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Workshop "Underground Structures in Hot Climate Conditions", 8-9 December 2009, Ministry of Transport, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Repair and strengthening of underground structures

Mohsen F. Shuaib
Tech. Manager of Conclinic Arabia, Assoc. Prof. in Minofeya Univ.

Hassan H. Ibrahim
G. Manager of Shade Contracting Company

Ahmad Abbass Manager of Road Dept., Al-Naim Office

KEYWORDS: Maintenance, Repair Concepts, FRP, Decision Making ABSTRACT: In this paper, maintenance and inspection programs are presented briefly. This paper describes various methods for repairing specific deficiencies in structural elements within underground structures. Water infiltration is the most common cause of deterioration. However, deficiencies could be the result of substandard design or construction, or the result of unforeseen or changing geologic conditions in the ground that supports the tunnel. Another common reason for repairs is the fact that many tunnels have outlived their designed life expectancy and therefore the construction materials themselves are degrading. Due to the fact that there are different causes for the degradation, the method of repair could vary from one case to another. Some major structural deficiencies for underground structures are displayed. In addition, a detailed explanation of the different types of concrete deficiencies and methods for their repair is provided. Some practical case for underground structures repair are described including expansion joint leakage, and the use of advanced composite material or fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) for repair and strengthening. Finally, multi-criteria decision making tools for repair of tunnels are presented briefly. 1 INTRODUCTION

Tunnel management system plays an essential role throughout the tunnel life including : design; construction; operation; planning for maintenance, repair and rehabilitation (MR&R); optimizing the allocation of financial resources, and increasing the tunnel safety. The first US national tunnel management system (TMS) stated in 2002, while the national bridge management systems (BMS) started early at mid of the 20th century. Structural deficiencies represent the greatest danger of all potential underground structures failures for disruption of community welfare and possibility of the loss of life. Maintenance programs aim to safeguard structural integrity; and to avoid deterioration which may lead to more costly work. In this paper, maintenance and inspection programs are presented briefly. Some major structural deficiencies for underground structures are displayed including leakage of water, steel rebar corrosion, cracking of the structure and design faults. The use of advanced composite material or fiber reinforced polymer (FRP) for repair and strengthening. Multi-criteria decision making tools are presented at end of the paper.


inspection. analyzing. Maintenance Maintenance of tunnels is the scheduled work that is required to preserve the tunnel condition.TUNNEL MAITENANCE PROGRAMS The maintenance program should be designed to include prevention of deterioration and damage. and recommendation for tunnels Preventive maintenance of structures system should include: washing/cleaning. Figure 2. prompt detection of deficiencies. Effect of maintenance on structural condition of tunnels The main elements of tunnel maintenance programs are the inspection and the maintenance and Step by Step Inspection. T h e maintenance is divided to routine maintenance like sealing concrete. preventive maintenance such as filling cracks. damage inspection (emergency inspection). maintenance. and early accomplishment of maintenance and repairs to prevent interruptions of transportations or limitation/restrictions of tunnel use as presented in Figure 1 (Chinh 2004). Inspection Inspections of tunnel are classified as follows (Shuaib 2006): initial inspection. in-depth inspection. routine inspection. and major maintenance like water leakage and crack repair. Saudi Arabia 2. Ministry of Transport. Riyadh. 8-9 December 2009. and special Inspection. and testing of the following elements (Shuaib 2006a): Tunnel lining structures 164 Tunnel finishers /claddings .Workshop "Underground Structures in Hot Climate Conditions". Step by Step Inspection. and recommendation for tunnels is shown in Figure 2 (ITA 1991). analyzing. Figure 1.

Deterioration in tunnels may be caused by any of the various factors listed below (US-DOT 2004). Figure 3. a repair analysis will need to account for the replacement or repair of the finish as well. Saudi Arabia Ventilation tunnel emergency way Anchors and mechanical supporting Drainage system in tunnel Roadway structures in road tunnel Structural system of railway Preventive maintenance of equipment systems in tunnels are subdivided into mechanical system and electrical system. in order to select the best repair method. Ministry of Transport. These defects must first be evaluated to determine the cause and the severity of the deterioration. Reporting. 4 CAUSES OF TUNNEL DEGRADATION This section outlines major causes of deficiencies in structural elements within a tunnel. Loss of support due to erosion Seismic load and shape distortion Ingress of dissolved gases Steep fill slopes above tunnels Changing of geologic conditions Poor Workmanship Deterioration of mortar Degradation in concrete strength Longitudinal loads on tunnels Chemical action on lining Damage to surface finishes Clogging drainage due to fines Cracks in track/road slab Inclined tension cracks at the base Differential movement at crown Damage in repair system Some defects in tunnels are presented in in Figures 3. Many concrete linings in highway tunnels have an additional tunnel finish which may hide the extent of the deterioration. Inspection and Condition Assessment. Report Distribution and Archiving. which may be categorized in the following different tasks which may occur during routine inspection works (US-DOT 2005). Riyadh. Water leakage in tunnels and underground structures 165 . and 5 (Conclinic 2007). The preventive maintenance of these systems must be complied with specialist rules and manufactures suggested preventive maintenance procedures. 4. 3 TUNNEL INSPECTION PROGRAM Tunnel inspection program is a multi stage process. Water Infiltration Cracked and separated joints Lack of tightness Design or construction mistakes Corrosion of embedded metals Thermal loads Effects Longitudinal spreading of foundations Longitudinal differential settlement Swelling soil and invert damage Spall of tunnel crown joints. 8-9 December 2009. Therefore. • • • • Inspection Management.Workshop "Underground Structures in Hot Climate Conditions".

