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Sl.No. PROBLEM TYPE 1 CENTROID 2 MOMENT OF INERTIA Description of the problem Know how to find the centroid of compound section,( X ,Y) Know how to find first moment of inertia (which is useful to find the bending shear stress), second moment of inertia (which is useful to find the bending compressive and bending tensile stress), product of inertia (which is used to locate the principal axes, where the product inertia is zero) and polar moment of inertia (sum of second moment inertia about both axes). Also train up yourself for the direction of principal axes and the magnitude of principal moment of inertia. In the derivation between modulus of rigidity and the elastic modulus, the pure shear specimen (that is the specimen will be subjected to shear stress only) will have internally tensile stress and compressive stress diagonally, having magnitude equal to the shear stress. In the derivation of between elastic modulus and bulk modulus, you should know how to find the volumetric strain of a cube subjected to the hydrostatic pressure. Generalised hooks law equations for finding the change in dimensions, when the elastic body is subjected to uniaxial load or uniaxial stress, biaxial load or biaxial stress and triaxial load or triaxial stress. (concentrate on cylindrical specimen, where there is change in diameter or change in length) See the concept of the principal stresses AND principal strains. Also know how to find the direction of principal axes , magnitude of principal stresses or strains and the maximum shear stress or shear strain. So far principal strains or maximum shear strain problems are not given. See the problems on the axially loaded, prismatic or non prismatic members (tapered rods), composite members. Temperature effect and self weight effect on the members are also important. Know the concept in thin cylinders. Study various stresses and strains in the cylinder subjected to internal pressure. Also know how to design (i.e. finding the thickness of cylinder) the cylinder if the internal pressure and the permissible stress of the materials are given. Also know how to find the principal

3

RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN ELASTIC CONSTANTS

4

PRINCIPAL STRESSES and PRINCIPAL STRAINS

5

PRISMATIC MEMBERS WITH AXIAL LOADS

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THIN CYLINDERS

directly you can say some members are having zero forces.e. i. Mostly they will not ask you direct problems.e. m. minimum three members (or) m= 2j-3. but you have to find the forces in the members due to temperature change in the members or shortage of length in the members or due to settlement of the supports.e. but with continuous beams with internal hinge. they may give different loading i. assumptions in deriving the various critical load formulas for various boundary conditions of columns. it is TWO DISPLACEMENTS i. Know core or kernel of a section (area where the axial load can be placed without any tensile stresses in the section).stresses and the principal strains.e. Some TRUSS problems will be given without any loads at the joints. radius of gyration and its relationship.e. So count the joints and multiply the TWO displacements.(2j3)) and external ( i. from that you have to identify the loading and the type of beam. Also find the rules for TRUSS analysis. In some beam problems. Cantilever beams with multiple curves (example sine boards) 7 COLUMNS 8 TORSION 9 TRUSS STABILITY. Know the difference in words of crippling load and buckling load Know what is torsional rigidity (i.e. So practice and know how the BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE DIAGRAM with internal hinges. Know what is slenderness ratio. Relationship between Horse power and Torsion Study the Truss stability i.e. Also know the method of SECTIONS and method of joints in truss analysis. at each joint of 2D Truss frame. Practice a Cantilever TRUSS problems. For kinematic indeterminacy it is Number of unrestrained displacements i. For static indeterminacy it is sum of internal (i. Euler’s formula.e.of reactions -3). If time permits also see the thin spherical shells. horizontal and vertical displacement. In some problems they will give either bending moment or shear force diagram. No. Also know the corresponding effective length of the column.GJ= modulus of rigidity x polar moment of inertia). load will be eccentric to the beam or the support may be spring type instead of roller or hinge or fixed type. DETERMINATE OR INDETERMINATE OR STATIC INDETERMINANCY OR KINEMATIC INDETERMINANCY 10 TRUSS PROBLEMS WITH EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE OR SHORTAGE OF LENGTH OR SETTLEMENT OF THE SUPPORTS 11 BEAMS VERSES SHEAR FORCE OR BENDING MOMENT DIAGRAM .

