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GAUDAPADA the Great Karika on the Manduka Upanishad. Gaudapada was, by tradition, the philosophical grandfather of Shankara.

His Kari ka on the Mandukya Upanishad is the oldest known systematic exposition of Advait a Vedanta. Gaudapada shows clear signs of familiarity with Buddhist philosophy, and both his language and his doctrine are close in many cases to Buddhist origi nals. This has led many scholars to speculate that Gaudapada himself was origina lly a Buddhist. The Karika is a verse commentary on the Upanishad. It falls into four sections: 1. Agama Prakarana 2. Illusion 3. Advaita 4. Extinguishing the torch. The first section is a brief systematic exposition of the Upanishadic text, foll owing its distinction of the four states of consciousness. Several of the most i mportant Indian commentators treat the 29 slokas of the Agama Prakarana as part of the scriptural text of Mandukya Upanishad.. The second section moves beyond the text of the Upanishad to establish the unrea lity of the things experienced in dreams and, by analogy, the things experienced in the waking state. All these are but MAYA, illusion. Gaudapada emphasised the essential unity of waking and dreaming, arguing the waking world is as unreal a s the dream-world. Shankara will emphasise the distinction between the two, to a void the collapse into subjective illusionism. The Advaita section of the Karika presents a clear, positive statement of the No n-Dualist position: Atman/Brahman alone is real, all else is illusion. Gaudapada teaches the AJATA doctrine: the doctrine of NO-BECOMING. The fourth section of the Karika expounds the means of removing the illusion of duality. Essentially this is the ASPARSHA YOGA mentioned in section three. the KARIKA. BOOK I: AGAMA PRAKARANA. 1. Visva is all-pervading and experiences the gross. Taijasa experiences the sub tle. Prajna is a mass of awareness. It is one who is known in all three states. 2. Visva's "mouth" is in the right eye. Taijasa's is within the mind-organ, Praj na is the space within the heart. - Present three ways in the body. 3. Visva always enjoys the gross, Taijasa the subtle, Prajna enjoys bliss. Know enjoyment to be threefold. 4. The gross satisfies Visva, the subtle Taijasa, and bliss Prajna: know satisfa ction to be threefold. 5. He who knows the one experiencer and the one object of experience in all the three states is not affected by enjoyment of objects.

6. All objects come into being. Prana creates all. Purush creates the separate r ays of consciousness. 7. Those who dwell on creation consider it a divine miracle. Others imagine it i s like a dream or an illusion. 8. Some are convinced creation is by the mere will of God. Those who are fascina ted by time declare time to be the source of all things. 9. Others say creation is for God's delight, others that it is for mere sport. B ut it is the true nature of the Divine One - what desire can He have whose every desire is always fulfilled? 10. In the matter of the eradication of sorrows, it is the Inexhaustible Non-dua l One - the Lord - who rules. Turiya is known as the all-pervading source of all that is. 11. Visva and Taijasa are conditioned by both cause and effect, prajna by cause alone. Neither exists in Turiya. 12. Prajna knows nothing of self or non-self, neither true nor false. Turiya is forever and the all-seer. 13. Non-cognition of duality is common the Prajna and Turiya. But Prajna is asso ciated with the causal state of sleep, and that does not exist in Turiya. 14. Both the first two {Visva and Taijasa} are both associated with dream and sl eep, Prajna is the state of dreamless sleep. Those who know see neither sleep no r dream in Turiya. 15. Dream is erroneous cognition, sleep the absence of awareness of reality. Whe n these two errors are removed, Turiya is attained. 16. When the soul sleeping under the influence of beginningless Maya is awakened , it realises the unoriginated, sleepless, dreamless non-duality. 17. If the phenomenal world were real, it would undoubtedly vanish. All this dua lity is mere Maya. Non-duality is the supreme reality. 18. If the multiplicity were imagined, it would vanish. Such talk is merely for instruction. On knowing, duality ceases. 19. When Visva's identity with "A" is intended, correspondence in terms of being the first [adi] as well as correspondence in terms of being all-pervading [apti -samanyam] is foregrounded. 20. When Taijasa's identity with "U" is understood its correspondence in terms o f superiority [utkarsa] is clearly seen as also in terms of intermediacy [ubhaya tvam]. 21. When Prajna's identity with "M" is understood the obvious point of correspon dence is Measure and being that in which all things Merge. 22. Whoever has unshakeable knowledge of the correspondences of the three states is a great sage deserving the worship and veneration of all beings. 23. By the sound "A" one attains Visva, by the sound "U" one attains Taijasa, th e sound "M" one attains Prajna. In the soundless there is no attainment. 24. The word "AUM" should be known foot by foot. The "feet" are undoubtedly the

He. and no other! BOOK II: ILLUSION. . AUM is indeed the Lower Brahman. What does not exist in the beginning and does not exist at the end certainly does not in the middle! But like illusions. bu t what is perceived by the outer consciousness is real . Self-luminous Atman. 3. 8. Just as dream objects are unreal. one attains immediately. .} So. One who is absorbed in AUM is totally devoid of fear. Unfamiliar objects are merely the product of a specific state .e. who is it who is aware of these ob jects and who devises them? 12. 10.but in both cases what is perceived is unreal. since they have a beginning and an end. 4. integral. free from effects. the middle and the end of all. 6. The wise declare all objects seen in dreams to be unreal because (i) of their location within.it is just th e same as in the case of celestial beings! He experiences them by going there ju st as a well-instructed person here does. the non-existence of the chariot &c. 25. The man of discrimination realised AUM is all-pervading. the dreamer never finds himself in that place. what is imagined by the inner consciousness is unre al and whatever is perceived by outer consciousness is real . 7. The mind should be absorbed in AUM. Knowing AUM in th is way. The similarity of their different objects offers a commonplace reason for the wise to identify the waking state and the dreaming state. Their usefulness is contradicted in the dream. objects percei ved in the waking state are also unreal. Besides. 5. 29. so. The wise say that scripture itself reaffirms the unreality reason establishes. they seem real. (Vaitathya Prakarana. In the dream state too. the fearless. 11. AUM is Brahman. he does not grieve. He is the true sage who knows AUM .but reason dictate s that both are unreal. and for the same reason. In the waking state too. what is imagined by inner consciousness is unreal. unique. 9. Moreover. and (ii) their confinement.letters. changeless. Grasping "AUM" foot by foot there is nothing else one should think of. 2.there's no time for that! And when he wakes up. 28. by the power of its own Maya imagines itself in itself. He alone is aware of the objects. in a dream the things of waking life are useless. The only difference is the restriction (of dream objects) to an interior location. AUM is also admitted to be the Supreme Brah man.) 1. This is the conclusion of the Vedanta. yet of infinite sounds the auspicious reality where all duality ceases. is asserted in Scripture on lo gical grounds. 27. If all objects in both states are unreal. 26. one does not actually go to places to have a look . AUM is uncaused. {i. AUM is truly the beginning. Know AUM as the Lord indwelling the hearts of all.the soundless. they are rightly held to be unreal.

22. Those who know space call It space. Knowers of righteousness or unrighteousness identify It with one or the other. Students of time identify It with time. Knowers of the subtle identify It with the subtle. in exactly the same way the Self is imagined in various different ways. It is imagined to be (identical with) Prana {the life force} or other eterna l realities. a line of water and so fo rth. . 20. 21. Those who kn ow the stages of life identify It with them. 19.13. Realisation of the Self is just the same. Those who know the enjoyer identify It w ith the enjoyer. 14. 25. Some say reality is constituted of twenty-five principles. Those who know the gross identify It with the gross. Those who know the Vedas identify It with the Vedas. The difference between them rises o nly from differences in the sense organs. those who know the god with forms identify It with a form. Knowers of the mind-organ identify It with the mind-organ. 24. the female or the neuter! . 15. Grammarians identify It with the ma le. There is nothing else to distinguish them. 18. Knowers of consciousness identify It with consciousness. 16. Those who know the object of enjoyment identify It with the obj ect of enjoyment. some of twenty-si x. 23. and on ly the rope remains. Disputers identify It with disputation. The objects that exist unmanifested within the mind and those that exist man ifested externally are all mere imagination. This is the Maya of the Divine One. First He imagines the individual soul. 17. 26. all illusions about it cease. there are even some who believ e they are infinite! 27. When the rope is realised to be a rope. Those who know prana identify It with Prana. Those who know human pleasures identify It with such pleasures. Just as in the dark a rope whose nature has not been fully ascertained is im agined to be various different things such as a snake. Those who know the "feet" identify It with the "feet." those who know the se nse-objects identify It with the sense-objects.others identify It with the transcendent or the non-transcendent. Internal things that last only so long as the thought of them lasts and equa lly things perceived in relation to two points of time are all mere imaginations . Those who know the elements ide ntify It with the elements. The Lord gives diversity to the mundane things that exist in his mind. Knowers of intell igence identify It with intelligence. Cosmologists identify It with the fourte en worlds. those who know the gods identify It with the gods. Turni ng His mind outwards the Lord thus imagines well-defined things. Some say It consists of thirty-one categories. by which He Himself is deluded. those who know the formless identify It with the Void. And memory accords with knowledge. Those who know the qualities identify It with the qu alities. Those who know the sacr ifices identify It with the sacrifices. then the various external and subject ive objects. Those who know the categories identify It with the categories. Those who know the worlds identi fy It with the worlds.

