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l-Malik (The King) is one of Allah’s ninety-nine Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. Whosoever knows each one of them will be admitted into Paradise. Allah, Most Gracious, says, “He is Allah, besides Whom there is no god, the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defects, the Giver of security, the Watcher over His creatures, the AllMighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. Glory be to Allah! High is He above all that which they associate as partners with Him.” [XLI; 23] He, Most Merciful, also says, “The Only Owner (and the King) of the Day of Recompense (i.e. the Day of Resurrection).” [I; 4] According to the Shafi’ite school of Islamic Jurisprudence a worshipper should recite the above Quranic Verse in the first Rak’a of prayer as “The Only Owner of the Day of Recompense” and in the second Rak’a as “The King of the Day of Recompense”. This Name also occurs in the Quranic Verse: “in a seat of truth (i.e. Paradise), near the Omnipotent King” [LIV; 55] In another Quranic Verse Allah, Glory to Him, says, “Say: ‘O Allah, Owner of the Kingdom! You give kingdom to whom You will, and You take kingdom from whom You will; and You endue with honor whom You will, and You humiliate whom You will. In Your Hand is the Good. Verily, You are Able to do all things.” [III; 26] He, Praised and All-High, also says, “So Glorified and Far Exalted is He (above all that they associate with Him), in Whose Hand is the Dominion of all things, and to Whom you shall be returned.” [IIIVI; 83]

Definition of Al-Mulk (Ownership):
In Arabic the word “Mulk” means “the ability to dispose with things”, and hence, Allah’s Beautiful Name “The King” is derived from His Holy Self, but it can also be derived from His Acts as the Disposer with all things. In a Divine Hadith, Allah, Glory to Him, says, “I am the King of kings, and the

Owner of kings. The hearts of kings are in My Hand: if My slaves obey Me, I turn the hearts of their kings to them with tenderness and mercy; but if My slaves disobey Me, I turn the hearts of their kings to them with wrath and avenge. Therefore, do not occupy yourselves by abusing kings but (rather) pray (to Allah) for their reform, for their reform comes from your own reform.” Allah, Praise belongs to Him, is the King and Owner of kings. In other words, everything that can be owned belongs to Allah, All-High. Some scholars hold that a king is someone who rules but does not own, and an owner is someone who owns but does not rule; but Allah, Glory to Him, is the Owner and King. Sometimes, a person may own something but does not, or does not have the right to, use it. Sometimes, a person may use, and dispose with, something although he does not own it. And sometimes, a person may own, use and dispose with something, but in the end it does not remain his own. An example: A person may own a house legally and lawfully. He may dwell in and dispose with it, but suddenly an act of public appropriation is issued and the house is seized from him by the government. Thus, when it is said that Allah is the Owner of the Kingdom, it means that He owns and disposes with all things; and their final end will be to Him. Therefore, Allah’s Ownership is Supreme and Absolute. An Arabian who owned a herd of camels was once asked, “Whose are those camels?”. In reply he said, “They belong to Allah, but they are in my hand (i.e. I have been allowed by Allah, their real Owner to dispose with them).” Hence, a true believer is someone who believes that his house, shop, car, expertise, social position …etc. belong to Allah, All-Mighty. An example: Even the very best and most specialized physician may sometimes lose his memory or even become insane because of a blood-clot in his brain and is, therefore, sent to an asylum. So, who is the Owner of the Kingdom? It is, undoubtedly, Allah, Glory and Praise belong to Him. Who is the Owner of our eyes by which we see things?! Who is the One Who owns our ears, tongues, movement, power…etc. Allah, Praised and Exalted! In other words, true Faith necessitates that one should firmly

believe that everything in one’s possession belongs in reality to Allah, AllMighty, Who allows one to dispose with it. “Whose are these camels?” “They belong to Allah, but they are in my hand.” Thus, your house belongs to Allah, but it is in your hand, and so is your car, your shop …etc. Now, if we say, “Someone is a king.” do we mean that he is really or metaphorically a king? Scholars said: No one can really own anything except Allah; and any kind of ownership other than that of Allah is only metaphoric and unreal. This is because the real king is someone who is selfsufficient in both himself and attributes and needs no one, or nothing, else in existence. Is there a king who is self-sufficient and needs nothing for his existence and survival? Does he not need air to breathe, water to drink, food to eat, and sleep to rest? Does he not feel afraid or sad? Does he not wish he could have more supporters and helpers? Each and every human being is, therefore, in need of other fellow humans or other things for the achievement of his existence and survival; and, therefore, no human being, or any other creature, can ever be a real king. The Real King is Allah, the All-Mighty, the Self-Sufficient; and anyone else can be only metaphorically called “a king”. The Real King is He, Who is Self-Sufficient in Himself and Attributes and needs nothing but all things in existence need Him for everything. In other words, He is the King by Himself, His Existence, and His Attributes. He is in need of nothing, but all things do need Him. Such is the accurate definition of “The King”, and none but Allah, All-Mighty, All-High, deserves it. In other words, the Real King is Allah; and whosoever describes himself as king, or owner of a certain house, shop, business or company is only metaphorically as such. Therefore, we should know the reality of ourselves; and Allah will have mercy on those who know their reality and abide thereby. Allah, Glorified and All-High, is the One Who owns and grants ownership. To this effect Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Say: ‘O Allah, Owner of the Kingdom! You give kingdom to whom You will, and You take kingdom from whom You will; and You endue with honor whom You will, and You humiliate whom You will. In Your Hand is the Good. Verily, You are Able to do all things.” [III; 26] And real ownership is to control one’s desires and not to let them dominate over one, to be free from oneself and not possessed thereby. To this effect, Joseph, (PBUH), invokes his Lord,

“My Lord! You have indeed bestowed on me of the sovereignty and taught me something of the interpretation of dreams. (You are) the (Only) Creator of the heavens and the earth! You are my Guardian in this world and in the Hereafter. Cause me to die as a Muslim and join me with the righteous.” [XII; 101] The above-mentioned Quranic Verse is very delicate: Joseph acknowledges the fact that Allah has bestowed on him sovereignty. But what kind of sovereignty was it? It might be thought that it was sovereignty over treasures of the earth, but most interpreters hold that it was not that as such, but, rather, he (PBUH) was granted the real sovereignty, namely self-control. That is because sovereignty in the traditional sense, which Allah, Most Gracious, grants to whomsoever He pleases of His slaves, is a perishable kind of sovereignty and is by no means a laudable privilege. But what is real sovereignty? It was when he got control of himself saying, “I take refuge with Allah!” when the king’s wife invited him maliciously to indecent work, seducing him: “Come on!”. Scholars of Quranic interpretation said: This is real sovereignty that never perishes – sovereignty whereby one is happy for ever – i.e. to get control of oneself and dominate over one’s whims and caprices. In other words, if you get control over you whims and caprices, you are a real king; if you have self control, you are a real king; if you dominate over yourself, you are a real king; if you suppress your desires, you are a real king; and if you guide yourself to the way of righteousness and happiness, you are a real king. If, however, your desires and caprices lead you to misguidance, wrong-doing and sinful deeds, you are a slave. If your mind rightly guides you, you are a real king; but if your whims and desires mislead you, you are a mere slave. And great is the difference between being a king or a slave. One of the former European leaders who achieved great victories in World War II once said a word that I never forget. He said, “In fact, we have dominated the whole world except our own selves. We are weak before ourselves!” A man, no matter how great and powerful he might be, is a mere slave to his desires if he is seduced to illegal sexual relation by a woman working with him. In fact, all mankind have two destructive points of weakness, namely money and women. A man may have too many great things, good knowledge, and amazing talents and abilities, yet he could be enslaved by women and money. In this case he is by no means a free person but rather a mere slave. In this context, the Messenger of Allah, (PBUH),

says, “Miserable is he who is enslaved by the Dirham and the Dinar (i.e. money).” [narrated by Ibn Majah] A slave is he who is enslaved by money and fails to make money in his own benefit and service. This is because money is originally meant to be used by people and not vice versa. In other words, if people get themselves enslaved by money, they are mere slaves. The Prophetic Hadith goes on: “Miserable is he who is enslaved by the vulva (pudendum of the female); miserable is he who is enslaved by garments.” Whenever you read Joseph’s invocation “My Lord! You have indeed bestowed on me of the sovereignty!”, you really should deliberate its great connotation, namely that real sovereignty is to get control of one’s own self and not to be controlled thereby, to enslave one’s own desires and caprices and not to get enslaved thereby, to be with the truth wherever it might be, to stick to Allah’s Book, and to acknowledge the rights of other fellow humans. Such is real heroism; and such is what most interpreters say about Allah’s Words “My Lord! You have indeed bestowed on me of the sovereignty and taught me something of the interpretation of dreams. (You are) the Only Creator of the heavens and the earth! You are my Guardian (and Protector) in this world and in the Hereafter! Cause me to die as a Muslim and join me with the righteous!” [XII; 101] Some say: The King is He Who possesses the hearts of worshippers and makes them anxious. In fact, when someone gets to know Allah, Most Gracious, All-Mighty, he enters a state of love and becomes possessed thereby. He becomes great after having been trivial. Hence, he enters a state of permanent anxiety until he meets his Lord, wondering, “Is my Lord contented with me?! Does my work appeal to Allah, Most Gracious?! Does Allah love me?! Is my work sincere enough?! Is there any deviation in my work?! Is there anything or anyone I seek other than Allah?! They also say that the King is He Who possesses the hearts of those who know Him and causes such hearts to burn; the King is He Who, if He so desires, grants ownership, or, if He so desires, causes to perish: “Verily, the Seizure of your Lord is severe and painful.” [LXXV; 12]. If He gives, He amazes; and if He brings someone to account, He inquires about everything. A few years ago, He gave us heavy rain that amazed us and produced seventy folds as much as previous years of wheat; but if rain is withheld from us, who can ever order such rain to come down?! Even if all nations, counsels or leaderships gather together, they can by no means cause rain to

fall down. And if rain is withheld from us, plants, animals and humans will inevitably die. We are slaves because we can not survive without rain: “Say, ‘Tell me! If (all) your water were to sink away, who then can supply you with flowing (spring) water?!’”[LXVII; 30] Allah, Glorified and Exalted is The King, Who, if He so desires, grants ownership and dominion, and, if He so desires, causes to perish. He is the Real King, Whom none could ever defy or dispute with. None could ever resist His Irresistible Divine Will or prevent His Judgment. He is the King, by Whose Command all stars and planets run. In one Quranic Verse Allah, All-Mighty, mentions five basic elements of ownership. He, Most Gracious, says, “Say, ‘O Allah, Possessor of the Kingdom! You give the kingdom to whom You will; and You take the kingdom from whom You will; and You endue with honor whom You will; and You humiliate whom You will. In Your Hand is the good. Verily, Your are Powerful over all things.’” [III; 26] Scholars interpreted the word “Kingdom” as that in the Hereafter as well as that in the present world. In other words, if you are a true straightforward honest sincere believer who performs deeds of righteousness, you are a king in the Hereafter, when neither wealth nor children can avail anything, except for those who come to Allah with pure hearts. Imam Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, says, “Richness and poverty are (determined) after standing before Allah (for judgment and accountability).” The above Verse says, ”You give the kingdom to whom You will”. But who does the word “whom” refer to? When Allah, All-Mighty, says, “And Allah guides whomsoever He pleases to a Straight Path.”, He means: whosoever seeks guidance, Allah will guide him/her. He also says, “And He misguides whomsoever He pleases” in the sense that He, Most Gracious, misguides those who seek misguidance. In other words, guidance and misguidance are given to people in fulfillment of their own free choices of seeking either. To this effect, Allah, Most Merciful, says, “And (remember) when Moses said to his people, ‘O my people! Why do you annoy me while you know certainly that I am the Messenger of Allah to you?’ So when they turned away (from the Path of Allah), Allah turned their hearts away (from the Right Path). And Allah guides not the people who are disobedient.” [LXI; 5] In the light of the above-mentioned the words “You grant kingdom to whom You will” means that Allah grants guidance to those who seek it just as He

takes away guidance from those who reject Allah’s Religion, His Divine Mercy, His Great Promise – i.e. those who seek the perishable pleasures and enjoyments of the present world as well as the fulfillment of their lusty desires and caprices even by committing sinful deeds and evil deviations. By the way kingdom in the present world can be granted by Allah to both those whom He loves and those He does not; but kingdom in the Hereafter is granted only to those whom He loves. The second connotation of kingdom in the present world is derived from Allah’s Words, “And it is He Who has made you generations coming after generations, replacing each other on the earth. And He has raised you in ranks, some above others that He may try you in that which He has bestowed on you. Surely your Lord is Swift in retribution, and certainly He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [VI; 165] Who has made you owner of your own house? It is Allah, Most Gracious. Who did your house previously belong to? It belonged to someone else. How did he sell it? He needed money, so he sold it. Who has made you the new owner of such house? It is Allah, Most Generous. Your job: Who has given it to you? It is Allah, Most Gracious. Why was someone else made to leave such job so that it became yours? It is Allah, Most Wise, by His Infinite Divine Wisdom and Judgment. This is the second connotation of Allah’s Words in the above Verse “You grant kingdom (and ownership) to whom You will” in the present world. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “It is He Who has made you generations coming after generations, replacing each other on the earth.” But what is the wisdom behind this? Why does Allah, Most Wise, give someone ownership and deprive someone else of it? Why does he raise someone in rank above another and make someone else inferior to another? The answer is simply: “that He may try you in that which He has bestowed on you.” Allah tries you in both richness and poverty, in both good health and sickness, and in both powerfulness and weakness. If someone is rebellious and disobedient, what is the remedy? The answer comes from the Lord, All-Mighty: “Verily, your Lord is Swift in retribution”. But if he is obedient and devoted, the answer is: “And verily, I am indeed Forgiving to him who repents, believes and does righteous good deeds, and then remains in guidance.” [XX; 82] Therefore, we, human beings, have been made generations coming after generations replacing each other, and people’s lots in the present world have

