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Turbocharger

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"Turbo" redirects here. For the movie, see Turbo (film). For other uses, see Turbo (disambiguation).

Cut-away view of an air foil bearing-supported turbocharger.

A turbocharger, or turbo collo!uialism", from the #reek $%&'()$ $turbulence$" is a turbine driven forced induction device that makes an engine more efficient and produce more power for its si*e by forcing e+tra air into the combustion chamber. ,-.,/. A turbocharged engine is more powerful and efficient than a naturally aspirated engine because the turbine forces more air, and proportionately more fuel, into the combustion chamber than atmospheric pressure alone. Turbochargers were originally known as turbosuperchargers when all forced induction devices were classified as superchargers0 nowadays the term $supercharger$ is usually applied to only mechanically driven forced induction devices.,1. The key difference between a turbocharger and a conventionalsupercharger is that the latter is mechanically driven from the engine, often from a belt connected to the crankshaft, whereas a turbocharger is powered by a turbine that is driven by the engine2s e+haust gas. Compared to a mechanically-driven supercharger, turbochargers tend to be more efficient but less responsive. Twincharger refers to an engine with both a supercharger and a turbocharger. Turbos are commonly used on truck, car, train, aircraft, and construction e!uipment engines. Turbos are popularly used with 3tto cycleand 4iesel cycle internal combustion engines. They have also been found useful in automotive fuel cells.,5.
Contents
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o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o

- 6istory / Turbocharging versus supercharging 1 3perating principle 1.- 7ressure increase 8 boost 1./ Turbo lag 1.1 9oost threshold 5 :ey components of a turbocharger 5.- Turbine 5.-.- Twin-turbo 5.-./ Twin-scroll 5.-.1 ;ariable-geometry 5./ Compressor 5.1 Center housing8hub rotating assembly < Additional technologies commonly used in turbocharger installations <.- =ntercooling <./ Water in>ection <.1 Fuel-air mi+ture ratio <.5 Wastegate <.< Anti-surge8dump8blow off valves <.? Free floating ? Applications ?.- 7etrol-powered cars ?./ 4iesel-powered cars ?.1 @otorcycles ?.5 Trucks ?.< Aircraft ?.? @arine and land-based diesel turbochargers A 9usiness and adoption B Cafety D Cee also -E Feferences -- G+ternal links

History[edit]

Forced induction dates from the late -Dth century, when #ottlieb 4aimler patented the techni!ue of using a gear-driven pump to force air into an internal combustion engine in -BB<.,<. The turbocharger was invented by Cwiss engineer Alfred 9Hchi -BAD--D<D", the head of diesel engine research at #ebrHder Cul*er engine manufacturing company in Winterhur,,?. who received a patent in -DE< for using a compressor driven by e+haust gasses to force air into an internal combustion engine to increase power output but it took another /E years for the idea to come to fruition. ,A.,B. 4uring World War = French engineer Auguste Fateau fitted turbochargers to Fenault engines powering various French fighters with some success.,D. =n -D-B, #eneral Glectric engineer Canford Ale+ander @oss attached a turbo to a ;-/ Liberty aircraft engine. The engine was tested at 7ikes 7eak in Colorado at -5,EEE ft 5,1EE m" to demonstrate that it could eliminate the power loss usually e+perienced in internal combustion engines as a result of reduced air pressure and density at high altitude.,D. #eneral Glectric called the system turbosupercharging. ,-E. At the time, all forced induction devices were known as superchargers, however more recently the term $supercharger$ is usually applied to only mechanically-driven forced induction devices. ,1. Turbochargers were first used in production aircraft engines such as the Iapier Jioness,--. in the -D/Es, although they were less common than engine-driven centrifugal superchargers. Chips and locomotives e!uipped with turbocharged 4iesel engines began appearing in the -D/Es. Turbochargers were also used in aviation, most widely used by the Knited Ctates. 4uring World War ==, notable e+amples of KC aircraft with turbochargers include the 9--A Flying Fortress, 9-/5 Jiberator, 7-1B Jightning, and 7-5A Thunderbolt. The technology was also used in e+perimental fittings by a number of other manufacturers, notably a variety of Focke-Wulf Fw -DE models, but the need for advanced high-temperature metals in the turbine kept them out of widespread use. ,citation needed.