With the body and sou l as his support.in the sam e way souls merge in the Self. {t he word in the text is "shiva" . 3.] 33. 30. [paramartha. no coming-to-be. Contemplatives well-versed in the Vedas and free from desire fear and anger see this Self as free from all distinctions. let him depend on chance. and the things are conceived as in the Non-dual! Non-duality. 36. Engrossed in it he becomes absorbed in it. fix your memory on Non-duality. When the bit of space in one pot is polluted by dust.) 1. When the pot is smashed. nor does it exist as independent . BOOK III: NON-DUALITY. Listen! N othing comes into existence. 6. The same conclusion is to be drawn in the case of souls. but Space itself is ho mogeneous. (Advaita Prakarana. 35. purposes and names differ from one to another. the bits of space encompassed by other pots are not affected. This is the absolute truth. the pot-space merges totally with Space . he thinks that everything was unborn before creation! 2. Whoever knows this can interpret unhesitatingly. none in bondage. pleasant.the same is the case with so uls in the matter of happiness. This is what the wise know. 5.. 38. There is no cessation... 37. . Having attained to t he Non-dual. though it may well seem to come into existence. It is conceived of both as the Non-dual and as unreal things. Though this One is non-different from these. Knowers of subsistence identify It with subsistence. Knowers of dissolution identi fy It with dissolution. I shall therefore describe the infinite.} 34. The aspirant devotee subsists in the conditioned Brahman. One becomes identifie d with it and satisfied by it. Knowing It in this way.neither differentiated nor non-differentiated.28. he should become one wi th Reality. {interpret the Veda?} 31. utterly free from all phenomenal re ality and Non-dual. Having seen Reality within and in the world outside. is the auspicious.. But all these notions are merely imagined in the Self! 29. Shapes. birthless and homogeneous. no seeker after lib eration and no-one liberated. From the standpoint of the Self the world does not exist. yet It is identified as separat e. 32.auspicious. 4. Let him eschew flattery and greetings and avoid rites. misery &c. The one knowledgeable in Vedanta sees the entire universe as just like a dre am or a conjuring trick or a city in the sky. Knowers of creation identify It with creation. Its existence in composite things is like the space in pots. Here is an image of "coming into existence" The Self is spoken of as existing in individual souls just as space exists encom passed by a pot. behave in the world like a mindless thing. smoke &c. Whatever may be displayed. find his delight in Reality and never deviate from Reality. that is the thing one sees. . therefore. blissful . He is to be pitied.

Coming to be can be either real or illusory. Its going and Its coming. this is merely instructive metaphor. differ ence is condemned . that alone is es tablished. 14. 19. Non-duality is the ultimate reality (paramartha). Its death. 16. Both views are presented in scr ipture. With regard to Its birth.the Dualists see duality in both. the mortal does not become immortal. All composites are produced as in a dream by the Maya of the Self. 9. are offered out of compassion so that such people can meditate on the m to their improvement. that the Birthless is differentiate d. the Self is qu ite like Space. as Taittiriya Upanishad explai ns. Dualists who cling obstinately to the conclusions arrived at by their own me thods are in perpetual conflict with each other. it refers to the future. When creation is expounded by means of examples such as earth. If it were really differentiated then the immortal would become mortal. {T.e. 10. since duality is acknowled ged to be its product . the pairings in the Honey Doctrine show the same is t rue of the Supreme Brahman. 15. {The Honey Doctrine (Madhu Khanda) is B. Disputants contend that the Unoriginate undergoes birth . The pot-space is neither a product nor a part of Space. It is through Maya.from this standpoint alone is understanding possible.the one based on food &c. and in no other way. 17. intermediate and superio r insight. There is no rational ground to establish their reality .} . 18. 1-6} 12. II. scripture alone is not enough. 22. 20. There is no real multiplicity . statements asserting separatenes s are not meant literally. Tr ansmutation of nature simply does not occur. 8. How can anyone who believes that an immortal being can change its nature and and become mortal maintain that the immortal . gold. sparks and so forth. The ignorant think the Self too c an be polluted.U. Children think the sky is polluted by dust. The soul is neither a product nor a part of the Self.how could an unori ginated and immortal being acquire mortality? 21. Just as it has been shown that the space in the belly and the space in the e arth are one and the same.v. The non-difference of the soul and the Self is asserted and extolled. Any assertion of a distinction between the soul and the Self before creation is merely figurative. We have no conflict with them. The space analogy illustrates well the identity of the Self with the supreme soul of the sheaths . That which scripture lays down and reason corroborates.7.even after this has happened to it . {i.U.. The three states of life corresponding to inferior.1-14 } 13. The immortal does not become mortal.remains unchanging? 23.or their equality or superiority ! 11. so our view is not in conflict with theirs. II.

Th e son-of-a-barren-woman is born neither in illusion nor in reality. 38.27-8} rules out causality. Brahma-knowledge is birthless and eternal. On realisation that the Self is the Real." {Ka.not so when under control.U. In deep sleep the mind loses itself. 36. finding fear where there is nothing to be afraid of.II. This Yoga-without-contact {asparsha yoga} is hard for yogis to understand. ecstatic. In a dream.24. Anyone who claims it really happens is saying that what has already come to be comes to be. From texts such as "There is no diversity here. 28. in the absence of anything to perceive there is no perception. which is non-dual appears in a dream under two aspects. t hey fear it.so the yoga is union without contact. the knowledge of the Self and eternal peace. equally so in the waking state the non-dual appears under two aspec ts.26} neg ates all those accounts.everything whether moving or immobile . it is birthless. there is neither grasping nor rejecting. 25. 29. {samadhi} immutable. { yoga basiclally means union . Since It is utterly incomprehensible the Birthless is t hus self-radiant. One should take particular note of the mind's behaviour when it is under con trol. it attains equanimity. . 27. completely peaceful. not this" {B. the light of knowledge shining on all sides. {samata} 39.11} or "Through Ma ya Indra. When mental activity ceases.} 40. It is totally ineffable and utterly inconceivable. 30.III.II.U. The non-existent does not come to exist either in illusion or in reality. the de struction of suffering {duhkha}.there is no action to be performed.19} we know that the Unoriginate takes birth only by Maya.12} The text "and who should bring him forth?" {B. it is free of all conceptions but endowed with discrimination: the mind's condition in deep sleep is something quite different. When the mind ceases from mental activity no duality is perceived." {Br. unsleeping. Birthless. That the existent should come into being is only possible in an illusory man ner. 26. There is no doubt that the mind.U. 31. Such yogis depend on mind-control for the attainment of fearlessness. 32. eter nally radiant. non-conceptual knowledge is non-different fro m the Known. in that st ate it is the fearless Brahman. From the rejection of the worship of the All-Majestic (Hiranyagarbha) creati on is refuted. 37. fearless.v.is a mental percept. ix. 34. dreamless.III.i. knowle dge is established in the Self. thinking ceases: it becomes Non-mi nd. devoid of name or form. They say that the unoriginate. {see I. the mind gives the illusion of oscillating between two aspects. in the waking state too. The Birthless is known b y the Birthless. ever radiant and a ll-knowing .ix. . The scriptural statement that It is "not this. 33. the mind gives the illusion of oscillating between two aspects. 35. This duality .

which promotes the happiness of all beings. The proper means are essential to the disciplining of the mind. 42. we have no quarrel with them. use discrimination and get rid of attachment . it is peaceful. Disputants contend that the Unoriginate undergoes birth . This is Supreme Reality. I bow to that best of men who. We approve the birthlessness they declare. By the term "nature" is to be understood that which is acquired totally and b ecomes intrinsic to the thing. which is known as free from cont act {asparsha}. drop by drop. the mortal does not become immortal. 3. No soul whatsoever is born. BOOK IV. Supreme happiness is within. 4. it truly becomes Brahman. The immortal does not become mortal. If the mind has attained the state of equilibrium and then wants to venture ou t. Ever mindful that everything is suffering {duhkha}. Do not indulge in the pleasure. one should restrain the mind from the enjoyment of pleasure. where nothing whatsoever is born. 43. Remember that the Birthless is all: then th ere is nothing to perceive. How can anyone who believes that an immortal being can change its nature and and become mortal maintain that the immortal . 44. 8.41. p roud of their wisdom. say it is from the non-existent that coming-to-be occurs. and the non-existent cannot come to be.how could an unorig inated and immortal being acquire mortality? 7. understand from us this which is free from dispute. 46. When it is perfectly balanced. or which is innate. realised the nature of the dharmas which are like the sky! 2. when it is still and free fro m appearances. leave it alone! 45. When the mind is neither torpid nor scattered. by means of his spacelike knowledge which is n on-different from its object. Recognise when it is affected by desire. Controlling the mind without lapsing into depression is like using a single blade of grass to empty the ocean. calm it. then diligently bring it to unity. Now. not acquired from any externa . Since it is identical with the Unb orn Object of Knowledge. is for the good of a ll. Some disputants postulate that it is the existent that comes to be. What exists does not come into being. While these folk argue amongst themselves they actually help establish the adva ita position and reveal there is no coming to be.even after this has happened to i t . it is indescribable and birthless. QUENCHING the FIREBRAND. it is accompanied by cessation {nirvana}. (Alatashanti Prakarana) 1. 47. Tra nsmutation of nature simply does not occur. others. 48. wake it up! If it is scattered. 6. whether it i s scattered in desires and pleasures or in a stupor . 5.remains unchanging? 9. devoid of conflict and contradiction.stupor is as injurious as desires. If the mind is in stupor. they declare It the Omniscient. It has no source. I bow to that yoga taught in the scriptures.

