Nanotechnology textiles

(Nanowerk Spotlight) "Nano Textiles" can be produced by a variety of methods. The key difference among them is whether synthetic nanoparticles are integrated into the fibres or the textile, or are applied as a coating on the surface, and/or whether nanoparticles are added to the nanoscale fibres or coating. However, information about manufacturing methods, the nanomaterials themselves and the quantities used, as well as the "life cycle" of the "nano-treated" textile for sale is largely unavailable to the consumer. The present dossier therefore clarifies nano-textile manufacturing processes and application areas, and gives an overview about the potential effects on the environment and health. Many questions remain unanswered, however, there is a need for considerably more research not only for product development but also into the usefulness and risks which nano-textiles give rise to. The open questions have prompted the Swiss Textile Federation to undertake a joint project with the Swiss Federal Laboratories for Materials Science and Technology (EMPA) entitled "Nanosafe Textiles" and to initiate discussions on the topic. Manufacturing processes of fibres and textile surface patterns for nano textiles In principle a distinction has to be made as to whether the manufacturing process involves the use of nanoparticles or whether it uses nanostructures (nanometer-thin fibres, nanoporous fibres) without synthetic nanoparticles. Nanoparticles can be introduced into a synthetic material (polymer) and fibres can then be spun from the resulting nanocomposite material, which have a nanoscale, or larger, diameter. Nanometer- thin fibres can however also be manufactured from synthetic material or cellulose without synthetic nanoparticles. In this case the term nanofibre is used to refer to the tiny diameter of the fibres.

Figure 1: Manufacture of nanofibres (NP: nanoparticles, CNT: carbon nanotubes). A further possibility is the so-called "refining" of chemical and natural fibres by which nanoparticles themselves are either bonded to the fibre surfaces or are embedded in a coating on them. However, textiles and fibres can also be refined by means of nanoscale metal or polymer coatings, produced by immersion, spraying or plasma processes which do not contain synthetic nanoparticles. As in the case of fibre manufacture "nano" is used in this instance to refer to the nanoscaling of the coating 1. Application areas and products The potential of nanotechnology in the development of new materials in the textile industry is considerable. On the one hand, existing functionality can be improved using nanotechnology and on the other, it could make possible the manufacture of textiles with entirely new properties or the combination of different functions in one textile material 2. Table 1 gives an overview of the improved properties of textile materials that can be achieved using nanotechnology, including the type of nanomaterials used. Foremost among the applications currently feasible are, in particular dirt and/or waterrepellent and antibacterial textiles and, although they are as yet produced on a very small scale, textiles which give UV radiation protection and so-called "Cosmeto-textiles" (e.g. ladies tights) with wovenin nano-capsules containing special body care substances. Bullet-proof vests containing carbon nanotubes (CNT) are also currently available, as are heat isolating and moisture-absorbent textiles. "Smart clothes" are clothes in which the textile structures themselves perform electronic or electric functions. Despite all the promises, however, they are not yet commercially available. The scenario envisaged involves electronic components which have been reduced in size by means of nanotechnology being completely fused with the textile material resulting in that

textile and non-textile components cannot be differentiated and "foreign particles" can no longer be seen or felt. At present initial trials are still focussing on electronic devices or sensors, for example to monitor body functions, being woven into the textiles using conventional clothing technology (e.g. pockets) 3. Researchers are also investigating textile materials made from nanofibres which can act as a filter for pathogens (bacteria, viruses), toxic gasses, or poisonous or harmful substances in the air. Medical staff, fire fighters, the emergency services or military personnel could all benefit from protective garments made from materials such as these. Certain nanofibres can absorb a large amount of moisture, hence textile materials are also being studied for use in agriculture: soaked with pesticides, they could be planted together with seeds, rot at the end of the vegetation period and at the same time fertilize the ground. Futuristic visions even include textile sensors which not only detect pathogens by simply wiping a surface (e.g. of food or surgical instruments), but record them and warn the user, possibly by changing colour 4. According to the manufacturers, there are already quite a number of different nano textiles on the international market. The "Woodrow Wilson International Center for Scholars" in the USA lists 156 articles under the "clothing" category on its nano-product database 5. Our own research 6 into the European and Austrian market in particular, found 82 products in the "clothing" category, six in the category "interior textiles", and eight in the Outdoors sector which have nano-coating (tents, sleeping bags) and one textile product with nano-silver for cleaning purposes. Most of these products are advertised as having dirt or water-repellent properties, e.g. coats and trousers for the Outdoors, or shirts, ties and/or workwear garments with "stain protection". However, there is also a large group of antibacterial textiles containing nano-silver. These consist principally of odour-inhibiting clothing (underwear, T-shirts, socks etc.), but also include interior textiles products such as cushions, blankets or mattress covers which, according to the manufacturers at least, can be bought on the retail market.

