ) / ( Jn x Ja x SRF ) = 72 x 2 x 1 / 6 x 2 x 1 = 12.125 Provide rock bolt 3m long @ 1.6 = 3. Very good rock Using table 10.4 value of ESR = 1.6 Excavated dia of tunnel = 5m Dia = 5 / 1.

whereby the maximum pressure is limited by the bearable stress of the concrete lining of the power tunnel. Examinations of traditional. Load demand. In this case the minimum pressure must not come below the elevation of the power tunnel. Partial or full-load rejection leads to on upsurge oscillation. The operation of storage power plants requires a completely free operation without any restrictions on changes in loading or flow of neither the pumps nor the turbines. For the design of the pumped-storage power plant and later for rebuilding of a new waterway of high-head power plant an investigation for the most economic type of surge tank fulfilling the operational requirements has been carried out. simple Shafter chamber type surge tanks show their ineffectiveness due to the required chamber volume and the resulting costs. This demand led to the development of a more effective throttling device in connection with dual chamber surge tanks.CHAPTER 10 SURGE TANK A surge tank is provided at the end of the headrace tunnel in order to protect the hydro mechanical equipment and the tunnel lining against a possible damage from water hammer. Four types of surge tanks with different throttling devices were . SELECTION OF SURGE TANK TYPE: The principle demand on a surge tank is to compensate the mass oscillation of the water flow in the pressure tunnel of load changes of turbines and/or pumps. whereas the construction type in connection with a suitable throttling device should effect in a most powerful damping of the amplitude already in the very first period of oscillation. however is followed by a down surge oscillation and the damping effect of the throttling device should avoid reaction on the turbine or pump.

(type 1) Shaft surge tank with orifice . The graphs simply show the benefit of differential surge tanks due to the much more effectiveness in damping of the oscillation.(type 4) Differential surge tank with reverse flow throttle The obvious different characteristics and damping effects of chamber surge tanks and differential types are compared as for example in figure 1 for a single load case full load rejection. .(type 3) Differential surge tank with asymmetric orifice . Loading cases for comparison of different surge tanks .(type 2) Chamber surge tank with symmetric orifice .investigated with specific computer software developed by Verbundplan and the results compared.

Fig: 1 Different Characteristics and Damping Effect .

The second system consists of the upper chamber and shaft. . Fig. Such asymmetric reacting throttling devices can be used in principle only with differential surge tanks. leading upward into the upper chamber. For the latter the ratio of upsurge to down surge losses varies from 1:2 about to 1:3 depending on the geometric construction.SELECTION OF A SUITABLE THROTTLING DEVICE Shaft surge tanks (type 1) and simple chamber surge tanks (type 2) usually are equipped with simple throttle blends or asymmetric orifices. (type 3). The throttling device is located at the bottom of the shaft and dramatically retards emptying of the shaft and the upper chamber. New methods were required to get this ratio up higher for economical surge tank design. 2: Surge Tank with Reverse Flow Throttle These consist of two separate hydraulic systems: The lower chamber narrows at the end to a ventilation pipe with much smaller diameter.

neglecting small (automatic) discharge adjustments by the turbine governor (closing or opening the wicket gates). In order to be able to compute the net head for all possible "incomingdischarge/ turbine-discharge" combinations. the net head for the operation of turbines is obtained. these are 20 – 50 times higher than in reverse direction (type 4). the flow in the hydraulic conveyance system can be assumed to be in steady state.The pressure is controlled by the level in the ventilation pipe which drops very fast. The so-called reverse flow throttle was developed based on an idea of Thoma. The downsurge oscillation produces a vortex flow which stabilizes within a few seconds. This change of flow direction results in very high pressure losses. overall turbine efficiency. By subtracting the tail water elevation from the computed available head. total power generation. available head. a computation sheet for the steady state calculations was established for all discharges appearing in the flow duration curve. net head. The water is forced to exit the torus through a small connection pipe rectangular to the plane of the vortex flow and is discharged into the lower chamber. . the head losses in the conveyance system must be calculated. turbine discharges. Steady Flow Calculations For normal operation conditions. The results presented in the computation sheet are then used in obtaining the duration curves for . It consists of a steel torus similar to a spiral casing of a Francis turbine (fig. 2). because as it empties suddenly and unhindered into the lower chamber. To be able to obtain the available head (which is defined as the lake level minus the total head loss) at the turbine entrance for a given discharge.