The disputant who hold that cause and effect are identical must admit that t he cause comes into being. as also from the experience of pain. the effect is non-different from the cause. But from the standpoint o f reality. and no contact with appearances o f objects. Logic demands an object as the cause of knowledge. The uncaused certainly does not come into existence. any mo re than there is between the two horns of an ox. there can be no causal relation between them. Nothing comes to be whether from itself or from another. Knowledge must have an object. itself not established. 24. give birth to an effect? 18. 11. 25. 10. Objects are non-existent and appearances of objects non-different fro .the unproven cannot be used as the means to prove something. 20. Consciousness has no contact with objects. Nothing that exists ever comes to be. Your inability to answer. and how can it be eternal if it is liable to modification? 12. There is no example to support the claim that the effect comes to be from an unoriginate cause. If the cause is produced from the effect. If something really does come to be.l source. why can the preexistent cause not be pointed out? 22. 17. then for that re ason the effect too will be birthless. All dharmas are by their very nature free from old age and death. our opponent's assertion of the ex istence of the object should be admitted. if both occur at once. 14. How c an a cause. then the sequence of cause and effect must be determi ned. as you say. If. and remains immutable. For this reason. To assert that the effect is the cause of the cause and the cause the cause of the effect is like claiming the father gives birth to the son! 16. nor does an effect s imply happen of itself. 21. How can those who assert that the effect is the cause of the cause and the c ause is the cause of the effect assert they are unoriginate? 15. 26. it can never be established. but they i magine they are subject to old age and death and because of that very thought th ey are perverted from their nature. Besides. The cause cannot come to be from an unoriginate effect. nothing that both exists and doe s not exist. If the cause is dependent on the effect and the effect is dependent on the c ause. How can the unoriginate come into being. how can an unoriginate cause be identical with an effect that comes into being? 13. it is evident the cause is no cause at all. The classic case of the seed and the sprout remains unproved . If there is causality. then which comes first for the other to come from it? 19. the impossibility of establishing the causal seque nce persuade the wise to stick to No-birth. Ignorance of the sequential ordering of cause and effect itself points to th e absence of coming to be. And if it is held that the effect comes to be from something else that also comes to be. nothing that does not exist. then we face an infinite regress. otherwise both will be non-existent. 23.

nor can the real come to be from the unreal.e. Their usefulness is contradicted in the dream. But that is ground only for this waking state being real to this particular dreamer! 38. 37. The dream body is unreal . If you talk to your friend in a dream. and imagine them to be real. and if you gain something in a dream. one may handle objects one cannot conceptualis e for lack of the capacity to discriminate them. one sees it in a dream as well. Since dream experience resembles waking experience. because of lack of the capacity to discriminate. in a dream the things o f waking life are useless. If the world has no beginning it will have no end either. they offer no confirmation of the fac t in the waking state. Those who pe rceive such a coming-to-be are like those who can see footprints in the sky! 29. 34. everything else is a mental percept and unreal. in the waking state. It is the unoriginate [they say] which comes to be . 42. Coming to be is not proven to occur: accordingly it is said that everything is unoriginate. 30.how could real things be seen in this confined space. how then could the real b e cause of the unreal? 41. they seem real. 27.but it is essentially b irthless and the transformation of that nature will not happen in any way whatso ever. The unreal cannot have the unreal as its cause. when you wake it is gone. Moksa cannot both have a beginning and be eternal. {i. Just as. 32. But the unreal somethings se en in a dream are not seen again in the waking state. 35. Sin ce there are no objects. 36. people who cling to the reality of objects and have faith in obs ervances. since they have a beginning and an end. Having seen an unreal something in the waking state and having been emotiona lly affected by it. It is preposterous to claim that things in a dream are known by going to the m. At none of the three times does consciousness make contact with objects. What does not exist in the beginning and does not exist at the end certainly does not in the middle! But like illusions. The wise teach coming-to-be for the sake of those who are afraid of absolute birthlessness. one sees obje cts peculiar to that dream. 33. 31. The real cannot be cause of the real. ju st so in a dream. there is no time for the journey to take place. since they are perceived w ithin the body . it is believed to be the result of it. and nobody wakes up to find h imself in the place he was dreaming.m consciousness. 40. they are rightly held to be unreal.} So.there is another separate one visible! Just like the body. 39. There is absolutely no case of the unreal coming into existence from the real. . Neither consciousness nor its objects ever come into existence. how can there be deluded perception of such? 28. All things we are aware of in a dream are unreal.

58. Those who know this never fall into calamity. 53. External things. As the firebrand when not in motion is free from appearances and from becomi ng. the appearances do not come from somewhere else. the appearances do not come to it from so mewhere else. It is the birthless. But dharmas cannot be considered s ubstances or as things distinct from other things. They do not emerge from the firebrand since they are insubstantial. so too objects are said to exist on th e basis of perception and appropriate behaviour. 51. So long as we think cause-and-effect. 46. 52. so too consciousness when not in motion is free of appearances and becoming. since in both cases the appearances are of the same k ind. the appearances do not go somewhere else. When the fa scination with cause-and -effect fades. 45. there is no attainment of samsara. there is certainly no such thing as annihilation. Their birth is through Maya and Maya itself is unreal. no cause-and-effect comes into existence . 48. 59. 47. even the fault itself will only be slight. The dharmas that are born are not really born. unmoving. Consciousness does not undergo birth. consciousness when set in motion a ppears as the knower and the known. nor do external things produce consciousness. The same applies to consciousness. the fault of accepting coming-to-be will not have bear fruit. As a moving firebrand appears as a curve. 50. thus dharmas are considered birthless. They do not emerge from consciousness since they are insubstantial. Just as the elephant in a conjuring trick is called an elephant on the basis of perception and appropriate behaviour. 57. there is cause-and-effect. immaterial. 55. As the illusory seed sends forth an illusory shoot . Men of discrimination affirm the birthlessness of cause-and-effect.43. 56. the birthless Self is all. 49. For so long as there is attachment to cause-and-effect there is samsara. 44. It is because of experience that eveything seems to come into existence -"su rely nothing is eternal!" From the standpoint of reality. They can not be conceptualised since they are not subject to the relation of cause and ef fect. 54. when it is motionless. When consciousness is oscillating. For those who are afraid and deviate from the true path. onc e the attachment ends.it is neither eternal n . nor do th ey go into it. nor do they ente r into it. When the firebrand is in motion. peaceful non-dual consciousness t hat appears to come into existence. A substance could be the cause of another substance. relying on experien ce. are not the product of consciousness. then. to move and to take substantial form. and something could be cause of another thing different from itself. nor do they go somewhere else when it is at rest.

the waking person's consciousness is simply something h e perceives in his waking state. 60. the intermediate and the lowest ca uses. There is no doubt that the mind. 68. 67. How can there be an effect without a cau se? . Though there is no real duality. 74. so do all these jivas appear and disappe ar. it is devoid of relations. 62. the Self is called "birthless. 73. As the dream jiva is born and dies. "Does it exist?" The answer is "No!" Both lack the characteristics that would individuate them since they are grasped only through each other. Even from the empirical viewpoint. consciousness undergoes no birth. so do all these jivas ap pear and disappear. When one no longer perceives the highest. the mind gives the illusion of oscillating between two aspects. which is non-dual appears in a dream under two aspects. moisture-born &c. 70. but freed fr om the cause. Equally. a persistent craving for the unreal! Once o 0ne realises the non-existence of duality. 75." but from the absolute {paramartha} standpoint it is not even birthless. one is no longer reborn. moisture-born &c. are the dreamer's mental objects. No soul whatsoever is born. 69. are the waking person's mental objects. the dreamer's consciousness is merely something he perceives. equally so in the waking state the non-dual appears under two aspec ts. Similarly. This subject-object duality is really the oscillation of consciousness: but consciousness is objectless. As the illusion jivas are born and die. 72. 63. From the viewpoin t of other schools. having no existence apart from his c onsciousness. having no existence apart from his conscio usness. And one cannot make categorical statements about the ineffable. The creatures (egg-born. 76. Similarly. It has no source. it appears to come into existence. The creatures (egg-born. in the waking state too. In a dream. As the sorcerously produced jivas are born and die.) that the dreamer always sees as he moves about in the ten directions 64.the same applies to dharmas. the mind gives the illusion of oscillating between two aspects. 61.or destructible . where nothing whatsoever is born. This is Supreme Reality. Both [consciousness and the creatures] are each others' objects of perceptio n. What experience alone indicates to exist does not really exist. wha t other schools of thought assert to exist does not really exist.) that the waking person always se es as he moves about in the ten directions 66. 71. so do all these jivas appear and dis appear. The terms "eternal" and "non-eternal" have no applicability to birthless dha rmas. 65.