Table 1: Overview of the nanomaterials used in textile applications research and possible functions which might be achieved through their use (slight adaptation from

A study of scientific publications on nanotextiles has been conducted with the

summary that many of the manufacturing methods described are still at the research stage, to some extent they are cost-intensive, and that the integration of nanoparticles can have a negative impact on other textile properties 2. Nevertheless, nano-textiles with almost all the properties cited in Table I are already on the market. It can be assumed that the term "nano" is often used for promotional purposes and that several products do not contain any nanomaterial or that nanotechnology processes were not

used in the manufacture. However, this is not just true of the textiles sector but is a phenomenon that applies equally to many other "nano-products". The "Hohenstein Quality Label for nanotechnology" in textiles Germany's Hohenstein Institute is a private research and service organisation focusing on research, development, testing, consultation, certification and basic and advanced training, mainly for businesses in the textile industry and associated areas. Together with NanoMat, a network of research institutions and suppliers of nanomaterials, a definition of nanotechnology for the textile industry was elaborated, which is also the basis for the "Hohenstein Quality Label for nanotechnology": "Nanotechnology refers to the systematically arranged functional structures which consist of particles with size-dependent properties." 7 A textile product therefore does not qualify for the Hohenstein Quality Label merely on the basis that it has nanoparticles incorporated within the fibres or that the fibres are enclosed in a nanoscale coating. Rather, the nanoparticles or nanolayers in or on the textile must be systematically arranged (Figure 2) and thus demonstrably result in a new function. At the same time there must not be any negligible negative effect on the textile properties. Further parameters which the Hohenstein Institute can test include resistance to care treatments and wear comfort. These are indicated separately on the quality label. This quality label could be of value to consumers and companies alike and allow a distinction to be made as to whether a product is a "genuine" nano-textile product or whether the word "nano" is being used as a powerful sales catchword for an otherwise conventional product. Only four textile manufacturers have so far taken advantage of The "Hohenstein Quality Label for nanotechnology" for textiles (as at 9.10.09). Are synthetic nanoparticles released from nano-textiles? As shown above, there are different manufacturing processes by which nanoparticles can be integrated in fibres or textiles, besides which there can be variation in how tightly woven the nanoparticles are into the textile material (fibre or coating). It is these factors and the use to which the textile is subjected that determine whether and to Figure 2: Left: Nanoparticles systematically arranged on a textile. Right: By contrast, an unsystematic arrangement7 what extent nanoparticles can be released from it. It is known that textiles lose between 5% and 20% of their weight during use as a result of abrasion, mechanical influence, irradiation, water, sweat, washing detergents or temperature variations. The possibility therefore cannot be ruled out that nano-textiles might release individual nanoparticles, agglomerates of nanoparticles or small particles of textile with or without synthetic nanoparticles. To date, however, there have been few experimental investigations performed 1. In the case of textiles made from fibres with integrated nanoparticles, however, a lasting