Turbocharging versus supercharging[edit]


Main article: Su ercharger =n contrast to turbochargers, superchargers are mechanically driven by the engine. ,-/. 9elts, chains, shafts, and gears are common methods of powering a supercharger, placing a mechanical load on the engine.,-1.,-5. For e+ample, on the single-stage single-speed supercharged Folls-Foyce @erlin engine, the supercharger uses about -<E horsepower --E kW". Let the benefits outweigh the costs0 for the -<E hp --E kW" to drive the supercharger the engine generates an additional 5EE horsepower, a net gain of /<E hp -DE kW". This is where the principal disadvantage of a supercharger becomes apparent0 the engine must withstand the net power output of the engine plus the power to drive the supercharger. Another disadvantage of some superchargers is lower adiabatic efficiency as compared to turbochargers especially Foots-type superchargers". Adiabatic efficiency is a measure of a

compressor2s ability to compress air without adding e+cess heat to that air. The compression process always produces heat as a byproduct of that process0 however, more efficient compressors produce less e+cess heat. Foots superchargers impart significantly more heat to the air than turbochargers. Thus, for a given volume and pressure of air, the turbocharged air is cooler, and as a result denser, containing more o+ygen molecules, and therefore more potential power than the supercharged air. =n practical application the disparity between the two can be dramatic, with turbochargers often producing -<M to 1EM more power based solely on the differences in adiabatic efficiency. 9y comparison, a turbocharger does not place a direct mechanical load on the engine however, turbochargers place e+haust back pressure on engines, increasing pumping losses". ,-/. This is more efficient because it uses the otherwise wasted energy of the e+haust gas to drive the compressor. =n contrast to supercharging, the primary disadvantage of turbocharging is what is referred to as $lag$ or $spool time$. This is the time between the demand for an increase in power the throttle being opened" and the turbocharger s" providing increased intake pressure, and hence increased power. Throttle lag occurs because turbochargers rely on the build up of e+haust gas pressure to drive the turbine. =n variable output systems such as automobile engines, e+haust gas pressure at idle, low engine speeds, or low throttle is usually insufficient to drive the turbine. 3nly when the engine reaches sufficient speed does the turbine section start to s ool u , or spin fast enough to produce intake pressure above atmospheric pressure. A combination of an e+haust-driven turbocharger and an engine-driven supercharger can mitigate the weaknesses of both.,-<. This techni!ue is called twincharging. =n the case of Glectro-@otive 4iesel2s two-stroke engines, the mechanically-assisted turbocharger is not specifically a twincharger, as the engine uses the mechanical assistance to charge air only during starting. 3nce started, the engine uses true turbocharging. This differs from a turbocharger that uses the compressor section of the turbo-compressor only during starting, as a two-stroke engines cannot naturally aspirate, and, according to CAG definitions, a two-stroke engine with a mechanically-assisted compressor during starting is considered naturally aspirated.

Operating principle[edit]

=n most piston engines, intake gases are $pulled$ into the engine by the downward stroke of the piston,-?.,-A. which creates a low-pressure area", similar to drawing li!uid using a syringe. The amount of air actually inhaled, compared to the theoretical amount if the engine could maintain atmospheric pressure, is called volumetric efficiency.,-B. The ob>ective of a turbocharger is to improve an engine2s volumetric efficiency by increasing density of the intake gas usually air". The turbocharger2s compressor draws in ambient air and compresses it before it enters into the intake manifold at increased pressure.,-D. This results in a greater mass of air entering the cylinders on each intake stroke. The power needed to spin the centrifugal compressor is derived from the kinetic energy of the engine2s e+haust gases.,/E. A turbocharger may also be used to increase fuel efficiency without increasing power. ,/-. This is achieved by recovering waste energy in the e+haust and feeding it back into the engine intake. 9y using this otherwise wasted energy to increase the mass of air, it becomes easier to ensure that all fuel is burned before being vented at the start of the e+haust stage. The increased temperature from the higher pressure gives a higher Carnotefficiency. The control of turbochargers is very comple+ and has changed dramatically over the -EE-plus years of its use. @odern turbochargers can use wastegates, blow-off valves and variable geometry, as discussed in later sections. The reduced density of intake air is often compounded by the loss of atmospheric density seen with elevated altitudes. Thus, a natural use of the turbocharger is with aircraft engines. As an aircraft climbs to higher altitudes, the pressure of the surrounding air !uickly falls off. At <,5B? metres -A,DDD ft", the air is at half the pressure of sea level, which means that the engine produces less than half-power at this altitude.,//.

