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PE 5662 Teknologi Manufaktur Lanjut (Advanced Manufacturing Technology


BAB : Abrasive Processes

Abrasive machining
A material removal process that involves the use of abrasive cutting tools

The concept of undefined cutting edge in abrasive machining

or contained in a semisoft binder (buffing). • free abrasives: abrasive grains are not bonded or glued. Coated abrasives are available in sheets.Principle types of abrasive cutting tools: • bonded abrasive tools: abrasive grains are closely packed into different shapes the most common is the abrasive wheel. paper or resin backing. Instead. they are introduced either in oil-based fluids (lapping. wheel Grains are held together by bonding material. abrasive wire cutting. or in water (abrasive water jet cutting) or air (abrasive jet machining). Abrasive machining process that use bonded abrasives include grinding. shapes. honing. • coated abrasive tools: abrasive grains are glued onto a flexible cloth. endless belts. . Processes include abrasive belt grinding. ultrasonic machining). GRINDING A material removal process in which abrasive particles arc contained in a bonded grinding wheel that operates at very high surface speeds. rolls. superfinishing.

CSA: CSA = crossfeed×infeed = wd . and N is the rotational speed of the grinding wheel Depth of cut d is called infeed and is defined as the distance between the machined and work surfaces The crossfeed is actually the width of cut w.Cutting conditions in grinding The geometry of surface grinding showing the cutting conditions The cutting velocity V in grinding is very high V = πDN where d is the wheel diameter. The crossfeed multiplied lti li d b by i infeed f dd determines t i th the cross-sectional ti l area of f cut.

is defined by mrr = VwCSA Wheel Wear Three mechanisms are recognized as the principal causes of wear in grinding wheels: Grain fracture. Attritious wear Bond fracture .The workpart moves past the wheel at a certain linear or rotational t ti l velocity l it called ll d a feed f d Vw. The material removal rate. mrr.

Attritious wear involves dulling of the individual grains. Bond fracture usually occurs because the grain has become dull due to attritious wear and the resulting cutting force is excessive. . Structure: more dense structure of the grinding will.e.. resulting in flat spots and rounded edges. Attritious wear is analogous to tool wear in a conventional cutting tool. Abrasive grain size: smaller grit size will produce lower surface roughness.Grain fracture occurs when a portion of the grain breaks off but the rest of the grain remains bonded in the wheel. more abrasive grains per cubic millimetre will increase the number of active grains in contact with the work surface thus improving the surface finish. The edges of the fractured area become new sharp cutting edges on the grinding wheel. Surface finish Abrasive operations are performed to achieve a surface finish. Cutting velocity: The surface finish will be improved by increasing the number of abrasive grains per unit time. i. therefore by increasing the cutting speed. which cannot be achieved by conventional machining processes. Bond fracture occurs when the individual grains are pulled out of the bonding material.

Burning: if the temperature is excessive the surface may burn. The structure of a grinding wheel showing the cutting action of abrasive grains The rake angle of a single grain can be zero or positive but usually is highly negative . which is often ground in the hardened state. however. Burning produces a bluish color on steels. Residual stresses: temperature change and gradients within the workpiece are mainly responsible for residual stresses in grinding. parallel cracks may also develop. Cracks are usually perpendicular to the grinding direction. Thermal cracks: high temperatures may also lead to thermal cracking of the surface of the workpiece. under severe grinding conditions.Effects of cutting temperature The heat generated and conducted into the workpiece expands the workpart and causes dimensional errors Tempering: excessive temperatures can temper and soften the material on the surfaces. The bonding material holds the particles in place and establishes the shape and structure of the wheel. Grinding wheel A grinding wheel consists of abrasive particles and bonding material. which indicates high temperature oxidation with all the negative changes in the surface material properties.

Abrasive materials The abrasive materials of greatest commercial importance today are listed in the table: . 1. Abrasive material. Grain size. 3. Wheel grade. 2. 4.Parameters of the grinding wheel : 1. Bonding material. and Wheel structure. 5.

2. are the common bond material for diamond and CBN grinding wheels. and relatively unaffected by cutting fluids. usually bronze. Metallic bond: metal bonds. This bond is made of various thermosetting resin materials. They are often used in applications requiring a good finish. Bonding Materials The bonding material holds the abrasive grains and establishes the shape and structural integrity of the grinding wheel. Grain size Small grit sizes produce better finishes while larger grain sizes permit larger material removal rates 3. They are strong and rigid. Bonding g materials: Vitrified bond: vitrified bonding material consists chiefly of ceramic materials. rubber bond: rubber is the most flexible of the bonding materials. p . Diamond and CBN abrasive grains are bond material to only the outside periphery of the wheel . They have very high strength and are used for rough g grinding g g and cutoff operations. Shellac bond: shellac-bonded grinding wheels are relatively strong but not rigid. resistant to elevated temperatures.

while denser structure is used for better surface finish and dimensional precision. It is measured on a scale that ranges from open to dense. o Harder grades are preferred for high productivity and grinding of relatively soft materials. o Open structure means more pores and fewer grains per unit wheel volume. Structure o The wheel structure indicates spacing of the abrasive grains in the wheel. o Open structure is recommended for work materials that tend to produce continuous chips. Scale ranging from soft to hard: o Soft wheels loose grains easily and are used for low material removal rates and grinding of hard materials. and vice versa. .Wheel grade Wheel grades indicates the wheel bond strength.

