# IQTM

IPC Practical
TO: Sir Abdullah Khan Durrani BY: Tayyab Noreen BSIEM 06-01 Pakeeza Bukhari BSIEM 06-17 Sara Rehman BSIEM 06-25 Hurria Afzal BSIEM 06-30 Asfa BSIEM 06-35 [29-05-09]

OBJECTIVE:
To get knowledge of terms related to measurement using different weight measuring instruments:

THEORY:
DENVER/ ANALYTICAL BALANCE: An analytical balance is an instrument that's used to measure mass to a very high degree of precision. The weighing pan(s) of a high precision (.01 mg or better) analytical balance are inside a transparent enclosure with doors so dust does not collect and so any air currents in the room do not affect the delicate balance. SPRING BALANCE: In a typical spring scale, the spring stretches (as in a hanging scale in the produce department of a grocery store) or compresses (as in a simple bathroom scale) in proportion to how hard the Earth pulls down on the object. Spring scales measure weight, the local force of gravity on an object, and are usually calibrated in units of force such as newtons or pounds-force. COMMON/ 2-PAN BALANCE: The balance (also balance scale, beam balance and laboratory balance) was the first mass measuring instrument invented. In its traditional form, it consists of a pivoted horizontal lever of equal length arms, called the beam, with a weighing pan, also called scale (hence the term "scales") scalepan, or bason (obsolete [1]) suspended from each arm. The unknown mass is placed in one pan, and standard masses are added to the other pan until the beam is as close to equilibrium as possible.

PROCEDURE:
COMMON BALANCE: Firstly, the zero error in the balance removed by the 88.2g bottle. Then, different objects were placed on the pan and balanced with weights. The readings were noted. Every one measured the weight of these different objects to check for personal error. SPRING BALANCE: The min weight that the available spring balance is 25.45g and the max weight 203.6g. it was then, calibrated by dividing the scale into equal division. Different objects were placed by different people & readings were noted. DENVER INSTRUMENT: Different objects were placed on the Denver instrument and their weights were noted. The weights of same objects were measured by different people to understand personal errors.

OBSERVATIONS:
MEASURED TERMS RANGE SENSITIVITY ZERO ERROR 2-PAN BALANCE 50g ---- 5000g 50g 88.2g EQUIPMENT DENVER INSTRUMENT 0.1mg ---- 210g 0.1mg 0 SPRING BALANCE 96g ---- 1920g 96g 0

WEIGHTS OBJECTS WEIGHED PEN DRIVE PEN BOTTLE

MEASURED ON PAKEEZA 28g 6g 96g

2-PAN PERSONS ASFA 28g 6g 96g

BALABNCE HURRIA 28g 6g 96g SARA 28g 6g 96g TAYYABA 28g 6g 96g

WEIGHTS OBJECTS WEIGHED PEN DRIVE PEN BOTTLE WEIGHTS OBJECTS WEIGHED WEIGHT A WEIGHT B WEIGHT C

MEASURED ON PAKEEZA 25.45g 6.55g 99.35g MEASURED ON PAKEEZA 1536g 768g 960g

DENVER PERSONS ASFA 25.45g 6.55g 99.35g SPRING PERSONS ASFA 1536g 768g 960g

INSTRUMENT HURRIA 25.45g 6.55g 99.35g INSTRUMENT HURRIA 1536g 768g 960g SARA 1440g 768g 960g TAYYABA 1440g 768g 960g SARA 25.45g 6.55g 99.35g TAYYABA 25.45g 6.55g 99.35g

RESULT:
• • Weight of same objects when measured by different persons gave variations because of personal error. Weight of same objects when measured by different instruments gave variations because of instrumental error.

OBJECTIVE:

To get knowledge of terms related to measurement using different length measuring instruments:

THEORY:
STEEL RULES: Steel rules, also called rulers, are essential in any shop when accuracy matters. Steel rules are inherently more accurate than folding rules because they are made in one piece and so avoid the inaccuracies, however small, which are inherent in folding rules because of the to play in their hinges(joints). Steel rules come in rigid and flexible versions. Their primary purpose is accurate measurement. They can also be used as guides for laying out lines, and if rigid enough, for cutting. The thinner, more flexible rules can also be used to measure rounded or cambered work. MEASURING TAPE: A tape measure or measuring tape is a flexible form of ruler. It consists of a ribbon of cloth, plastic, fiber glass, or metal strip with linear-measurement markings with metric units and sometimes additionally imperial units. It is a common measuring tool. Its flexibility allows for a measure of great length to be easily carried in pocket or tool kit and permits one to measure around curves or corners. Measuring tapes designed for carpentry or construction often use a stiff, curved metallic ribbon that can remain stiff and straight when extended, but retracts into a coil for convenient storage. Engineers use tape measures in lengths of over 100 m (300+ ft). TRY SQUARE (L SCALE) Try square is sometimes spelled "tri-square", or referred to as a combination square. A traditional try square has a broad blade made of steel or brass that is riveted to a wooden handle. The inside of the wooden handle typically has a steel or brass strip fixed to it that is precisely 90 degrees to the blade. Some blades have either metric or English graduations for measurement. A try square is a woodworking or a metal working tool used for marking and measuring a piece of wood. The square refers to the tool's primary use of measuring the accuracy of a right angle (90 degrees); to try a surface is to check its straightness or correspondence to an adjoining surface.

PROCEDURE:
L-SCALE: Different objects were taken & the length of each object was measured by different persons to know personal errors. MEASURING TAPE: The tape was opened to an appropriate extent and the length of given objects was measured. Each measurement was performed by different person. STEEL SCALE:

Different objects were taken & the length of each object was measured by different persons to know personal errors.

OBSERVATIONS:
LENGTH OF PERSONS ASFA 12.5cm (4.9") 12.8cm (5") 12.4cm (4.9") BLOCK HURRIA SARA 12.7cm (5") 12.7cm (5") 12.7cm (5") 12.8cm (5") 12.7cm (4.9") 12.8cm (5") TAYYABA 12.6cm (4.9") 12.7cm (5") 12.5cm (4.9")

MEASURING INSTRUMENT STEEL RULE MEASURING TAPE L SQUARE

PAKEEZA 12.7cm (5") 12.8cm (5") 12.7cm (5")

RESULT:
• • Length of the same wooden block when measured by different persons gave variations because of personal error. Length of the same wooden block when measured by different instruments gave variations because of instrumental error.

OBJECTIVE:
Calibrate different temperature sensing devices Thermocouples R.T.D

THEORY:
SENSORS: Create a change in voltage/current/ resistance based upon the temperature of the environment GLASS THERMOMETERS: In a glass thermometer, the liquid in the glass tube expands as it is heated. The liquid is usually mercury and alcohol. THERMOCOUPLE: Thermocouples are the most popular temperature sensors. They are cheap, interchangeable, have standard connectors and can measure a wide range of temperatures. The main limitation is accuracy, system errors of less than 1°C can be difficult to achieve.Based on the Seebeck effect:Conversion of heat differences into electricity. EMF produced around a circuit of different metals. Output voltage related to the temperature difference between the measurement and reference junction. Datasheets provide conversion data from mV to T. Standardized based on metal types used. All voltages are with respect to a 0°C reference point. Must compensate if the reference point is not at 0°C ADVANTAGES:  Low cost  Mechanical stability  Wide temperature ranges available (-200 - 2000 °C) DISADVANTAGES:  Low sensitivity (µV/°C)  Requires a known temperature reference  Requires recalibration periodically OTHER PROPERTIES:  Reasonable accuracy (±2.2°C or ±0.75%) ● Degrades as a function of time (e.g., oxidation) RESISTIVE THERMOMETERS: This type of sensors is based on the observation that different materials can have different resistive profiles at different temperatures. These properties are mainly electrical in nature.

CHARACTERISTICS AND ISSUES OF RTD: Industrial RTDs are very accurate: the accuracy can be as high as ±0.1°C. The ultra high accurate version of RTD is known as Standard Platinum Resistance Thermometers (SPRTs) having accuracy at ±0.0001°C. Special attention should be given on the wiring of RTD bridge connection as well as selfheating when a current is sent through the RTD. Bridge circuit is used quite often to measure low level voltages, such as the outputs from RTD, thermister, or thermocouples. Datasheets provide conversion data from R to T  Standardized based on metal types used, typically Pt α-value gives the slope of the R vs T relationship  Linear relationship RTD characterized by resistance at 0°C ADVANTAGES:  More stable, reliable, repeatable than thermocouples  Very linear relationship between R and T DISADVANTAGES:  More expensive than thermocouples  Requires a current source to operate  Slower response time (2-4x) than thermocouples  Self-heating causes measurement error  Smaller temperature ranges (-200 - 1000°C)