Pressure increase / boost[edit]


This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(May 2010)
=n automotive applications, boost refers to the amount by which intake manifold pressure e+ceeds atmospheric pressure. This is representative of the e+tra air pressure that is achieved over what would be achieved without the forced induction. The level of boost may be shown on a pressure gauge, usually in bar, psi or possibly k7a.,//. =n aircraft engines, turbocharging is commonly used to maintain manifold pressure as altitude increases i.e., to compensate for lower-density air at higher altitudes". Cince atmospheric pressure reduces as the aircraft climbs, power drops as a function of altitude in normally aspirated engines. Cystems that use a turbocharger to maintain an engine2s sea-level power output are called turbo-normali*ed systems. #enerally, a turbo-normali*ed system attempts to maintain a manifold pressure of /D.< inches of mercury -EE k7a".,//. =n all turbocharger applications, boost pressure is limited to keep the entire engine system, including the turbo, inside its thermal and mechanical design operating range. 3ver-boosting an engine fre!uently causes damage to the engine in a variety of ways including pre-ignition, overheating, and over-stressing the engine2s internal hardware. For e+ample, to avoid engine knocking aka detonation" and the related physical damage to the engine, the intake manifold pressure must not get too high, thus the pressure at the intake manifold of the engine must be controlled by some means. 3pening thewastegate allows the e+cess energy destined for the turbine to bypass it and pass directly to the e+haust pipe, thus reducing boost pressure. The wastegate can be either controlled manually fre!uently seen in aircraft" or by an actuator in automotive applications, it is often controlled by the Gngine Control Knit".

Turbo lag[edit]
Turbo lag is the time re!uired to change power output in response to a throttle change, noticed as a hesitation or slowed throttle res onse when accelerating from idle as compared to a naturally aspirated engine. This is due to the time needed for the e+haust system and turbocharger to generate the re!uired boost. =nertia, friction, and compressor load are the primary contributors to turbo lag. Cuperchargers do not suffer this problem, because the turbine is eliminated due to the compressor being directly powered by the engine. Turbocharger applications can be categori*ed into to those that re!uire changes in output power such as automotive" and those that do not such as marine, aircraft, commercial automotive, industrial, engine-generators, and locomotives". While important to varying degrees, turbo lag is most

problematic in applications that re!uire rapid changes in power output. Gngine designs reduce lag in a number of waysN

Jowering the rotational inertia of the turbocharger by using lower radius parts and ceramic and other lighter materials Changing the turbine2s as ect ratio =ncreasing upper-deck air pressure compressor discharge" and improving wastegate response Feducing bearing frictional losses e.g., using a foil bearing rather than a conventional oil bearing" Ksing variable-no**le or twin-scroll turbochargers 4ecreasing the volume of the upper-deck piping Ksing multiple turbos se!uentially or in parallel Ksing an Antilag system Ksing a turbo spool valve to increase e+haust gas flow speed to the twin-scroll" turbine

Boost threshold[edit]
The boost threshold of a turbo system is the lower bound of the region within which the compressor operates. 9elow a certain rate of flow, a compressor produces insignificant boost. This limits boost at a particular F7@, regardless of e+haust gas pressure. Iewer turbocharger and engine developments have steadily reduced boost thresholds. Glectrical boosting $G-boosting$" is a new technology under development. =t uses an electric motor to bring the turbo up to operating speed !uicker than possible using available e+haust gases. ,/1. An alternative to e-boosting is to completely separate the turbine and compressor into a turbine-generator and electric-compressor as in the hybrid turbocharger. This makes compressor speed independent of turbine speed. =n -DB-, a similar system that used a hydraulic drive system and overspeed clutch arrangement accelerated the turbocharger of the @; !anadian "ioneer 4o+ford A?O5CF engine".
,citation needed.

Turbochargers start producing boost only when a certain amount of kinetic energy is present in the e+haust gasses. Without ade!uate e+haust gas flow to spin the turbine blades, the turbo cannot produce the necessary force needed to compress the air going into the engine. The boost threshold is determined by the engine displacement, engine rpm, throttle opening, and the si*e of the turbo. The operating speed rpm" at which there is enough e+haust gas momentum to compress the air going into the engine is called the $boost threshold rpm$. Feducing the $boost threshold rpm$ can improve throttle response.

Key components of a turbocharger[edit]


The turbocharger has three main componentsN

1. 2.

The turbine, which is almost always a radial inflow turbine The compressor, which is almost always a centrifugal compressor

1. The center housing8hub rotating assembly @any turbocharger installations use additional technologies, such as wastegates, intercooling and blow-off valves.

Turbine[edit]
This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedia's quality standards. The specific problem is:no description of the type and properties of the turbines, poor choice of illustrations. (September
2012)

Gnergy provided for the turbine work is converted from the enthalpy and kinetic energy of the gas. The turbine housings direct the gas flow through the turbine as it spins at up to /<E,EEE rpm. ,/5.,/<. The si*e and shape can dictate some performance characteristics of the overall turbocharger. 3ften the same basic turbocharger assembly is available from the manufacturer with multiple housing choices for the turbine, and sometimes the compressor cover as well. This lets the balance between performance, response, and efficiency be tailored to the application. The turbine and impeller wheel si*es also dictate the amount of air or e+haust that can be flowed through the system, and the relative efficiency at which they operate. =n general, the larger the turbine wheel and compressor wheel the larger the flow capacity. @easurements and shapes can vary, as well as curvature and number of blades on the wheels.