capable of being performed quickly during non-operating hours. Most tunnels are designed with drainage mechanisms around the exterior of the lining or embedded within the joints. Repair of defect in a tunnel could be divided in the following steps (ACI 224. otherwise the same problem may repeat itself.1 REPAIR FOR WATER INFLITERATION 5. and cost-effective.1. The cause of the defect should be determined before and remedial works. Repair priority definitions may be classified as follows (Chinh 2004). Factors affecting the repair method are the deterioration severity. easy to install. and deterioration of the Preparation of drawing and specification Selection of a contractor Execution of the work Quality control and acceptance waterproof lining. Ministry of Transport. Riyadh. 8-9 December 2009. As ground water flow patterns change over time a due to the 166 . and the structural impact of the defect. Concrete deterioration due to carbonation. The applied repair methods must be durable.Workshop "Underground Structures in Hot Climate Conditions". and sulfate attack Figure 5.1R 2007): Evaluation of damage/defect Relating observation to causes Selecting appropriate methods and materials 5.1 Cause of Water Infiltration Water infiltration is the main cause of deterioration of the tunnel structure. Saudi Arabia Figure 4. Tunnels can develop leaks due to inadequate connection/joint design. alkali-aggregate reaction. REPAIR CONCEPTS OF TUNNELS Method of repair could vary due to the fact that there are different causes for the degradation. substandard construction. Longitudinal cracks in tunnels and underground structures 5. Critical: if it requires “immediate” action Priority: when interim or long-term repairs should be undertaken on a priority basis Routine: for that can be undertaken as part of a scheduled maintenance program.

drains become clogged with sediment.1. is subjected to hydrostatic forces that it is unable to resist and subsequently water infiltration becomes a problem. 5. cause of water infiltration. Short term repair of water infiltration Repair of Water Infiltration Water infiltration repair must be investigated in the following zones (US-DOT 2005) : The surrounding ground Interface between ground and lining Tunnel Lining Structures The lining intrados Internal useful spaces of the tunnel Remedial works for water infiltration inside tunnels could be a short term solution. These factors are: site specific. To determine the most cost efficient method of repair for a particular situation.2.1 Short Term Repair This is a temporary or permanent solution by redirecting the infiltrated water to the drainage system until further investigation can be performed and a more long term solution implemented. 5. Another scenario is that a tunnel which was designed to be above the water table. This includes drainage toughs and using pipe network as shown in Figure 6 (Chinh 2004).Workshop "Underground Structures in Hot Climate Conditions". and water volume. a long term solution and partial or full replacement of the tunnel lining. Riyadh. Insulated panels Waterproofing membrane Crack/joint injection Soil/rock grouting (back-wall grouting) Crack/joint repair (ACI 503.7 2007) Segmental joint repair 167 . a specific cost analysis should be performed that considers the costs over the life of the tunnel (ITA 1991). Figure 6. Saudi Arabia accumulating effects of basements of surrounding buildings. Some of the long term repair methods are given below as shown in Figure 7 (Conclinic 2007). 8-9 December 2009.2 Long Term Repair Many factors are involved in determining which long-term method should be used. amount of water leakage. Ministry of Transport. the water is bound to find its way into the tunnel through joints or structural cracks. and exact location of the leak. A detailed study should be performed on major leaks to determine source.

In addition.3 Structural Replacement Lining reconstruction has advanced to a point where repairing numerous localized areas of the liner becomes cost prohibitive. using an exterior drainage system in a tunnel below the ground water elevation is normally not effective over the long term because of the ability for water to penetrate very small cracks that develop between drains. Shotcrete . PU) Surface treatment system (cementitious) Surface filling systems (Polymer cementitious) 168 . Some of the available systems for extensive lining reconstruction are mentioned below as shown in Figure 8 (Watson 2003) and (Conclinic 2007). and joint control by re-injection system 5. Saudi Arabia Figure 7. Riyadh.4 Joint Leakage Repair Existing Repair systems for water leakage repair includes the following items: (1) Types of Repair Materials Water-based epoxy Poly Urethane grout Cementit ious grout Acrylic grout Combined cementitious polymer grout (2) Types of Repair Methods Injection system (Epoxy.2.Workshop "Underground Structures in Hot Climate Conditions". Long-term repair of water infiltration by waterproofing. Ministry of Transport.1.1. Reconstruction could include shotcrete or pumping plasticized concrete within a form liner. and injection methods 5.2. 8-9 December 2009. Shotcrete applications Joint control Water tight concrete Figure 8.

