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CL 251: Chemical Engineering Lab I Experiment-01 Viscosity By Stokes Law

Abstract:The purpose of this experiment is to determine the value of viscosity, Reynolds number of castor oil, SAE-40 oil and SAE-90 oil at room temperature by using stokes law. This was performed by using balls of different diameter, different density oils and stop watch. The measured viscosity of castor oil, SAE-60 oil and SAE-90 oil is 8.31 poise, 3.04 poise and 2.65 poise respectively. Viscosity of all oils was found to be less than their actual values probably due to human errors and temperature differences. Introduction:When solid object moves through a fluid, a resistive force is exerted by the fluid. Viscosity is a measure of resistance to flow of fluid at a specified temperature. Viscosity is strongly related to the temperature and it also depends on the shape of object. Viscosity occurs due to friction between the adjacent layers of the fluid that are moving at different velocity. The liquid offers a resistive force to the moving solid object in it. This force is known as a drag force. Sheer stress is a cause of drag force that is exerted in the boundary layers adjacent to the object surface. Drag force direction is always against the motion. Drag force is given by Stokes law. Stokes law is valid only for spherical object. Fd= 6Πµrν.

Fd = drag force µ= Viscosity coefficient r = Radius of sphere ν = Terminal Velocity of sphere There is another force acts on the object in upward direction that is exerted by fluid. This force is known as a buoyancy force. Fb = (4*ρf *g*Π*r3) ÷ 3 Fb = Buoyancy force ρf = Density of fluid r= Radius of sphere g= Gravitational acceleration As fluid moves in downward direction drag force and buoyancy force acts in upward direction and weight of object in downward direction. Fw =( 4*ρp*g*Π* r3) ÷ 3 ρp = Density of sphere object When the net force is zero on object, then object attains a terminal velocity, so upward force is equal to the downward force. Fw = Fb + Fd.

( 4*ρp*g* Π* r3) ÷ 3 = (4*ρf*g*Π *r3) ÷ (3 + 6*Π*µ*r*ν.) By solving last equation µ = (2 *(ρp - ρf)* gr2) ÷ (9v) NRe = (2r*ν*ρf ) ÷ (µ) NRe = Particle Reynolds Number Reynolds number is a dimensionless quantity and it is a measure of ratio of inertial forces to viscous forces and value of Reynolds number refers the type of flow. Stokes law is valid only when some of the following assumptions are taken into consideration:1. Laminar Flow 2. Spherical Object 3. Homogeneous Material In laminar flow there is no disruption between the adjacent layers and fluid flows in parallel layers. In turbulence fluid motion, the resistance result from velocity fluctuation of the fluid is the cause of energy loss. The loss in energy due to turbulence motion is due to surface drag. Procedure:For measuring viscosity, density of fluid and dimension of ball is required and since it is known, velocity only needs to be measured, as it is required to calculate the viscosity. Velocity can be measured by measuring the time taken by ball to travel a specific

distance, marked by the person carrying out the experiment. While dropping the ball in the fluid column make sure that the ball do not touch the walls of the column. When the ball crosses one of the mark timer is started till it reaches the next mark. There are three such intervals for which reading is taken, and average of the readings is taken for calculation. Same procedure is carried out for other two balls of different diameter.

Result:Average viscosity of Castor oil by stokes law Average viscosity of SAE-40 oil by stokes law Average viscosity of SAE-90 oil by stokes law 8.31 (poise) 3.04 (poise) 2.65 (poise)

Obtain value of average Viscosity of Castor oil, SAE-40 oil and SAE-90 oil are 8.3113.04 and 2.65 respectively. In tables, it can be seen that Reynolds number varies with different diameter of ball to ball, because small change in shape can result in large change in Reynolds number. In tables, column 5 gives the value of terminal velocity that varies with shape of particle and fluid. The expected values of viscosity of Castor oil and SAE-40 oil are 9.5-10.20 (poise) and 2.5-5.0 (poise) respectively. Difference between practical value and expected value is because of human error and temperature difference. Discussion & Conclusion:Viscosity of all three oil is greater than water (0.01 poise) and less than honey (100 poise). All three oils are very useful in lubricant system because of their high viscosity.

