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September 2011

The EUs Common Security and Defense Policy

Contributing to Peace and Security Worldwide


Decision-making procedures surrounding the EUs Common Foreign and Security Policy are intergovernmental. Decisions in this area are reached by consensus, although individual countries can abstain.

In the European Union, the authority to make decisions on foreign and security policy remains with governments of the individual EU Member States. However, the 27 countries of the EU speak and act as one in several important areas through what is known as the Common Foreign and Security Policy. One major component of the Common Foreign and Security Policy, the Common Security and Defense Policy (CSDP), empowers the EU to respond proactively to international crises through a broad mix of civilian and military crisis management and conflict prevention operations. Through the Common Security and Defense Policy, the EU meets international security challenges by sharing civilian expertise in areas such as policing, the rule of law, and civilian administration, as well as through boots on the ground military operations that help secure and stabilize post-conflict areas and fragile states. While not always making headlines, the EUs CSDP operations steadfastly stem violence, secure the peace, support the rule of law, contribute to humanitarian missions, and in ways large and small bolster the ability of fragile states to sustain functioning democratic institutions. Since 1999, the EU has dispatched peacekeeping missions to several of the worlds hot spots. The first EU military missions took place in the Balkans, where the EU assumed command of the military stabilization force in Bosnia and Herzegovina and helped preserve the peace in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. Since then, CSDP operations have stretched across three continents, from south Asia to the Middle East and Africa to eastern Europe. A rule of law mission began in 2005 in Iraq; a police mission has been in Afghanistan since 2007. In early 2008, an EU military force of more than 3,000 troops was stationed in border areas of Chad and the Central African Republic to protect refugees displaced by fighting in the neighboring Darfur region of Sudan. In August 2008, the EU brokered a ceasefire to end the fighting between Georgia and Russia and deployed EU

observers to monitor the situation. And in December 2008, the EU launched its first maritime operation to protect ships from pirates along the Somali coast.


EU Foreign Policy, Security, and Defense after the Lisbon Treaty

The Treaty of Lisbon, which entered into force in December 2009, expanded the scope of CSDP operations to include joint disarmament operations, the provision of military advice and assistance, and a contribution to the fight against terrorism, in addition to traditional humanitarian and relief work, peacekeeping and post-conflict stabilization, and the use of combat forces in crisis management. The Treaty of Lisbon also introduced enhanced cooperation. If at least nine Member States are willing, they can deepen their cooperation in the field of military crisis management following the unanimous approval of the Council of the EU. A second measure, permanent structured cooperation, provides for a flexible and permanent defense mechanism that does not require a minimum number of participating countries to proceed, and within which the European Defense Agency plays a key role.