Clinging to these four alternative theories keeps the Lord permanently conce aled. All dharmas are by nature spacelike and eternal: there is no multiplicity am ongst them. When one realises their non-existence. 88. This dharma is naturally self-luminous. non-duality without beginning. or do es not exist or both exists and does not exist or is absolutely non-existent. 81. consciousness becomes detached and returns. unsleeping. 92. suffering and desire.total omniscience. 91. but plen ty of experience of them. he becomes fit for immortality. The ordinary state of duality associated with empirical reality and with exp erience is admitted. By their very nature. eternal omniscience exists for the man of great intellect. non-dual consci ousness. their natural self-control. When the threefold knowledge has been attained in order. 87. needing no further kn owledge. the other three are remembered to be merely imag inary.knowledge. birthless and n on-dual. This is the realisation of the wise {buddhanam} it is undifferentiated. 85. so the wise {buddhair} ever de clare. 82. one attains freedom from fear. There is remembered {smrtam} a transcendent state without things. 80. This is the modesty of the Brahmins. immutability. The one who sees the Lord as untouched by any of these is truly omniscient . and not accepting any individual cause. 93. that which is acceptable and that which is to be neutralised. What further effort is there to make when one has attained the state of Brah manhood .all this is merely something perceived by the birthless. In the beginning these must be known: that which is to be avoided. Persons lacking the capacity for discrimination assert that it exists. Apart from what is to be known. Having realised the truth of causelessness.77. consciousness becomes unmoving. Knowing this. without ex perience . naturally devoid of att . Because of grasping after this or that dharma. 84. He who knows this is at peace. The birthlessness of consciousness when free from causes is absolute and con stant . all dharmas are luminous from the beginning {adibuddha h} and are of fixed nature. 90. that whic h is to be known. the known and the Realised. unborn. both changeability a nd immutabilty and non-existence. When attached to the unreal. It is birthless. 78. an d thus conceal It with their ideas of change. it involves itself with such. that Lord is easily concealed : it is always difficult to uncover Him. 89. the man of knowledge attains tranquil lity. Free from attachment and disengaged. middle or end? 86. 83. this is their spontaneous tranquillity. All dharmas are from the beginning tranquil. so also a subtle state where there are no objects. 79. absolutely none. free from dreams and self-luminous.

It is held that the knowledge inherent in the birthless dharmas is unborn an d non-relational. homogeneous and hol y. Having realised {buddhva} that aspect which is baffling. The knowledge of the radiant enlightened one does not relate to things {dhar mesu} . 13 A description of the state of deep sleep can be confusingly similar to a desc ription of pure consciousness: in neither case is there any awareness of duality . ever discoursing about plurality. holy and non-dual. They are said to be pitiable. they know {budhyante} a nd so are masters. birt hless. Only those who are firm in their conviction with regard to Its birthlessness and uniformity become Great Knowers in this world. 99. 95. Prajna does not perceive duality because it does not perceive anything at al l. 97. All dharmas are naturally pure. they are ill uminated {buddhah} and free {muktah} from the beginning. none has ever been veiled over.g.we wake from deep sleep into the subtle. Yajnavalkya s dialogue with Maitreyi . it is therefore essential to perceive and understand the difference between th em.e. but on several occasions diverges from both in interp retation of the original text.e. Book II . without duality. inter ior world of the dream or into the waking state world of gross objects. Turiya does not perceive duality because it perceives reality as it is . ****** The above translation of the Karika is based on the translations by Swamis Nikhi lananda and Gambhirananda. Accepting the slightest degree of variation bars the non-discriminating from non-attachment. how could one even speak of the veiling being destroyed? 98. People cannot understand thi s. This was not said by the Bud dha. wandering the pathways of dual ity. since some Upanish adic texts .and all dharmas are like knowledge in this. homogeneous. Prajna is the state of causal being from which al l the world of appearances flow . there is no perfection.though it not nothing at al l. It is not something real . Gaudapada s Karika: some notes.achment. For those who are fascinated by multiplicity. equal and non-different: It is therefore birthless. Book I 12 It is essential for Gaudapada to distinguish Prajna = Wisdom (a term the Mand ukya Upanishad uses for the state of deep sleep) from Turiya. 96. 100.i. Bur Praj na lacks the luminous awareness that for Gaudapada and Shankara is the essence o f Atman. 94. 16 Maya has no beginning. hence it is devoid of the relation of attachment. Ignorance (Avidya) or Nescience is the basis of Maya.seem to identify Prajna a s the ultimate state of Atman. unfathomable. we venerate It as best we may.

I bow to that Brahman who pervades the entire world by a diffusion of the ray s of knowledge that pervade all things that are moving and unmoving. irreal self infect ed with Avidya (ignorance) and immersed in the deluding fog of Maya. Both the body and other material things are irreal. but ultimately there is nothing save Brahman to be cognised and none save Brahman to do the cognizing. who after h aving enjoyed (in the waking state) all objects of enjoyment that are gross. Brahman s beginningless world of illusion. not illusory. [Illusionism] such as the tradition of Gaudapada and Shankar a. The whole world is t he creation of Atman in the sense that from our point of view Maya is Atman s crea tive power. the veil of nescience in wh ich Pure Consciousness mantles Itself. ther e is no world. though as s ubject it is ultimately identical with Atman. The interactive subject as interactive is a conditioned. error and nescience. But from the absolute point of view. Both identify Krsna with the eter nal Brahman: for Nimbarka Krsna brings the world into being from His Divine Ener gy. For Vivarta philosophers it is possible to say the world is identica l with Brahman . [Mutationism] asserts that the world is identical with Brah man in that Brahman becomes the world. the manifestation of ignorance. and .but only in the very specific sense that Brahman alone is all t hat exists and therefore the world is simple a way of miscognising Brahman. they are aspects of deluding Maya. I. Verse 12 points to Self-luminous Atman as the true subject. in that for him God and the World are truly one. irreal. Agama Prakarana Invocation 1. with slight editing. Brahman transforms Itself and comes to be the world as well as remaining God. and Vallabha claims that he alone t eaches True Advaita. Parinama philosophy. no enlightenment to attain. no path to enlighten ment. the agent. All that is real in the interactiv e subject is Atman. Panoli Headings added from Richard King's translation. Mandukya Karika Of Gaudapada Translated by Vidyavachaspati V. For Parina ma philosophers the world is real. no Ignorance. So is t he individuated self the phenomenal ego that presents itself as the subject of e xperience. When all is light what meaning is there to a q uest for light? One must not infer from verse 12 that Atman can simply be identi fied with the thinker. asserts that ultimately Brahman alone is real and anything else that seems to exist is ultimately illusory. no selves in bondage. by webmaste r Back Home. the perceiver in the waking or the dreaming st ate. Vivarta philosophy. The philosophers Nimbarka and Vallabha are the most famous exponents of parinama Vedanta. in the waking state our ignorance-infected consciousness is turned outward to perceive and interact with material things. no Maya. Book III 29 There are two opposed Vedantin approaches to the relation between Brahman and the world. so that the world both is and is not distinct from God.1-12 Gaudapada sees dreaming and waking states as similar: in the dream state ou r ignorance-infected consciousness is turned inward and generates an irreal worl d based on bodily data. For Vallabha Krsna b rings the world into being from His Essence.