It is admitted that at the end of this period the synchronization is obtained and the units are connected to the network. all three turbines are rapidly closed. all three Francis turbines are functioning at their nominal discharge. After closure. when the water level in the surge tank reaches its minimum level.6m3/s. For the next 60s the turbines operate at 15% opening while the machines are synchronized with the network.87m3/s. Everywhere in the system the discharge is null and hydrostatic conditions prevail.LOAD CASES CONSIDERED FOR SIMULATIONS: The transient calculations have been carried out.6m3/s. all three turbines are started following the start-up procedure described in load case 2. The total discharge passing through the headrace tunnel is 59. . all three turbines are rapidly closed. The total discharge passing through the headrace tunnel is 59. namely 19. Load case 3: Combined turbine emergency closure and start-up: At the beginning of the simulation. Load case 2: Load demand during power plant start-up: At the beginning of the simulation all three turbines are stopped. The wicket gates of the units are opened to 100% in the next 17s. The three Francis turbines are started as follows: The wicket gates of the all turbines are opened 15% in 3s (This assumes that the wicket gates can be opened from 0 to 100% in 20s). After 8 seconds of normal operation. all three Francis turbines are functioning at their nominal discharge. From then on. namely 19. turbines continue to operate at constant nominal discharge which is 59. with the program SIMPIP.6m3/s. After 8 seconds of normal operation.87m3/s. for 4 principal load cases: Load case 1: Full load rejection: At the beginning of the simulation.

. The three Francis turbines are started as follows: The wicket gates of the first turbine are opened 15% in 3s (This assumes that the wicket gates can be opened from 0 to 100% in 20s). The wicket gates are closed partially to 10% opening in 1s. From then on. The wicket gates are left at 15% opening for 2s in order to let the turbine to take up speed.Load case 4: Load demand during power plant start-up: At the beginning of the simulation all three turbines are stopped. For the next 60s the turbines operate at 10% opening while the machines are synchronized with the network.87m3/s. The above start-up procedure for the next unit starts when the preceding machine is synchronized. during which the first turbine discharges is increased from 10% to 100%. and so on. Therefore during the first three seconds of the 18s period. It is admitted that at the end of this period the synchronization is obtained and the unit is connected to the network. the first turbine continues to operate at constant nominal discharge which is 19. Everywhere in the system the discharge is null and hydrostatic conditions prevail. The wicket gates of the first unit are opened to 100% in the next 18s. the wicket gates of the second unit is opened to 15%.

863 neglecting the 3rd term. β = = = = = = = = = = = Lat/bV12 H0 .At /A s 3 √11860/9.5m (11860x20.41m 11.2048 1.41/138.72m Maximum upsurge = = = Zm = = V0√ L/g .863 x 40.822m AREA OF SURGE TANK: As = = SURGE HEIGHT: Z* = = = Z* = 40. 0.112m hf / V12 16.72 35. V12 /2g 20.2/3 Po + 1/9 Po2 1-0.5 ) x (32 / 2x9.86km 3m/sec 204.822x32x204.94m .14m Ath [ 1-1.81 x 20.’.72m Po = 0.CHAPTER 11 HYDRAULIC DESIGN OFSURGE TANK: Ath ` At L V1 H0 Ath β hf V1 .137+0.5(1-K)] 133.41/1.81) 33.0047 0.94 40.40m 3m/sec 1.

822x32 .822x32)] = 0 = = 3.72 .81x6.53m Instantaneous complete loading Z m ’’ = = Zm = = Assume 50% load.54)] = 0 .86x103)] x [35.56)/(11.676 .0256 .0256 .76m .86x103/(2x9.The following down surge Zm” Zm” = = = = .0.0.56x1.1/(1+0.08 [0.L/2gφb2 VO2 [ e – 2gφ/L(2m+ b VO2)] = 0 e = 0.81x6. .478) .1.Zm / b VO2 .8222x32 .143 –3.08 – 2.14+(1.14/1.676 x 40.72 .8222x32 [0.86/2x9.0.92-0.35.0256 x 40.11.56x1.92/[(2x9.81x6.01085 x (51.174 . LOAD REJECTION L/2gφb2 VO2 .92 [turbine constant x 11.1.