2 CSDP Crisis Management at Work: Three Continents, 24 Operations, and Counting

4 Military and Civilian Capabilities for Crisis Management

CSDP Crisis Management at Work: Three Continents, 24 Operations, and Counting

The EUs Common Security and Defense Policy has been operational since 2003, when the Union launched its first civilian missionthe ongoing EU Police Mission in Bosnia and Herzegovinaand deployed its first military operationConcordiato the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia. To date, 24 CSDP operations have taken place on three continents, typically in support of United Nations or NATO crisis management objectives in the areas of peacekeeping, monitoring, and conflict prevention. Civilian crisis management operations help support fragile states by ensuring the functioning and legitimacy of government and its institutions, with a particular emphasis on police and security management, the rule of law, civilian administration, civil protection, and monitoring. Such assistance helps states recover enough to deliver a secure and safe environment; a reliable, trustworthy police force, judiciary, and penal system; and a competent government administration. EUPOL Afghanistan. The EU Police Mission (EUPOL) in Afghanistan is an important element of the international communitys efforts to support the Afghan people as they take responsibility for law and order within their country. Since 2007, EUPOL Afghanistan has supported the development of sustainable and effective civil policing arrangements that ensure appropriate interaction with the wider criminal justice system. EUPOL Afghanistan has developed and implemented 125 different training programs delivered to more than 11,000 police officers. The EU has also allocated 15 million for the construction of the Kabul Staff College and a regional police training center in Bamyan. EUJUST LEX Iraq. In Iraq, the EU helps strengthen the rule of law and promote respect for human rights by providing professional development opportunities for senior Iraqi officials from the countrys criminal justice system. Launched in 2005, EUJUST LEX Iraq is the EUs first integrated rule of law mission and is scheduled to last until June 2012. As of April 2011, more than 4,000 Iraqi investigators, judges, and senior police and prison officials had participated in 134 integrated and specialized training programs and 24 practical work experiences in EU countries. An additional 40 training activities in Iraq have benefited more than 1,200 trainees. EULEX Kosovo. In 2008, the EU launched the largest civilian crisis management mission in its history a rule of law mission that helps Kosovo authorities develop an independent and multi-ethnic justice system and police and customs services, and ensure that these institutions are free from political interference and corruption. Fully deployed, EULEX includes nearly 2,000 international police officers, judges, prosecutors, and customs officials supported by 1,200 local staff. The missions mandate has been extended through mid-2012. Military crisis management operations have helped secure and stabilize conflict zones in the Western Balkans and parts of Africa. EUFOR Concordia and EUFOR Althea have helped deter conflict and maintain the peace negotiated in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia and Bosnia and Herzegovina, respectively; additional CSDP military operations have supported United Nations efforts to stabilize conditions in DR Congo, Darfur/Sudan, and Chad/Central African Republic. EU operations have also supported African Union efforts. EUFOR Althea. Launched in December 2004 when it took over from NATO forces, the EUs longest-running military operation ensures compliance with the 1995 Dayton Peace Accords, deters future conflict, and enhances security and public safety in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Along with its police counterpart, Operation Althea is an important part of the EUs comprehensive effort to help Bosnia and Herzegovina accomplish the political reforms necessary to progress toward eventual EU membership. EUNAVFOR Atalanta. The EUs first-ever naval operation helps deter, prevent, and repress acts of piracy and armed robbery on the high seas. Operation Atalanta protects vulnerable vessels cruising off the Somali coast, including merchant ships and World Food Program vessels delivering food aid to displaced persons in Somalia. Military personnel involved in the operation can arrest, detain, and transfer persons who

EUNAVFOR Atalanta: SPS Numancia and HLNMS Evertsen

Overview of the missions and operations of the European Union June 2011 Civilian missions: ongoing/completed Military operations: ongoing/completed

Bosnia & Herzegovina, since 2004



Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), 2004-2005


Bosnia & Herzegovina, since 2003

Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), 2006


Moldova and Ukraine,


Since 2008 Georgia, 2004-2005

Since 2008


Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), 2003


Palestinian territories, since 2006

Policing mission, since 2007

EU SSR Guinea Bissau




Iraq/Brussels, since 2005

Palestinian territories, since 2005

Support to AMIS II EUFOR Tchad/RCA

2008-2009 Sudan/Darfur, 2005-2006


Since 2008

have committedor are suspected of having committedacts of piracy or armed robbery; they can also seize pirate vessels and ships captured by pirates, along with the goods on board. More than 20 vessels and aircraft participate in Operation Atalanta, which launched in 2008 and will continue through 2012. The European naval force operates in a zone comprising the south of the Red Sea, the Gulf of Aden, and part of the Indian Oceanan area comparable in size to the Mediterranean Sea. Operation Atalanta remains in constant contact with the other naval forces in the region. EUNAVFOR Atalanta has had a significant impact: incidents of piracy dropped 54 percent in 2009-2010. EUFOR Libya. In April 2011, the EU agreed that if requested to do so by the United Nations Office for the Coordination of Humanitarian Affairs, it would launch a CSDP military operation to help deliver humanitarian assistance to Libya.

Since 2005

RD Congo, 2003

Since 2010

EUPOL Kinshasa

RD Congo, 2005-2007


AMM Monitoring Mission

Aceh/Indonesia, 2005-2006

Since 2007

As EU High Representative Catherine Ashton noted, In the primary objective of saving lives, sometimes it is only the military which has the equipment or people who can achieve thatdelivering aid at speed, putting in place the infrastructure. That is why, should a UN request [for military support for humanitarian needs] arrive, we will be ready to help.