Static Indeterminacy. problems on flitched beams i. timber and steel or concrete and steel reinforcement and bending shear stress formula. the connection called NAILS are to be used. Try to see many problems to find the slope and deflections using double differential equation Understand the concept. generally if you want change from the lower modulus to higher modulus you have to multiply with modular ratio = ratio of Higher modulus of elasticity to the lower modulus of elasticity of that dimension.and perpendicular bendings with a loading of couple or point loads also tried.in this you have to concentrate on the I beams or T-beams i.e. I section. that how to form the conjugate beam for a given type of beam and loading. Check the concepts of approximate methods of analysis in the notes given in the ADVANCED REINFORCED CONCRETE 13 THREE HINGED ARCHES 14 15 BENDING MOMENT IN SIMPLE INDETERMINATE BEAMS OR DETERMINATE FRAMES LIKE PROPPED CANTILEVER BEAM KINEMATIC INDETERMINANCY AND STATIC INDETERMINANCY 16 17 SLOPE AND DEFLECTIONS OF STANDARD CASES CONJUGATE BEAM 18 APPROXIMATE METHODS OF ANALYSIS-CANTILEVER AND SUBSTITUTE FRAME METHOD . separate the beam parts and do the analysis. where you have to concentrate on the TRANFORMATION (changing into one material with modular ratio. This method is also used to find the slope and deflection after forming the conjugate beam.e. T-section etc. This spacing can be found using TOTAL BENDING SHEAR FORCE Calculation.e.e. In all the above problems what you have to learn is that FREE BODY DIAGRAM i. These nails are to be placed with spacing.number of unknown forces in the members and reactions. Know the analysis of three hinged arches using different loads i. Also know the Bending shear stress distribution for various sections i. 12 BENDING TENSILE OR BENDING COMPRESSIVE STRESS AND BENDING SHEAR STRESS You know both pure bending formula.number of unknown or unrestrained displacements. point loads or partially or fully uniformly distributed loads on the span Compatibility method to solve two span continuous beam and propped cantilever beam for udl and point loads Know how to calculate the kinematic and static indeterminacy of beams and rigid frames. Timber joists.e. Know the difference between kinematic indeterminacy. whereas if you want to change from higher modulus to lower modulus to the dimension should be multiplied with the modular ratio) of the given section i. When you connect flange member with web member.e.

SHEAR FORCE AND BENDING MOMENT OF arche . Also know the concept in the ILD for the reaction. So to avoid the torsion in the members.e. This ILD can be drawn to a member in the truss or reaction to the structure or bending moment or shear force in the beams. then the members will have torsion.e. Know the concepts of flexibility and stiffness methods.e. Know also MAXWELL’S RECIPROCAL THEOREMS UNIT LOAD METHOD AND VIRTUAL WORK METHOD is the extension to Strain energy concepts to find the unknown forces in the indeterminate truss problems Know the concept of Shear Centre. pass the load through the shear centre. whereas CANTILEVER METHOD OR PORTAL METHODS ARE USED TO FIND THE BENDING MOMENT AND SHEAR FORCE ON THE RIGIG FRAMES SUBJECTED TO HORIZONTAL LOADS (i.19 20 DEFLECTION DIAGRAMS FOR FRAMES OR BEAMS FLEXIBILITY MATRIX and STIFFNESS MATRIX 21 22 RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN STIFFNESS MATRIX AND FLEXIBILITY MATRIX STRAIN ENERGY 23 UNIT LOAD METHOD and VIRTUAL WORK METHOD FOR STRUCTURAL ANALYSIS SHEAR CENTRE 24 25 ILD FOR DETERMINATE OR INDETERMINATE STRUCTURES 26 ILD FOR THREE HINGED ARCHES DESIGN. Also know how to find the shear centre for various cross sections.VII SEMESTER. wind loads and earthquake loads) Know how to draw the deflection diagrams of continuous beams and frames subjected to loads. Know how to convert from flexibility matrix to stiffness matrix or vice versa of the order of 2 x 2 matrix or 3x3 matrix only.e. Know the TWO THEOREMS OF CASTIGLIANO’S FIRST AND SECOND and its APPLCIATIONS (i. Know the strain energy of axially loaded members (i. Also know how to form the stiffness and flexibility matrix of beams. ILD is the variation of a particular force. for truss members). beam members (in the beams) and torsional members (in shafts generally). We know that the SUSTITUTE FRAME METHOD IS USED TO FIND THE BENDING MOEMENT AND SHEAR FORCE AT ANY FLOOR LEVEL USING GRAVITY LOADS ONLY i. If the load either axial load (in the case of columns) or transverse loads (in the case of beams) are not passing through the shear centre. to find the slope and deflections or unknown force. bending moment and shear force of an indeterminate structures using Muller Breslau Principle Know how to find the ILD for THRUST. when the unit load is travelled from one point to other point. of the order of 2 x 2 matrix. frames and trusses of simple case i.e. dead load and live loads.

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