00.06m.06m.22/(13. 200mm.01 13 4+0.06 x 0. Use M20 grade concrete and grade – I mild steel. Bending moment. The depth of water is to be 4m.000 litres.841 14. Tensile stress in steel σcbc j Q m overall height of tank = = = = = = = = = = = The thickness of walls and base slab are assumed to be 160mm thick.5 . 10KN/m3 100N/mm2 7N/mm2 0. Area of surge tank Dia = = 133.94 13.2m.4 8.2N/mm2 100 N/mm2 400000litres. ring tension and shear [H2/Dt] = = = [4.16)] 8. 13. Permissible direct tensile stress in concrete = Permissible stress in direct section Capacity of tank Dia Free board Density of water w. 1.STRUCTURAL DESIGN OF CIRCULAR SURGE TANK: Circular tank with fixed base for capacity 4.2 = 4.

2 3) -7.683KNm 0.2 T = 99.6m Use 20mm φ bars at 200mm c/c (As = 1571mm2) Wall thickness required from hoop stress consider is given by.5 x 4.3mm <150mm adopted Steel for bending moment: The thick required from bending moment consideration is usually very small.608[(WHO/2)] at 0.158wH2 (0. [(7. { (141.64 from top 0.683x106)/(100x0.74x103)/(100t+(13-1)x1571)} = 1.0122 wH3 at base (-0. Hence the area of steel required will be calculated.2 Max bending moment = = = Max shear = = = Max ring tension = = = -0.74x103 /100 = 1417mm2 Using 20mm φ bars spacing = = [(100x314)/1417] 221.0122x8. .06/2) 141.158x8.2 x (13.5x4.30)] 702. Steel for hoop tension Ast = 141.74 KN Acting at 2.84x1.Is : 3370 part (iv) -1967 table 14.608 x 8.5x4.22) 23.7 KN at base 0.7mm2 Ast = = Use 12mm φ bars at 130mm centers.52 m from top.

[(0.3/100)x150x1000] 450mm2 .7 KN/m (v/bjd) [(23.7 N/mm2 permissible. Check for shear stress: Max shear at base v = Max shear stress τv = = = 23.841x130)] 0. At center. top and bottom As = = Providing top and bottom As = 450mm2 Use 8mm φbars at 200c/c both at top and bottom and both ways.7x103)/(1000x0.22 N/mm2 < 1.3/100)x150x1000] 450mm2 [(0.Vertical reinforcements: Max vertical reinforcements at top = = Distributing for each face As = 225 mm2 Provide 12mmφ bars at 400mm c/c on both faces Base slab reinforcements: At junction of wall and slab provide 12mmφ at 130mm centers.

The cause of vibration may be due to bending of pipes. . “Anchor Blocks (AB)” which is concrete structures provided at the pipe joint with the ground and the intermediate portions of the pipe are supported by “Rocker Arms (RA)”. Vortex shedding occurs when the flow past an obstacle such a sphere or any other disturbing object.CHAPTER 12 PEN STOCK INTRODUCTION: A penstock is a piping system normally used in hydraulic power plant for conveying water from the reservoir to the powerhouse where the turbines are located to generate power. The height maintained between the powerhouse and the reservoir is the driving potential for the water to flow through the penstock and reaching to the turbine. In order to minimize the vibration level to the best possible extent. water hammering. When water flows through the penstock from the reservoir. This pressure is the essential cause vibration in the pipe. resulting in vortices behind the object which may induce vibration. The aim of this work is to study the effect of flow-induced vibration in a penstock by coupling the fluid flow and the solid surface through the forces exerted on the wall by fluid flow. vortex shedding. Severe vibrations may cause failure of the piping system that can cause the economic loss for the plant and in extreme cases it leads to loss of human lives. turbulence. Water hammer normally occurs during the opening or closing of valves. it induces pressure in the inside surface of the penstock pipe.

and then produces changes in the flow. structural mechanics and to some extent control systems theory. This phenomenon is called as fluid structure interaction (FSI). The simulation is carried out by using a software package ANSYS where sequentially coupled physics analysis method is used for solving FSI problems. as a result feedback between the structure and flow occurs. computational fluid dynamics.The fluid flow causes the structure to deform it. FSI involves mainly three discipline. . namely.

