Our autonomic nervous system controls the glands and the muscles of our internal organs.

The autonomic nervous system is divided into the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic nervous system’s job is to arouse the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations. Since Shaniqua is going out on a date, she might feel nervous. In response to this stress, the sympathetic system will respond with accelerated heartbeat, slowed digestion, raised blood sugar, dilated arteries, and perspiration. This allows Shaniqua to be ready for action. However, after meeting her date, Shaniqua might calm down. This calming is due to the parasympathetic nervous system; it decreases heartbeat, lowers blood sugar, and so forth. Both of the systems work together to keep Shaniqua in a steady internal state. Framing is the way an issue is posed; how an issue is framed can significantly affect decisions and judgments. A general example shows how framing an issue in two logically equivalent ways might elicit different answers; a surgeon tells someone that 10 percent of people die while undergoing a particular surgery but another tells them 90 percent will survive. The information is the same even though the effect it not. To both patients and physicians, the risk seems greater to those who hear that 10 percent will die (394-395). In Shaniqua’s case, she may feel nervous if she thinks of the evening as a date rather than a get together with someone whom she’s interested it. If Shaniqua, though not likely because of her sympathetic response, can think of the evening less like a serious date, than she will calm down and have more fun. The biases that every date brings might vanish. For instance, she’ll worry less about both her appearance and the appearance of her date and probably worry less about whether or not they’ll go to each other’s places after the evening. If she thinks of the night as less of a hook up but rather just a dinner where they’ll converse and get to know one another, she will have a better time. Gender typing is the acquisition of a traditional masculine or feminine role. Shaniqua’s night out already has evidence of gender types. For instance, Shaniqua is probably getting ready in the bathroom making sure she looks her best for the date. This is a role that women generally have been stereotyped to have. Gender types will affect Shaniqua’s evening because both her and her date will likely assume social roles for the dinner. Shaniqua’s date will likely pay for the meal, since that is what men generally do, and Shaniqua will likely order something small to avoid losing her figure; however, if Shaniqua decides to act like herself rather than a typical “girl” and they decide to split the bill, a sense of equity will be established and that may help nourish a future relationship (129). The drive-reduction theory is the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state ( a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need. W hen a physiological need increases, so does a psychological drive- an aroused, motivated state. The physiological aim of drive reduction is homeostasis. Homeostasis is a tendency to maintain a balanced or constant internal state; the regulation of any aspect of body chemistry, such as blood glucose, around a particular level. For instance, the body’s temperature regulation system works like s thermostat, cooling you down when you heat up and keeping you warm when you’re cold. These needs that we have reduce our drives but we are still pulled by incentives. Incentives are positive and negative stimuli that lure and repel us. In Shaniqua’s case, she may be feeling a little hormonal; this can act as her physiological need to maintain homeostasis. Going on a date with her object of affection may help her balance her endocrine system. Shaniqua’s incentive for the evening is likely to have a good time without embarrassing herself and setting the chances high for a second date (457).

Variable Ratio schedule provides reinforcement after an unpredictable number of responses. This is what gamblers and anglers experience- unpredictable reinforcement and that’s what makes gambling and fishing so hard to extinguish. Like the fixed ratio schedule, the variable ratio schedule produces high rates of responding, because reinforcement increase as the number of responses increases. This schedule applies to Shaniqua’s date because she is unsure of what will happen throughout the date. There may be moments of excitement, tension, or boredom. So her evening will feel like a variable ratio schedule. However, the more unpredictable the night is, the more likely she will enjoy her date’s company and long to be with him again after the first date. On the other hand, if the date turns out to be boring and typical, she will be bored and find her date lame, therefore she will be less inclined to go on a second date (327).

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