CSDP Structures and Instruments

Responsibility for CSDP crisis management operations lies with a handful of permanent EU politico-military bodies based in Brussels. The Political and Security Committee monitors the international situation and helps define policies within the Common Foreign and Security Policy, including CSDP. It prepares an integrated EU response to a crisis, including the evaluation of strategic political, civil, and military options. The Political and Security Committee meets at the ambassadorial level. The European Union Military Committee, the highest military body within the Council of the EU, consists of Member State Defense Chiefs, represented by their permanent military envoys. The European Union Military Committee advises the Political and Security Committee on all military matters relating to the EU. The Committee for Civilian Aspects of Crisis Management advises and provides information to the Political and Security Committee on civilian aspects of crisis management. The European Union Military Staff provides in-house military expertise for the EUs High Representative for Foreign Affairs and Security Policy. The European Union Military Staff is the EUs only permanent integrated military structure and is a key player in the development of the Common Security and Defense Policy. Under the political control and strategic direction of the Political and Security Committee and the overall authority of the High Representative, the Civilian Planning and Conduct Capability ensures the effective planning and conduct of civilian CSDP crisis management operations, as well as the proper implementation of mission-related tasks.

Military and Civilian Capabilities for Crisis Management

On the Web

Common Foreign and Security Policy: cfsp Common Security and Defense Policy: http://www.consilium. European Defense Agency:

The European Union does not have a standing army, nor is there an EU civilian corps. Instead, EU Member States commit the resources required for successful civilian and military crisis management operations. Civilian Missions. Civilian missions rely primarily on staff seconded by Member States, bolstered by international and local contractors. More than 4,000 civilian experts are currently deployed in eight civilian CSDP missions, focused primarily in the areas of police, the rule of law, civilian administration, and civil protection. Lessons learned through these years of experience are applied to strengthen the strategic impact of the missions and build a body of EU best practices in crisis management. Military OperationsRapid Response and Deployability. Troops for CSDP military operations are drawn from dedicated national forces. The EUs initial goal was for Member States to be able to cooperatively deploy a force of up to 60,000 within 60 days, and sustain the deployment for up to one year. However, in the current global environment, troops often need to deploy even more rapidly, so the EU maintains more than a dozen battlegroups, each of which can be deployed within 15 days on missions lasting up to four months. Each battlegroup consists of approximately 1,500

troops, and can act as either as a stand-alone force or as an advance force preparing for a larger multinational peacekeeping effort. Two battlegroups at a time remain on standby for a six-month period, allowing the EU to launch two concurrent rapid response operations. Twenty-one of the 27 EU Member States are also members of NATO, and officials from both organizations work together closely to ensure proper coordination and mutual reinforcement of military crisis management operations. The Berlin-Plus Agreement allows the EU access to NATOs collective assets and capabilities for EU-led operations, including command arrangements and assistance in operational planning. In order to strengthen practical, on-the-ground coordination in crisis situations, in May 2011 the EU and the U.S. formalized an agreement to allow U.S. civilians to participate in EU Common Security and Defense Policy operations. Previously, agreements for U.S. participation in CSDP operations, including the EUs Rule of Law mission (EULEX) in Kosovo and EUs Security Sector Reform mission (EUSEC) in the Democratic Republic of the Congo, had been negotiated on an ad hoc basis.

European Defense Agency

EU Focus is published bi-monthly by the Delegation of the European Union to the United States. Silvia Kofler Head of Press & Public Diplomacy Editor-in-Chief Stacy Hope Editor Melinda Stevenson Writer/Assistant Editor ISSN: 1830-5067 Catalogue No.: IQ-AA-11-05-EN-C Delegation of the European Union to the United States 2175 K Street, NW Washington, DC 20037 202.862.9500

Established in 2004, the European Defense Agency develops the EUs defense capabilities; fosters Member State cooperation on armaments; promotes defense research and technology; creates a competitive European defense equipment market; and strengthens the European defense, technological, and industrial base. For example, as military technology becomes more sophisticated and expensive, EU governments cooperate on arms manufacturing, and engage in pooling and sharing as a means to preserve and develop military capabilities in Europe. The European Defense Agency and its Member States have developed a strategic framework for steering and prioritizing such capability improvement activities. EDA also addresses current operational needs. The EDAs Helicopter Training Program is based on sharing air crews knowledge and experience on how to fly in the most demanding environmentsmountains, heat, and dust. EDA helicopter exercises conducted in France and Spain in 20092010 involved 60 helicopters, 110 crews, and more than 1,300 participants. Of these, 63 crews were deployed to Afghanistan.

EDA has been instrumental in identifying the gaps in our cooperation and to focus on areas where we can make real progress, such as helicopter crew training. This underlines the added value of the EDA with its integrated, pragmatic and output-oriented approach.
EU High Representative Catherine Ashton, Head of the European Defense Agency

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