UNCOVERED ANCHORING BLOCKS: The impact of an exposed outdoor penstock can be further reduced if the uncovered solution for anchoring blocks is adopted.PENSTOCKS Penstocks can be installed over or under the ground. because of the smaller visual impact and possible movement barri ers for animals. Nevertheless the burying of penstocks could have major geological risks connected with the stability of steep slopes traversed by pipes. depending on factors such as the nature of the ground itself. In fact during operation water leakage from an interred penstock could trig ger landslides much more easily than an exposed one. the use of plastic pipes (glass reinforced plastic or HDPE) is advisable. so that an interred penstock requires practically no maintenance for decades and on the other hand the result for the environment and especially for the landscape is excellent. This solution reduces the visual impact and allows for the inspection of the whole pipe resulting in higher construction and operation reliability. That means that the penstock is not covered with concrete at the anchoring blocks but is connected to them by steel beams. The following measures help to reduce the environmental impact of penstocks: PENSTOCK INTERMENT: Penstock interment should take place whenever possible. . both during construction and operation. Pipe and coating technologies have reached a very good reliability level. Interred penstocks should be generally preferred to exposed ones. the ambient temperatures and the environmental requirements. with eddy currents in the ground and to reduce maintenance. the penstock mate rial. However to avoid problems connected with steel pipe corrosion.

Where maintenance and emergency shutdown can be satisfied with the intake shutoff. the requirement for powerhouse valves can seldom be justified. construction without expansion joints is preferable because it doesn’t require any maintenance or any associated access tracks or roads to the penstock with the consequent reduction of environmental impact. PENSTOCKS WITHOUT EXPANSION JOINTS: Where a penstock cannot be interred for some reason. and increase leakage losses. The factors include but are not limited to the following: a. operable under emergency conditions. Maintenance and emergency shutdown requirements will usually justify a powerhouse shutoff when the penstock is several hundred feet long. Type of shutoff at the penstock intake: A quick closing shutoff at the penstock intake. . may be an alternative to a shutoff at the powerhouse.Schematic diagram of water flow through the penstock. increase the time required to unwater the unit. Length of penstock: A long section of penstock downstream of the shutoff will increase the time required to shut the unit down during an emergency closure. b.

then attached to bearing plates. The factors considered and basis of determination should be included in the mechanical design memorandum. deterioration of the seal with time should be considered when determining the effects of leakage. Type of wicket gate seal: A tight seal reduces leakage losses. are constructed by welding steel plate rings to penstocks. Inspection of ring girders should also include the condition of the . emergency operations. which are used to support long span elevated penstocks. Generally. maintenance requirements alone will justify powerhouse shutoff valves for multiple unit penstocks. However. PENSTOCK SUPPORTS: Ring Girders Ring girders. The bearing plates are attached to a concrete foundation. d. The potential for premature coating failure is greater at ring girders than at adjacent smooth penstock surfaces because ring girder surfaces are irregular. All loads are transferred from the penstock to the ring girder and support legs. e. Multiple units per penstock: Operational and maintenance flexibility will normally require a separate shutoff valve for each unit. Ring girders should be visually inspected for signs of deterioration and distortion. and costs. which in turn will reduce the leakage. Evaluation of the factors should consider their effects on maintenance. Head: A shutoff valve near the unit will reduce the effective head on the unit.coatings. . The support legs are welded to the ring girder.c.

Saddle Supports Saddle supported penstocks typically span shorter distances between supports than ring girder supported penstocks discussed above. Clean. Sheet packing that may be lubricated with graphite can be used as a cushion between the saddle support and the penstock. Saddles are usually constructed from reinforced concrete and support the lower 120-degree arc at the penstock invert. Saddle support inspection should include a coating inspection and inspection for signs of deterioration and high stress areas similar to ring girders. -Rocker. However. and low friction slide bearings are commonly used for ring girder support. This movement is usually accommodated in bearings located under the support legs. well maintained bearings will help minimize forces in the penstock and anchorages. The sheet packing also permits limited movement of the penstock relative to the support as a result of temperature changes. the penstock shell at saddle supports is stiffened by welding steel rings to the shell at each side of the saddle support. They should be clean and well maintained to allow full penstock movement throughout the full range of design temperatures. saddle supports may also be fabricated from rolled steel plate. ring girder supports must allow penstock movement caused by changes in temperature. If required.Often. Localized buckling or distortion can occur at the penstock's upper contact points with a saddle support. The bearings should be inspected to verify theirintegrity. Stress concentrations occur at the tip of the saddle where "horn stresses" result in the penstock shell becoming unsupported. roller. .