functionality at least appears more likely compared with nano-textiles in which nanoparticles are only present in the surface coating or which have been impregnated with them. The few investigations there have been with textiles containing nano-silver show that some products lose up to 35% of the silver in the washing water after only one wash 8 9. Health impact It appears to be emerging that during the production process of certain nanoparticles occupational exposure can have negative effects on the health. However there is currently far too little data from laboratory and animal tests to be able to conduct a comprehensive risk assessment 10. Long and stiff CNT in particular are currently regarded as hazardous 11, which primarily affects those involved in their manufacture and who need to have appropriate protection from exposure. The extent to which nanoparticles woven into textiles may or may not be harmful to consumers' health is as yet unknown. As described above, the release of nanoparticles from textiles as a result of use, aging, abrasion etc. cannot be ruled out. Nevertheless, suitable studies are absent to clarify the exposure as well as the possible hazard potential. Nano-silver is already used for its antimicrobial properties in a wide range of consumer products and hence also textiles. Some dubious product value conflicts with potentially negative effects on health 12. On the one hand, materials with nano-silver particles (integrated into textile fibres or as a fibre coating) are used to manufacture textiles that are relatively odourless, yet the effects on the natural skin flora have not been tested (see below). On the other hand, nano-silver is also used for clothing which is supposed to protect people suffering from neurodermatitis (atopic dermatitis) from becoming infected with staphylococcus aureus, a bacterium which is suspected of exacerbating the symptoms of neurodermatitis. Clinical studies have so far not confirmed an actual positive effect of textiles with nano-silver in cases of neurodermatitis 13. The German Federal Institute for Risk Assessment (BfR) does not see any advantage in the reduction of bacteria on textiles and warns against potential negative effects such as a weakening of the immune system and the possibility of silver-resistant bacterial strains development. The Institute also fears that consumers could develop a false sense of security and neglect general hygiene (washing garments) 14. Effects of nano-silver in textiles on skin flora In recent years antibacterial textiles using nano-silver have been developed to minimise odour formation by reducing the number of bacteria. Fresh sweat is initially entirely odourless. It is only the influence of certain bacteria of the skin flora that produces the typical, and to some extent unpleasant, body odour. Silber ions are effective against a broad spectrum of bacteria 15 and this mechanism is supposed to be used to kill the odourforming bacteria. In other words, when contact is made with the skin an unspecific effect can be expected on the skin flora. The Hohenstein Institutes have carried out in-vitro tests with antibacterial textiles and examined their effects on skin flora 16. The results indicate that bacteria are evidently only killed in very close and direct contact with antimicrobial- treated fibres. In the case of human skin flora this means that it can only be influenced when it is in direct contact with the treated fibre. However, since only a few textile fibres have direct and, at most, temporary points of contact with the skin, depending on their construction and the type of fibre, no dramatic transformation in the skin flora is to be expected in respect of the number of

bacteria. Furthermore, investigations with disinfectants show that approximately 20% of skin flora bacteria are located too deep in the skin for them to reach 17. The bacteria population is hence only reduced for a short period and after some time the skin bacteria are filled up again from deeper skin depots (sweat pores, hair follicles) to make up the deficit created 16. The same effect may be expected where nano-silver is used. However, more investigations are needed since silver nanoparticles can also penetrate into deeper skin layers because they are so small 18, and release their antimicrobial effect on the resident skin flora. To date there have been no significant studies of the longterm effects of nano-silver in textiles on natural human skin flora. Environmental impact As there have been no investigations on the release of nanoparticles from textiles, their potential risk to the environment cannot be assessed. Most probably however nanoparticles are released during washing, entering the environment via the waste water. In this case it is principally nano-silver's antimicrobial properties which make it hazardous because silver ions are toxic for aquatic organisms as well as for microorganisms in the soil. Damage to the bacteria used in the biological purification of waste water in sewage plants likewise cannot be ruled out (cf.12). Initial studies substantiate the fact that nanosilver can be released from textiles in differing quantities and forms. One study has investigated the quantities and forms of silver (nano-sized or larger) which were released from nine different fabrics into the water whilst washing in the washing machine. It concluded that the percentage of the released silver varied considerably between individual products (1.3 to 35%) and is dependent on the manufacturing method 9. Products which had the silver woven into the fibres released very little silver. Silver was mostly released from materials washed in the washing machine in particle sizes of >450 nm, which the authors interpreted as an indication of the importance of the mechanical influence. A product with conventional silver refining (several µm-thick silver coatings of the fibres) showed no significant differences in respect to the distribution of sizes of the silver particles released. Nano-titanium dioxide, which is also used in the manufacture of nano-textiles, also has to be considered hazardous because of its potential environmental impact. When water and UV exposure are present nanotitanium dioxide produces free oxygen radicals which are toxic for aquatic microorganisms. This can damage the ecological balance of stretches of water. However, there are still no investigations to the mechanisms of the toxicity or the impact on natural ecosystems 19. Notes and References 1 Som, C., Halbeisen, M. and Köhler, A., 2009, Integration von Nanopartikeln in Textilien – Abschätzungen zur Stabilität entlang des textilen Lebenszyklus, 5.1.2009: EMPA */78398/—-/NanoSafeTextiles_5.pdf. 2 Siegfried, B., 2007, NanoTextiles: Functions, nanoparticles and commercial applications, December 2007: EMPA */78337/—-/NanoSafeTextiles_1.pdf. 3 Mecheels, S., Schroth, B. and Breckenfelder, C., 2004, Smart Clothes – Intelligente textile Produkte auf der Basis innovativer Mikrotechnologie. Expertensicht – Beispiele – Empfehlungen: Hohensteiner Institute. 4 Ulrich, C., 2006, Nano-Textiles Are Engineering a Safer World, Human Ecology, 2 d/Nano-