similar ly. I-11. Visva having exterior consciousness is all-pervading. through an attribution of Maya. protect us. He who knows these two. But it is the very nature of the resplendent Being. Those who think of creation hold it as the manifestation of God's power. but Prajna (is associated) with sleep devoid of dream. after having absorbed all of them gradually into Himself and having abandoned all distinctions. and is all-perva ding. I-12. and who . and. is imperishable. But th at Turiya is ever the all seer. Some others hold that creation is for the enjoyment (of God). I-14. Creation is the mere will of the Lord. I-9. even though enjoying. In these th ree ways he dwells in the body. enjoys again (in the dream state) the other subtle objects w hich are created by His own intelligence and illumined by His own light. Turiya. I-3. 2. (Analysis of Creation Theories) I-6. viz that which is shown to be the thing to be enjoy ed and that which is (shown) to be the enjoyer. whereas Taijasa has i nterior consciousness. and who. Know (therefore) the enjoyment in three ways. taijasa of the subtle. the Self of the universe. (for) what desire can he have whose desire is all fulfilled? (Turiya and the Three States of Experience) I-10. I-2. Thus t he One alone is regarded in three ways. after having enjoyed (in the waking state) the gross enjoyments resulting fr om virtue and vice. w ho. neither truth nor untruth. dwelling in the fourth state. Visva and Taijasa are regarded as conditioned by cause and effect. Prajna of bliss. It is a settled fact that coming into being can be said only of positive en tities that exist. Prana creates all. the subtle satisfies Taijasa and. Prajna is conditioned by cause. and Prajna. The first two (viz Visva and taijasa) are associated with dream and sleep. similarly is dense with consciousness. reposes while experiencing bliss Himself and m aking us all enjoy by (His own) Maya. Prajna knows neither himself nor others. the Lord powerful to bring about the cessation of all sorrows. May he. When the false notion of these two comes to an end. say those who thought out well the ( process of) creation. but those who rely upon time hold that the birth of beings is from time. The knowers of Brahman d o not see either sleep or dream in Turiya. yet others sa y that it is for His sport. I-4. similarly. in the three states. I-13. immortal and unborn. I-5. becomes devoid of attributes. Visva is ever the enjoyer of the gross. Dream belongs to him who perceives wrongly and sleep to him who knows not Reality. Prajna i s possessed of sleep of the nature of cause. Know (therefore) the satisfaction in three ways. glad ness satisfies Prajna. and is supreme.The grass satisfies Visva. is regarded as the non-dual Lord of all entities. i s the fourth in number. I-8. (Three States of Experience) I-1. I-7. does not be come affected. The non-cognition of duality is common to both Prajna and Turiya. whereas Tai jasa is inside the mind and Prajna is in the space inside the heart. . and Purusha creates the conscious beings s eparately. I-15. the state of Turiya is attained.who again. Visva is seen in the right eye which is its seat of experience. wh ile others regard creation as same as dream and illusion. But these two (viz cause and effect) do not exist in Tu riya. whereas that sleep does not exist i n Turiya. after having drunk (in the state of dream) all objects born of desir e and illumined by the intellect.

one attains immediately the identity with the self. the letter m (leads) to Prajna. Thi s duality is but an illusion. as also the common feature of all-pervasiveness. (seen in dream) is heard of (in the sruti) from the point of view of reasoning. Om is (also) regarded as the higher (Brahm an). If a phenomenal world were to exist. if anyone had imagined it. (The Fruits of Meditation on Om) I-24. duality does not exist. when awakened. Also. I-29. Having known Om. the common feature of being the firs t is seen to be obvious. The non-existence of the chariot etc. II-3. I-18. When the individual Self. then he realises (Turiya that is) unborn. The letter a leads to Visva and the letter u to Taijasa. ie. For the one who is free from letters. Vaitathya Prakarana (The Falsity of External Objects in Waking and Dreaming States) II-1. I-22. The notion (such as the teacher. the taught and the scripture) will disapp ear. Again.. Having known Om thus. is the intermediate position. For him who us ever fixed on Om. there is no attainme nt. I-27. II. without effect. Om is without a cause. middle and end of everything. ie. I-23. when the identity of Prajna with the letter m is admitted. when the ident ity of Visva with the letter a is admitted. I-20.(The nature of Reality for the Awakened Jiva) I-16. The wise declare the unreality of all objects in a dream because they are located within (the body) and (also) because they are confined within a limited space. Om should be known. dr eamless and non-dual. He who knows conclusively the common similarities in the three states. in reality it is non-dual. (The Equation of the States with the Syllable Om) I-19. In the even of Prajna being apprehended as identical with m. Om is indeed the lower Brahman. When (the Truth is) realised. II-4. too. no doubt. when th e identity of taijasa with the letter u is admitted. eve ry dreamer.. the fearless. the common feature of super iority is seen clearly and so. one does not go to the place and see. sleepless. The knowers of Brahman say that the unreality thus arrived at (through reasoning) is revealed (by the sruti) in the context of dream. sleeping under the influence of Maya that is beg inningless. is awakened. o ne should not think of anything else. I-25. is a sage and none else. bec omes worthy of worship and adoration by all beings. I-21. and is also a great sage. does not exist in that place (of dream). He by whom is known Om which is without measure and possessed of infinite magnitude and which is auspicious. quarter by quarter. having kn own the all-pervasive Om. It is beyond doubt that the quarte rs (of the self) are the letters (of Om). When the identity of Visva with the letter a is meant. This notion (of the teacher etc. there is no fear anywhere. I-28. ie. One should know Om to be the Lord dwelling in the hearts of all. since all duality ceases in it. for Om is Brahman. cease to be. Om is indeed the beginning. In the event of Taijasa being apprehended as identical with u. Let the mind be fixed on Om. I-17. Since the period is short.) is for the pu rpose of instruction. the intelligent one does not grieve. There is the unreality of the objects even in the waking state. quarter by quarter. I-26. the common feature of being th e measure is seen to be obvious and so too is the common feature of absorption. without interior and exterior. and i s undecaying. Just as th . II-2. it should..

These he perceives by goi ng there. But both these are seen to be unr eal. therefore. The Lord imagined in diverse forms the worldly objects existing in the mi nd. the nature of which is not known in the dark. II-18. while th e sacrificers subscribe it to the sacrifices. even as one. II-9. the illusion ceases and t he rope alone remains in its non-dual nature. First of all. II-6. Those who know the enjoyer hold th . and the knowers of the gods consider the gods (to be so). which the knowers of the elements regard the elements (to be the cause). II-10. II-5. Even in dream what is imagined by the mind (chitta) within is unreal. That which is non-existent in the beginning and at the end is definitely s o in the present (ie. With the mind turned outward. say the knowers of the worlds.. are all mere imaginations. The knowers of the quarters (such as Visva) hold the quarters (to be the cause). though they bear the mark of the unreal. Things that exist within as long as the thought lasts and things that are external and conform to two points of time. This is the Ma ya of the luminous One by which It itself is deluded. He imagines diversely permanent objects (as al so impermanent things). The dis tinction (between them) is caused by nothing else. appear as though real. Qualities (are t he cause). so too is the ascertainment of the Self. Thus the Lord imagines. II-17. II-14. so is (his) memory of it. and those that seem to be manifested without. say the knowers of quality. the objects (in dream) differ owing to the location within the body owing to the spatial li mitation. in the middle). This is a settled fact of the Vedanta-texts. The self-luminous Self. The objects. etc. Their utility is opposed in dream. well instructed. II-13. The knowers of Prana hold Prana (to be the cause of the world). external and internal. It is reasonable to hold both these to be unreal. II-15. (Nature of Perception of Objects in Both States) II-11. so also are they unreal in the waking state. As when the (real nature of the) rope is known. II-21. As is (a man s) knowledge. whil e what is grasped outside by the mind is real. their distinction bein g the difference in the sense-organs. II-19.. (To see) unusual things (in dream) is indeed an attribute of the dreamer j ust as it is in the case of those who dwell in heaven.ey are unreal in dream. If the objects of both the states be unreal. in view of the similarity of the objects (seen in both the states) and in view of the well-know n ground of inference. who comprehends all these an d who again imagines them? II-12. II-22. whereas the knowers of category consider categories (to be so). a water-line. Even in the waking state what is imagined by the mind within is unreal. II-8. (List of Various Views of Nature of Reality) II-20. on the ground of having a be ginning and an end. the worlds (are real). (as it where). Those well-versed in the Vedic lore hold the Vedas (to be real). He imagines the Jiva (individual soul) and then (He imagine s) various objects. they are regarded as definitely unreal. so too is the Self imagined ( as various things). II-7. while the knowers of sensory objects regard sensory objects (to be the c ause). The objects that seem to be unmanifested within the mind. by Its own Maya imagines Itself by Itself and It alone cognises all objects. Just as a rope. (The Self) is imagined as infinite objects like prana etc. are all imaginations alone. does in this world. II-16. w hile what is grasped by the mind outside is real. The wise say that the states of waking and dream are same. is imagined to be things such as a snake.