On the left, the brass oil drain connection. On the right are the braided oil supply line and water coolant line connections.

ompressor impeller side with the cover removed.

Turbine side housing removed.

A turbochargerPs performance is closely tied to its si*e.,/?. Jarge turbochargers take more heat and pressure to spin the turbine, creating turbo lag at low F7@. Cmall turbochargers spin !uickly, but may not have the same performance at high acceleration. ,/A.,/B.To efficiently combine the benefits of large and small wheels, advanced schemes are used such as twin-turbochargers, twin-scroll turbochargers, or variable-geometry turbochargers.

T in!turbo[edit]
Main article: T#in$turbo T in!turbo or bi!turbo designs have two separate turbochargers operating in either a se!uence or in parallel.,/D.,1E. =n a parallel configuration, both turbochargers are fed one-half of the enginePs e+haust. =n a se!uential setup one turbocharger runs at low speeds and the second turns on at a predetermined engine speed or load.,1E. Ce!uential turbochargers further reduce turbo lag, but re!uire an intricate set of pipes to properly feed both turbochargers.,/D. Two-stage variable twin-turbos employ a small turbocharger at low speeds and a large one at higher speeds. They are connected in a series so that boost pressure from one turbo is multiplied by another, hence the name $/-stage.$ The distribution of e+haust gas is continuously variable, so the transition from using the small turbo to the large one can be done incrementally. ,1-. Twin turbochargers are primarily used in diesel engines.,1E. For e+ample, in 3pel bi-turbo diesel, only the smaller turbocharger works at low rpm, providing high tor!ue at -<EE--AEE rpm. 9oth turbochargers operate together in mid range, with the larger one pre-compressing the air, which the smaller on further compresses. A bypass valve regulates the e+haust flow to each turbocharger. At higher speedQ/<EE to 1EEE F7@Qonly the larger turbocharger runs.,1/. Cmaller turbochargers have less turbo lag than larger ones, so often two small turbochargers are used instead of one large one. This configuration is popular in engines over /,<EE CCs and in ;-shape or bo+er engines.,/D.

T in!scroll[edit]
T in!scroll or divided turbochargers have two e+haust gas inlets and two no**les, a smaller sharper angled one for !uick response and a larger less angled one for peak performance. With high-performance camshaft timing, e+haust valves in different cylinders can open at the same time, overlapping at the end of the power stroke in one cylinder and the end of e+haust stroke in another. =n twin-scroll designs, the e+haust manifold physically separates the channels for cylinders that can interfere with each other, so that the pulsating e+haust gasses flow through separate spirals scrolls". With common firing order --1-5-/, two scrolls of une!ual length pair cylinders --5 and 1-/. This lets the engine efficiently use e+haust scavenging techni!ues, which decreases e+haust gas

temperatures and I3+ emissions, improves turbine efficiency, and reduces turbo lag evident at low engine speeds.,11.

ut!out of a twin!scroll turbocharger, with two differently angled scrolls

ut!out of a twin!scroll e"haust and turbine# the dual $scrolls$ pairing cylinders 1!% and 2!& are clearly visible

"ariable!geometry[edit]
Main article: %ariable$geometry turbocharger "ariable!geometry or variable!no##le turbochargers use moveable vanes to ad>ust the air-flow to the turbine, imitating a turbocharger of the optimal si*e throughout the power curve. ,/?.,/A. The vanes are placed >ust in front of the turbine like a set of slightly overlapping walls. Their angle is ad>usted by an actuator to block or increase air flow to the turbine. ,/A.,/B. This variability maintains a comparable e+haust velocity and back pressure throughout the enginePs rev range. The result is that the turbocharger improves fuel efficiency without a noticeable level of turbo lag. ,/?.

'arrett variable!geometry turbocharger on ()*T+(% engine

Compressor[edit]
The compressor increases the mass of intake air entering the combustion chamber. The compressor is made up of an impeller, a diffuser and a volute housing. Main article: !entrifugal com ressor The operating range of a compressor is described by the $compressor map$.