Textiles%20Are%20Engineering%20 a%20Safer%20World.pdf. 5, (as at 3.11.09). 6 Greßler, S., Nentwich, M., Simkó, M., Gazsó, A. and Fiedeler, U., 2009, Nano-Konsumprodukte in Österreich. NanoTrust Dossier No. 009, dossier009.pdf. 7, (Zugriff 4.11.09). 8 Benn, T. M. and Westerhoff, P., 2008, Nanoparticle Silver Released into Water from Commercially Available Sock Fabrics, Environmental Science& Technology 42(11), 4133-4139. 9 Geranio, L., Heuberger, M. and Nowack, B., 2009, The Behavior of Silver Nanotextiles during Washing, Environmental Science & Technology 43(21), 8113-8118. 10 Aitken, R. J., Hankin, S. M., Ross, B., Tran, C. L., Stone, V., Fernandes, T. F., Donaldson, K., Duffin, R., Chaudhry, Q., Wilkins, T. A., Wilkins, S. A., Levy, L. S., Rocks, S. A. and Maynard, A., 2009, EMERGNANO: A review of completed and near completed environment, health and safety research on nanomaterials and nanotechnology, im Auftrag von: Defra, Nr. TM/09/01: IOM. 11 Simkó, M., Gazsó, A., Fiedeler, U. and Nentwich, M., 2009, Nanopartikel, Freie Radikale und Oxidativer Stress. NanoTrust Dossier No. 012, nanotrust-dossiers/dossier012.pdf. 12 Fries, R., Greßler, S., Simkó, M., Gazsó, A., Fiedeler, U. and Nentwich, M., 2010, Nanosilver. NanoTrust Dossier No. 010en, dossier010en.pdf. 13 Birnie, A. J., Bath-Hextall, F. J., Ravenscroft, J. C. and Williams, H. C., 2009, Interventions to reduce Staphylococcus aureus in the management of atopic eczema (Review), Cochrane Database Syst. Rev. 2008 Jul 16; (3): CD003871. 14 BfR, 2006, 12. Sitzung des Arbeitskreises "Gesundheitliche Bewertungen von Textilhilfsmitteln und -farbmitteln" der Arbeitsgruppe "Textilien" des BfR: Bundesinstitut für Risikobewertung 12_sitzung_des_arbeitskreises_ gesundheitliche_bewertung.pdf. 15 Wijnhoven, S. W. P., Peijnenburg, W. J. G. M., Herberts, C. A., Hagens, W. I., Oomen, A. G., Heugens, E. H. W., Roszek, B., Bisschops, J., Gosens, I., Van De Meent, D., Dekkers, S., De Jong, W. H., Van Zijverden, M., Sips, A. J. A. M. and Geertsma, R. E., 2009, Nanosilver – a review of available data and knowledge gaps in human and environmental risk assessment, Nanotoxicology 3(2), 109-138. 16 Höfer, D. and Mecheels, S., 2004, Textilien, Hautflora und Geruch, No. 62: Hohensteiner Institute. 17 Haustein, U.-F., 1989, Bakterielle Hautflora, Wirtsabwehr und Hautinfektionen, Dermatologische Monatsschrift 175(11), 665-680. 18 Larese, F. F., D'Agostin, F., Crosera, M., Adami, G., Renzi, N., Bovenzi, M. and Maina, G., 2009, Human skin penetration of silver nanoparticles through intact and damaged skin, Toxicology 255, 33-37. 19 Battin, T. J., Von der Kammer, F., Weilhartner, A., Ottofuelling, S. and Hofmann, T., 2009, Nanostructured TiO2: Transport Behavior and Effects on Aquatic Microbial Communities under Environmental Conditions, Environmental Science & Technology 43(21), 8098-8104. By NanoTrust, Austrian Academy of Sciences. NanoTrust Dossiers are published irregularly and contain the research results of the Institute of Technology Assessment in the framework of its research project NanoTrust. The Dossiers are made available to the public exclusively on