too. II-37. (Reality is) possessed of a form. The ascetic should be free from praise and salutation and also from ritua ls. one should become identified with Truth. Those who know all about creation (say that reality consists in) creation . none in bondage. whereas it is attributed to virtue and vice by those who know them. Neither d oes it ever exist independent by itself nor is anything different or non-differe nt (from the Self). becoming one with him. II-28. III. All these ideas are always imagined on the Self. There is no dissolution. should give undivided attention). are seen (to be un real). in which t he phenomenal world ceases to exist and which is non-dual. II-30. Having perceived Truth internally and having perceived it externally. while those familiar with the gross regard it to be so. This (world) viewed on the basis of the Self. this Self is manif ested as though separate. He to whom (a teacher) might show an object sees that alone (as the reali ty). (The True Nature of Reality) II-31. no origination. none desirous of liberation. That state of being engrossed culminates in his self-identity with the object shown. some say that thirty-one categories (constitute it). say those who know it. none possessed of the means of liberation. The objects are also imagined on the non-dual (Self). protects him. He who knows this truly comprehends (the meaning of th e Vedas) without entertaining any doubt. II-36. as well as a city in the sky. Therefore. whereas those familiar with the enjoyable things think o f them (to be real). one should fix one s memory on non-duality (ie. Subtlety (is real). II-32. and none liberated. Thi s is the ultimate truth. II-33. The knowers of the heart ascribe (reality to i t). and shou ld never deviate from Truth. II-34. II-38. therefore non-duality is ausp icious. II-24. yet some others hold that they are infinite. The knowers of the mind hold it (to be the Self). feminine and neuter gen ders. Those who are familiar with the stages of life regard them (as real). whereas others (know reality) to be the higher and lower (brahman). so too. Just as dream and magic. II-35. That object. while the knowers of directions c onsider directions (to be so). By the sages who are free from attachment. Advaita Prakarana . is this universe seen (to be unreal) from the Vedanta-texts by th e wise. should derive delight from Truth. is not different.. (Reality lies) in dissolution. By these things that are non-separate (from the Self). while the worshippers of the formless (hold the real ity) to be formless. II-23. Some say that twenty-five categories (constitute the reality). while the knowers of th e intellect regard it (to be so). say those who know the subtlety. whereas ot hers speak of twenty-six. The astrologers hold time (to be real). II-29.e enjoyer (to be real). whereas those who aspire after the worlds consider them (to be real). say the wo rshippers of God with form. Again. Thus know the knowers of Truth. The gram marians (ascribe reality) to the words in the masculine. Those stiff in debate affirm that disputations (l ead to the reality). Having attained the non-dual. Those who know the people (and their pleasures) find reality in pleasures . fear and anger and well-versed in the Vedas is realised this Self which is beyond all imaginations. II-27. one shoul d conduct oneself as though one were a dullard. II-26. The body and the Self should be his support and he should depend upon what c hance brings. having known it thus. II-25. while those who know abo ut subsistence (hold it to be the reality). This (Self) is imagined to be unreal objects and also to be non-dual.

. It is said to be existing as the aggregate of bodies.(Opening Remarks) III-1. There are three stages of life enjoined for their sake out of compassion.. III-8. all the individual souls are not associated with happiness etc. Since the non-difference of Jiva (individual soul) and the supreme Self is extolled on the basis of their identity. III-5. III-2. going and coming. (The "Space in Pots" Analogy) III-3. so also the individual souls become merged in the Self here. in the Madhu-Brahmana (Brihad aranyaka Upanishad). The creation which is differently set forth by means of (the illustratio ns of) earth. III-4. Though forms. The Self. III-7. sparks etc. the corporeal and superphysical). Just as when the jars etc. I shall describe that (Brahman) which is free from limitation. The aspirant. The individual Self of the sheaths beginning with that made of food. H ence the man (with such a view) is considered to be of narrow outlook. is not dissimilar to ether. Prior to creation all this was of the nature of the birthless Brahman. Therefore. All aggregates (such as body) are created like dream by the Maya of the Self. resorting himself to devotion. S imilarly. III-9. III-12. III-11. there is no ground to prov e their reality. Listen how nothing whatsoever is born. (Maya and the Tradition of Vedic Revelation) III-10. Whether they be superior (to another) or equal. functions and names differ here and there (in respect of th e ether contained by jars etc. III-13. whi ch have been described in the Taittiriya Upanishad. just as (the infinite) ether exists in the form of ether confined within jars. Just as to the children the sky becomes soiled by dirt.. This is the illustration with regard to birth. is (just) a means to reveal the idea (of identi ty). that (non-duality) alone is reasonable. III-6. firmly settled in their own doctrine which is arrived at b . the refore. low. The dualists. But multiplicity does not exist in any manner. This meditation is III-16. S imilar is the conclusion with regard to individual souls. the ether etc.). in regard to Its death and birth. and Its exi stence in all the bodies.. medium. As the ether within a jar is not a modification nor a part of the (infini te) ether. as explained (by us already) on the analogy of ether. even as ether ex ists like jars etc. cease to exist. The separateness of the individual soul and the supreme Self which has b een declared (in the sruti) prior to the discussion of creation (in the Upanisha ds). though i t appears to be born in all respects.. remains in the conditioned B rahman. Just as it is taught that ether in the earth and the belly is verily the same. III-14. and high. confined with in them become merged in the infinite ether. is unborn and is ever the same. The self is said to be existing in the form of Jivas (individual souls). is (the same as) the supreme Self. to the un wise the Self becomes tainted by impurities. and since diversity is censured. (Advaita is Non-Contradiction) III-17. in the same way. so too. III-15. yet this causes no differences in the ether. is in a secondary sense in view of the result of the future. for it (separa teness) is not in fitness if held in its primary sense. so an individual soul is never a modification nor a part of the (supr eme) Self. that is not the case with all jars. so also the supreme Brahman is declared to be the same with reference to every two (viz. Just as when the ether confined within a particular jar contains dust and smoke. gold.

The birth of that which is non-existent cannot occur either through Maya or in reality. for when mind does not exist as mind. "There is no multiplicity here". For a change in one s nature cannot ever take place in any manner. The behaviour of the mind (thus) restrained. the immortal would tend to be mortal. There can be no doubt that the non-dual mind alone appears in dream in d ual roles. Since the sruti says. "Who will cause it to be born?". He who thinks that something is born in reality. and "The Self. Non-duality is indeed the supreme Reality. if the modifications are to be a reality. As in dream the mind vibrates through Maya. it becomes obvious that He is born through Maya. III-20. III-28. "This Self is that which has been declared as Not this. III-33. it d oesn t become dissolved. since it is a product (in his view) ? (Creation in the Sruti) III-23. (Manas in Waking. The immortal can never become mortal. By the censure of (the worship of) Hiranyagarbha is negated creation. For them duality constitutes both (the Real and the unreal). but when under restraint. The knowledge of which Bra hman is the sole object is unborn and everlasting. Whatever there is. The mind in deep sleep is of a different character and is not like that (when it is under r estraint). (The knowers of Brahman) say that the knowledge which is free from imagi nation. which is free from all imag ination and which is endowed with discrimination. endowed . (should know) that that which i s already born is (re)born. then it attains the state of not being the mind and become s a non-perceiver. Similarly. By the statement. The sruti favours equally the creation in reality and through Maya. III-31. which constitutes this duality. H ence this (our view) is not opposed (to theirs). III-27. is denied causality. and unborn is not distinct from the knowable. How can the entity that is immortal remain unchanged according to one to whom a thing that is immortal by nature can be born. and not anyth ing else. Dream. though unborn.y their own conclusions. III-25. III-26. On the ground of non-apprehension (of Brahman). III-30. in the waking state too. III-35. (is seen diversely)". not this ". all the preceding instru ction (for Its comprehension) is negated by the sruti. (appears to be born in many ways)". III-22. That (mind) alone becomes Brahman. For. How can the Self that is unborn and immortal tend towards mortality? III-21. as though with dual roles. duality is never perceived. owing to the absence of objects to be perceived. for a son of a barren woman cannot be born either through Maya o r in reality. the non-dual mind appears to poss ess dual roles. III-32. III-24. the fearless. But this (view of the non-duali st) is in no conflict with them. too mortal can never become im mortal. III-18. That which is settled by the sruti and supported by reasoning is true. s o in the waking state the mind vibrates through Maya. "the Lord. When the mind ceases to imagine consequent on the realisation of the Tru th which is the Self. contradict one another. as though with dual roles. This unborn (Self) undergoes modification through Maya and not in any ot her way. The disputants think of the very unborn Self on terms of birth. III-19. The unborn (Self) is known by the (knowledge that is) unborn. The mind becomes dissolved in deep sleep. inasmuch as duality is said t o be its product. Birth of that which exists occurs only through Maya and not in reality.the Realization of No-Mind) III-29. moving and unmoving. So. is perceived by the mind. should be noticed. III-34. Hence the unborn Self becomes revealed b y Itself. owing to Maya. and Deep Sleep .