Main article: !om ressor ma Ported shroud

This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section byadding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed.(July 2013)
The flow range of a turbocharger compressor can be increased by allowing air to bleed from a ring of holes or a circular groove around the compressor at a point slightly downstream of the compressor inlet but far nearer to the inlet than to the outlet". The ported shroud is a performance enhancement that allows the compressor to operate at significantly lower flows. =t achieves this by forcing a simulation of impeller stall to occur continuously. Allowing some air to escape at this location inhibits the onset of surge and widens the operating range. While peak efficiencies may decrease, high efficiency may be achieved over a greater range of engine speeds. =ncreases in compressor efficiency result in slightly cooler more dense" intake air, which improves power. This is a passive structure that is constantly open in contrast to compressor e+haust blow off valves, which are mechanically or electronically controlled". The ability of the compressor to provide high boost at low rpm may also be increased marginally because near choke conditions the compressor draws air inward through the bleed path". 7orted shrouds are used by many turbocharger manufacturers.

Center housing/hub rotating assembly[edit]


The center hub rotating assembly C6FA" houses the shaft that connects the compressor impeller and turbine. =t also must contain a bearing system to suspend the shaft, allowing it to rotate at very high speed with minimal friction. For instance, in automotive applications the C6FA typically uses a thrust bearing or ball bearing lubricated by a constant supply of pressuri*ed engine oil. The C6FA may also be considered $water-cooled$ by having an entry and e+it point for engine coolant. Water-cooled models use engine coolant to keep lubricating oil cooler, avoiding possible oil coking destructive distillation of engine oil" from the e+treme heat in the turbine. The development of air-foil bearings removed this risk. 9all bearings designed to support high speeds and temperatures are sometimes used instead of fluid bearings to support the turbineshaft. This helps the turbocharger accelerate more !uickly and reduces turbo lag.,15. Come variable no**le turbochargers use a rotary electric actuator, which uses a direct stepper motor to open and close the vanes, rather than pneumatic controllers that operate based on air pressure.,1<.

$dditional technologies commonly used in turbocharger installations[edit]

%ntercooling[edit]

=llustration of inter-cooler location.

When the pressure of the engine2s intake air is increased, its temperature also increases. =n addition, heat soak from the hot e+haust gases spinning the turbine may also heat the intake air. The warmer the intake air the less dense, and the less o+ygen available for the combustion event, which reduces volumetric efficiency. Iot only does e+cessive intake-air temperature reduce efficiency, it also leads to engine knock, or detonation, which is destructive to engines. Turbocharger units often make use of an intercooler also known as a charge air cooler", to cool down the intake air. =ntercoolers are often tested for leaks during routine servicing, particularly in trucks where a leaking intercooler can result in a /EM reduction in fuel economy. Iote that intercooler is the proper term for the air cooler between successive stages of boost, whereas charge air cooler is the proper term for the air cooler between the boost stage s" and the appliance that consumes the boosted air."

&ater in'ection[edit]
Main article: &ater in'ection (engines) An alternative to intercooling is in>ecting water into the intake air to reduce the temperature. This method has been used in automotive and aircraft applications. ,citation needed.

(uel!air mi)ture ratio[edit]


Main article: (ir$fuel ratio =n addition to the use of intercoolers, it is common practice to add e+tra fuel to the intake air known as $running an engine rich$" for the sole purpose of cooling. The amount of e+tra fuel varies, but typically reduces the air-fuel ratio to between -- and -1, instead of thestoichiometric -5.A in petrol engines". The e+tra fuel is not burned as there is insufficient o+ygen to complete the chemical reaction", instead it undergoes a phase change from vapor li!uid" to gas. This phase change absorbs heat, and the added mass of the e+tra fuel reduces the average kinetic energy of the charge and e+haust gas. Gven when a catalytic converter is used, the practice of running an engine rich increases e+haust emissions.

&astegate[edit]
Cee @ain ArticleN Wastegate @any turbochargers use a basic wastegate, which allows smaller turbochargers to reduce turbo lag.
,1?.

A wastegate regulates the e+haust gas flow that enters the e+haust-side driving turbine and

therefore the air intake into the manifold and the degree of boosting. =t can be controlled by a solenoid operated by the enginePs electronic control unit or a boost controller but most production vehicles use a spring loaded diaphragm. ,citation needed.

$nti!surge/dump/blo
Main article: )lo#off valve

off valves [edit]

A recirculating type anti-surge valve

Turbocharged engines operating at wide open throttle and high rpm re!uire a large volume of air to flow between the turbo and the inlet of the engine. When the throttle is closed, compressed air flows to the throttle valve without an e+it i.e., the air has nowhere to go". =n this situation, the surge can raise the pressure of the air to a level that can cause damage. This is because if the pressure rises high enough, a compressor stall occursQstored pressuri*ed air decompresses backward across the impeller and out the inlet. The reverse flow back across the turbocharger makes the turbine shaft reduce in speed more !uickly than it would naturally, possibly damaging the turbocharger. To prevent this from happening, a valve is fitted between the turbo and inlet, which vents off the e+cess air pressure. These are known as an anti-surge, diverter, bypass, blow-off valve 93;", or dump valve. =t is a pressure relief valve, and is normally operated by the vacuum in the intake manifold. The primary use of this valve is to maintain the spinning of the turbocharger at a high speed. The air is usually recycled back into the turbo inlet diverter or bypass valves" but can also be vented to the atmosphere blow off valve". Fecycling back into the turbocharger inlet is re!uired on an engine that