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Textiles to offer protection from malaria and more about nanotechnology-enabled textiles
Posted in: clothing, Colin Stuart, Cornell Fashion Collective, Cornell University, electronics, Frederick Ochanda, Gambia, Juan Hinestroza, Kay Obendorf', Kenya, Laurie Lange, malaria, Mark David Vorreuter, Matilda Ceesay, MOF fabric, MOF-coated cloth (metallic organic framework), mosquito repellent, Nanotechnologies for Textile Markets, Ted Boscia|May 15, 2012 Textiles that harvest our energy to recharge the batteries for phones and other portable devices (for example, US Army research in my May 9, 2012 posting and British soldiers prepare to conduct field tests in my April 5, 2012 posting), that protect us from poison gases (my page on nanotechnology and textiles on the Nanotech Mysteries wiki), that clean pollution from the air (my Feb. 24, 2012 posting about Catalytic Clothing), and more are currently being developed. It seems textiles used for passive protection and decoration and other forms of personal enhancement (body shapers, ‗lifts and separates‘) are becoming more active. One of the latest developments is a textile that protects from malaria. From the May 8, 2012 news item on Nanowerk, A Cornell University scientist and designer from Africa have together created a fashionable hooded bodysuit embedded at the molecular level with insecticides for warding off mosquitoes infected with malaria, a disease estimated to kill 655,000 people annually on the continent. Though insecticide-treated nets are commonly used to drive away mosquitoes from African homes, the Cornell prototype garment can be worn throughout the day to provide extra protection and does not dissipate easily like skin-based repellants. By binding repellant and fabric at the nanolevel using metal organic framework molecules – which are clustered crystalline compounds – the mesh fabric can be loaded with up to three times more insecticide than normal fibrous nets, which usually wear off after about six months. ―The bond on our fabric is very difficult to break,‖ said Frederick Ochanda, postdoctoral associate in fiber science and apparel design (FSAD) in the College of Human Ecology and a native of Kenya. ―The nets in use now are dipped in a solution and not bonded in this way, so their effectiveness doesn‘t las t very long.‖ I‘m assuming that this design will be reworked to accommodate more average bodies (from Cornell University‘s ChronicleOnline April 30, 2012 article by Ted Boscia,

Sandy Mattei models a design by Matilda Ceesay '13, an FSAD apparel design major from Gambia, at the Cornell Fashion Collective spring fashion show April 28 on campus. Credit: Mark David Vorreuter Boscia gives details, The colorful garment, fashioned by Matilda Ceesay ‘13, an FSAD apparel design major from Gambia, debuted at the Cornell Fashion Collective spring fashion show April 28 [2012] on campus. It consists of an underlying one-piece bodysuit, hand-dyed in purple, gold and blue, and a mesh hood and cape containing the repellant. The outfit is one of six in Ceesay‘s collection, which she said ―explores and modernizes traditional African silhouettes and textiles by embracing the strength and sexuality of the modern woman.‖ Ceesay and Ochanda, who works with FSAD Associate Professor Juan Hinestroza, partnered with Laurie Lange, graduate student in Professor Kay Obendorf‘s lab, to refine the process for capturing insecticides on the MOF-coated cloth. Hinestroza called the resulting garment ―fashionable and functional, with the potential to create a new generation of durable and effective insecticide mosquito protection nets.‖ The researchers are not pinning all of their hopes on the body suit (from Boscia‘s April 30, 2012 article), Ultimately, Ceesay and Ochanda hope the outfit they developed will serve as a prototype to drive new technologies for fighting the spread of malaria. On the horizon, Ochanda said, is an MOF fabric that releases repellant in response to changes in temperature or light — offering wearers more protection at night when mosquitoes are on the hunt. At minimum, they hope the technology can be applied to create longer lasting insecticide-laden bed nets. Despite the use of mosquito nets, ―people are still getting sick and dying,‖ Ceesay said. ―We can‘t get complacent. I hope my design can show what is possible when you bring together fashion and science and will inspire others to keep improving the technology. If a student at Cornell can do this, imagine how far it could go.‖