Where there is no thought whatever. When the mind that has become still tends t owards wandering. is aimed at with the help of the edge of a Kusa grass. cessation of misery. III-48. Since It is one with the unborn knowable (B rahman). For all the Yogis. . (The Realization of the Motionless Citta) III-44. fearlessness. III-36. III-40. through his knowledge which again resembles eth er and is not different from the object of knowledge. by means o f discrimination. By a tireless effort such as that by which the emptying of an ocean. . That highest Bliss exists in one s own Self. It is calm. III-46. ever-r esplendent and omniscient. for the Yogis who behold fear in what is fearles s. rooted in the Self. then it verily becomes Brahman.with the light that is Consciousness on all sides. but should. With the (proper) means one should bring under restraint the mind that i s torn amid desire and enjoyment. No Jiva (individual soul). become unattached. (As regards That) there can be no routine practice of any kind. III-38. attains the state of birthlessness and same ness. The mind that is in deep sleep should be awakened and the mind that is d istracted should be brought back to tranquillity again. whichsoever. I bow down to that Yoga which is devoid of touch with anything (that impli es relationship). one should withdraw (one s mind) from the enjoyment of the objects of desire. IV-2. I bow down to him who is the best among men and who has realised the indiv idual souls that are like ether. indescribable. IV. It has no cause (of bir th). eternally resplendent. and is above all internal o rgans. sleepless. In that state one should not enjoy the happiness. Remembering that everything is productive of grief. for sleep is as harmful as desire. divinely absorbed. When the mind does not become merged nor distracted again. duality). the knowers of Brahman speak of It as the Omniscient (Brahman). The Self is devoid of all (external) organs. formless. it should be brought under restraint. there is no acceptance or rejection. when it becom es motionless and does not make appearances (as objects). awareness and ever lasting peace. (Brahman is) birthless. III-43. (Similarly). this is the highest Truth where nothing is born what soever. It is exquisitely serene. the conquest o f the mind will become possible through absence of dejection. dro p by drop. which conduces to the happiness of all beings and is beneficia l. one does not certainly see the born (ie. identical with li beration. and which is free from dispute and contradiction and is taught by the scriptu res. III-41. remembering that everything is the unborn Brahman. III-47. (Such being the case). are afraid of it. Then knowledge. uncha nging and fearless. This Yoga that is said to be not in touch with anything is hard to be pe rceived by anyone of the Yogis. Even when the mind is well settled down in sle ep. III-45. Alatasanti Prakarana (On extinguishing the fire brand) (Opening Salutations) IV-1. III-37. and unborn. nameless. it should be unified (with the self) with efforts. depend upon the control of their mind. One should know the mind as passion-tinged. is born. and should not disturb it when it has attained the state of equillibrium. dreamless. (The Yoga of non-Contact) III-39. III-42.

the order (in which they originate) has to be found out by you. why is it that its antecedent cause is not comprehen ded ? . How can that which is born be unborn? How can that which is subje ct to modification be eternal ? IV-12. since it i s non-different from the effect that undergoes birth ? IV-13. learn this which is free from all disputes. assert beginninglessness for cause and effec t ? IV-15. He who holds the view that the effect is born from an unborn cause. The ignorance regarding antecedence and succession reveals birthlessness. According to the disputants who hold that the effect is the origin of the cause and the cause is the origin of the effect. IV-21. IV-16. there is no relati onship between the two. IV-8. which is intrinsic. By the term nature is to be known that which comes into being through righ t attainments. If cause and effect be possible. that is itself not established. and which does not give up its character. for that reason. since it is an effect (in his view) ? IV-9. Your inability (to reply) tantamounts to ignorance. the illustration) tha t is equal to the unproved major term. All the souls are free from decay and death by nature. How can the entity that is immortal remain unchanged according to one in w hose view a thing that is immortal by nature can be born. IV-5. they deviate (from that nature). IV-10. But by thinking of decay and death. Thus indeed is the abse nce of birth revealed by the wise in all manner. IV-14. The immortal can never become mortal. So. Those who argue thus are none but non-dualists and proclaim on ly the birthlessness. cannot be applied for establishing a prop osition yet to be proved. Certain disputants postulate the birth of an entity already existing. and becoming absorbed in that thought. and opposing among themselves. The middle term (viz. IV-6. the cause must be born. how can the cause be eternal. birth may be possible. and non-produced.(The Dualists and the Basis of Non-Origination) IV-3. IV-7. which of the two has arisen first on which depends the emergence of the ot her ? IV-19. How wil l a cause. postu late the birth of what is not existing already. inborn. just as a father might be born of a son. too the mortal can never become immortal. or there will be a di fference in the order of succession (postulated by you). The disputants think of the self on terms of birth. whil e some others. From a thing that is born. If (in your view) the effect is non-different from the cause and if. (Critique of Various Theories of Causation) IV-11. We approve the birthlessness revealed by them. How can they. IV-4. How can the Self that is unborn and immortal tend towards mortality. it leads to ad infinitum. What is called the illustration of a seed and a sprout is always equal to the major term (yet to be proved). IV-17. Your cause that is produced from an effect cannot be established.. the effect also is unborn. If the born effect is viewed as born from another born thing. For a change in one s nature cannot ever take place in any manner. According to him who holds that the cause itself is the effect. We do not quarrel with them . That which already exists cannot be born and that which does not exist als o cannot be born. has n o example (to be cited). proud of their intelligence. If the cause emerges from the effect and if the effect emerges from the c ause. IV-20. for if they originate simultaneously. Now. who hold that the effect is the source of the cause and the cause is the source of the effect. produce an effect ? IV-18. as is the case with the horns of a cow.

Therefore. But from the point of view of reality. Hence deviation from this nature can happen in no wa y whatsoever. Likewise. As is the body. since another body is seen (in the all unreal. (Denial of Theories of Causality) IV-38. Besides. nor are things perceived by it born. Since the experience (of objects) in dream is just like that in the wakin g state. may as well see footprints in the sky. so is everything cognised by the consciousness IV-37. as upheld by the system of thought of the opponents. remains in the place of dream. Whatsoever is acquired (in dream0. A cause is not born of an effect that is beginningless. Those who perceive it as having birth. Similar ly. too. although similar to the unreal. the waking state is considered to be real for that dreamer alone. IV-35. see s those very things in dream. since it runs counter to the regulation of time that is needed fo r the journey. Having seen unreal things in the waking state. IV-32. one. (Cognition and the Problem of Objective Reference) IV-24. IV-31. It is not reasonable to say that objects in dream are seen by (actually) going to them.IV-22. Without a cause (ie. Since it is the birthless that is born (in the view of the disputants). IV-40. If transmigratory existence be beginningless. look as though real . That which is non-existent in the beginning and the end is definitely so in the present. And in dream the body becomes unreal. IV-26. since otherwise it brings about the destruction of duality. IV-33. from the experience of pain. having seen unreal objects in dream. when awake. its termination will not be reached. is not se en when awake. Besides. The objects. the former is thought of as being caused by the latter. for the reasons of their ha ving a beginning and an end. IV-36.. deeply impressed. (In dream) what has been discussed with friends and others (and settled) is not resorted to when awake. There is no non-existent that serves as the cause of the non-existent. (Further Analysis of Waking and Dream Experiences) IV-29. For the object is certainly non-existent and (the idea s constituting) the appearances of object are not separate from consciousness. is admitted. IV-23. inasmuch as they are seen within the body . everything is said to be unborn. Nothing whatsoever is born either of itself or of something else. In accordance with the perception of the cause of knowledge. Therefore consciousness is not born. In this narrow space. nor does an effec t take birth naturally (from a cause that is beginningless). the latter i s deemed to be based on external objects. how is the vision of creatures possible ? IV-34. IV-25. IV-39. IV-27. in any way whatsoeve r. Knowledge has its object. in the same way as the existent does not serve as the cause of the non-existent. external object) how can there be its false apprehension ? IV-28. Further. b irthlessness is its nature. bed).All objects are unreal in dream. the existence of external obj ects. it is not possible for the unreal to be born from the real. IV-30. Their utility is opposed in dream. T . they are definitely remembered to be unreal. Such birth is not established. none. nothing whatsoever is born whether it be existent or non-existent or both ex istent and non-existent. the (external) cause is regarded as no cause. if it has a beginning. Consciousness is not in contact with objects nor is it in contact with th e appearances of objects. Such being the case. Consciousness does not ever come in contact with objects in the three per iods of time. And liberation will not be eternal. one does not see them when awake. For that which has no cause has no birth also.