Compared to other two, Castor oil has strongest intermolecular force and is thicker fluid among all three of them due to higher viscosity of it. Our analysis was based on the assumption that internal drag was negligible, which is valid only when Reynolds number is less than 1.9. Reynolds number can also be measured by using the value of viscosity. Laminar flow occurs for low Reynolds number and turbulent flow occurs for high Reynolds number. Moreover analysis of sheer stress can also be done. Sheer stress arises from parallel component of force vector on fluid that is strongly related to viscosity of fluid. Viscosity of oil affects their influence melting point, density, heat of combustion and lubricity. Viscosity is an important parameter in oil lubricant system. Viscosity of oil also plays a major role in moving parts of the vehicle. Appendix:Time measurement between two marks is an important parameter of this experiment. There is a probability of human error in measure time between two marks by stop watch that can be reduce by using of arduino based time sensor.

1. CASTOR OIL Density of liquid = 0.96 (gram/cm3) Density of steel ball = 7.8(gram/cm3) Table 1:- Data of Castor oil Obis No. Diameter of (mm) ball Distance between two marks (Cms) Time travel Between two marks (Sec) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.97 3.97 3.97 3.97 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 25.4 25.5 25.4 25.6 10.6 10.5 10.6 10.6 4.4 4.6 4.5 4.4 1.181 1.176 1.181 1.171 2.830 2.857 2.830 2.830 6.818 6.521 6.666 6.818 7.97 8.00 7.97 8.03 8.22 8.14 8.22 8.22 8.60 8.99 8.80 8.60 0.34 0.22 0.34 0.22 0.81 0.84 0.81 0.81 3.02 2.75 2.80 2.99 Ultimate settling velocity (Cms/Sec) Viscosity of fluid (Poise) Particle Reynolds number

2. SAE-40 OIL Density of SAE-40 OIL= 0.86 (gram/cm3) Density of steel ball = 7.8 (gram/cm3) Table 2:- Data of SAE-40 oil Obs No. Diameter of (mm) ball Distance between two marks (Cms) Time travel Between two marks (Sec) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.97 3.97 3.97 3.97 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 8.8 8.9 8.9 9.01 3.7 3.8 3.8 3.8 1.7 1.8 1.6 1.6 3.409 3.370 3.370 3.329 8.108 7.894 7.894 7.894 17.64 16.66 18.75 18.75 2.80 2.83 2.83 2.86 2.91 2.99 2.99 2.99 3.37 3.57 3.17 3.17 1.66 1.62 1.62 1.59 5.99 5.67 5.67 5.67 17.87 15.93 20.19 15.93 Ultimate settling velocity (Cms/Sec) Viscosity of fluid (Poise) Particle Reynolds number

3. SAE-90 OIL Density of SAE-90 OIL= 0.87(gram/cm3)

Density of steel ball = 7.8 (gram/cm3) Table 3:- Data of SAE-90 oil Obs No. Diameter of (mm) ball Distance between two marks (Cms) Time travel Between two marks (Sec) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.5 2.5 2.5 2.5 3.97 3.97 3.97 3.97 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 30 7.6 7.5 7.5 7.7 3.2 3.2 3.3 3.2 1.4 1.6 1.5 1.6 3.94 4.00 4.00 3.89 9.37 9.37 9.09 9.37 21.40 18.75 20.00 18.75 2.41 2.38 2.38 2.44 2.51 2.51 2.59 2.51 2.77 3.17 2.97 3.17 2.26 2.32 2.32 2.20 8.11 8.11 7.63 8.11 26.68 20.42 23.25 20.42 Ultimate settling velocity (Cms/Sec) Viscosity of fluid (Poise) Particle Reynolds number

Table 4:- Data of actual values of viscosity Fluid name Temperature (0C) Castor oil Castor oil Castor oil 20 30 40 1017 580 315 Viscosity(centistokes) Density (gm/cm3) 0.96 0.955 0.95 Vapor Pressure(KPa) 0 0 0

SAE-40 oil – 250-500 (centistokes) References:1. (http://www.engineersedge.com/fluid_flow/fluid_data.htm)
2. http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/viscosity-converter-d_413.html 3. http://faculty.bracu.ac.bd/~mlrahman/EXP5.pdf 4. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Viscosity

Submitted By Sagar Chawla Roll no.-12110081