unrestrained joints are not working if any water is leaking past the seal or if the joint is seized. but important. scrape marks or unpainted surfaces may be visible where the pipe has moved in relation to the follower ring. the condition of the concrete saddles should be noted and investigated for any signs of settlement or concrete deterioration. Anchor/Thrust Blocks Anchor/thrust blocks are designed to provide restraint to exposed penstocks at changes in alignment. .In addition. In unrestrained joints. cracked welds. Look for leakage. because significant corrosion may be occurring in the contact area. loose or missing bolts. TYPES OF JOINTS: Unrestrained Joints (Expansion Joints and Bolted Sleeve-Type Couplings) Unrestrained joints include expansion joints and bolted sleeve-type couplings. Thrust blocks should be examined for signs of settlement and movement and for any cracking or spalling of concrete. base metal flaws. Inspection of the surfaces between the saddle and the shell is difficult. Typically. They should be assessed to verify their support function has not been compromised. and heavily corroded areas.

The base metal may also be corroded to the extent that rivets can pull through and be ineffective. ii. examine the rivet head. As a result. Riveted Joints In riveted joints. and various rubber-gasketed joints. plate. i. The welding process used in forge-welded penstocks. 5). . and flaws in the original construction can affect the condition of structural welds. Corrosion. in which the steel is heated to about 2000 EF. forged welds. butt straps. such as lack of fusion and slag. broken. bolts. erosion. if forge-welded joints are not well protected. or may have corroded or abraded heads. corrosion may occur faster in the joints than in the base metal. and caulked edge conditions (fig. may be prevalent. which makes the steel more susceptible to corrosion. Forge-Welded Joints Experience with forge-welded joints has not been good. Several methods used to attach these types of connections include rivets.Restrained or Fixed Joints Some basic types of restrained joints include lap welds. and rivets in the penstock. Look for leakage past the rivets or the edges of the bands. and arc-welds. Flaws and other fabrication defects. produces a loss of carbon. Rivets may be missing. flanges. butt welds. butt strap.

iii. or other structural defects. For welded joints. these problems are more likely to occur as the plate becomes thicker or when the joint is made under adverse construction conditions. improper preheat. pitting. . and improper rate of cooling after welding. surface flaws. Welded Joints A representative portion of all structural welding performed on the inside and outside of the penstock is visually examined for signs of rusting. Flaws in welds during construction can occur from high carbon content of the base material. etc. embrittlement of the heat affected zone. look for cracked base metal or welds. Typically.

6m = = 59.1 ) x ( L / 1000) Substitute in feet = 0.34 x ( V1.87 m2 .87 cumec 1020.2 feet 1.9 / 12.45 H-0.34 ( 18. for single Full supply level at fore bay Lowest elevation of penstock Length of penstock (approximately) Dia of penstock D1 = = = = = = Velocity through penstock Area of penstock Head loss through penstock HL = 0.HYDRAULIC DESIGN OF PENSTOCK Design discharge for penstock pipe ( 10% over design discharge ) = .’.211.12 Q0.72m 5.00 300m 1.5 m/Sec 10.12 3.1 ) x ( 984 / 1000 ) = = 5.60 cumec 19.9 / D1.041.00 810.

Specific weight of water. Vo = velocity of flow in tunnel corresponding to maximum study flow.5 x 6.5 φ)) ]} Where.56 / ( 4 x 20.56 ) x { 1 + 133. C = [ ( g / w) / ( 1/ Ew ) + D / E.942 x 6.75MN/m2 in upstream side.56 ))}] = 4.16 x 3 / 9.56 Net cross section or of surge tank Area of the orifice ( or ) port = 20. Consider C is a thin pipe the thick of which is small as compared to its diameter. upstream of surge tank. Dia of Head race tunnel.422) – 3 / ( 930.5 φ) x [ 1 + As2 φ /( 4 Ao2 ) – Vo / C x ( 1/ ( 1 + 0.5 x 6. .42m2 ( 930.16 ) x ( 1 / ( 1 + 0. Young’s modulus of elasticity of water.81 m2 / Sec).e] ½ Where g w Ew D = = = = acceleration due to gravity ( 9.81) x [ 1/( 1 + 0. φ As Ao Ph = = = = Ratio of surge tank to that of conduit = As/At = 6.WATER HAMMER PRESSURE Ph = ( C V0 / g ) x { 1 / ( 1+ 0.

