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Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use

Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use SS014a-EN-EU

Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use
Outlines the different types of primary beams used for multi-storey buildings. Summarises their benefits, describes the key issues for design and presents information for initial design.

Contents
1. 2. 3. Form of Construction Application Benefits Design Aspects 2 3 3

Created on Friday, June 23, 2006 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

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Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use

Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use SS014a-EN-EU

1.

Form of Construction

Primary beams support secondary beams, and by their loading, tend to be heavier or deeper than secondary beams of the same span. They are subject to one or more point loads at a spacing given by the span of the floor slab. Primary beams can be of two generic forms: Hot rolled steel sections (using IPE or UB sections) Fabricated sections (from welded plates) For long spanning primary beams (span > 12 m), illustrated in Figure 1.1, it is possible to form large rectangular openings in the webs of the sections close to mid-span where the shear forces are low. Fabricated beams are often used as primary beams because they can be designed efficiently as composite asymmetric sections. Cellular beams can also be used as primary beams, although they are less efficient for this case because of the higher shear forces acting on primary beams. Primary beams should generally connect to the flanges of columns for stiffness and fabrication efficiency of the connections.

12 - 18 m
Created on Friday, June 23, 2006 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

6-9m

Figure 1.1

Layout of long span primary beams of 12 to 18 m span

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Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use

Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use SS014a-EN-EU

2.

Application Benefits
either hot rolled or fabricated beams may be used they are tailor-made for their span and load large web openings can be formed close to mid-span heavier sections can achieve up to 30 minutes fire resistance without protection

The benefits of long span primary beams are as follows: Primary beams can be designed for a range of spans Fabricated sections are efficient Service integration Saving on fire protection costs

3.
Created on Friday, June 23, 2006 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Design Aspects

The structural design of primary beams depends on the size and layout of beams in the floor grillage. Table 3.1 and Table 3.2 give typical sizes of primary beams for various column spacings in orthogonal directions.
Table 3.1 Sizes of composite primary beams using IPE sections
Maximum span of primary beam (m) 6 7,5 9 10,5 12

Span of secondary beams (m)

6 7,5 9 Imposed load

IPE 360 IPE 400 IPE 450

IPE 400 IPE 450 IPE 500

IPE 450 IPE 550 IPE 600

IPE 550 IPE 600R IPE 750x137

IPE 600R IPE 750x137 IPE 750x173

= 3 kN/m2 plus 1 kN/m2 for partitions etc

Table 3.2

Sizes of composite primary beams using UB sections


Maximum span of primary beam (m) 6 7,5 9 10,5 12

Span of secondary beams (m)

6 7,5 9 Imposed load

305 127 42 kg/m 356 171 45 kg/m 406 178 54 kg/m

356 171 57 kg/m 406 178 67 kg/m 457 191 74 kg/m

406 178 74 kg/m 457 191 89 kg/m 533 210 101 kg/m

457 191 98 kg/m 533 210 122 kg/m 610 229 140 kg/m

533 210 122 kg/m 610 229 140 kg/m 610 305 179 kg/m

= 3 kN/m2 plus 1 kN/m2 for partitions etc

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Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use

Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use SS014a-EN-EU

Primary beams should be connected to column flanges, for example by end plate details of the form of Figure 1.1. Extended end plates increase the stiffness of the connection and reduce deflections of the beam.
120

90 B A 70 70

A-A 50 50 50
Created on Friday, June 23, 2006 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

40 70

B A 10 B-B

70

Figure 3.1

End plate connection of primary beam to column and fin plate connection of secondary beam to column

Secondary beams may be connected to primary beams by end plate details but the top flange should be notched where beams are of the same level, as shown in Figure 3.2. Fin plate or double angle cleats may alternatively be used.
A 120 50 40 90 90

A-A

Figure 3.2

Beam-beam connection showing notch at top flange

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Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use

Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use SS014a-EN-EU

For fabricated beams, a variety of section sizes is possible. For efficient structural design, the span/depth ratio of composite primary beams is in the range of 15-18. However, the depth of the section can be increased in order to achieve the maximum size of web opening for service integration (typically up to 70% of the depth of the section). An example of a fabricated primary beam is shown in Figure 3.3.

Created on Friday, June 23, 2006 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Figure 3.3

Long span fabricated beam with a variety of opening shapes

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Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use

Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use SS014a-EN-EU

Quality Record
RESOURCE TITLE Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use

Reference(s) ORIGINAL DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Technical content endorsed by the following STEEL Partners: 1. UK 2. France
Created on Friday, June 23, 2006 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Company SCI SCI SCI

Date Jan 05 May 05 May 05

R.M. Lawson G.W. Owens D.C. Iles

G.W. Owens A. Bureau A. Olsson C. Mueller J. Chica M. Haller G.W. Owens

SCI CTICM SBI RWTH Labein PARE SCI

26/5/05 26/5/05 26/5/05 11/5/05 20/5/05 26/5/05 26/4/06

3. Sweden 4. Germany 5. Spain 6. Luxembourg Resource approved by Technical Coordinator TRANSLATED DOCUMENT This Translation made and checked by Translated resource approved by

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Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use

Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use SS014a-EN-EU

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Created on Friday, June 23, 2006 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Scheme Development: Primary beams for multi-storey buildings for commercial and residential use

Outlines the different types of primary beams used for multi-storey buildings. Summarises their benefits, describes the key issues for design and presents information for initial design. Expertise Filename Practitioner P:\CMP\CMP554\Finalization\SS files\014\SS014a-EN-EU.doc Microsoft Office Word; 7 Pages; 214kb; Scheme Development Architect, Engineer Multi-storey Buildings; 27/05/2005 27/05/2005 15/05/2005 01/06/2005

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English Mark Lawson, Steel Construction Institute Graham Owens, Steel Construction Institute Graham Owens. Steel Construction Institute David Iles, Steel Construction Institute Graham Owens, Steel Construction Institute

Commercial buildings, Architectural Design, Conceptual Design, Initial Design, I Sections and H Sections, Beams with Web openings Eurocode Reference Worked Example(s) Commentary Discussion Other

Coverage Special Instructions

National Applicability

Europe

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