been allotted by way of trial and testing; and they will be allotted by way of recompense in the Hereafter. Allah, hence, is the Possessor of the Kingdom: He either grants you kingdom in the present world, the Hereafter, or both. How nice are religiousness and richness if they combine together, And how ugly are infidelity and poverty in man! By the Quranic Words “And you endue with honor whom You will” we embark on the notion of honor and humiliation. Here we have something delicate: If Allah desires to honor you, He subjugates even your enemies for you; and if He desires to humiliate someone, He makes even his closest relatives humiliate him: “And he whom Allah humiliates shall receive honor from none.”: Make all your honor with your Lord, it will be firmly established; But if you seek honor from someone who dies, your honor will inevitably perish. Therefore, Allah’s being the King necessitates that it is He Who honors and it is He Who humiliates; so try always to be with Him. Obey Our Commands, and We shall remove for you Our Veils, For We have granted with full content to those who have obeyed Us. And take refuge with Us and seek Our Protection, That We may protect you from the evil ones from among our creatures. The Quranic words “In Your Hand is the Good” mean that even humiliation coming from Allah to some of His slaves is good, and taking away kingdom from other slaves is also good, even if it might be considered as evil by some ignorant people. The words “You make the night enter into the day…” denote Allah’s Divine Disposal with the universe. The earth goes round the sun in an elliptical orbit. Who makes it move in its accurate orbit round the sun? Is there in the whole universe any other power that can put the earth back to orbit if it were to go away from it? If it went away from its orbit round the sun, the earth would perish and be attracted by other heavenly objects!! “Verily, Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they should move away from their places; and if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that could possibly grasp them after Him. Truly, He is Ever Most Forbearing, Oft-Forgiving.” [XXXV; 41]

The above Quranic Verse denotes that Allah, All-Mighty, holds the heavens and the earth in their orbits. If a train goes out of its rails, can a tiny creature like a baby, an ant or a fly bring it back to its rails? “And if they were to move away from their places, there is not one that could possibly grasp them after Him”. Who has made the earth go 30 km/hour round the sun? Ho has made it turn round itself 1600 km/hour? Who has made it that big? Who has made it so far away? This is one of the connotations of Allah’s Divine Name “The King”. “You make the night enter into the day; and You make the day enter into the night. You bring the living out of the dead; and You bring the dead out of the living. And You give wealth and sustenance to whom You will without limit .” [III; 27] The phenomenon of animal, plant and human generation: “You bring the living out of the dead”: an olive seed seems like a lifeless piece of wood, but a real olive-tree is hidden inside it. Consider types and circles of life: a tree is dry and dead in the winter, but no sooner does spring come than it is brought back to life again. One day, Omar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, asked ‘Amr bin Al-‘Ass to describe Egypt to him. ‘Amr said: “O Commander of the Faithful! Its length is a month and its width is ten (i.e. Its length is a distance of a month-march, and its width is a distance of a ten-daysmarch). A blessed river runs across it. O Commander of the Faithful! While it is a dark piece of amber (i.e. its soil is dark because of fertility), it is a white pearl (i.e. when the Nile floods) and a green chrysolite. Blessed is Allah, Who does whatever He wills.” ‘Amr described Egypt in winter, at the time of the flood of the river Nile, in the spring, and in the summer. He also described its length and width. One of the connotations of Allah’s being The King is that He alternates day and night and brings the living out of the dead and the dead out of the living. Of the meanings of Allah’s Words: “He brings the dead out of the living and the living out of the dead” is that a disbeliever might give birth to a believer and vice versa. “And Noah called upon his Lord and said, ‘O my Lord! Verily, my son is of my family! And certainly, Your Promise is true; and You are the

Most Just of the judges.’ He (Allah) said, ‘O Noah! Surely, he is not of your family; verily, his work is unrighteous. So ask not of Me that of which you have no knowledge! I admonish you lest you should be one of the ignorant.’” [XI; 45,46] The last item of Allah’s being The King is: “And You give wealth and sustenance to whom You will without limit” in the sense that He, AllMighty, may give wealth and sustenance to a weak person just as He may make a powerful and clever person poor. That is why merchants and businesspeople usually say: “With Allah there is no clever merchant”; and one of the invocations of believers against disbelievers is, “O Allah! Make their own destruction in their evil planning!” In other words, the evil plots of disbelievers are sure to bring about their own destruction. Thus goes the Prophetic Hadith: “No might or power could ever avail a powerful person against You (Allah).” Now, the question is: Does a person really own, i.e. if someone makes you the owner of something, do you really possess it? How can this idea be discussed? The owner of a certain house, a building, a car is in our opinion the one who enjoys full ownership by means of authentic documents accepted by others. This is what we usually say; and there is not much wrongness in it. Scholars literally said: It is more proper and more correct to say that a human being can not own. Why? This is because his being independent and free to dispose with other things is part of his selfindependence and self-sufficiency. If a human being can never be selfindependent or self-sufficient, then how can he be independent in his disposal with other things. That is why Allah, Most Gracious, admonishes His Messenger, (PBUH), and all human beings after him, “Say, ‘I possess no power over benefit or hurt to myself except as Allah wills. And if I had the knowledge of the Unseen, I should have secured for myself an abundance of wealth, and no evil would have ever touched me. Verily, I am but a warner and a bringer of glad tidings unto people who believe.’” [VII; 188] If the Messenger of Allah, (PBUH), possesses no power over benefit or hurt to himself, could he possibly have such power to others? The answer is definitely, “No.” In other words, if one is unable to rightly guide one’s son, could he ever be able to guide someone else’s son?! Impossible. Therefore, it is definite that Allah, Glorified and All-High, is the Only Real King; and man is only metaphorically as such. For example, an employee in the foreign

ministry might sometimes tell you: “We have appointed Mr. so and so as an ambassador.” Such a saying has a metaphoric denotation, because the one who has actually appointed the ambassador is the minister himself, not the employee who tells you that. Yet, in absolute certainty: the One Who has granted this man such a post is Allah, Most Gracious. A slave, for example, when is he on travel? When his master is. When is he in settlement? Also when his master is. Does a slave have any freedom in his movement away from his master? No. Then definitely you have to feel, when you have documents of the ownership of a house, that it belongs in fact to Allah, All-Mighty. At any moment you can sell or dispose with it, but you are by no means its real owner. Something wrong might go with a certain part of your body, and you might be told that such a surgical operation costs 800, 000 pounds in addition to travel and accommodation costs. The result is that you have to sell your house to pay for such a surgical operation. Glorified is the Owner of Ownership. Another example: kidney transplantation might sometimes cost 1000,000 pounds; and all that you own might be the cost of such an operation. Transplantation of a heart-valve costs 500,000 pounds. Therefore, if someone is granted good health by Allah, Most Merciful, he is rich in the full sense of the word. There is a somewhat delicate issue; but before dealing with it, let’s read Allah’s Words in His Holy Quran: “Allah puts forward the example of (two men – a believer and a disbeliever): a slave (disbeliever) who is under the possession of another and has no power of any sort, and (the other) is a man (believer) on whom We have bestowed a good provision from Us and he spends thereof secretly and openly. Can they be equal? (By no means). All praises and thanks are to Allah. Nay! (But) most of them know not.” [XVI; 75] If a slave possessed by another person is unable to do anything independently, could he ever be a real owner, i.e. someone who disposes with the things that other people possess? That is impossible. But why does the Quranic Verse go, “Within a few years. The decision of the matter, before and after, is only with Allah. And on that Day, believers will rejoice.” [XXX; 4] Deliberate, dear brother believer! Decision of the matter is always in Allah’s Hand. To this effect, Allah’s Words go: “On the Day, when no person shall have any power to do anything for another, and the Decision, on that

Day, will be (wholly) with Allah.” [LXXXII; 19] Therefore, the decision of all matters is in Allah’s Hand. In another Verse, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “The Decision of the matter, before and after, is only with Allah.” In another Verse, He, All-Mighty, says, “Then they were returned to Allah, their True Master, the Just Lord. Surely, to Him does belong the Decision, and He is the Swiftest in reckoning.” [VI; 62] He, Most Merciful, also says, “And He is Allah; there is no god but He, and all praises and thanks are to Him both in the present world and the Hereafter. And to Him belongs the Decision; and unto Him you shall be returned.” [XXVIII; 70] Who does the Decision belong to in the present world? Does it not belong to Allah? Yes, indeed. Another example is Allah’s Words, “And to Allah belongs the Unseen of the heavens and the earth, and to Him do return all affairs (for decision). So worship Him and put your trust in Him. And your Lord is not unaware of what you do.” [XI; 123] He, Glory to Him, also says, “The Path of Allah, to Whom does belong all that is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. Verily, all matters, in the end, do go to Allah (for decision).” [XLII; 53] But in whose hand is the decision before the end? Here and in interpretation of the above Verse scholars had a great opinion. They said: The fact is that the decision of all matters, before and after, is only with Allah. In other words, decision of all matters always belongs to Allah; and decision-making is His at all times. But heedless straying feeble-minded disbelieves wrongly believe that decision belongs to other human beings. On the Day of Judgment, all creatures will inevitably see that both Judgment and Decision as well as the Kingdom belong only to Allah and to no one else. They will see that all affairs return to Him for decision and judgment. Hence, it is wisest to see this before it is too late. Therefore, even disbelievers and those who are heedless and straying will inevitably see with their own eyes that decision is in Allah’s Hand, that judgment belongs to Him and that to Him all matters will be retuned. In the present world, they do not see Allah, All-Mighty. They see other guardians and protectors than Him. They see superpowers and worship them instead of Allah. But on the Day of Resurrection, they will see the Truth. In fact it is only a matter of time: You either see the Truth in time before you are overtaken by death or see it for sure on the Day of Resurrection and

incur absolute regret. Heroism is, therefore, not to wait until you see the truth with other ignorant people. Heroism is to see the truth in due time in order to avail yourself of it. There is another thing: Why can’t a slave be an owner in the full sense of the word? It has been said: That is because he can not be self-sufficient. Let us suppose that a great king is in no need of any of his subjects, but is he ever in no need of the air, water, food or marriage? That is why when Haroun ArRasheed, the famous Abbaside Caliph, whose kingdom spread to the end of the ancient world, asked for a glass of water, his intelligent vizier asked him, “O Commander of the Faithful! How much would you pay for this glass of water if it were withheld from you?” “Half of my kingdom”, he replied. The vizier asked, “How much would you pay if you were unable to get rid of it (i.e. to urinate it)?” “The second half of my kingdom”, the Caliph answered. The vizier said, “Then, your kingdom is worth only a glass of water!” In one of Cairo museums there is the tomb of one of the greatest Pharaohs, called Tout Ankh Amoun. It was dug out with a lot of gold, jewelry, and other precious ornaments. But there was one thing that called my attention, namely that he died at a very young age, eighteen years old. His coffin was very short and so was his body. I said, “Glorified is Allah! No matter how great man’s ownership and kingdom might be, his life remains in Allah’s Hand. He owned all of Egypt together with its enormous treasures and resources; nevertheless Allah caused him to die at the age of eighteen. The tomb is full of priceless gold, jewelry and ornaments, but he died very young. His great kingdom and wealth availed him nothing against death. His kingdom was by no means real but rather metaphoric. In fact he owned nothing; but Allah entrusted him with such kingdom and ownership. One day, a prince asked a righteous man, “How can I help you?” The righteous man asked, “Who? Me?!” “Yes, you”, the prince replied. The righteous man said, “I have two slaves that are your masters: care and hope. Care for the present world and hope for a long life are my slaves; but they are your masters. I have dominated over them, but they have dominated over you. I have got control over them, but they have got control over you.” Thus, man is a real king if he controls his desires and caprices. A righteous man once said, I was passing by ‘Asafan when I saw a beautiful woman. She attracted my admiration and love, but I sought help from Allah and was pious and went along doing nothing with that woman. When I went

to bed that night, I saw the holy Prophet Joseph (PBUH) in my sleep. I asked him, “Are you Joseph?” “Yes, I am”, he replied. I said, “Praises and thanks to Allah because He protected you from the wife of the ‘Aziz (of Egypt).” He replied, “And Praises and thanks to Allah because He protected you from the woman of ‘Asafan.” Such is real kingdom: to obey Allah, All-Mighty. At first, Joseph (PBUH) was brought into his master’s palace as a slave. Then, later on, he became a king. When, one day, a slave-woman, who had known him as a slave, saw him going in a kingly procession, she said, “Glorified is Allah, Who has made some of His slaves kings when they obeyed Him; and Glorified is He, Who has made some kings slaves when they disobeyed Him.” The truth is: He who is a truthful sincere slave to his Master owns (as it were) all the wealth of his Master. Shaqeeq Al-Balkhi was once quoted as saying: “My repentance began when, in a year of drought and famine, I saw a boy playing joyfully while all people were deeply depressed. I reproached him angrily, ‘O you there! Playing happily while others are very sad?! Aren’t you ashamed?! Don’t you see how miserable people are?!’ The boy replied, ‘Why should I be unhappy? My master owns a whole village wherein I keep all that I need?’ I said to myself, ‘This boy, who is enslaved by a human master, does not feel unhappy or lonely at times of distress because his master owns a village on earth, so why should I be unhappy or feel lonely and my Master is the King of all kings?!’ So I knew the truth and repented.” In other words, the slaveboy gave him a lesson in repentance. That is why wise people say: whether you plan or not, the Disposer is Allah, Glorified and All-Mighty. Turn away from all your worries, And leave all matters to Allah’s Divine Decree, And be happy with a soon-coming good Whereby you forget all that has passed. Many an unpleasant thing Will bring you happiness in the end. And perhaps the way may get narrowed, And perhaps space may get wide. Allah does whatever He desires, So be not rebellious. Allah has always shown you His Favors, So measure according to what has passed. And an evil visitation might bring hardship to someone, Yet the way out thereof is with Allah.