go elsewhere. Just as one. Just as the fire-brand devoid of motion is without appearances and birth. IV-44. (The Basis of Belief in Origination) IV-42. so too. (How Duality Appears in Everyday Consciousness) IV-45. Thus external objects are not born of Consciousness. and also owing to their perception (of duality). As long as there is fascination for cause and effect. thus the souls are regarded to be unborn. when the Consciousness is free from motion. That which bears semblance of birth. does not accrue. They did not go out of the fire-brand owing to their not being of the nat ure of substance. eternal. IV-51. serene and non-dual. the appearances must be the same. for as appearance there can be no distinction. for reasons of perception and righ t conduct a thing is said to be existing. the evil springing up from acceptanc e of birth (creation). for want of discrimination. Neither do they. takes unthinkable objects in the waking state as real. for fear of the Unborn. so long does t ransmigration continue. similarly. the appearances do not come from elsewh ere. therefore.. crooked etc. IV-54. will b e but little. IV-57. A substance could be the cause of a substance and another could be the ca use of any other thing. IV-56. in dream. IV-50. For those who. T hose who realise thus certainly do not fall into misfortune. From the absolute plane (of perception) everything is t . IV-49. the vibration of Consciousness appears as the perceiver and the percei ved. one sees things in that state alone. When the fire-brand is in motion. for they ever remain incomprehensible on account of the absence of relation of effect and cause. IV-43.here is no real entity that serves as the cause of another real entity. deviate from the right path. too. the appearances do not come from elsewhe re. But the souls cannot be regarded either as substances or as some other thing different from all else. When the absorption in cause and effect ceases. For those who. IV-52. How can the unreal be the product of the real ? IV-41. As long as one is completely absorbed in cause and effect. so long do cause an d effect come into existence. simil arly seems to be a thing (of attributes). from their own experience and right conduct. When Consciousness is in motion. The evil effect. nor is Consciousness born of external objects. Just as an elephant magically conjured up is called an elephant by relyin g on perception and right conduct. IV-46. IV-48. appears as though moving. and. In the case of Consciousness. instruc tion regarding birth has been imparted by the wise. n or do they enter again into It. fo r want of discrimination. un moving and non-material. go elsewhere. (Causation is the Result of Attachment to a Causal View) IV-55. From the relative plane (of thinking) everything seems to be born and is not. IV-47. When the fascination for cause and effect ceases. Thus have the wise settled the birthlessness of cause and effect. and who are ever afraid of the birthless. there is no further springing up of cause and effect. They did not go out of Consciousness owing to their not being of the natu re of substance. is Consciousness that is birthless. one does not undergo transmigration. s imilarly. Thus Consciousness is unborn. IV-53. believe in th e existence of substantiality. when the fire-brand is free from motion. Neither do they. so also Consciousness devoid of vibration is without appearances and birth. Just as the fire-brand set in motion appears as straight. nor do they enter into it. if there be any.

When there are no causes does not take birth. Just as an artificial creature (brought into being by incantation and med icine). have no existence apart from his consciousness. always sees the creatures born from eggs or from moisture as existing in al l the ten directions. nothing like destruction. Again. As in dream Consciousness vibrates through illusion. In the case of all birthless entities the terms permanent and non-permane nt can have no application. nor is there any source for it. IV-64. IV-72. The birthlessness of Consciousness which is free from causes is constant and absolute. have no existence apart from his consciousness. that which exists on the basis of the empirical view b rought about by other schools of thought. is the reasoning applicable in re spect of objects. so also do all these creatures come into being and disappear.he unborn (Self) and there is. There can be no doubt that the non-dual Consciousness alone appears in dr eam as though dual. Having realised the absence of duality. The souls that are thus born are not born in reality. Just as a creature seen in dream takes birth and dies. as he wanders in the places of the waking st ate. as though dual by na ture. Both these are devoid of valid proof. it is said in consistence with that empirical point of view that the soul is unborn. IV-58. perceptible to the consciousness of the man in the wak ing state. And that Maya again is non-existent. This is that supreme truth where nothing is born whatsoever. therefore. Just as from a magical seed comes out a sprout of that very nature which is neither permanent nor destructible. so in the waking state Consciousness vibrates through illusion as though p ossessed of dual appearances. an d each can be perceived only through the idea of the other. perceptible to the consciousness of the dreamer. declared to be ever unattached. according to the conclusions arrived at by other sc hools of thought. "Does it exist?" (To such a que stion) "No" is said (by way of answer). (Perception in the Waking and Dream States) IV-61. it is not even unborn. These (creatures). no entity can be spoke n of in a discriminative manner. this conscio usness of the man in the waking state is admitted to be the object of perception to that man of the waking state alone. so too. Inasmuch as the soul. though there exists no dua lity. IV-70. IV-66. inferior or medium then Consciousness IV-76. the non-dual Consciousness appears as though dual. so also do all these creatures come into being and disappear. IV-69. IV-65. IV-60. one is not born again for want of a cause. undoubtedly. . Consciousness is without object and is. IV-73. The man in the waking state. That which exists by virtue of being an imagined empirical view. Both these are perceptible to each other.. takes birth and dies. The dreamer. These (creatures). IV-77. too. but from the point of view of supreme Reality. Where words fail to describe. How can there be any result when the cause is absent. IV-67. IV-75. does not really exist. So also. IV-68. Just as a creature conjured up by magic takes birth and dies. in waking state. duality and birth) was an object of perception to It which had been unborn (even before). So also this consciousness of the dre amer is admitted to be the object of perception to that dreamer alone. Their birth is like that of an object through Maya. for all this (ie. IV-62. IV-74. so also do all the se creatures come into being and disappear. Again. No creature whichsoever is born. IV-71. Similarly. There is a mere fascination for unreal things. This duality consisting in the subject-object relationship is nothing but the vibration of Consciousness. IV-63. therefore. superior. does not exist in reality. as he wanders in the dream-land always sees the creatures bo rn from eggs or from moisture as existing in all the ten directions. IV-59. takes birth from a fancied empirical view point.

There is no diversity anywhere among them. unborn and. Ever-enlightened Souls) IV-91. Then. adopted. A man of puerile imagination definitely covers the Self by affirming that It "exists". "exists not". for whom there is thus the freedom from want of further acquisition of knowledge. the three. and the Omniscient State) IV-87. Owing to fascination for unreal objects. as well as the non-dual stat e of Brahmanhood that is devoid of beginning. This is the humility of the Brahmanas. illumined from the very beginning. excepting the thing to be realised. That is t he object of vision to the wise. by nature. "exi sts not". IV-79. (The Mundane. similar to ether. and e ternal. They follow the path of difference. That state where there is only perceptio n without (the actual presence of an) object is said to be the ordinary (dream) state. there follows a state of stillness. IV-93. IV-83. IV-85. He. equal. He is the all-seer by whom is the Lord perceived as untouched by these. IV-90. becoming free from attachment.IV-78. and that is birthless and non-dual. IV-92. and inasmuch as Reality is thus unb orn. one attains the state of fearlessness that is devoid of grief and delusion (kama). They who have well-settled convictions regarding that which is unborn and . object. The state devoid of object and devoid of perception is regarded as extrao rdinary. I V-84. realised. by nature. There cannot ever be any purification for those who always tread the path of duality. therefore. and made ineffective should be known first. (therefore there is no need of tranquillity to be brought into the Self). Having realised the Truth that is uncaused and having abstained from obta ining any further cause. this is said to be their natural c ontrol. from the very beginning. Of these. All souls are. and the knowabl e. owing to a fascination for which t he Lord becomes ever hidden. tranquil. there follows consequently. These are the four alternative views. and is unveiled every time with strenuous effort. the enlightened one becomes rooted in tranquillity. and their ch aracteristics are well ascertained. unique. and non-different. when the Consciousness has beco me free from attachment and does not engage Itself (in unreal things). entirely detached. exists not". this is their restrain t. for the man of great intellect he re. On realisation of the non-existence of objects. and self-luminous. Having attained omniscience in its entirety. both changing and unchanging and non-existent. Thus have the wise for ever declared knowledge. It should be known that all souls are. IV-80. by nature. IV-89. sleepless. Since. considered to be mean. by nature. they have conquered the senses. All souls are. is considered to be fit for immortalit y. On acquiring knowledge (of the threefold objects) and on knowing the obje cts in succession. Having known thus. dreamless. IV-94. does anyone wish anything thereafter ? IV-86. are regarded as mere imaginations born of ignorance. abstains (from them). and speak of diversity and are. IV-82. Those which are to be abandoned. "Exists and exists not". and end. the state of omniscience for ever. Pure Mundane. IV-95. (The Non-originated. This is birthless. For this Enti ty (the Self) is ever luminous by Its very nature. middle. he becomes ever vei led effortlessly. Supra-mundane. and by possessing such views as (that It is) changing and unchanging. IV-88. even an iota of it. and pure. IV-81. Consciousness. The duality that is co-existent with both object and (its) perception is said to be the ordinary (waking) state. or again. Consciousness engages Itself in things that are equally unreal. That is the (supreme) state on non-distinction. Non-relational. Owing to the Lord s fondness for any object whatsoever.

If there be birth for a thing. What to speak (then) of the destruction of covering for him ? IV-98. Thus they are said to be masters sinc e they are capable of knowing. They are ill umined as well as free from the beginning. uniform and serene. And so the souls also do not enter into objects. This fact wa s not mentioned by the Buddha. Having realised the non-dual state that is hard to perceive. does not e nter into objects.indeed are possessed of great knowledge in this world. IV-100. non-attac hment shall never be possible for the ignorant man. IV-97. The knowledge of the one who is enlightened and all-pervasive. IV-96. deep. it is decla red to be unattached. end . however insignificant it may be. The knowledge existing in the birthless souls is regarded unborn and unre lated. But the co mmon man cannot comprehend it.ever the same. Inasmuch as the knowledge has no relation with other objects. unbor n. as best as we can. All souls are devoid of any covering and are by nature pure. IV-99. we offer our salutations to It.