Riyadh. proper repairs shall help to avoid further degradation of the structure. cement) Polyurethane fume has failed as injection material for case of sea water or high sulfate salts in the ground water (Kang et al. Saudi Arabia (3) Problems of Repair Systems Low adhesion to the wet surface (epoxy. slag. and polymer mortar) Rebar surface block (Coatings using fusion bonded epoxy and zinc coating) Cathodic Protection . thermal effects. 8-9 December 2009.Impressed Current Method Corrosion protection of concrete Cathodic protection by sacrificial anode method consists of the following items (Conclinic 2007) as shown in Figure 10. 6. and silica fume) Material improvement (Inhibitor using anoding or cathodic protection) Concrete surface block (Painting. while acrylic grout is a durable leakage repair system as shown in Figure 9 (Conclinic 2007). Figure 9. lining. sheet coating. Failure of polyurethane and success of acrylic for leakage repair system 6. CONCRETE REPAIR OF TUNNELS Concrete deterioration in tunnels and concrete lining may be caused by various factors including: water Infiltration. loading conditions. As concrete deteriorates. Design improvement (increase of cover thickness) Material improvement (permeability using fly ash. and poor workmanship. 2008). corrosion from embedded metal. Ministry of Transport.1R 2007).Sacrificial Anode Method (No impressed current.Workshop "Underground Structures in Hot Climate Conditions".1 Corrosion Protection of Concrete Concrete protection could be satisfied through construction areas and electrochemical/cathodic areas as shown below (ACI 224.: Zinc mesh is used as a sacrificial anode Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) jacket for structure rehabilitation Conductive mortar is used as a electrolyte solution Corrosion sensors is used as a corrosion potential monitoring 169 . urethane) Improper hardening in a wet condition Water absorption (Urethane) Lack of movement of the substrate cracks by thermal change and vehicles (epoxy. low initial cost and reliable) .

2 Repair of shallow spall with reinforcement steel exposed is as follows (Newman 2001). Ministry of Transport. sealant. and packing 6. 8-9 December 2009. condition of crack Condition of concrete area need to repair Required target Figure 11. Removal of loose or deteriorated surfaces Clean the concrete surface Sawcut on a 20-degree angle around the spalled area Placing polymer repair mortar to original concrete depth 6.2 Crack Repair of Concrete Concrete and reinforced concrete lining crack repair is classified (US-DOT 2004) as shown in Figure 11 (Conclinic 2007): Injection/grouting techniques Routing and sealing techniques Packing techniques The selection of techniques or any combination is based on: Dimension. 170 .3. Concrete crack repair by injection.Workshop "Underground Structures in Hot Climate Conditions". Shallow spall with no reinforcement steel exposed Shallow spall with reinforcement steel exposed Deep Spall with reinforcement steel exposed 6.3.3 Spall Repair of Concrete Concrete and reinforced concrete lining crack repair is classified as shown in Figure 12 (Conclinic 2007) and (Newman 2001). Riyadh. Saudi Arabia Figure 10.1 Repair of shallow spall with no reinforcement exposed is given below (Emmons 1994). Corrosion protection of concrete by sacrificial anode 6.

Removal of loose or deteriorated surfaces Clean the concrete surface and the exposed steel rebar Sawcut on a 20-degree angle around the spalled area Coating rebars with anticorrosion agent compatible with the repair mortar Placing polymer repair mortar to original concrete depth Applying shotcrete with additional welded wire fabric mesh WWF. 2001). Ministry of Transport. 8-9 December 2009. Repair of shallow spall with reinforcement steel exposed 6.3.4 Seismic Strengthening of Tunnels Tunnels were considered the safest structures under earthquake loads.3 Repair of deep spall with reinforcement steel exposed is as given below (Chinh 2004).Workshop "Underground Structures in Hot Climate Conditions". the recent studies have established that some damages have been observed in different tunnels and underground structures during and after ground shaking []. Saudi Arabia Removal of loose or deteriorated surfaces Clean the concrete surface and the exposed steel rebar Sawcut on a 20-degree angle around the spalled area Coating rebars with anticorrosion agent compatible with the repair mortar Placing polymer repair mortar to original concrete depth Applying protective coat to the surface Figure 12. Deformation modes and behavior of circular and non-circular tunnels during earthquake are presented in Figure 13 (Hashash et al. 6. 171 . Riyadh.