The rings of distress narrowed so much so that they became so tightly wrought, Bu then it ended well although I have never thought it would end as such. It has been recently announced that it rained so heavily in Italy last year. In one night, the rain that fell was equal to that of a whole year. This proves that in one single moment, Allah, Most Merciful, is able to provide us with more than the usual average of rain; and should rain be delayed, it is all in Allah’s Command to provide us with it. But never forget that Allah’s determination of the amounts of rain-fall is meant for admonition and is by no means out of disability. True belief in Allah’s being the King necessitates that the salve should be more confident in what is in the Hands of Allah than that which is in his own hands. In other words, if you want to be the richest of all mankind, be more confident in what is in Allah’s Hands than what is in your own hands. If you want to be the strongest of all mankind, put all of your trust in Allah. And if you want to be the most noble of all mankind, be dutiful and obedient to Allah. One day, Al-Hatim Al-Assam was fasting. When it was time for breakfast, he was brought a tray with different kinds of delicious foods. But suddenly a poor man came to ask him for food, so he gave him all that. Then, another tray was brought to him, and as he was about to start eating, another poor man came to ask him for food. So he gave him all that. He opened his eyes to see some Dinars (gold money) in his hand. He could not help calling out, “Al-Ghaouthu Mina-l-Khalaf (i.e. Please help me from Al-Khalaf)!” One of his neighbors was called Khalaf, so people hurried to him saying, “Why are you doing harm to the Sheikh (i.e. Al-Hatim Al-Assam)?!” And they brought the man to the Sheikh saying, “Here is Khalaf! He has come to apologize to you.” Al-Hatim said, “I did not mean him at all when I called out. I meant that I just can not thank Allah enough for the good way whereby He treats me: whenever I spend something, Allah gives me something better in recompense.” One day, ‘A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said about Abdu-rRahman bin ‘Aouf, one of the Prophet’s venerable Companions, “I am afraid that ‘Aouf will enter Paradise crawling because of his great wealth.” He, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “Nay! By Allah! I shall enter it (i.e.

Paradise) running. What can I do if I spend a hundred (Dinars) in the morning, but Allah grants me what is better in the evening. It has been rightly said that he who knows that the Real King is Allah rejects haughtily to humiliate himself to any other human being. It has also been said: How come that a free person humiliates himself to slaves while he gets from his Master (Allah) whatever he desires?! In the Divine Hadith, Allah addresses his righteous believing slaves, “Just ask, and you will be granted! Be to me as I desire, I be to you as you desire!” It does not befit you, after having known that Allah, Most Gracious, and no one else, is the King, Who owns everything, that you humiliate yourself to anyone else. He who knows Allah does not need any help from other creatures or human beings. It has been rightly said that seeking delight from being in company with people is the token of feeble-mindedness. Bishr Al-Hafi once saw Ali bin Abi Talib, Commander of the Faithful, in his sleep. He said, “O Commander of the Faithful! Admonish me.” Ali said, “How good is sympathy of the rich on the poor for the sake of Allah’s Recompense! And better than that is the pride of the poor over the rich out of trust in Allah.” If you put your trust in Allah, All-Mighty, Most Merciful, He will never let you down. And he who sits before a rich person and humiliates himself to him loses two thirds of his religion. A man once asked a righteous scholar, “Admonish me!” The scholar said, “Be a king in the present world, you will be a king in the Hereafter.” “How can I do that?” The man asked. “Renounce pleasure in worldly things i.e. lead a pious ascetic life), and you will be a king in the Hereafter.” And it has been rightly said: “If you do not need someone, you are equal to him; if you need someone, you are his slave; and if do good to someone, you will be his commander.” In other words, if you are a king in the present world, you will be a king in the Hereafter. Al-Hassan Al-Basri was one day asked, “How did you achieve such a prominent holy position?” “By my being in no need of people’s worldly things and their need for my knowledge,” he replied. Sufian bin ‘Uyaynah once said, “While I was going round the Old House (the Ka’bah), I saw a man whom I thought to be one of the righteous. I came

to him asking, “Will you teach me something for which Allah does me good.” He said nothing and kept going round the Ka’bah. When he finished, he performed two Rak’as of prayer behind the station of Abraham and then entered the Hijr (of Ishmael) and sat down there. I sat beside him asking again, “Master! Will you teach me something for which Allah does me good.” He turned to me saying, “Do you know what Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious, says? He says, “I am the Ever-Living, Who never passes away. Come unto me in obedience and devotion, and I shall make you everliving and never cause you to die – with your Lord and provided (with sustenance).” On his first night in his grave man is addressed by Allah, All-Mighty, “My slave! They have gone away and left you alone; and in the earth have they buried you. If they had stayed with, they would have availed you nothing. No one has remained with you except Me; and I am the EverLiving, Who never passes away. If you obey Me, I shall make you everliving in a the Garden of Paradise, whose width is the heavens and the earth. I am the King, Who never perishes. Come unto Me in obedience and devotion, and I shall make you kings that never perish, kings of the Hereafter. I am the King, Who, if He desires a thing, He says to it, ‘Be!’ And it is. Come unto Me in obedience and devotion, and I shall make you as such (i.e. if you ask me anything, I grant it to you), for I am as you think of me. If you ask Me, I shall give you; and if you pray to Me, I shall answer you.” The above-mentioned are some definitions, qualities and meanings denoted by Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Malik” (The King).

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Now we go to the second of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes, Al-Quddous (The Holy). Allah, Most Gracious, says, “He is Allah: There is no god but Him, the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defects, the Giver of security, the Watcher over His creatures, the All-Mighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. Glory be to Allah! (High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him.” [LIX; 23] He also says, “Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is in the earth glorifies Allah. His is the Kingdom , and to Him belong all the praises and thanks , and He is Powerful over all things.” [LXIV; 1] But before we set out to talk about this Great Divine Name of Allah, I would like to stop for a short time at a very important fact: All of you know that solid bodies constitute entities that occupy certain spaces, for they have length, breadth, height, weight and mass... A point does not have a mass, but if it moves, it makes a line. If the line moves, it makes a surface. If the surface moves, it makes a size… a point, a line, a surface, a size. A solid body has a mass, i.e. it has length, breadth, height, and weight. A plant has a mass and grows. An animal has a mass, grows and moves. Man, however, has a mass, grows, moves and thinks. The moment he disuses his mind, he cancels his humanity and deteriorates to brutality. In other words, he whose life is mere eating and drinking, permissible and impermissible enjoyments, work and money, without thinking of the One Who created him, the One Who brought him into existence, without thinking where he has come from, where he shall end, or why, is a great loser. What is the value of a person who disuses his mind or uses it in things he has not been created for? It means: if you buy a highly developed computer for tens of millions of pounds, but you put it in the corner of the house and put your things on it, as if it were a table. Isn’t this a kind of disuse or misuse of such priceless apparatus?! To use a highly sophisticated apparatus, which can give you – if you use it properly – very accurate operations and information, but you use it as if it were a mere table to put things on?! He who disuses his mind or misuses it for things it has not been created for is someone who cancels his humanity and is dominated by brutality. In fact, I have mentioned this introduction so that you know that Allah, Glorified and All-High, has endued man with an ability to conceive things.

But what should he conceive? What are the things he should conceive? This is the question. I have recently read that what is printed in one day all over the world and in only one language can not be read in less than two hundred years. In other words, there are countless topics and publications. But what should I read? And what shouldn’t I read? What should I care for? And what shouldn’t I care for? Such are serious questions. Therefore, selectivity is indispensable. You must select the serious topic and the important issue which have to do with your end. A man in a room whose walls are full of books from the floor to the ceiling, and after a few days he is going to take a vital examination: If he passes such exam, he will achieve so may benefits. In such room there is only one book relevant to the exam, so it is wise and normal to leave all other books and study most carefully this particular book. Man has been given the ability to conceive; and he has been endued with an intelligent mind. If you ask me what is the most important thing that Allah has created in the universe, I say that it is the human mind. This is because the human mind is the essence of religious obligation. In other words, unless you had such human mind, Allah wouldn’t hold you responsible for your deeds. Moreover, the human mind is the means whereby you get to know Allah, Most Gracious. We have previously said that there is a problem that can be solved only by seeking knowledge. Since all mankind share the same human nature, anyone who, after being heedless of Allah, All-Mighty, Most Merciful, got to know the things that a believer knows, he would certainly turn to Allah with true love and sincere devotion, just as a true believer does. Should anyone know what the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad, (PBUH), knew, he would love Allah as much as His Messenger did. All humans are certainly of the same nature. Allah, Most Gracious, says, “O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from him He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created many men and women. And fear Allah through Whom you demand (your mutual

rights), and (do not cut the relations of) the wombs (kinship). Surely, Allah is Ever an All-Watcher over you.” [IV; 1] Therefore, all mankind share the same human nature. They have the same human qualities. But in what do they differ from one another? … They differ in Knowledge… That is why it has been said: An ignorant person can do more harm to himself than his enemies can ever do to him. Due to his ignorance, a farmer who had very profitable green houses bought a chemical which he used without reading the proper instructions of the producer. He used double the amount required and, therefore, all his plants died immediately, and he incurred heavy losses. Such an ignorant person, who did not read or follow the producer’s instructions, did more harm to himself than his enemies could ever do to him. Hence, the problem is simply a problem of knowledge; and the more serious issue is that when man is visited by death, he will get to know everything; and all things will be clear to him. He will certainly get to know the truth; and everything will be unveiled to him. Pharaoh did see the truth that Moses, (PBUH), had already seen, but only after it was too late. So the problem is that knowledge should be in the proper time, i.e. you should know the proper thing in the proper time. In other words, you should select from among all human knowledge and information that which is proper; and you should know it in the proper time. Now, the question is: Why should we get to know Allah? Is He not in no need to be known? Allah, All-Mighty, All-High, says, “…If you disbelieve, you and all that is on the earth together, then verily Allah is Rich (Free from all needs), Owner of all Praise.” [XIV; 8] He also says in a Divine Hadith, “O My slaves! If the first and the last ones of you, and the jinn and humans from among you, had the heart of the most dutiful and pious one from among you, that would not increase a thing in My Kingdom. O My slaves! If the first and the last ones of you, and the jinn and humans from among you, had the heart of the most rebellious and irreligious one from among you, that would not decrease a thing from My Kingdom….” [narrated by Muslim and At-Tirmithi]

Why should we know Allah? We know Him simply in order to worship Him; and we shall never worship Him unless we know Him. But why should we worship Him? In order to be happy with Him, and in order to achieve the purpose of His creating us. Allah, Most Gracious,, says, “Except him on whom your Lord has bestowed His Mercy, and for that did He create them. And the Word of your Lord has been proved true: ‘Surly, I shall fill Hell with jinn and men all together.” [XI; 119] Therefore, we know Him, then we worship Him and be happy with Him. That is why our Lord, All-Mighty, All-High, also says, “And I created not the jinn and mankind except that they should worship Me (Alone).” [LI; 56] Be careful not to forget the above Quranic Verse all your life! As you know, worship is voluntary obedience mixed with sincere love based on definitive knowledge and leads to eternal happiness. From among billions and billions of issues and topics, what is the most important topic or issue? It is simply to know Allah, Glorified and Exalted, because, as it has been mentioned in Prophetic Tradition, it is called out to a deceased person who has just been buried: “O My slave! They have gone back and left you alone; and in the earth have they buried you. And if they stayed with you, they would avail you nothing. No one has remained for you except Me; and I am the EverLiving, Who never passes away.” You have to know that your end and final return will be to Him, because you shall inevitably return to Him, and you shall come alone and by yourself unto Him and leave everything. All the things you have achieved in your lifetime will be lost in one second; and there will be Allah, Alone, with you. The Messenger of Allah, (PBUH), said, “O Qais! You have a companion that will be buried alive with you, and you will be buried dead with it. If it is noble, it will honor you; but if it is evil, it will let you down. Verily, it is your work.” Therefore, from among the billions and billions of topics and issues, there is only one most important topic and issue: to know Allah, All-Mighty, Most Majestic. And perhaps you have already known that He is the Creator, you

have already known that He is the Lord, you have already known that He is the True God, and you have already known some of His Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. And this lecture, by Allah’s Grace and Help, contains a little tour round one of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names: Al-Quddous (The Holy). At the university, we learned that a good teacher is someone who can speak not only eloquently and attractively but also interestingly and for a long time without preparation, because he has a lot of relevant information concerning things he has experienced and stored in his mind. Whenever he desires to speak about something, his tongue goes fluently and attractively. Therefore, don’t you think that if you are asked, “What do you know about your Lord, Allah, Who has created you and brought you into existence?”, you should give a clear answer?! Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Has there not been over man a period of time when he was not a thing worth mentioning?” [LXXVI; 1] It is He Who has provided you with sustenance and survival. It is He Who gave you the air; He gave you the water; He gave you the food; He gave you your family; He gave you children; He gave you your mind whereby you acquire knowledge and earn money among many other things; He also provided you with enlightenment and guided you to Him. If you were asked, “What do you know about Allah?”, shouldn’t your answer be attractive and interesting?! This is the question. When by Allah’s Help I decided to cover in every two lectures one of Allah’s Beautiful Names and Attributes, my intention was to know Allah, AllMighty, All-High, because such knowledge must necessarily be conducive to good manners and strict adherence to Allah’s religion. I do not believe that man’s knowledge brings him no good, because when man reads something, he reacts; and when he learns something, he wishes to reap the fruits of such knowledge. The Beautiful Divine Name of Allah, which we are going to talk about is AlQuddous (The Holy). This Name occurs in two Quranic Verses, first of which is: “He is Allah: There is no god but Him, the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defects, the Giver of security, the Watcher over His creatures, the All-Mighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. Glory be to Allah! (High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him.” [LIX; 23] The second is: “Whatsoever is in the heavens and whatsoever is

