Waste is a resource in Ecocity

Ulla-Maija Mroueh, Customer Manager, VTT Technical Research Centre of Finland

Waste management in EcoCity
Outline of the presentation • Basic principles of waste management in EcoCity • Waste collection and source separation • Waste treatment methods • Future opportunities • Optimised waste treatment system

Basic principles of waste management in EcoCity
• EcoCity uses resources sparingly • Waste management and recycling is an integral part of the resource management of the city • MateriaI efficiency is considered in town planning and in all the activities of the city • Life Cycle impacts of the resource management chain are understood and controlled • Used resources are returned to natural or anthropogenic cycles • Keep soil healthy by returning nutrients and organic carbon • Maximum reuse of raw materials

Basic principles of waste management in EcoCity
• EcoCity does not pollute the environment • No emissions to soil, water or air from waste disposal, treatment and transport • Responsibility and control • Waste is collected, recycled and treated by responsible parties • The target is to produce high-quality sorted waste fractions, which are easy to sell to re-users • The life in the city is enjoyable • Technology makes waste collection and recycling easy for residents and workers

What kind of waste is produced
• Municipal waste • Waste from food production (fish, vegetables, meat production?), mainly biodegradable • Hazardous waste • Bioenergy ashes • Construction waste • Sludge from wastewater treatment • Waste from enterprises - offices, small companies, trade • And...

Easy to-use source-separation systems
• Each type of waste is collected separately • Better quality and recovery rate by easy-to-use systems • Well-planned waste sorting facilities in homes • Separate waste bins for recyclable wastes • Waste sorting instructions in all residences • Hazardous waste separated from other wastes

EkoLine waste sorting system by Stala Oy

Easy to-use source-separation systems
• In apartment buildings and offices automatic waste transportation may be arranged by conveyor systems • Conveyors may also be used for transport of sorted wastes from waste collection points • Conveyor system will be built, e.g. in Central Congress Hall of Beijing Olympics • In Finland systems used in large shopping centres
Waste conveyor system by Puzair Oy

Collection of waste
• For single-family homes and hazardous waste collection points • Example: deep collection containers may be used • Space saving, most of the container underground
Waste deep collection containers, Molok Oy

• Optimisation of waste collection system done in town planning stage • Proper location of buildings helps to find best possible collection points and optimal transport routes

Mechanical sorting plants
• Treatment in mechanical sorting plants • May help to optimise transport • Utilisation of mixed waste treatment residue problematic • The waste amount produced in small cities may not be sufficient for mechanical treatment plant

Waste transport
• In conveyor systems waste is transported by pipeline to deep waste container/pressing containers • Transportation from waste collection points by small trucks • ICT-based system used for optimisation of waste logistics • New technologies for automatic identification of waste types, waste container filling rates, etc. will be introduced

System for optimisation of waste logistics, Ecomond Oy

Composting
• For biodegrable waste: from kitchen, garden, farming and food production, waste water treatment, anaerobic treatment of waste • Organic, biodegradable waste is recycled and utilised for soil enrichment • Reduces emissions of waste treatment • Reduces soil degradation by returning the organic matter and nutrients to soil • Soil is kept fertile without synthetic fertilisers • Helps to remeadiate contaminated soil by binding metals and absorbing organic pollutants

One-family composters
• Small composters for one family or a few families • Closed, rodent isolated, heat isolated in cold conditions, leachate collection • Open composting only for garden waste • Several types and models produced in Finland • Finnish small composters adapted to demanding weather conditions • Maintenance is needed to produce good quality compost • Requirements • Separate collection of compostable waste • A person responsible for maintaining

Composting plants
• Composting in closed tunnel or drum plant • Final refinement of the compost in piles (closed plant) • No odours, emissions are treated, e.g. by biofiltration • Leachate is collected and treated for recycling • Utilisation of the heat produced if possible

Vapo tunnel composting plant

How to ensure good quality of the compost
• Planning and delivery by experienced parties • Capacity of the plant sufficient • Control of incoming material • Pretreatment of the material (shredding and mixing) • Process control (temperature, oxygen, pressure) • Control of the product, product quality criteria

Anaerobic digestion and composting of residue
• Anaerobic digestion an alternative for compostion • Produced gas may be used as biofuel • In stoves, for heating, electricity production, as transport fuel • Substitutes for other fuels • Residue may be composted and used as soil amendment • Potentially reduced greenhouse gas emissions compared with composting

Management of inorganic waste
• Presorting inside the city • Most of the sorted waste transported to treatment plants • Producer responsibility basic principle • Promotion of responsible consumption is important • In the absence of producer responsibility systems the city must take responsibility for sustainable treatment • Ecological and social sustainability

Waste from "business life"
• Ashes from bioenergy production • Utilisation as fertiliser or in earth construction possible • Requires environmental characterisation • Pretreatment (washing, granulation) may be needed • for reduction of metal leaching • for improvement of technical properties • Construction and demolition waste • Presorting at construction sites • Reuse or utilisation in energy production, earthworks • Other materials sent to recycling plants

Optimised waste treatment system
• Material-efficiency is considered in town-planning and all the activities of the city • Opportunities to reduce waste production • Packaging of self-produced goods optimised • Preference to recyclable and reusable products e.g. reusable transport packing • Preference to services • Joint use of appliances/equipment, etc. • Utilisation of ICT technology instead of paper • Good maintenance services • Flexible buildings

Optimised waste treatment system
• High recycling targets compared to best existing systems • New operational models and ways of thinking needed
100 % 90 % 80 % 70 % 60 % 50 % 40 % 30 % 20 % 10 % 0% Biowaste Paper and cardboard Glass Metal Electronic waste Wood

Recycling rates of household waste in the Helsinki Metropolitan Area for 2004 (YTV, 2005)

Optimised waste treatment system
• Organic biodegradable waste is collected and treated separately inside the city • Usable, high-quality products • Optimised plants with minimal emissions and energy use • Inorganic waste is source-separated and transported to pretreatment centres or to treatment plants • Easy-to-use source separation systems • Ensure that waste is transported and treated by responsible parties

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