Both the designer and scientist have a very personal stake in creating textiles that will repel malariaborne mosquitoes (from Boscia‘s article), Ochanda and Ceesay, from opposite sides of the continent, both have seen family members suffer from the disease. Its prevalence in Africa — the source of 90 percent of the world‘s malaria infections annually — can also lead to harmful misdiagnoses. Ceesay recalls a family member who died after doctors treated her for malaria when she had a different sickness. ―It‘s so common back home; you can‘t escape it,‖ Ceesay said. ―Seeing malaria‘s effect on people in Kenya, it‘s very important for me to apply fiber science to help this problem,‖ Ochanda added. ―A long-term goal of science is to be able to come up with solutions to help protect human health and life, so this project is very fulfilling for me.‖ There‘s no mention of how close this textile is to becoming a product and being offered in the marketplace. So, for anyone who‘s generally interested in nanotechnology -enable textiles and possible economic impacts and business outlooks, Cientifica released its report, Nanotechnologies for Textile Markets in April 2012 (available for purchase). From the April 16, 2 012 news release and report description webpage, While the traditional markets of apparel and home textiles continue to be impacted by nanotechnologies, especially in adding value through finishing and coating, the major opportunities for both textile manufacturers and nanomaterial suppliers lie elsewhere. ―Nanotechnologies for the Textile Market‖ takes an in depth look at the major textile markets – apparel, home, military, medical, sports, technical and smart textiles – detailing the key applications of nanotechnologies and the major players. The 255 page report contains full market analyses and predictions for each sector to 2022, outlines the key opportunities and is illustrated with 98 figures and 30 tables. Cientifica predicts that the highest growth over the next decade will be seen in the areas of smart and technical textiles. In both of these areas a significant part of the added value is due to the innovative use of nanotechnologies, whether in fiber production or as a coating or additive. With over a billion Bluetooth enabled devices on the market, ranging from smartphones to set top boxes, and new technologies such as energy scavenging or piezoelectric energy generation being made possible by the use of nanotechnologies , there are opportunities for the textile industry in new markets ranging from consumer electronics to medical diagnostics. ‗It‘s a perfect storm‖ added Tim Harper [Cientifica's Chief Executive Office], ―the availability of new materials such as graphene, the huge leaps being made in organic electronics, and the move towards the Internet of Things is blurring the divide between textiles and electronic devices. When two trillion dollar markets collide there will be lots of disruption and plenty of opportunities.‖ Cientifica does offer a free download of the report‘s Table of Contents (ToC). Here‘s a sample from the ToC which gives you a preview of the report‘s contents,

EXECUTIVE SUMMARY 11 INTRODUCTION 21 Objectives of the Report 21 World Textiles and Clothing 22 Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the EU Textile Industry 24 Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the US Textile Industry 25 Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the Chinese Textile Industry 26 Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the Indian Textile Industry 27 Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the Japanese Textile Industry 27 Overview of Nanotechnology Applications in the Korean Textile Industry 29 Textiles in the Rest of the World 31 Macro and Micro Value Chain of Textiles Industry 32 Common Textiles Industry Classification 32 End Markets and Value Chain Actors 32 Why Textiles Go Nano 34 Nanotechnology in Textiles 34 Nanotechnology in Some Textile-related Categories 37 Technical & Smart Textiles 37 Multifunctional Textiles 39 High Performance Textiles 39 Smart/Intelligent Textiles 39 Nanotechnology Hype 41 CURRENT APPLICATIONS OF NANOTECHNOLOGY IN TEXTILE PRODUCTION 43 Nanotechnology in Fibers and Yarns 43 Nanotechnology in Fabrics 47 Nanotechnology in Textile Finishing, Dyeing and Coating 55 Nanotechnology In Textile Printing 66 Green Technology — Nanotechnology In Textile Production Energy Saving 67 Electronic Textiles 67 Concept 67 Markets and Impacts 68 Current E-Textile Solutions and Problems 69 Nanotechnology in Electronic Textiles 78 Future and Challenges of Electronic Textiles 87 NANOTECHNOLOGY APPLICATIONS IN CLOTHING/APPAREL TEXTILES 89 Summary of Nanotechnology Applications in Clothing/Apparel Textiles 90 Current Applications of Nanotechnology in Clothing/Apparel Textiles 91 Hassle-free Clothing: Stain/Oil/Water Repellence, Anti-Static, Anti-Wrinkle 91 The Guardian newspaper in an October 4, 2011 article by Colin Stuart offers a brief , comprehensive but cautionary overview of nanotechnology-enabled textiles (thanks for the tip, Tim Harper), The manipulation of textiles is an age-old practice, starting with the furs of the animals we hunted. As agriculture and farming grew, we began to weave natural fibres, providing us with fabrics such as cotton and wool – sartorial staples we‘ve relied on for centuries.