in the earth glorifies Allah. His is the Kingdom , and to Him belong all the praises and thanks , and He is Powerful over all things.” [LXIV; 1] The Arabic word “Al-Quddous” denotes holiness and purity. “Al-Qudus” means cleanliness and purity; and “At-Tattheer” is purification. “Al-Ard AlMuqaddasah” is the holy land. Paradise is called “Hatheerata-l-Quds” because it purifies from sins and misdeeds of the resent world. Gabriel is called “The Holy Spirit” because he is pure from any defects in communicating Divine Revelation. And in Allah’s Words about His holy angels, we read, “And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels, ‘Verily, I am going to place (mankind) generations after generations on the earth.’ They said, ‘Will You place therein those who will make mischief therein and shed blood, while we glorify You with praises and thanks and purify ourselves for You.’ He (Allah) said, ‘I know that which you know not.’” [II; 30] The above Verses show that the angels purify and sanctify themselves in order to be well-prepared to turn to Allah with obedience and devotion, which is also man’s duty in the life of the present world. In other words, man has to purify himself in order to attain a laudable position with Allah, the All-Mighty King. You all know that when someone is invited to an important high-leveled meeting, he takes special care of his apparel: his clothes, colors of his clothes…etc. He is also very careful about his movements and gestures. That is why the angels here say, “while we glorify You with praises and thanks and purify ourselves for You.” Do you believe that man’s mission in the life of the present world is strictly to purify himself so that he becomes well-qualified to be near Allah in Paradise. This is because Allah is pure, and therefore, He does not accept in His Company except those who are pure. In the Divine Hadith, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “My slave! You have purified your apparel before other humans for years. Why don’t you purify your apparel before Me for one hour?!” Man paints and decorates his house, beautifies the entrance to his house and his reception room. He adorns his car. He wears elegant clothes. Why? Such is man’s apparel before other humans. But man’s apparel before the Lord is his heart: “…while we glorify You with praises and thanks and purify ourselves for You.”

Thus, you should take special care of the apparel of your own inner self (i.e. your heart and soul) so that you may be allowed to be with the holy Prophets, true believers, martyrs and righteous people on the Day of Judgment. What a good company! The accurate point which needs special elaboration in this lecture is that in defining this Beautiful Divine Name of Allah, Al-Quddous (The Holy), it is taken to mean that Allah is free from any attribution of perfection. This is a problematic notion! What is this? It is indeed a serious and unfamiliar notion to say that Allah is free from any perfection as conceived by the human mind. The answer to this is that when man conceives himself, he sees in himself qualities of both perfection and imperfection. Knowledge is perfection and so are patience, forbearance, hearing, seeing, will, and life. All such qualities denote perfection, while ignorance, blindness, deafness, muteness, impatience, malice, and wickedness are all qualities of imperfection. Thus, man sees that there are qualities of perfection and others of imperfection. Therefore, when he desires to praise and glorify Allah, AllMighty, All-High, he attributes to Allah qualities of perfection that he himself knows. But Allah, Al-Quddous (The Holy) is Free from all anthropomorphic qualities of perfection that man attributes to himself or imagines. In other words, whatever qualities of perfection you might think of do not apply to Allah, for He is far above them. To this effect, Allah, AllMighty, says, “The Creator of the heavens and the earth. He has made for you mates from yourselves, and for the cattle (also) mates. By this means He creates you (in the wombs). There is nothing like Him; and He is the All-Hearer, the All-Seer.” [XLII; 11] Allah, All-Mighty and Exalted, is not like one’s father, nor is He like a teacher. He is far Exalted above all anthropomorphic qualities or attributes. Is Allah merciful as a father is to his son? No! Sometimes a father has mercy on his son in an ignorant way that causes him harm and destruction. But Allah is Merciful and All-Knowing; and His Divine Mercy is associated with His Absolute Divine Wisdom and Knowledge. Therefore, when man desires to praise Allah, All-Mighty, All-High, he attributes to Him his anthropomorphic qualities of perfection. He says: Allah, Glorified and Exalted, is Quddous (Holy) in the sense that He is Free from any anthropomorphic attribute of human perfection. He is far Exalted above that; and He is Free from all perfect qualities of human beings, and more fitting for Him is that He is Free from any attributes or qualities of

imperfection, whether human or non-human. He is even far above any quality or attribute that human beings can ever imagine. In other words, Allah, Most Gracious, is Free from any attributes or qualities that human beings can ever imagine. For example, one of the meanings of the Arabic words “Allahu Akbar” (Allah is The Greatest) is that whatever you know about Allah, All-Mighty, All-Majestic, Allah is far Exalted above that. He is far above whatever you know about Him. That is one meaning. Also, the words “Al-Quddous” (The Holy) mean that Allah is Free from, and far Exalted above, all attributes or qualities that man can ever imagine. He is Free from, and far Exalted above all anthropomorphic elements or qualities. Moreover, unless Allah, Most Gracious, allows man to give anthropomorphic attributes of perfection to Him, attributing such anthropomorphic qualities and attributes to Allah would have been sinful and censured. You say, “Allah is “Raheem” (Merciful), Allah is “‘Adil” (Just), Allah is “Lateef” (Kind), Allah is “Haleem” (Forbearing). When you say “Allah is “Haleem” (Forbearing), you might think that He is like man, and He forbears when He is angered… He is “Quddous” (Holy) in the sense that He is Far Exalted Above such imagined notions and attributes. I hope I have made the point clear enough. Is it clear? Have you got it? A knowledgeable holy person addressed another knowledgeable holy one: “O so and so! Don’t you yearn for Allah, All-Mighty, All-Majestic?” “No. I swear by Allah that I do not yearn for Him. I take refuge with Allah! What is that you are saying?! When was He away from me so that I yearn for Him? When was He away from me?!” He replied. Another holy knowledgeable person was asked, “O Imam! When was Allah (i.e. came into existence)?” He replied, “When wasn’t He?”, i.e. “When was He not existing so that you ask me ‘When was Allah?’” Now, another more advanced meaning of Allah’s Name “Al-Quddous” (The Holy) is that He is Free from any quality or attribute that can be conceived or imagined by the human mind or perceived by the human senses. But to say “He is far Exalted above any imperfection” is almost impolite to Allah, All-Mighty, All-Majestic. If you were in the presence of a great man, and you said to him, “O Master! I have told people about you.” He asks you, “What did you tell them?” And

you say, “I told them that your Majesty is not a liar!” What is this? Does he accept that from you? Would you praise a king as not being a liar? Scholars say that if you do this, it would be impolite. Couldn’t you see in the king anything positive when you negated his being a liar?! Moreover, there is a rule which says that negation of something is part of conceiving it, i.e. if you negate a defect or an imperfection from a person, then it means that there is a possibility that he may have such a defect or imperfection. Therefore, it is impolite to say: Allah, Glorified and All-High, is Free from any defects or imperfection. Such a saying would be impolite. One of the definitions of “Al-Quddous” (The Holy) is that He is Free from any needs. But you, human being, are in need of countless things. You are poor: all your personality, intelligence, knowledge, power over other people, patience, endurance…all vanish before a drink of water when you are thirsty. A wise man addressed a Caliph, “O Commander of the Faithful! How much would pay for this glass of water if it were withheld from you?” “Half of my kingdom!” The Caliph replied. “And if it were prevented from going out from you (i.e. if you were prevented from urinating it), how much would you pay?” The man asked. The Caliph said, “I pay the other half of my kingdom!” You are in need of air; and if it were withheld from you, you would buy it for the treasures of the present world. A traveler was once crossing the desert on a camel on which he had his food and drink. When he felt tired, he sat down for some rest. But he suddenly fell asleep. When he woke up, he couldn’t find his camel, on which he had put his food and drink. He felt sure that he was going to die, and he began to cry in sorrow. He fell asleep once again. But after some time, he woke up to find a tree in the distance and was, therefore, filled with hope. He hurried to the tree to find beside it a spring of fresh water. He drank some water and sat in the shade of the tree. Suddenly, he found a purse which he thought was full of food. He was very happy, but, alas, when he opened the purse, he found some jewels in it. He cried out in sorrow, “What a pity! These are jewels!” What’s the good of jewels when one is in bad need of food? Jewels are valuable in the city, but not in the desert when one is in bad need of food and drink. He cried out, “If only there were food in the purse! What a pity! There are only jewels in the purse! What shall I do with them in the desert?!”

It is said that in World War II, a dough of bread was sold for a Guinea of gold. Therefore, man is weak. He needs air, water, food, family, entertainers, lovers, …etc. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “O mankind! It is you who stand in need of Allah. But Allah is Free from all needs, Worthy of all Praise.” [XXXV; 15] “Al-Quddous” (The Holy) is He Who is Pure from all needs, Who is SelfSufficient, Whom all creatures need, and Who is Free from all kinds of imperfection. “Al-Quddous” (The Holy) is He Who is not confined by place or is worn out by time. No human mind could ever imagine or conceive Him; and no hand or power is stretched in His Kingdom without His Decree and Foreordainment. He is “Quddous” (Holy) in Himself, but He makes holy His obedient devoted slaves. When we say that someone is holy, it means that he is pure, because holiness without purity is nonsense. Someone is holy means that he is straightforward, he is chaste, he is pure, he is kind-hearted and magnanimous, he has good intentions, there is no hatred or malice in his heart, he never cheats, his eyes do not look at indecent or unlawful things, he always watches his tongue, and he never utters indecent or unlawful words. In other words, a person is not holy unless he is free from impurities or qualities of perfection. It has been said that “Al-Quddous” (The Holy) is He Who sanctified the souls of the dutiful and obedient from sins and misdeeds and took the evil ones by the forelock. “Al-Quddous” (The Holy) is He Who purified the hearts of His friends. In other words, each and every human being must necessarily have a heart, which must be either as precious as a jewel or as worthless as a stone. Allah, Most Gracious, says, “And surely We have created for Hell many of the jinn and mankind. They have hearts therewith they understand not; and they have eyes therewith they see not; and they have ears therewith

they hear not. They are like cattle; nay they are even more astray; those! They are the heedless ones.” [VII; 179] But the more man gets near to Allah, All-Mighty, All-Majestic, the more magnanimous and kind-hearted he becomes and the more pure his heart is, because it is filled with love for Allah, Most Gracious. In other words, there is a very big difference between one human heart and another: one that is as elevated as the sky, and another that is as low as the earth; one is as pure as a diamond and another is as blurred and contaminated as dirty water. Hearts are of different types; and the human heart is the Lord’s house and the total sum of man’s faith. To this effect, Allah,. Most Gracious, says, “The Day whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail, except him who brings to Allah a clean pure heart.” [XXVI; 88,89] By the Grace of Allah, Most Gracious, this lecture is intended to help man clean and purify his heart from all defects and impurities and motivate him to strive to adorn his heart with all kinds of perfection and purity. Scholars hold that “Al-Quddous” (The Holy) is He Who purifies the hearts of His friends from feeling at home or relying on familiar things of the life of the present world. This is because man is always in a state of being consumed and worn out: his food and drink, his home, his children, his sustenance, his shop and storehouse, his factory and workshop, his job, his position, his health, his heart, his veins and arteries – man is consumed in every sense of the word. Worries of the life of the present world consume him. But the heart of a true sincere devoted worshipper consumes and is not consumed. This is because he consumes the present world by knowing Allah; and he never allows the present world to consume him. A true believer dominates over his desires and is never dominated by them. A true believer controls his own self, and does not allow his own self to control him. A true believer adheres to good moral values and never disdain or abuse them. A true believer enjoys a high moral standard to which he sticks and has an elevated level of knowledge that he never deviates from. He has an exalted ethical and aesthetic standard. A true believer has a unique personality. Scholars also say that “Al-Quddous” (The Holy) is He Who purifies the souls of His worshippers by keeping them away from sinful deeds or

following lusty evil desires and caprices. “Al-Quddous” (The Holy) is He Who purifies the hearts of true believers from love for the present world. “Al-Quddous” (The Holy) is He Who purifies the hearts of those who know Him and are conscious of Him from everything except Him. He purifies the hearts of worshippers, the hearts of true believers and the hearts of those who know Him and are conscious of Him. Worshippers are qualified by their being obedient to Allah. They turn to Him with faithful worship and sincere devotion. And true believers look forward to Allah’s Good Promise and Generous Recompense and shun all things that make them lose His Love. If you desire to be the richest of all people, be more confident in that which is in Allah’s Hands than that which is in your own hands. If you desire to be the noblest and most honorable of all people, be dutiful and obedient to Allah. And if you desire to be the strongest of all people, trust in Allah. To this effect, Allah, Most Merciful, says, “So put your trust in Allah; surely, you are on manifest truth.” [XXVII; 79] He also says, “So do not become weak nor be sad, and you will be superior if you are indeed true believers.” [III; 139] Feelings of oppression, feelings of subjugation and feelings of humiliation are not known to a true believer who knows that all his affairs and matters are in the Allah’s Hand and that Allah is the One Who has the Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. That is why whenever befallen by a mischief, the holy Prophet, Muhammad, (PBUH), used to invoke: “There is no god but Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. There is no god but Allah, the All-Knowing, the AllWise. There is no god but Allah. All things are in Your Hand, o Lord, and You are Most Gracious, Most Merciful.” And that is why the one who reads Allah’s Holy Quran never feels sad or depressed. He who reads Allah’s Holy Quran is never unhappy or depressed because he knows – through the Holy Quran – that all matters and issues are in the Hand of Allah: “Be! And it is”. As for man, everything is limited, everything is rationed; but Allah’s Divine Favors are Infinite and Unlimited. When those who know Allah set out to do anything, they set out by Allah; when they speak, they speak by Allah; At all times and under all circumstances, their hearts are constantly conscious of Allah.