uses a mass-airflow fuel in>ection system, because dumping the e+cessive air overboard downstream of the mass airflow sensor causes an e+cessively rich fuel mi+tureQbecause the mass-airflow sensor has already accounted for the e+tra air that is no longer being used. ;alves that recycle the air also shorten the time needed to re-spool the turbo after sudden engine deceleration, since load on the turbo when the valve is active is much lower than if the air charge vents to atmosphere.

(ree floating[edit]

A free floating turbocharger is used in the -EE liter engine of the caterpillar mining vehicle.

A free floating turbocharger is the simplest type of turbocharger. ,1A. This configuration has no wastegate and canPt control its own boost levels.,1A.,1B. They are typically designed to attain ma+imum boost at full throttle. Free floating turbochargers produce more horsepower because they have less backpressure but are not driveable in performance applications without an e+ternal wastegate. ,1A.,1B.

$pplications[edit]
Petrol!po ered cars[edit]
Main article: Turbocharged etrol engines The first turbocharged passenger car was the 3ldsmobile Oetfire option on the -D?/--D?1 FB<8Cutlass, which used a turbocharger mounted to a /-< cu in 1.</ J" all aluminum ;B. Also in -D?/, Chevrolet introduced a special run of turbocharged Corvairs, initially called the @on*a Cpyder -D?/--D?5" and later renamed the Corsa -D?<--D??", which mounted a turbocharger to its air cooled flat si+ cylinder engine. This model populari*ed the turbocharger in Iorth AmericaQand set the stage for later turbocharged models from 7orsche on the -DA<-up D--8D1E, Caab on the -DAB--DB5 Caab DD Turbo, and the very popular -DAB--DBA 9uick Fegal8T Type8#rand Iational. Today, turbocharging is common on both diesel and gasoline-powered cars. Turbocharging can increase power output for a given capacity,1D. or increase fuel efficiency by allowing a smaller displacement engine. For e+ample, the /E-1 Chevrolet Cru*e is available with either a -.B liter non-turbocharged engine or a -.5 liter turbocharged engineQboth produce the same -1B horsepower. Jow pressure turbocharging is the optimum when driving in the city, whereas high pressure turbocharging is more for racing and driving on highways8motorways8freeways.

*iesel!po ered cars[edit]


Main article: Turbodiesel The first production turbo diesel passenger car was the #arrett-turbocharged ,5E. @ercedes 1EEC4 introduced in -DAB.,5-.,5/. Today, many automotive diesels are turbocharged, since the use of turbocharging improved efficiency, driveability and performance of diesel engines, ,5-.,5/. greatly increasing their popularity.

+otorcycles[edit]
Main article: Turbocharged etrol engines*Motorcycles The first e+ample of a turbocharged bike is the -DAB :awasaki R-F TC.,51. Ceveral Oapanese companies produced turbocharged high performance motorcycles in the early -DBEs, such as the CS<EE Turbo from 6onda- a transversely mounted, li!uid cooled ;-Twin also available in naturally aspirated form. Cince then, few turbocharged motorcycles have been produced. This is partially due to an abundance of larger displacement, naturally aspirated engines being available that offer the tor!ue and power benefits of a smaller displacement engine with turbocharger, but do return more linear power characteristics. The 4utch manufacturer G;A motorcycles builds a small series of turbocharged diesel motorcycle with an BEEcc smart C4= engine.

Truc,s[edit]
The first turbocharged diesel truck was produced by Sch#ei+er Maschinenfabri, Saurer Cwiss @achine Works Caurer" in -D1B.,55.

$ircraft[edit]
A natural use of the turbocharger - and its earliest known use for any internal combustion engine, starting with e+perimental installations in the -D/Es - is with aircraft engines. As an aircraft climbs to higher altitudes the pressure of the surrounding air !uickly falls off. At <,5B? m -B,EEE ft", the air is at half the pressure of sea level and the airframe e+periences only half the aerodynamic drag. 6owever, since the charge in the cylinders is pushed in by this air pressure, the engine normally produces only half-power at full throttle at this altitude. 7ilots would like to take advantage of the low drag at high altitudes to go faster, but a naturally aspirated engine does not produce enough power at the same altitude to do so. The table below is used to demonstrate the wide range of conditions e+perienced. As seen in the table below, there is significant scope for forced induction to compensate for lower density environments.