Definition of the seismic environment and parameters 2. 8-9 December 2009. The application of theses material is shown in Figure 14 (Conclinic 2007). Saudi Arabia Figure 13. Carbon and glass reinforced polymer (CFRP) and (GFRP) are used for such purposes for its high tensile strength with light weight. Evaluation of ground response to shaking 3. 1. Ministry of Transport.Workshop "Underground Structures in Hot Climate Conditions". 172 . 2006). Riyadh. Behavior of tunnels during earthquake Seismic response of underground structures consists of three major steps as follows (El-Nahass et al. Assessment of structure behavior due to seismic loads Application of advanced composite material can help in strengthening and retrofit of tunnels for seismic resistance upgrade.

a2N . Decision matrix model 173 . AMN Figure 15. values.Workshop "Underground Structures in Hot Climate Conditions". ………………. CN ( w1 w2 ……………wN) Alternatives ______________________________ a11 a12 ………………. Ministry of Transport. DECISION MAKING IN REPAIR Tunnel management system (BMS) should provide a Decision Support System (DSS) which helps in decision making for repair and rehabilitation of tunnels. . Decision making is the study of identifying and choosing alternatives based on the values and preferences of the decision making to choose the one that best fits with our goals. a1N A1 A2 a21 a22 ………………. Saudi Arabia Figure 14. 8-9 December 2009. . Application of fiber reinforced polymer for strengthening of culverts 7. objectives. desires. Establish goals Identify alternatives Define criteria Assign decision matrix Establish priority score matrix Select a decision making tool Preference ranking of alternatives Sensitivity analysis Final recommendation 7. Riyadh. AM aM1 aM2 ………………. General decision making process is as follows (Shuaib 2009).1 Decision Matrix Decision matrix combines both alternatives and criteria in one matrix to transfer the problem from practical field to mathematical field as shown in Figure 15 (Shuaib 2009). Criteria C1 C2 ………………. and so on. .

repair using: Carbon Fiber Reinforced Polymer (CFRP). (wj) is the weight and importance of each criterion. (Ai) is the alternatives. Ministry of Transport. Scheduled maintenance of tunnels is required to preserve the tunnel condition. (j) = 1. ( i) = 1.2.…elct. Each column of the priority decision matrix should satisfy (Eq. where (N) is the total number of criteria. the consultant office and public community representatives where .0 j=1 (1) (aij) is a measure or score of performance for each alternative subjected to each criteria. (I).2. 8-9 December 2009.2 Priority Score Matrix Each criterion has a different unit for measuring of (aij) such as US $. Riyadh. Water infiltration and water leakage represent the major reasons for deterioration of tunnels.3… M (4) 8.…… N. ease of construction. This measure could be a quantitative type or a qualitative type. traffic detouring cost. the analytical hierarchy process (AHP). Fiber Reinforced Polymer (FRP).3.2. 2 ) (Shuaib 2009). such as. Qualitative types should be transformed to an estimated quantity to handle decision making mathematically. Degradation of new tunnels starts from the first day of service of tunnels. (Cj) is the criterion on which a comparison is to be held between different alternatives such as. M and (M) is the total number of alternatives. N ∑ w j = 1.Weighted Sum Method (WSM) N Pi = ∑ (b ij ) * wj j=1 for i= 1. maintenance cost. the weighted product method (WPM). The decision matrix should be formalized by normalization of each column of the matrix to find the modified scores (bij) and to produce the dimensionless priority score matrix. 174 . which is estimated by the decision maker group such as: the owner.Weighted Products Method (WPM) Pi = ∏ (100*b ij )wj j=1 N for i= 1.3… M (3) (II). Decision making in repair and strengthening of tunnels is complicated issue but it could be modeled mathematically to use multi criteria decision methods for choosing the most preferable alternative for repair of tunnels and underground structures.…. CONCLUSION Tunnel management systems should be established carefully to increase the service life of tunnels. adding steel plate and replacement of the tunnel or part of it. Efficient drainage system and waterproof of the tunnel shall reserve tunnels. future flexibility and aesthetic appearance.2. day. construction duration. The use of fiber reinforced material can help efficiently in strengthening and seismic upgrade of tunnels us. Regular repair of concrete and concrete lining are very essential for tunnels. construction cost. and technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution (TOPSIS) (Shuaib 2009). Saudi Arabia where.3 Decision Making Methods There are several decision making methods such as: the weighted sum method (WSM). Corrosion protection and corrosion protection system could retard deterioration of concrete in underground structures. Adding concrete element.3. the ELECTRE method.Workshop "Underground Structures in Hot Climate Conditions". M ∑ (bij ) = 1.0 i=1 (2) 7. 7.

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