Are you a true believer? Have you covenanted Allah, All-Mighty, AllMajestic? In weal and woe, in poverty and richness, in health and illness, when you have a job or are unemployed, whether married or single, whether you own a dwelling or not, Allah will get to you: Among the believers are men who have been true to their covenant with Allah; of them some have fulfilled their obligations (i.e. have been martyred), and some of them are still waiting, but they have never changed in the least.” [XXXII; 23] Some knowledgeable men said: “May Allah let us taste even a bit of that which He let them (i.e. those true believers mentioned in the above Verse) taste, for He is the Owner of every Grace. Yes, indeed: the taste of nearness; and he who tastes knows. To talk about nearness is something and to taste it is something else. And there is a great difference between pronouncing “one million Guineas of gold” and possessing them. Now then, what is our relationship, we believers, with this Divine Name? It has been said: He who knows this Divine Name of Allah purifies himself from following his desires and caprices. In other words, if you really desire to be always with Allah, you have to free yourself not only from sins and defects but everything except Allah as well, so that He, the Knower of the Unseen, may accept you. Therefore, he who knows this Name of Allah has to purify himself from following his desires and caprices, so that he may reach the rank of “Ihsan” (Perfection of deeds), which means “to worship Allah as if you saw Him, with fear and love, for even if you cannot see Him, He can see you”. Such is the state of watchfulness (with Allah). Scholars say: He who knows this Divine Name purifies himself from following his desires and caprices, purifies his wealth from unlawful or dubious things; and he who knows this Divine Name purifies his time from the sin of wrong-doing… Be careful that He sees you where He has commanded you to be and misses you where he has forbidden you to be. At the time of a religious lecture, where are you? In the House of Allah… At the time of the Friday Prayer, where are you? The time between the Dawn Prayer and sunrise, where are you? In your bed or in the mosque? He must

see you where He has commanded you to be and miss you where He has forbidden you to be. In the streets crowded with indecently dressed women, are you is such evil streets? Nay, by Allah! He is in one of Allah’s Houses. Be careful to be seen where Allah has commanded you to be and be absent from places where He has forbidden you to be. As scholars say: He who knows this Name purifies his time from wrongdoing, his heart from the way of heedlessness and his soul from idle life. Idle life is to stay with one’s wife and children and prefer them to Allah’s Good Pleasure… They tell you: “Stay with us; enough religious lectures; aren’t you fed up with religious lectures?” And you stay with them and go with them on a picnic that takes you away from a religious lecture. He who knows this Name purifies himself from following his desires and caprices, purifies his wealth from unlawful or dubious things, purifies his time from sinful wrong-doing, purifies his heart from ways of misdeeds and deviation, purifies his soul from idle life, purifies his secrecy from being watched or observed. Does anyone see me? He enters the mosque in order to perform prayer, and he meets some brothers there. He stands up to pray in veneration and submission.. No.. Do not mind other creatures! Mind your own Creator! Those can avail you nothing! You have a special status with Allah; and such status is not elevated by the praise of those who praise you neither can it be debased by the dispraise of those who dispraise you. I give you this example, which I always repeat: If you have a kilo of a precious metal, gold, for example, which some ignorant people think cheap or valueless, it does not matter for you if such ignorant people think it is cheap so long as it has a great value. But if you have a kilo of a cheap metal, and by your cleverness and eloquent speech you were able to convince people that it is gold, it is all in vain and will do you no good. Therefore, he who knows himself will not be harmed by whatever people say about him, because his goodness is intrinsic (i.e. from inside himself). People of good knowledge said: He who knows Allah’s Divine Name “AlQuddous” does not humble himself to any other creature, neither does he stand in submission before a rich person. One of the Prophet’s Companions shook hands with him. He felt so blessed and happy and said: “By Allah! I shall never touch with my hand anything that is not holy.” And he lived for eighty years and he did not touch his private part with his hand, with which

he touched the Prophet’s holy hand. Why? Because when he shook hands with the Prophet (PBUH), his hand became so sacred for him. Well, does it befit him who worships his Lord and turns to Him with obedience, love and devotion, to humiliate himself to a creature?! … After having known Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Quddous” and having been blessed by knowing Allah, Most Gracious, it is impossible that he humiliates himself to any creature. That is why he who stands in humiliation and submission to a rich person, loses two thirds of his religion. Make all your honor with your Lord, It stands firm and deeply rooted. If you get your honor from someone that passes away, Your honor will, likewise, pass away. A true believer receives a special kind of treatment from Allah, All-Mighty, All-Majestic. The proof is: “And remember Thu-n Noun (Jonah), when he went off in anger, and imagined that We would not punish him! But he cried out through the darkness: ‘There is no god but You (O Allah)! Glorified and Exalted are You! Truly, I have been of the wrong-doers.” [XXI; 87] And the answer that came from his Lord became a Divine Law: “And We answered his call and delivered him from the distress; and thus We do deliver the believers.” [ibid; 88] By Allah! This Quranic Verse, alone, fills man with tranquility, peace, happiness, dignity, and honor, “and thus We do deliver the believers.” Scholars said: He who knows Allah’s Name “Al-Quddous” never humbles himself to any creature because his soul has become sanctified by his knowledge of Allah, Most Gracious. Therefore, it is impossible that he humbles himself to anyone except Allah, All-Mighty, All-Majestic. And he who knows Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Quddous” never magnifies any creature in his heart whereby he has known Him. His heart, which has magnified Allah, All-Mighty, All-Majestic, is impossible to magnify with Him anyone else! “They swear by Allah to you in order to please you, but it is more fitting that they should please Allah and His Messenger, if they are believers.”

[IX; 62] This Quranic Verse shows clearly that pleasing the Messenger of Allah is the same as pleasing Allah. Scholars also said: He who really knows Allah’s Name Al-Quddous must never care about whatever things he may miss after having found his Lord. Such is a crystal clear fact. I seek Your Good Pleasure even if life is bitter, And I seek Your satisfaction even if all mankind are dissatisfied. And let that which is between You and me be firmly established, Even if that which is between the whole world and me is destroyed. If good links are built up with you, everything turns out fair and easy, And all that is on the ashes is ash.

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Had your eyes seen of Our Beauty that which they have seen, You would not have turned away from Us to any other ones. And had your ears heard Our Beautiful Words, You would have taken off the cloak of pride and come unto Us. Therefore, he who knows Allah’s Name “Al-Quddous” does not care about whatever things he misses after having found Him. I have read something about Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq, the venerable Companion and Caliph, may Allah be pleased with him: words that I never forget, namely that he never regretted anything that he missed from the present world. Now, he who seeks Him should never give up before he gets to Him after having set off to Him. Such are very delicate words that need elaboration. Once you have sought Allah, Most Gracious, nothing should cause you to give up, no problem, no danger, no fancy, no threat, no poverty, nothing at all. Such is real truthfulness, i.e. truthfulness of direction. People of understanding said: He who knows this Divine Name should double up his efforts until Allah purifies him from his defects and faults.

He has some faults in his own soul. But the comforting fact is that physical defects, i.e. defects of the body, end with death, whatever such defects or illnesses might be. For example, if someone’s hand is inflicted, or his vision is weak, or his back aches, when he is visited by the angel of death all his physical problems end for ever. In other words, all physical illnesses end by death, but all illnesses of the heart begin with death. “People are asleep, but when they die, they wake up.” Man’s indulgence in his worldly desires and caprices disables him from considering his faults and defects, but once he is separated from his desires and caprices, his faults and defects come up to burn him. In Al-Jami’ As-Sagheer book of Prophetic Hadith we read: “Verily, on the Day of Resurrection, disgrace befalls the person so much so that he says, ‘O Lord! Your sending me to Hell-Fire is easier for me than what I am suffering (from disgrace)!’ although he knows how much torment is there in it (Hell-Fire).” [Al-Jami’ As-Sagheer: narrated by Jabir] Psychological pains, pains of regret, feelings of disappointment and loss are all confirmed by Allah’s Words, “Say, ‘Shall we tell you (who are) the greatest losers in respect of deeds?’ Those whose efforts have been wasted in this life while they thought that they were acquiring good by their deeds. They are those who deny the Signs of their Lord and the Meeting with Him (in the Hereafter), so their works are in vain, and on the Day of Resurrection, We shall assign no weight for them. Hell shall be their recompense, for they disbelieved and took My Signs and My Messengers by way of jest and mockery.” [XVIII; 103-106] Knowledgeable people said: He who knows this Divine Name should double up his efforts until Allah purifies him from all his defects and faults, purifies him from all his sins and misdeeds, and purifies his heart from all impurities, so that he may turn to Allah with true faith and sincere devotion. People of good knowledge said: Of the etiquettes of knowing this Divine Name is that he who knows it should double up his efforts until Allah purifies him from all his defects and impurities in all his conditions and purifies his heart from all its impurities and defects, so that he may turn to Allah with true love, sincere devotion and truthful obedience at all times.

They said: He who purifies his tongue from slander and backbiting, Allah purifies his heart from slander and brings him nearer to Him, and he who purifies his eyes from looking at indecencies, Allah purifies his secrecy from all barriers. If man abstains from looking at unlawful or indecent things, Allah opens his insight to the truth; but if he looks at unlawful or indecent things, Allah eclipses his insight from the truth. If man purifies his tongue from calumny, slander and backbiting, Allah brings him nearer to Him. The following Quranic Verse sums up the whole thing: “ – ‘while we glorify You with praises and thanks and sanctify You.’ He (Allah) said, ‘I know that which you know not.’” [II; 30] It means that we purify ourselves in order to deserve to be with You, o Lord, in Your Paradise, with believers, with Prophets and Messengers, with the truthful and faithful, and with the righteous. Be committed to Allah’s Commands and Enjoinments and leave all things up to Him! Stand in prayer with veneration so that Allah may confer upon you His Grace! Try to perform prayer with your children so that Allah may guide them to the Straight Path! Purify their outer apparel so that Allah may purify their inner selves. Their outer apparel is your job but their inner selves are in Allah’s Care and Disposal. Do not despair even if you see someone indulged up to his ears in the most horrible sins: reconciliation with Allah can be effected in a single instant. “When a slave turns to Allah (with sincere repentance), it is called out in the heavens and the earth: ‘Congratulate so and so, as he has been reconciled with Allah!’” I end up my lecture with the following words in the hope that you keep them in your minds: Verily, a good deed has brightness on the face, light in the heart, magnitude of sustenance, strength in the body, and love in the hearts of other fellow humans.

Does not the one of us wish to be like that: a face as bright as the illuminating sun, an enlightened heart, good sustenance, a strong body, love in the hearts of other fellow humans?! One of the scholars of Egypt lived for a hundred and thirty years; and another of Syria lived for ninety-six years. He was said to have an upright stature, good sight and hearing, a mouth full of teeth, red cheeks, and a strong body. Whenever asked: “What is this good health?!”, he would answer, “O son! We have protected them (our parts of body from sins and misdeeds) when we were young, so Allah protected them for us in our old age.” O Allah! Let us enjoy our hearing, seeing and strength so long as You grant us life. They also said: A sin has blackness on the face, darkness in the heart and grave, weakness in the body, narrowness in sustenance [to the same effect, the Messenger of Allah, (PBUH), says, “Man may be deprived of sustenance because of a sin that he commits.”], and hatred in the hearts of fellow humans. Most dangerously, sins and misdeeds make man worthless in the sight of his Lord, Allah, as well as other fellow humans… If Allah’s Commands are disrespected by people, they become worthless to Him. One final piece of advice: If you are dutiful to Allah by shunning unlawful things, you are a repentant. If you abstain from committing dubious things, you are of those who purify themselves. If you do not care for unnecessary things, you will be safe from long accountability. And if you hasten to serve your Lord, Allah, you will be generously recompensed.