065 mm in diameter Grinding Chips Schematic illustration of chip formation by an abrasive grain with a wear flat. (B) workpiece.Grinding Chips Grinding chip being produced by a single abrasive grain. The inscribed circle is 0. (C) abrasive grain Note the large negative rake angle of the grain. (A) chip. Note the negative rake angle of the grain and the small shear angle. .

i di . Surface Grinding and Plowing Schematic illustration of the surface grinding process.Grinding Wheel Surface The surface of a grinding wheel (A46-J8V) showing abrasive grains. wear flats on grains. showing various process variables. and metal chips from the workpiece adhering to the grians. wheel porosity. Magnification: 50X. Note the random distribution and shape p of abrasive g grains. Th figure The fi d depicts i t conventional ti l( (up) ) grinding.

5 m/s V = 30 m/s d = 0. v = 0.Approx.05 ⋅ 30 ⋅ 2 ⋅15 200 t = 0.006mm t= Actual : length shorter . l = D ⋅ d Approx. grinding l= D⋅d 1 − (D ) DW External cyl.05 = 3.5 0.thickness greater (plastic deformation) .05 mm D = 200 mm Solution : C = 2 per mm2 r = 15 Approx. l = D ⋅ d Surface grinding Undeformed chip thickness : l= D⋅d 1 + (D ) DW t= 4v d ⋅ V⋅C⋅r D External cyl.1 per mm2 – 10 per mm2 Chip dimension : (surface grinding) Data : Tabel slide 28. grinding D = wheel diameter d = depth of cut V = tangensial velocity (wheel moving) v = workpiece velocity l = undeformed chip length DW = Diameter of workpiece r = chip ratio w to t (average) r : 10 – 20 C = number of cutting points C : 0.2 mm t= 4v d ⋅ V⋅C⋅r D 4 ⋅ 0. l = 200 ⋅ 0.

energy by friction of sliding large wear flat .Surface Grinding and Plowing Chip formation and plowing of the workpiece surface by an abrasive grain. This action is similar to abrasive wear.without chip removal usliding = spec. Force : Re lative grain force ∝ v d ⋅ V ⋅C D Actual force = relative grain force + the strength of metal The Specific Energy (u): (Produced by grinding chip) u = uchip + uplowing + usliding uchip = specific energy by plastic deformation – chip formation uplowing = specific energy by plastic deformation .

Approximate Specific Energy Requirements for Surface Grinding Speed and Feed Ranges and Grinding Wheel Recommendations .

05⋅25⋅1524 = 1905 mm3/min Power = u⋅MRR Power = 42⋅1905/60= 1333.05 mm N = 4000 rpm v = 1524 mm/min w = 25 mm u = 42 Ws/mm3 Calculate : .FC (the force tangensial to the wheel) .Assume : Material = low carbon steel D = 254 mm d = 0.5 = (FC ) (2π)(4000) ⋅ 60  2  FC = 144 N Temperature affect surface properties Temperature rise cause residual stress Difficult to control d dimensional l accuracy Peak temperature in chip generation during grinding ≈ 1650o C M l cutting Metal i the h chips hi carry away of fh heat generated d Grinding energy (heat generated) conducted to workpiece .The thrust force .Fn (the force normal to the workpiece) Solution : MRR = dwv = 0.5 watt  254  1333.

i di Surface grinding Cylindrical grinding . Cylindrical grinding Centerless C t l grinding.Marking System for Aluminum-Oxide and Silicon-Carbide Bonded Abrasives Grinding operations The basic type of grinding: Surface grinding.

Centerless grinding Centerless grinding is a process for continuously grinding cylindrical surfaces in which the workpiece is supported not by centers or chucks but by a rest blade. The larger grinding wheel does grinding. General Recommendations for Grinding Fluids . The workpiece is ground between two wheels. which is tilted at an angle i. regulates the velocity Vf of the axial movement of the workpiece. while the smaller regulating wheel.

This is the main reason that the surface finish specified on parts should not be any finer than necessary for the part to function properly.Economics of Grinding and Finishing Operations Increase in the cost of machining and finishing a part as a function of the surface finish required. .