… Unsurprisingly, the most mainstream use of nanotextiles is in clothing. The chances are you have some nanotextiles hanging in your wardrobe; wrinkle-free or non-iron garments have been engineered against creasing by coating the fibres with nanoparticles. Nanotechnology is also responsible for the stainresistant fabrics found in both clothing and carpets. Tiny, nano-sized hairs are added to the surface of the material which stop liquids from being absorbed. … The nano clothing of the future, however, could add even more functionality to the latest fashions. Tomorrow‘s must-wear materials could hide piezoelectrics – nanotechnology that harvests the energy created as you rub against the fabric. Imagine walking along as your every move helps charge an iPod strapped to your belt. But nanotextiles are not just confined to clothing; they are also being used in Asia in the battle against malaria. In 2010 a group of Thai researchers announced they had created mosquito nets laced with nanoparticles of pyrethroid, an insecticide. Pyrethroid had been combined with nets before, but doing so on the nanoscale means the particles are small enough to cling to the fibres even when washed. These nano-nets can last up to five years – a five-fold improvement on conventional netting. The article goes on to establish concerns over environmental, health, and safety regulations but I thought it best to end with the mosquito nets and malaria, which is where this posting started, more or less.

Nano is nothing but a prefix having a meaning of denoting dimensional measurements. In case of nanotechnology, the term is directly related to its functional parameters. In the nanotechnology, the material related to the technology is smallest in dimension. Here at least one of dimensions of the materials is in order of 1 to 100 nm.Here it should be represented that a nanometer (nm) is billionth of one meter i.e. 1nm=10-9 m.The human hair is about 100 times of it or a hydrogen atom is 10 times less of it. The technological process related to the nanoscaled materials can be referred as the nanotechnology. The research of nanotechnology has been continuing for decades and it is considered as one of the promising technology of 21st century. The research and development of nanotechnology have been carried out for understanding about it and creating developed materials, devices and system that diffuses new properties. The research of nanotechnology is widely spread out due to the dramatically properties of the materials. The properties of the atoms or bulk materials of any substance are dramatically changed when the substance is converted into nano particles. Here physical, chemical and biological properties of the materials are changed when converted into nanoparticles than the bulk materials. As for example: ceramics have a property of brittleness but if the grain size of the material is converted into nano-particles then the particles as well as the materials will be deformable. Even thin films and fiber can be produced from that. This is also an important thing that the color of any material on its particle size rather than its intrinsic properties. Gold bears golden color that becomes red when converts into nano- particles! In this article nano-particles are represented for its outstanding performances in textile finishing. The bearing properties of chemical substances (nano-particles) can be encapsulated to the textile materials (yarn, fabric etc.). Hence the textile materials will carry the properties of the particles. Example of some magic nano-particles: There are numerous numbers of nano-particles. Here just some nano-particles are presented.
       

Clay nano particles. ZnO nano-particles. TiO2 nano-particles. MgO nano-particles. Silver nano-particles. Fluorocarbon nano-particles. Antimony pent oxide nano-particles. Tourmaline nano-particles.

Application area of Nanotechnology in Textile Finishing:



3. 4. 5.



8. 9.


The recent applications of nanotechnology in textile finishing are high performance sky wax, breathable water proof sky jacket, wrinkle resistant, stain repellent garments, LED digital camera etc. The functional water repellent, protection UV, absorption property, color fastness, abrasion safety, fire ret ardency, functional hygiene, anti-microbial functional protection self-cleaning. Nano whiskers that make the fabric stained and water resistant. It also makes the fabric breathable rather than resin finishes. The more-over whiskers give water and oil repellency, superior durability, breathable fabric, remains soft and natural wrinkle resistance. The nano net completely covers the core fibers and inject linen property in synthetic fibers I,e the absorbency of linen in polyester fibers. It alters the synthetic fibers to give a feel of cotton and linen that absorbs the body moisture and gives cooling effect. ―Wrap nano sheet‖ wraps the fibers completely to cover it and the property. It makes fabric strong and durable. It improves the color fastness, crease retention and static resistance. Clay nano-particles are composed of various hydrous allumino-silicates that posses various properties like chemical, heat, electrical resistance that improve flame ret ardency and anti corrosiveness of the fabric. ZnO nano particles can impart UV shielding in fabrics that can also reduces static electricity of nylon fabric. TiO2 and MgO have photo catalytic activity. These particles are able to break the toxic, harmful chemicals and biological agents. Hence impart selfsterilizing functions to the fibers. Silver nano-particles posses anti microbial and anti mould property. The particles are used to impart anti odor and ultra fresh finishes to the undergarments and socks.