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ow, we move on to the third Divine Name of Allah, “As-Salam” (The Source of peace, safety and perfection), which is mentioned in some of the Verses of Allah’s Holy Quran: “He is Allah. There is no god but Him, the King, the Holy, As-Salam (the Source of Peace, safety and Perfection), the Giver of security, the Watcher over His creatures, the All-Mighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. Glory be to Allah! (High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him.” [LIX; 23], “Allah calls to the Home of Peace (i.e. Paradise) and guides whom He wills to the Straight Path.” [X; 25], “And if he (the dying person) be of those of the Right Hand, then there is safety and peace for those of the Right Hand.” [LVI; 90,91], and “And peace be on him the day he was born, the day he dies, and the day he will be raised up alive.” [XIX; 15] This Divine Name of Allah means that He, All-Mighty, All-Majestic, is the Source of Peace and Safety, which also means that He, Glorified and Exalted, is Free from any kind of defect, His Attributes are free from any kind of imperfection, His Acts are free from any kind of evil. But here we have to elaborate some delicate expressions: He is Free from any kind of defect, His Attributes are fee from any kind of imperfection, and His Acts are free from any kind of evil. But isn’t there evil in this present world? So how come that scholars, when they interpret such a Great Divine Name of Allah, say that His Acts are free from any kind of evil?! At the outset, and in answer to this question, I give special importance to this point, because if you properly understand it, dear reader, you think well of your Lord, Allah, Most Gracious. And undoubtedly, to think well of Allah is the price of Paradise. In fact this statement has to be understood to mean that Allah’s Acts are Free from any kind of absolute evil. But what is absolute evil?! It is evil that we do just for evil itself. For example, if someone has a serious inflammation in his vermiform appendix, doesn’t the surgeon, whom we wish to carry out such an operation, use a special knife whereby he cuts his flesh? And doesn’t his blood gush out after he has been anesthetized? When he comes round, doesn’t he feel pain? Do we really desire to cut his body just because we like to harm him or save him? Doesn’t such wellexperienced surgeon cut open the patient’s body and cut off his inflamed vermiform appendix saving him from danger and bringing him health, safety

and comfort? But when someone stabs another just for the sake of killing him without any crime he has committed, we say: This is an absolute evil deed, i.e. doing evil things just for the sake of evil. But when a surgeon cuts open his patient’s abdomen to eradicate his inflamed vermiform appendix and bring him safety and comfort is by no means absolute evil, because it is conducive to good favorable results in the end. In this sense should we understand Allah’s Divine Name “As-Salam”, i.e. the One Who provides safety and peace. Allah’s Acts are, hence, free from any kind of absolute evil; but when man does evil for the sake of evil, this is absolute evil. Therefore, in the light of the afore-mentioned we should believe that there is no absolute evil in Allah’s Acts. Yes, indeed, there is no absolute evil in Allah’s Acts. But there are kinds of evil that Allah, Alone knows; and such kinds of evil are necessary to bring about good desirable results. Man has been created for eternal happiness. But if he deviates from his target, he must be corrected, he must be treated, he must be pushed forward, and he must be deterred. Something must be done to push him towards his noble target. Hence, he who believes that in Allah’s Acts there is absolute evil, or that Allah, Most Gracious, does evil just for the sake of evil, does not know Allah at all. To this effect, Allah, Most Merciful, says, “Say, ‘O Allah! Possessor of the Kingdom! You give the kingdom to whom You will; and You take the kingdom from whom You will; and You endue with honor whom You will; and You humiliate whom You will. In Your Hand is the Good. Verily, You are Powerful over all things.” [III; 26] For example, is there in the whole world a real father who sees his son commit a crime or a grievous sin – such as stealing money, robbing others of their possessions, telling big lies, transgressing against the rights of others or killing unlawfully other fellow humans – and yet stands hand-folded and does nothing to deter his son by scolding, advising, beating, warning, reproaching, blaming, …etc.?! And is there in the whole world a real father who intentionally injures or does harm to his dutiful righteous son who does no evil things at all. Such simple human fathers can never do such unfair and unjust evil things as those mentioned above.

Hence, absolute evil does not exist in Allah’s Acts; and whatever disaster befalls humans is due to what their hands have earned. Moreover, the more grievous the deviation, the harder the treatment. That was the first meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “As Salam”, i.e. Allah is Free from all kinds of imperfection, His Attributes are free from all kinds of defects, His Acts are free from absolute evil. Any kind of evil that Allah, Most Gracious, inflicts on his creatures is meant for the near or far benefit of mankind. For example, someone might lose all his wealth, or suffer from an incurable disease that forces him to spend all his money for its treatment. Such total loss of wealth, and such incurable disease both seem to be seriously evil to those who undergo them. But when we remember that man has been created for an eternal happiness, that such disease or loss do serve as a kind of treatment to drive him back to his Lord, Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful, and that the ultimate goal of such loss or disease is a noble one, i.e. ultimate good for man. The second meaning of Allah’s Divine Name, “As-Salam”, is that Allah, Most Gracious, is the Giver of safety to His slaves, i.e. there is no safety in the whole universe except that which is attributed to Him. Now, we get through a delicate subject, and I really wish to follow a very clear kind of methodology in understanding Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. Let’s shun theoretical definitions. Let’s forget what other scholars have said, although what they have said about Allah’s Name “AsSalam” is so good and valuable. You, as a human being: Can you find in the universe around you events, signs, evidence of the fact that Allah is “AsSalam” (The Source of Peace, safety and Perfection)? I have tried to find out some pieces of evidence derived from our daily life, our bodies, and the things around us in order to prove that the whole universe is but a substantiation of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and a feature of His Perfect Divine Attributes. For example, if someone’s bones have been broken, how do they recover? No one knows exactly how it goes. When a bone-cell is harmed, or, in fact, when bones first grow, they keep growing until they reach a certain degree of growth designed and controlled by Allah, Most Gracious, for He, AllMighty, is the Creator, Who designs and controls all things.

Due to Allah’s Mercy on us our bodies keep growing until they reach an acceptable and suitable extent where they stop growing. And in this context, there is a very serious disease that makes man keep growing incessantly until one becomes a giant. It is the giant-disease which makes man’s bones grow non-stop. Allah’s Divine Mercy on us stops the growth of our bones at a certain extent pre-designed and controlled by Him, Most Gracious. Medical Scientists hold that the bone-cell hibernates for even forty years. But if a bone is broken, the cells wake up and start to grow up and get cemented with the other bone-cells. Now, the question is: What would happen to us if such bone-cells did not wake up or recover?! Undoubtedly, self-recovery of the cells of broken bones is a clear substantiation of Allah’s Divine Name “As-Salam” (The Source of peace, safety and perfection). When you walk on your small-sized delicate feet, what guarantees that you do not fall down? There is a balance-apparatus that Allah, Most Gracious, placed in the inner part of your ear, consisting of three channels containing a liquid and fringes. When you bend down on one side, the liquid rises in one part of the channel and goes down in the other, and the fringes move with the liquid and give orders to the brain in order to cause the body to bring them back to their normal balanced position. Without such apparatus, which Allah, All-Mighty, placed in the inner part of our ears, we would need seventy-centimeters-long feet. Hence, for your safety Allah has provided you with such apparatus of balance in your ears. Allah, Glorified and Exalted, placed inside the bones of human body highly sensitive nerves that seem to have no function. When a certain bone is broken, strong pain, which the nerves inside the bone carry to the brain, helps keep the broken bone in place, which constitutes three quarters of treatment. In other words, Allah, Most Merciful, put inside bones such hyper-sensitive nerves for the safety of man. This is because He, Most Gracious, is “As-Salam” (The Source of Peace, safety and perfection). The nerves inside your teeth are meant to warn you of decay and drive you to see your dentist to have your teeth treated before you lose them all. Such nerves are a substantiation of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “As-Salam” (The Source of Peace, safety and perfection). Immunity system, which is the main concern of the whole world nowadays, is a big army that Allah, Most Gracious, put in the human blood: the white corpuscles, some of which do the job of reconnaissance, probing enemy

forces, others make the necessary anti-serum, and others use the anti-serum to fight the enemy germs and viruses, while you are completely unconscious. For your own safety Allah has put in you an apparatus of immunity: The white corpuscles, some of which are especially made for probing the structure and weak points of the enemy germs and viruses, others are for making the necessary anti-serums, and others for fighting enemy germs and viruses as soon as they enter the body. The AIDS, which is the main interest of the whole world nowadays, is but a kind of weakness in the person’s immunity apparatus. Why did Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful, put such an apparatus in man?! The answer is: for his own safety, which substantiates Allah’s Divine Name “As-Salam” (The Source of peace, safety and perfection). The heart: Allah, Most Gracious, has made therein a special electric alarm center of its own. All other muscles of the human body receive direct orders from the brain through sensor and motor nerves. Sensor nerves carry surrounding feelings to the brain, while motor nerves carry brain-orders to muscles. In other words, all muscles of the body move by orders from the brain, except the muscle of the heart, yes indeed, except the heart-muscle, which Allah has provided with a special electric generation center of its own. That is because the heart is very important and dangerous. If anything goes wrong with this electric-generation center, there is another extra generation center, which starts to work immediately and automatically in case of any failure on the part of the first generation center. Some advanced countries have extra man-made generation centers in cases of emergency. Now, if anything goes wrong with the basic generation centers, the extra supplementary ones start working at once. In other words, in the human heart there are three electric generation centers of its own. If the first fails to work, the second starts working automatically; and if the second fails, the third immediately goes off. Why did Allah, Most Gracious, create such generation centers?! The answer is: for your own “safety”. One day, a kidney-specialist told me: If we amputate both kidneys but leave only one tenth of either, this one tenth of either kidney is enough to purify the blood of man. Therefore, it is for your own safety that Allah, Most Merciful, gave your two kidneys an ability that is twenty times as much as you need. This is only for your own safety, which is a substantiation of

Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “As-Salam” (The Source of peace, safety and perfection). Blood vessels: Veins and arteries: Due to Allah’s Infinite Divine Wisdom and Mercy, He has made arteries inside parts of the body while veins in the outer sides. This is because veins are linked directly with the heart; and, hence, if they are cut, man loses all his blood, because they are like a pump. If a vein is opened, do you know what happens? As I have been told by a specialist surgeon, when a vein is opened during a surgical operation, blood gushes out up to the ceiling because of high blood pressure unless it is immediately clipped. This vein, which Allah placed in man for his own safety and survival, is placed inside, while arteries are placed outside. This is another substantiation of Allah’s Divine Name “As-Salam” (The Source of peace, safety and perfection). When man becomes so hungry that he is about to die of starvation: You, as a human being, have so many nutritional elements. For example, you have herbs, legumes, grains, and fats. No matter how knowledgeable you are, can you change wheat into fat or meat? Such a thing is beyond human ability. But your human body is equipped with a marvelous mechanism whereby it changes starches into fats in case of need. Such flexibility in changing substances is for your own safety. When man is hungry, he consumes the fats stored in his body, then he consumes his muscles, in such cases of starvations and famines; and there remains only his bones and flesh. In this context, when a young man once entered upon Abdul Malik bin Marwan, the Umayad Caliph, the latter addressed his two chamberlains in anger: “Everyone who desires to enter upon me has an access to do so, even young children!” The young man stood up and asked permission to talk. He said: “O Commander of the Faithful! My entrance upon did not derogate from your privilege (as a Cliph), although it was a great honor to me.” Then, he went on to say: “We have been visited by three years of drought and famine. One year consumed the fat (of our bodies); the second devoured the flesh; and the third crushed the bones!” Hence, the first stored thing that is consumed from man’s body in case of famines is his fat, then his muscles, except for that of the heart. Who has designed such a marvelous design? If someone is made to suffer death by starvation, he consumes all his muscles, except for the muscle of his heart. This is for his own safety. Moreover, some of the food stored in man’s body is not consumed except at times of famines. Man sometimes starves. What does starvation mean? It

means that the storage of food in your liver decreases. I say “in your liver and not in your arteries”. In other words, if you test the blood of a hungry person, you find that the rates of nutritional elements in his blood are all normal, but the storage of nutritional elements in his liver decreases. This is all for the safety of man, and certainly is a manifestation of Allah’s Divine Name “As-Salam” (The Source o peace, safety and perfection). Something else: When man sleeps, the weight of his body presses down on his muscles that are under the bones. This pressure causes narrowness to the blood vessels and, hence, weak blood flow, which is very dangerous. Therefore, Allah, Most Gracious, has put in man nerve-centers that sense pressure of the body, narrowness of blood vessels and weakness of bloodflow. They send messages to the brain, which, in turn, orders the body, while you are heavily asleep, to turn over from one side to another. To this effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “And you would have thought them awake, whereas they were asleep. And We turned them over on their right and on their left sides, and their dog stretching forth his two forelegs at the entrance (to the Cave). Had you looked at them, you would certainly have turned back from them in flight, and would certainly have been filled with awe of them.” [XVIII; 18] Turning you in your sleep from one side to another, every now and then, so that you may not fall off your bed, is for your own safety, and is definitely a manifestation of Allah’s Divine Name “As-Salam” (The Source of peace, safety and perfection). While you are asleep, there is saliva in your mouth. Once this saliva becomes excessive, it gives a warning to the brain, which, in turn, gives orders to the pharynx to close the way to the trachea and opens that to the stomach, which causes the saliva to go straight to the stomach, while you are soundly asleep. This is a manifestation of Allah’s Divine Name “As-Salam” (The Source of Peace, safety and Perfection). Another example, where did Allah, most Gracious, put your brain, the most dangerous part of your body? In your skull. What did He make in it? layers one above another. And what did He put between the brain and the skull? He put a liquid. What is the function of this liquid? It has been especially designed to absorb all shocks. If someone receives a blow on his head or if he falls down on his head, the liquid inside his skull disperses the pressure of the shock all over the skull, protecting the brain from harm or injury. It is