(aytona

(enver

(eath )alley

olorado ,tate

-a .inconada,

/each

0ighway 1

Peru,

elevation

2 m 3 2 ft

1,*24 m 3 1,252 ft

!5* m 3 !252 ft

%,&%6 m 3 1%,2*% ft

1,122 m 3 1*,6&2 ft

atm

1.222

2.52&

1.212

2.151

2.12*

bar

1.21&

2.5&%

1.22%

2.154

2.1&&

psia

1%.*4*

12.122

1%.5%*

5.1%&

6.6&1

7Pa

121.&

5&.%2

122.%

15.42

1&.&2

A turbocharger remedies this problem by compressing the air back to sea-level pressures, or even much higher, in order to produce rated power at high altitude. Cince the si*e of the turbocharger is chosen to produce a given amount of pressure at high altitude, the turbocharger is over-si*ed for low altitude. The speed of the turbocharger is controlled by a wastegate. Garly systems used a fi+ed wastegate, resulting in a turbocharger that functioned much like a supercharger. Jater systems utili*ed an ad>ustable wastegate, controlled either manually by the pilot or by an automatic hydraulic or electric system. When the aircraft is at low altitude the wastegate is usually fully open, venting all the e+haust gases overboard. As the aircraft climbs and the air density drops, the wastegate must continuously close in small increments to maintain full power. The altitude at which the wastegate fully closes and the engine still produces full power is the critical altitude. When the aircraft climbs above the critical altitude, engine power output decreases as altitude increases, >ust as it would in a naturally aspirated engine. With older supercharged aircraft, the pilot must continually ad>ust the throttle to maintain the re!uired manifold pressure during ascent or descent. The pilot must also take care to avoid overboosting the engine and causing damage, especially during emergencies such as go-arounds. =n contrast, modern turbocharger systems use an automatic wastegate, which controls the manifold pressure within parameters preset by the manufacturer. For these systems, as long as the control system is working properly and the pilot2s control commands are smooth and deliberate, a turbocharger cannot over-boost the engine and damage it.

Let the ma>ority of World War == engines used superchargers, because they maintained three significant manufacturing advantages over turbochargers, which were larger, involved e+tra piping, and re!uired e+otic high-temperature materials in the turbine and pre-turbine section of the e+haust system. The si*e of the piping alone is a serious issue0 American fighters ;ought F5K and Fepublic 7-5A used the same engine but the huge barrel-like fuselage of the latter was, in part, needed to hold the piping to and from the turbocharger in the rear of the plane. Turbocharged piston engines are also sub>ect to many of the same operating restrictions as gas turbine engines. 7ilots must make smooth, slow throttle ad>ustments to avoid overshooting their target manifold pressure. The fuel8air mi+ture must often be ad>usted far on the rich side of stoichiometric combustion needs to avoid pre-ignition or detonation in the engine when running at high power settings. =n systems using a manually operated wastegate, the pilot must be careful not to e+ceed the turbocharger2s ma+imum rpm. Turbocharged engines re!uire a cooldown period after landing to prevent cracking of the turbo or e+haust system from thermal shock. Turbocharged engines re!uire fre!uent inspections of the turbocharger and e+haust systems for damage due to the increased heat, increasing maintenance costs. The great ma>ority of World War == American heavy bombers used by the KCAAF - particularly theWright F--B/E !yclone$ - powered 9--A Flying Fortress, and 7ratt T Whitney F--B1E Twin Wasp powered Consolidated 9-/5 Jiberatorfour-engined bombers both used similar models of #eneral Glectric-designed turbochargers in service,,5<. as did the twin Allison ;--A-E-engined Jockheed 7-1B Jightning American heavy fighter during the war years. Today, most general aviation aircraft are naturally aspirated.,citation needed. The small number of modern aviation piston engines designed to run at high altitudes in general use a turbocharger or turbo-normali*er system rather than a supercharger.,citation needed. The change in thinking is largely due to economics. Aviation gasoline was once plentiful and cheap, favoring the simple but fuelhungry supercharger. As the cost of fuel has increased, the supercharger has fallen out of favor. Turbocharged aircraft often occupy a performance range between that of normally aspirated piston-powered aircraft and turbine-powered aircraft. The increased maintenance costs of a turbocharged engine are considered worthwhile for this purpose, as a turbocharged piston engine is still far cheaper than any turbine engine. As the turbocharged aircraft climbs, however, the pilot or automated system" can close the wastegate, forcing more e+haust gas through the turbocharger turbine, thereby maintaining manifold pressure during the climb, at least until the critical pressure altitude is reached when the wastegate is fully closed", after which manifold pressure falls. With such systems, modern highperformance piston engine aircraft can cruise at altitudes above /E,EEE feet, where low air density results in lower drag and higher true airspeeds. This allows flying $above the weather$. =n