5 + 4.5 TO FIND THE PRESSURE P: The internal pressure P is due to Static head + Dynamic head P = = = = = Static Head + Dynamic Head Ps + Ph γh + Ph 9.16m/Sec = 204.3.81 x 204.6 in IS 7396 ( part – 1 ) 1985 Yo Interpolation: C = 883 + ( 1000 – 883 ) / ( 300 – 140 ) x ( 204.5.761 N/mm2 .5 – 140 ) C = 930.E e = = Young’s modulus of elasticity of the conduit wall ( steel ) 0.755x103 6.92 ( constitutional joint efficiency ) Propagation of pressure wave: From clause 5.

7564 .’.1985 m3 M/Z 17. M Moment of inertia I = = = Y Z = = = .’.62 kN/m Wl2/8 2.’.63 N/mm2 .369 m4 1.86 m I/Y 0.722/4 106.’.3. Maximum moment at center = = M/Z 9.724 )/( 7 x 64 ) 0.5x106 Nm 22 x (3. Assume allowable stress f1 = 17.LONGITUTINAL STRESS DUE TO BEAM ACTION: f Weight of water = = = . f = = 3.63 N/mm2 .45x106 Nm Add 15% Extra moment due to self weight = .998x106 Nm 0.81 x 22/7 x 3.

0014 mm But we provide 18 mm thick steel pipe Hence The Design Is Safe LONGITUDINAL STRESS: Longitudinal Stress = = half of the hoop stress 8.CIRCUMFERENTIAL STRESS: Circumferential Stress .8 N/mm2 Sx2 + Sy2 + 2 Sx Sy 26. t f1 = = = Pd/2t f1 x 2 / P x d 0.24 N/mm2 .815 N/mm2 CHECK: Longitudinal Stress Circumferential Stress = f1 Max Shear Stress = q Sx Sx Sy Se Se = = = = = = = = 8.44 N/mm2 .’.63 N/mm2 800 N (f1 + f2)/2 + (f1 + f2)2/2 +q2 813.786.815 N/mm2 17.

048 N/mm2 Hence The Design In Safe In Stress DIAMETER OF BRANCH PIPE Y junction is required to be provided at the end of the Penstock for more then one unit.8 7.82 m internal Dia Penstock of 18 mm thick having Outer Dia of 2. The area required for each unit = Dia of Pensock D2 = = 3. The present case having three units.62 m2 D1/20. Area provided = 6.8 8.81 x 0.62 m2 Hence the Design Is Safe .4 2.856 m.For exceptional condition Se ≥ ≥ 26.24 m2 > 3.82 m Provide 2.44 N/mm2 ≥ Maximum Longitudinal stress x 0.

LINER THICKNESS: . Thickness of steel liner as per Clause 8.53cm .2 in IS11639 (part 1) – 1986 t = = = (D + 50)/ 800 (372+50)/800 0.’.

ensures base-load supply. Most of the power plant projects currently being designed and built are based on more than 20-year-old studies. The technical. comprises an important component of the diversifications of energy resources. in contrast to wind energy. economic and ecological boundary conditions have changed significantly when one takes into account the globalization of the energy market. • Evaluation of ecologically justifiable development potential in existing plants that is of interest with regard to energy production Evaluation of ecologically justifiable development potential in undeveloped river stretches that is of interest with regard to energy production. On account of the worldwide growing energy demand renewable energy sources play an increasingly important role. Energy generated from hydropower which. New studies on the erection of new hydropower projects are needed. That is why it is necessary to elaborate power plant studies which address these changed conditions in order to achieve the best possible efficiency and effectiveness when implementing new hydropower projects. .SUMMARY AND OUTLOOK: Essential results of the study are: • Evaluation and assessment of the existing small-scale hydropower plants. The interdisciplinary study of existing energy resources permits ecologically sustainable resources to be systematically developed in future in order to join the worldwide efforts for environmentally friendly and sustainable construction.