Allah, Most Merciful, Who has placed the brain inside, as it were, a protection box with fixed joints, which also absorb some shocks. Without such bent and jig-saw joints, the skull would be broken by the weakest blow or shock. These jig-saw joints absorb the shocks, just like springs, and protect the brain. This is for your own safety; and this is another manifestation of Allah’s Divine Name “As-Salam” (The Source of peace, safety and perfection). Where is the spinal cord, the most dangerous thing in man, placed? Inside the vertebral column! Where is the heart placed? In the chest! Where is the womb placed? In the pelvis: “Thereafter, We made him (the offspring of Adam) a sperm in a safe lodging (womb of the woman).” [XXIII; 13] The womb is located right in the geometrical center of the body of the woman. Where are factories of the red corpuscles, which are the most dangerous factories in the human body, located? Inside the bones! Do you see what safety is like?! Where is the eye located?! Inside the eye-socket! Allah has made for the eye a special safe socket for its own safety and protection. If a person receives a blow or shock on his face, the blow does not reach the eye, because it is protected inside its own socket! Hence, the eye is inside the socket, the brain inside the skull, the spinal cord inside vertebral column, the heart inside the chest, the factory of making the red corpuscles inside the bones, and the womb inside the pelvis. What is this fascinating accuracy?! It is certainly the work of Allah, the All-Mighty, Whose Divine Power and Wisdom are Infinite. Why did Allah, Most Gracious, make the nose of the newborn baby cartilaginous and hard? In order not to bend and close, smothering the baby while suckling. The older the baby grows, the softer its nose becomes. This is Allah’s Infinite Divine Wisdom. When a woman’s womb contracts at a child-birth, it so does for her own safety. But what happens? While delivering, the mother’s womb contracts gently, which is called “At-Talq” (i.e. labor); but when the baby is pushed out of the womb, the womb contracts strongly. Why? It is said: Because when the baby is pushed out of the womb, tens of thousands of blood capillaries are cut off. If it contracted gently, the mother would die of

bleeding. The doctor or midwife probes the womb: if it is hard, the delivery is safe and normal. If both kinds of contraction were reversed, both mother and child would die. If contraction were too strong, the baby would be smothered; if it were too lenient, the mother would die. Hence, for safety of both mother and child, the first contraction is mild while the second is strong, all for safety of mother and child. I swear by Allah! Even if we spent long hours, days, months, years, contemplating Allah’s Divine Name “As-Salam” (The Source of Peace, safety and perfection), only in the world of plants, animals and humans, we would never be able to cover all its manifestations. The seminal animalcules: A few days ago, one of our brother doctors, may Allah generously reward him, told me that the seminal animalcule, which Allah, All-Mighty, creates inside testicles, needs eighteen days to be fully grown. It is stored inside testicles and made to hibernate until it enters a woman’s womb, where it starts working. In other words, the moment it is emitted from its place it starts to work. Without this quality all men would be futile, as futility comes from the fact that a seminal animalcule has a definite life-span of only ten hours. And if it were made inside the testicles and weren’t used within that short time, it would die. The fact is that it is made, stored and made to hibernate inside the testicle. As soon as it enters the womb, it starts working and lives for ten hours during which it is able to settle inside the woman’s ovule. Whose design is this ?! It is Allah’s Design, Whose Divine Name is “As-Salam” (The Source of Peace, safety and perfection)! I do really wish, dear reader, after we have set out to elaborate the Beautiful Divine Names of Allah, that you follow, in understanding these Names, a way that comprises both theoretical definitions and practical substantial evidence, and that you deliberate freely some features of the creation of man, animal and plant. When it lacks water, a tree starts consuming the water of its leaves, which makes them wilted and dry. If it is not watered, the tree consumes the water of its twigs. If it is still not watered, it consumes the water of its branches. If it still needs water, it uses the water of its trunk. If it still lacks water, it consumes the water of its roots, which is the last thing a tree can consume before it turns into mere wood for burning.

If the process were reversed, the tree would die if it were left without water for only two weeks. This is because it would start consuming the water of its roots, which would cause them to fade and dry out and the tree to die. Who gave the tree such a marvelous design, which makes it consume the water of its leaves first so that you may hasten to water it?! Such is the Design of Allah, “As-Salam” (The Source of peace, safety and perfection)! The rising sap of a plant: In a tree there are vessels for rising sap and others for falling sap. A tree grows horizontally, which causes narrowness in its vessels. That is why such vessels, which are very vital for the tree, are supported with spiral fibers so that the tree’s crust and bast do not over-grow. Who designed this?! Allah, Glorified and Exalted. The plant-seed, which Allah, Most Gracious, has made one of His Marvelous Signs, resists death for years and years. For, example, seeds of wheat were found in the pyramids of Egypt. They have been lying there for thousands of years. But when they were recently planted, they grew up normally. In other words, the seed of wheat is a living creature that has a core that remains alive for nearly six thousand years; and whenever it is planted, it grows up. To my knowledge and faith, all things in existence: plants, animals and humans are designed and disposed with by Allah, AsSalam, the Source of peace, safety, and perfection. Water is another crystal clear Sign of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name, “AsSalam” (The Source of peace, safety and perfection). If water contracted when it froze, and, therefore, it sank low into the depth of oceans, life would be impossible on earth. But it does not contract. When it freezes, water expands, which is an amazing exception, and, thus, floats. If it didn’t, all the seas and oceans would be solid blocks of ice, evaporation would stop, and so would rain. Plants would die, and so would animals and humans. But due to Allah’s Infinite Divine Mercy, this does not happen, which is a crystal clear manifestation of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name: “As-Salam” (The Source of peace, safety and perfection)! This same odd property of water also plays a vital role in making soil on earth. When water gets colder, it expands and, therefore, it causes rocks to be broken off into tiny pieces of soil. In other words, it is well-known that soil comes from broken rocks, which the freezing of water plays a vital role in breaking off. Let’s contemplate Allah’s Words: “By the sky which gives

rain again and again, and the earth which splits again and again!” [LXXXVIII; 11, 12] Hence, the increase in the volume of water when it gets colder or freezes is one of the forces that make soil out of hard rocks. This is for the safety of life. And if we desire to deliberate Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names from this way, it is really a wonderful vast way and within the reach of everyone. Everyone can deliberate Allah’s Name “As-Salam” (The Source of peace, safety and perfection) on the basis of contemplation on things starting with a glass of water, through a dough of bread, to man’s own parts of body, organ, cells, and tissues, and even his food and drink. In this context, Allah, AllMighty, All-Majestic, says, “…Who has created the seven heavens one above another; you can see no fault in the creation of the Most Gracious. Then look again: Can you see any rifts?” [LXVII; 3] Hence, His Creation is perfect and faultless: “Verily, We have created all things in (perfect) measure.” [LIV; 49] He, Most Gracious, also says, “He (Pharaoh) said: ‘Who then, O Moses, is the Lord of you two?’ He (Moses) said: ‘Our Lord is He Who gave all things their form and nature, then guided them aright.’” [XX; 49,50] The yearly migration of birds is made for their own safety. The birds migrate seven thousand kilometers, and some fly eighty-six hours non-stop. Is there in the whole world a plane that can fly eighty-six hours non-stop without being supplied with fuel? It is impossible: “He gave all things their form and nature, then guided them aright”. I have mentioned examples, some of which about man’s creation, some about plant creation, and some about animal creation. A fish has been endued by Allah, Most Gracious, with a special apparatus whereby it knows where it is from the surface of the water. In its upper third part and under the scales there is a pipe that is empty from air. When it goes deeper into the water, the pressure on this pipe increases. This is similar to pressureapparatus in submarines. Allah, the Source of peace, safety and perfection, has endued each and every fish with this apparatus of pressure, whereby it knows where it is from the surface of the water. If it goes down, it knows the depth of the place it has reached. This is for its own safety. Look at all domestic animals around us! You will certainly notice how wonderful their systems of safety are. This is a clear manifestation of Allah’s

Beautiful Divine Name “As-Salam” (The Source of peace, safety, and perfection)! Therefore, Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “As-Salam” may be taken to mean that He, All-Mighty, is Free from any defect, His Attributes are free from any kind of imperfection, His Acts are free from any kind of evil, He is the Source of safety to His creatures (i.e. there is no safety in the whole universe except that which is attributed to Him), or He is the One from Whose Punishment true believers in Him and His friends are safe: “Say: ‘Praise and thanks are to Allah, and peace be on His slaves whom He has chosen.” [XXVII; 59] Scholars said: Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “As-Salam” in the sense that He is Free from all kinds of defects or imperfection belongs to attributes of deanthropomorphism (i.e. elimination of anthropomorphic elements from the conception of deity). If His Name “As-Salam” is taken to mean that He confers His peace upon His friends, then, it belongs to Names of Allah’s Divine Self. If it is taken to mean that He is The Provider of safety to believers, then, it is a Name that belongs to Allah’s Acts. In other words, Allah’s Name “As-Salam” belongs to His Names of deanthropomorphism, Attributes of His Divine Self, or Qualities of His Acts. Of the meanings of this Divine Name is that remembering Allah, Most Gracious, conduces to feelings of security, tranquility and safety. To this effect, Allah’s Words go, “Verily, in the remembrance of Allah do hearts find rest.” [XIII; 28] In man’s heart there may dwell feelings of loneliness, fear, anxiety, and worry. Such feelings are not removed or minimized except by remembering Allah, Most Gracious and being conscious of Him. Here I whisper these words to my dear readers: search everywhere and in everything. There is nothing in the whole world to give you happiness except in remembering Allah, Most Merciful, and being conscious of Him. Verily, the hearts do suffer rustiness, just like iron. But how can they be cleared up?! By the remembrance of Allah and reading His Holy Quran! One of the meanings of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “As-Salam”, therefore, is that if you remember Him, you feel peaceful. If you remember Him, fear is removed from you. If you remember Him, loneliness is

removed from you. If you remember Him, you feel secure with Him. And if you remember Him, you feel tranquil with Him. Those who are unconscious of Allah, Most Gracious, or turn away from Him, fear devours their hearts and they never feel balanced. In fact, they feel crushed because they associate with Allah other gods to which He gave no authority. That is why Allah, All-Mighty, casts fear into their hearts. Tranquility is the token of a true believer. I reiterate that “As-Salam’ (The Source of peace, safety and perfection) is one of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names. If you remember Him, He grants you peace. If you remember Him, He bestows tranquility on you. If you remember Him, you feel so near to Him. If you remember Him, you feel that He defends you, that you are in His Care, Protection, Help and Grace. One of the meanings of Allah’s Name “As-Salam” is that if you get connected to Allah, Most Gracious, you have all your defects and faults purified. Here we get into delicate meanings, first of which is that He, AllMighty, All-Majestic, is Free from all kinds of defects; His Attributes are all free from all kinds of imperfection, and His Acts are free from all kinds of evil, I mean, absolute evil, because purposeful evil is a kind of treatment and medicament. And medicament is usually of bitter taste. Another meaning is that He is the Source of safety, i.e. He grants safety to His slaves, either in their creation, as we have already mentioned, or in themselves as remembrance of Allah brings security, tranquility and safety to them. Once again, connection with Allah purifies man from all defects, from avarice, from meanness, from malice, grudge, from feud, from envy, from arrogance, and from a great many other defects and faults, which are the main source of human misery and wretchedness. If you get connected with Allah, the Source of peace, safety and perfection, you get purified from all such defects and faults. Allah, Glorified and Exalted, grants you safety in your body. He gave you organs and apparatuses. He gave you cells and tissues, marvelous accuracy of your digestive, nervous, muscular, and circulatory systems. If you are afraid, remember Him, and He fills your heart with peace. If you get connected with Him, He purifies you from all defects and faults, He purifies your soul, thanks to His Beautiful Divine Name “AsSalam” (The Source of peace, safety, and perfection).

In your business, He guides you to peaceful ways; in your marriage He guides you to peaceful ways; and in your relationships with your neighbors He guides you to peaceful ways. If you adhere to His Divine Commands and Enjoinments in His Holy Quran, He guides you, in everything and every issue, to peaceful ways. And He, Allah, invites you to the Home of Peace, i.e. Paradise. Hence, Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “As-Salam” brings comfort, because with it you live in peace, you live in tranquility, you live in comfort. You feel that He, the Creator of the universe, is always with you. He, All-Mighty, never lets you down or leaves you unprotected in the face of your enemies. He, Glory to Him, defends you, protects you, helps you, gives you victory; and you reap the ripe fruits after you have paid the price. To this effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Indeed Allah took the covenant from the children of Israel, and We appointed twelve leaders among them. And Allah said: ‘I am with you if you perform prayer and give Zakat (Alms) and believe in My Messengers, honor and assist them, and lend a good loan to Allah, verily, I will expiate your sins and admit you to Gardens under which rivers flow (in Paradise). But if any of you, after this, disbelieves, he has indeed gone astray from the Straight Path. [V; 12] One of the meanings of Allah’s Divine Name “As-Salam” is, therefore, that remembrance of Allah conduces to security and peace, that connection with Allah, All-Mighty, All-High, conduces to freedom from defects, faults and impurities, and rids of sins, grudge, envy, feud, and arrogance. All such grievous deadly evil qualities are purified and removed from you if you get connected with Allah, Most Gracious. Another meaning of this Divine Name, “As-Salam”, is that if you adhere to His Religion, Allah guides you to peaceful ways. To this effect, Allah, Most Merciful, says, “Verily, this Quran guides to that which is most just and right.” [XVII; 9] In other words, if you stick to Allah’s Divine Law and Legislation, He grants you safety in the life of the present world; if you turn to Him with love, He gives you security and safety; if you obey Him in all aspects of your life, He grants you safety in the world to come. Allah, AllHigh, says, “He is Allah: There is no god but Him, the King, the Holy, “As-Salam” (The Source of peace, safety and perfection).” [LIX; 23] Sometimes, you befriend someone evil or have a partnership with him in some of your works, and he destroys your life. A man may marry an evil woman who destroys him. In this context, someone told me that he met a

woman in a casino. He was fond of her and got married to her. After some time, they didn’t get on well with each other because she wasn’t committed. I asked him, “Where did you get her from?!”, “Where did you marry her?!” Then she left him and went to live with her family. He tried to please her and reconcile things with her, but she refused unless he had one thousand Pounds registered for her. She accepted to return to him but only in order to plot against him. She brought an action against him at court, and plotted with the notification clerk, hid the court’s notification from him, and won a nonrevocable verdict of imprisonment against him upon charges of non-payment of advance-dowry. When he was informed of the court’s verdict, he shot her together with her mother and sister; and then he shot himself. They were all taken to hospital and rescued from death except him, for he could not be saved. No safety is to be sought with a woman of evil birth and breeding, although she might be very beautiful. That story happened in Damascus a short time ago. However, if we abide by Allah’s Religion, Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious, will certainly bless our marriage, work, provision, health, and children. He will also guide us to ways of peace and safety. To this effect, He, Most Merciful, says, “Verily, this Quran guides to that which is more just and right.” [XVII; 9], and “Then if there comes to you guidance from Me, then whosoever follows My guidance will neither go astray nor shall be distressed.” [XX; 123] You have to know that safety, all safety, is to be with Allah. Safety, all safety, is to obey Him. Safety, all safety, is to know Him. Safety, all safety, is to worship Him. Safety, all safety, is to understand His Book, the Holy Quran. Safety, all safety, is to be committed to His Religion of Islamic Monotheism. And safety, all safety, is to adhere to His Commands and Enjoinments. Now, the word, “As-Salam” bears another meaning in the Holy Quran. Allah, Most Gracious, says, “And Allah invites to Dar As-Salam (The Home of Peace).” [X; 25] But what is “Dar As-Salam” (The Home of Peace)? It is Paradise, wherein there is no distress or envy, wherein you are not chased by illness of worry, wherein you are not visited by fear or are transgressed against by anyone else, no wars, no persecution, nothing of the like of this at all: “And Allah invites to Dar As-Salam (The Home of Peace) and guides whom He wills to the Straight Path.” [X; 25,26]