OBJECTIVE:
Pressure Calibration of: U- tube manometer Inclined tube manometer THEORY: PRESSURE DEFINITION: Pressure is defined as a force per unit area U-TUBE MANOMETER:

 Fig. 2-1. In its simplest form the manometer is a U-tube about half filled with liquid. With both ends of the tube open, the liquid is at the same height in each leg.  Fig. 2-2. When positive pressure is applied to one leg, the liquid is forced down in that leg and up in the other. The difference in height, "h," which is the sum of the readings above and below zero, indicates the pressure.  Fig. 2-3. When a vacuum is applied to one leg, the liquid rises in that leg and falls in the other. The difference in height, "h," which is the sum of the readings above and below zero, indicates the amount of vacuum.

INCLINED MANOMETER:

At left, equal pressure is imposed on the liquid in the well and the indicating tube. Reading is zero. At the right a positive pressure has been imposed on the liquid in the indicating tube pushing it down to a point on the scale equal to the pressure. Liquid level in the well rises proportionately. Inclining the indicating tube has opened up the scale to permit more precise reading of the pressure.

OBJECTIVE:
Calibration of flow measuring Equipments:

THEORY:
FLOW RATE: The volume of fluid which passes through a given area per unit time. It is also called flux. It is usually represented by the symbol Q

ORIFICE METER:
 An orifice is simply a flat piece of metal with a specific-sized hole bored in it. Most orifices are of the concentric type, but eccentric, conical (quadrant), and segmental designs are also available  In practice, the orifice plate is installed in the pipe between two flanges  Acting as the primary device, the orifice constricts the flow of liquid to produce a differential pressure across the plate  Pressure taps on either side of the plate are used to detect the difference

VENTURI METER:
 Venturi tubes have the advantage of being able to handle large flow volumes at low pressure drops  A venturi tube is essentially a section of pipe with a tapered entrance and a straight throat  As liquid passes through the throat, its velocity increases, causing a pressure differential between the inlet and outlet regions  The flowmeters have no moving parts. They can be installed in large diameter pipes using flanged, welded or threaded-end fittings. Four or more pressure taps are usually installed with the unit to average the measured pressure

VARIABLE-AREA METERS:
 Variable-area meters, often called rotameters, consist essentially of a tapered tube and a float  Although classified as differential pressure units, they are, in reality, constant differential pressure devices  Flanged-end fittings provide an easy means for installing them in pipes  When there is no liquid flow, the float rests freely at the bottom of the tube. As liquid enters the bottom of the tube, the float begins to rise  The position of the float varies directly with the flow rate. Its exact position is at the point where the differential pressure between the upper and lower surfaces balance the weight of the float.

OBJECTIVE:
Measure the delay time (for measurement) of an instrument.

EQUIPMENT:
Hot plate, Thermometer, Thermocouple, Beaker with Water

THEORY:
THERMOMETER: A thermometer is a device that measures the temperature of things. The name is made up of two smaller words: "Thermo" means heat and "meter" means to measure. A bulb is present at the base of the thermometer with a long glass tube stretching out the top. The liquid in the middle of the thermometer tube moves up and down depending on the temperature. Liquid used is usually mercury or alcohol.

THERMOCOUPLE: A thermocouple consists of two wires of dissimilar metals joined near the measurement point. The output is a small voltage measured between the two wires.

Thermocouple circuit has at least two junctions: the measurement junction and a reference junction. Typically, the reference junction is created where the two wires connect to the measuring device. It is based on the Seebeck effect and converts heat differences into electricity. EMF is produced around the circuit. Output voltage is related to the temperature difference between the measurement and reference junction.

DELAY TIME: Time taken by an instrument to respond towards an input.

PROCEDURE:
A beaker containing water was heated using hot plate. Temperature of water was measured after specific time using both the Thermometer as well as Thermocouple and time delay for measurement was calculated.

OBSERVATIONS:
Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 TIME (Minutes) 0 1 2 3 THERMOCOUPLE (OC) 29 32 34 38 THERMOMETER (OC) 32 34 38 44

Result:
From the observations taken, it is clear that thermocouple gave a time delay of 1 Minute for every measurement.