The Mysterious Logics Behind the Finishing: Easy
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The hydrophobic nature of any surface can be gained through two stepsCreation rough surface. Modification of the surface by the substance having low surface energy.

Fluorocarbon is hugely used for the finish. This contains perfluoroalkyl residue in which all the hydrogen atoms are replaced by fluorine compounds. The chemical can reduce surface tension because of having very high thermal stability & low reactivity. The mentionable surface tension of the fluorocarbon finishes depends on its chain length. The minimum chain length can be represented as n=9.




It is an old concept that ―silver‖ molecules have a power to resist bacteria and microorganism. Hence the food, water, any other substance have great weakness to bacteria or microorganism were kept in the utensils of silver metal. This antibacterial property of silver particles has been proved scientifically. This finishing procedure is carried out by the encapsulation of the silver compounds i.e. the nano particles of silver are encapsulated in the fiber reactive polymer.






Prof. Yang prepared a suitable way for that. He prepared a capsule having two parts, one is inner core and other is outer layer. Two parts have two functions. He prepared it by some steps.
  

Encapsulation of an emulsified solution of perfume with melanin precondensate. The silver nano particles are dispersed in water soluble styrene maleic anhydride polymer solution. Here a solution will be prepared. The micro capsules, prepared at the step ―a‖ are treated with the solution of ―b‖.

Hence the microcapsule having functions both of silver and melanin. Then the yarn or fabrics are treated with the microcapsules.





The combination of powerful oxidizing agents and UV lights in some cases near UV light has a property of removing of xenobitics and organic pollutants from the textile products. The TiO₂ is a recognized catalytic compound. it shows it`s catalytic property by the absorption of a photon and jumped to the conduction band from the valance band. That is able to remove the organic pollutants and xenobiotics from the textile materials. Hence by treating the fabric or yarn by the particles, the fabric or yarn can be brought into photo catalytic self cleaning property. There is an absorbing capacity of UV rays in TiO₂ particles so the fabric of yarn also can be protected from UV rays for 20 washes.




The polymers having anti static and electro conductive composition are used for the finishing e.g. Fluor alkyl acryl ate polymers. The nano particles of 30 nm(slightly more or less) are applied on the surface of the yarn hence the surface becomes smooth and anti static that does not allow the pollen or dust to come close.




The antimony pent oxide nano particles along with Halogenated flame-retardants are used for the flame retardant finishing. The antimony has a characteristic of flame retardency. Hence the presence of antimony particles along with halogenated flame retardant in the fabric increases a flame retardant property of the fabric.




Tourmaline a natural substance is used for the odor fighting finishing. The tourmaline comes contact with oxygen, carbon dioxide and water molecules that allows an electrolytic dissociation that creates negative ions. The negative ions create a magnetic field that resists the bacteria so the fabric stays odor free. Also there we

see another occurrence of infra red consumption that destroys bacteria to make the fabric odor free.




Clay nano particles (e.g. clay nano particles of montmoriblonite) or nano flakes are used for the purpose. These types of substances contain hydrogen aluminosilicates, having difference in the chemical composition & crystal structures. The clay nano particles have a property of locking UV light. It also has electrical, chemical & heat resistance. Hence the UV rays can be removed by the fabric having a finish of clay nano particles.






By the nano finishing, a coated layer is produced on the fabric surface. Which does not allow the water or beverage to be entered when a fabric is finished with the substances having the sizes of 100 nm the fabric becomes compressed that makes the cloth stain & dirt resistant.

The overall discussion directs us the point that the nano finishing can fulfill our lots of demands those types of finishing are easy and less time consuming. The chemical substances required for the purposes are also available .the functional aspects of the nano finished fabrics, yarns, and the logics behind that have been described in above. So there is no doubt that there is waiting a good prospect of nano finishing if we become initiative. Already in many countries the Nano finishing process has been applied due to its adventitious functional perspectives and they have got pleasant form it .this innovation can alter our traditional ties of finishing. I think, nano finishing has good prospects in the near future.

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Nano finishing of textiles -09110713065bhpapp02 Nano technology-application Henestrota_full_93_04 Modern applications of nano technology in textile. FC07_En.pdf A.P.S Swwhne, B.Condon, K.V.Singh, S.S Pang, G.Li and David Hui Textile Research Journal/2008 78:73/. Textile club B.D dated 20th June 2012 . 20of%20nanotechnology%20in%20textiles.pdf

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