manually controlled wastegate systems, the pilot must take care not to overboost the engine, which causes pre-ignition, leading to engine damage. Further, since most aircraft turbocharger systems do not include an intercooler, the engine typically operates on the rich side of peak e+haust temperature to avoid overheating the turbocharger. =n non-high-performance turbocharged aircraft, the turbocharger is solely used to maintain sealevel manifold pressure during the climb this is called turbo-normali*ing". ,//. @odern turbocharged aircraft usually forgo any kind of temperature compensation, because the turbochargers are in general small and the manifold pressures created by the turbocharger are not very high. Thus, the added weight, cost, and comple+ity of a charge cooling system are considered unnecessary penalties. =n those cases, the turbocharger is limited by the temperature at the compressor outlet, and the turbocharger and its controls are designed to prevent a large enough temperature rise to cause detonation. Gven so, in many cases the engines are designed to run rich so they can use the evaporating fuel for charge cooling.

+arine and land!based diesel turbochargers[edit]

A medium-si*ed si+-cylinder marine 4iesel-engine, with turbocharger and e+haust in the foreground

Turbocharging, which is common on diesel engines in automobiles, trucks, tractors, andboats is also common in heavy machinery such as locomotives, ships, and au+iliary power generation.

Turbocharging can dramatically improve an engine2s specific power and power-to-weight ratio, performance characteristics that are normally poor in non-turbocharged diesel engines. 4iesel engines have no detonation because diesel fuel is in>ected at or towards the end of the compression stroke and is ignited solely by the heat of compression of the charge air. 9ecause of this, diesel engines can use a much higher boost pressure than spark ignition engines, limited only by the engine2s ability to withstand the additional heat and pressure.

Turbochargers are also employed in certain two-stroke cycle diesel engines, which would normally re!uire a Foots blower for aspiration. =n this specific application, mainly Glectro-@otive

4iesel G@4" <?A, ?5<, and A-E Ceries engines, the turbocharger is initially driven by the engine2s crankshaft through a gear train and an overrunning clutch, thereby providing aspiration for combustion. After combustion has been achieved, and after the e+haust gases have reached sufficient heat energy, the overrunning clutch is disengaged, and the turbo-compressor is thereafter driven e+clusively by the e+haust gases. =n the G@4 application, the turbocharger is used for normal aspiration during starting and low power output settings and is used for true turbocharging during medium and high power output settings. This is particularly beneficial at high altitudes, as are often encountered on western K.C. railroads.

Business and adoption[edit]


#arrett now 6oneywell" and 9org Warner are the largest manufacturers in Gurope and the KC. ,/.
,5?.,5A.

Ceveral factors are e+pected to contribute to more widespread consumer adoption of

turbochargers, especially in the KCN,5B.,5D.

Iew government fuel economy and emissions targets. ,5?.,5A. =ncreasing oil prices and a consumer focus on fuel efficiency. 3nly -E percent of light vehicles sold in the KC are e!uipped with turbochargers, making the Knited Ctates an emerging market, compared to <E percent of vehicles in Gurope that are turbo diesel and /A percent that are gasoline boosted. ,<E.

6igher temperature tolerances for gasoline engines, ball bearings in the turbine shaft and variable geometry have reduced driveability concerns.

9y /E-?, 5E percent of light vehicles sold in the K.C. are e+pected to be turbocharged. ,5B.
,5D.

=n Gurope about ?< percent of vehicles are turbocharged, which is e+pected to grow to B<

percent by /E-<.,5D. 6istorically, more than DE percent of turbochargers were diesel, however, adoption in gasoline engines is increasing.,5D. 6oneywell pro>ects the number of turbochargers in passenger vehicles in the K.C. to more than double to /1 percent by /E-?. ,<E. The KC Coalition for Advanced 4iesel Cars is pushing for a technology neutral policy for government subsidies of environmentally friendly automotive technology. =f successful, government subsidies would be based on the Corporate Average Fuel Gconomy CAFG" standards rather than supporting specific technologies like electric cars. 7olitical shifts could drastically change adoption pro>ections.,<-. Turbocharger sales in the Knited Ctates increased when the federal government boosted corporate average fuel economy targets to 1<.< mpg by /E-?.,</.

-afety[edit]

Turbocharger failures and resultant high e+haust termperatures are among the recogni*ed causes of car fires.,<1.

-ee also[edit]

9oost gauge Twincharger G+haust pulse pressure charging 6ybrid turbocharger Twin-turbo ;ariable geometry turbocharger

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