Such is Dar “As-Salam” (The Home of Peace, Paradise); what a good recompense and dwelling! Also, the word “As-Salam” is mentioned in another Quranic Verse: “And if he (the dying person) be of those of the Right Hand, then there is Salam (safety and peace) for those of the Right Hand.” [LVI; 90,91] In this Verse Allah, Glory to Him, tells you about “As-Salam” (i.e. safety and peace) that He grants to people of the Right Hand on the Day of Judgment. They say: “Our health is good, and our joy is great!”, for they are in safety and peace in Paradise of never-ending Bliss. The word “As-Salam” also comes in Allah’s Words: “And Salam (peace) be on him (Jesus) the day he was born, the day he dies, and the day he will be raised up to life.” [XVI; 15] In interpretation of the above Quranic Verse Sufian Bin ‘Uyaynah, a venerable Islamic Scholar, said: “Man is most lonely in three positions: the day he is born, when he comes out of his mother’s womb, in which he used to be in comfort and safety away from troubles and problems of life to which he comes, i.e. he moves from a narrow peaceful place to an unfamiliar one that is much larger and more dangerous. The second station in which man feels most lonely is when he dies leaving everything (his wife, children and family, house, shop, work, friends, desires, hobbies, …etc.) on a no-return trip to the Hereafter. He who decorates and ornaments his home, in which he has his own bookcase and study, in which he puts his personal things, presents and gifts that have been given to him. His family wish to open his personal drawer, but he never permits them to do so all his life. But when he passes away, they open the drawer, which has always been impermissible for them to touch, and they take his car, shop, factory and even all his other things and possessions. They sell and buy of his things and then forget him after some time. The third station in which man feels most lonely is the day he is raised up to life again, on the Day of Resurrection. Concerning that day, ‘A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, asked her husband, the Messenger of Allah, Muhammad, (PBUH), “O Messenger of Allah! Shall we know one another on the Day of Resurrection?” He (PBUH) said, “Yes, o Mother of the Faithful! Except for three positions: at As-Sirat (The Path), upon the Mustering, and when the Scrolls are spread out.”

On that Day, when a mother sees her son, she will address him, “O my son! Didn’t I make my abdomen a vessel for you, my breast a drinking pot for you, my lap a ground for you?! Have you got any good deed (of yours you can give me) whose goodness returns to me?” He (the son) will say, “O Mother! I actually suffer from that which you suffer from!” As for Jesus, (PBUH), Allah, Most Gracious, says, “And Salam (peace) be on him (Jesus) the day he was born, the day he dies, and the day he will be raised up to life.” Now, what is the duty of a true believer towards this Divine Name? We know that a true believer is someone who is free from any secret or public violations of Allah’s Commands and Enjoinments, someone who is free from covert and overt defects and faults, someone whose duty is to be peaceful towards other creatures. Allah, All-Mighty, says, “Leave (O mankind!) open and secret sins!” [VI; 120] He who is free from sins and misdeeds, defects and faults, attains utmost peace and safety. So, let our relationship with this Divine Name of Allah, “As-Salam” be like that if we really desire to enjoy the advantages of this Quranic Verse: “The Day (The Resurrection Day) whereon neither wealth nor sons will avail, except him who comes to Allah with a clean (pure) heart.” [XXVI; 88,89] A clean pure heart is that which is free from polytheism and lack of firm belief in Allah; and he whose heart fluctuates between belief and disbelief will be inevitably a great loser. The fortuneteller and doctor both claimed That the dead will not be raised up to life. I said: Listen! If that which you say is true, I shall not be a loser. But if my words are true, great loss shall be yours. We do pray to Allah, Most Merciful, to make all our deeds and affairs rightly guided. As for the above verses, they reflect no true belief but rather mere suspicion and uncertainty: “Verily, true believers are those who believe in Allah and His Messenger, and afterwards doubt not…” [IL; 15] A healthy person is someone whose heart is free from doubt and polytheism, from disputation and hypocrisy, untruthfulness and dissimulation, eye-

service and lip-service, someone whose self is free from desires and caprices, and whose mind is free from dubieties and doubt. Such is a believer’s duty towards his Lord from the perspective of Allah’s Divine Name “As-Salam”. But what is his right on Allah?! This is the most important point of the whole lecture. You have believed in Allah, you have contemplated the universe, you have known Him and adhered to His Commands and Enjoinments, you have attended lectures on His Religion of Islamic Monotheism, you have controlled your desires and caprices, you have guarded your deeds and lowered your gazes from unlawful things, you have kept your ears away from listening to indecent things, you have not mingled with women that are unlawful for you, and you have not breached Allah’s Religion. So what rights do you have on Allah? Listen to what knowledgeable scholars have said in this concern. They have said: Allah undertakes to protect those who adhere to His Commands and Enjoinments and turn to Him with true love and sincere devotion. What does He protect them from? They said: He protects them from the dangers of the present world and grants them the good things thereof. A true believer’s wife is usually righteous; his children are dutiful; his provision and sustenance are available in his own homeland, his reputation is pure and clean, his character is noble, his manners are good, and he is popular and loved by everybody. Such are the fruits of piety and good righteous work. Moreover, Allah, Whose Divine Name is “As-Salam” (The Source of peace safety and perfection), protects him from all dangers of this present world and grants him all the good things thereof. Such is safety of the present world. But what is safety of religion? Your mind is freed from all kinds of religious heresies, innovations and dubieties; and your heart is freed from desires, caprices, and love except for Allah. Even more, a true Muslim is someone from whose tongue and hand Muslims are safe. Some scholars said: How can people be safe from man’s tongue and hand while he himself is not safe from his own tongue and hand, and while he is dominated by his own desires and caprices?! Thus, it is a crystal clear

invitation, for you and me, to overcome our desires and caprices and not to allow them to dominate over us.

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l-Mu’min is the fourth of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names. To believe that Allah, Glory to Him, exists does not mean anything. This is because Satan himself: what did he say when he spoke to his Lord, Allah, All-Mighty? He said: “My Lord!” And in another situation he swore by Allah’s Might: “By Your Might!” This means that he believed in Allah and in His existence; nevertheless, he was, and still is, the head of all disbelief and infidelity. In other words, to believe only in the existence of Allah, Glory to Him, but not in His Oneness, Lordship, Godhood, Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes, or aspects of His Infinite Divine Greatness, is by no means sufficient. I repeat once again: to believe in Allah as the Creator only is not sufficient at all. This is because in His Holy Quran our Lord, Glorified and Exalted, describes polytheists as: “And if you were to ask them: ‘Who has created the heavens and the earth and has subjected the sun and the moon?’, they will surely reply: ‘Allah.’ How then are they deviating (as polytheists and disbelievers)?!” [XXIX; 61] Therefore, polytheists admit that Allah, All-Mighty, is the Creator of the universe, but, firstly, they associate others with him in worship, and secondly, they deny the Resurrection.

Hence, belief in Allah necessitates that a believer has to acknowledge Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names. Sometimes, you know that someone is one of your neighbors. This is not enough because you have to know some details about him: his education, his character, his deeds, his achievements, …etc. In other words, your knowledge is not adequate enough unless you know some important details that furnish you with a clear idea about him. It is more fitting that belief in Allah, All-Mighty, should be based on knowing His Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. It is a clear fact that the whole universe is but a substantiation and manifestation of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. Allah’s real Self, however, is unperceivable by the human mind. To this effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “No vision can grasp Him, but He grasps all vision; and He is the Most Subtle and Courteous, Well-Acquainted with all things.” [VI; 103] It is impossible to see Allah with your own eye, but you can know Him by your mind and through contemplation on His Creation, for the whole universe shows clearly that He is the Maker, and the system therein shows clearly that He is the Designer, the control thereof shows manifestly that He is the Controller. In other words, it has been rightly said: “Water denotes the existence of a spring, footprints denote walking, and dung denotes the existence of animals. How come, then, that the heaven, with all its constellations, and the earth, with all its mountains and valleys, do not bespeak the existence of Allah, the Most-Wise, the All-Aware?!” Now, the question is: Why should we know Allah? The answer is: In order to worship Him. Why should we worship Him? In order to attain happiness of being intimate to Him in this present world and the world to come. This is because Allah has originally created us to make us happy; and we are never happy unless we feel that we are near, and intimate to, Him. We are never happy unless our work is righteous; and our work is never noble or righteous unless we get to know our Lord’s Divine Greatness. That is why in describing people of Hell-Fire our Lord, All-Mighty, All-Majestic, says, “Verily, he used not to believe in Allah, the Great.” [LXIX: 33] In other words, we must know Allah’s Divine Greatness, because if we do not, we shall inevitably breach His Divine Commands, i.e. if we know Allah’s Divine Greatness, we worship Him properly.

The whole matter can be summed up in the importance of knowing who Allah is in order to obey Him, in order to turn to Him with love and devotion, in order to hope for what He has for you, and in order to fear His Irresistible Divine Threat and Punishment. And you shall never fear His Threat and Punishment, you shall never hope for His generous Reward, you shall never turn to Him with love and devotion, you shall never surrender yourself to His Divine Decree, and you shall never yield to His Divine Judgment unless you know Him adequately. In other words, if you get to know Allah, Most Gracious, you yield to His Divine Decree, and you see, most clearly, His Ultimate Divine Wisdom, Knowledge, Mercy, Courtesy, Tenderness, Clemency, and Bounty. The more you get to know Him, the more submissive, loving and obedient to Him you are, and the more you worship Him and do good to His slaves, your fellow humans. I reiterate: we must know Allah and not only say: “Allah is the Creator of the universe”, for such words are naïve and of no good. Such words do not prevent us from committing sinful deeds or transgressing against Allah’s Divine Orders. Such words do not motivate us enough to obey Allah. In other words, it is not enough to acknowledge Allah’s being the One Who created the whole universe yet you commit sins and misdeeds. It is not enough to admit Allah’s Being the creator of everything yet you deviate from His Religion. It is not enough to say that He is the One Who originated the whole universe yet you have low worldly desires and ambitions. Such attitudes are serious and reflect manifest controversies. If, however, you get to know adequately who Allah is, which is the ultimate goal of our lectures – to help increase our knowledge of Allah, Most Gracious, day by day, you stick to His Divine Commands and Ordainments. This is because the more you know Allah, the more reverent, obedient, submissive, humble, fearful, contented, hopeful, sacrificing, sincere, devoted, and faithful. That is to say that your good work is positively proportioned with your knowledge; and your happiness is also positively proportioned with your good work. In other words, Islamic religion can be summed up in three words: knowledge, obedience, and happiness, i.e. your knowledge of Allah, Most Gracious, determines your obedience to Him; and your obedience to Him determines your happiness with Him. Therefore, we should by no means stop at accurate definitions of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. Nay, we should have hundreds, thousands or even hundreds of thousands, of cosmic evidences of such Names and Attributes. Hence, your knowledge of Allah and being conscious of Him is clearly betokened by your constant remembrance of Him and

glorification of His Beautiful Names and Attributes, such as the Most Subtle, the Most Courteous, the Most Merciful, the Sovereign, the All-Holy, the Peace, …etc. I hope that every Muslim carries out his\her own studies and research and reflects on cosmic Signs that bespeak Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. Let us now move ahead to another Beautiful Name of Allah’s, namely “AlMu’min”. A king of this world does not accept that his honorific title be given to any of his subjects, although such king is a mere human being who eats like everyone else, drinks like everyone else, and sleeps like everyone else; and he has a human body: he feels hungry and thirsty, he gets angry and furious, and he gets ill and even dies. In other words, there are no genuine physical differences between a human king and his other fellow human beings, yet, due to his pride and majesty, he does not accept that any of his subjects be given any of his kingly titles. Allah, however, has called us, after we have known Him, “Al-Mu’mineen” (plural of “Mu’min” i.e. believer), just as He called Himself “Al-Mu’min”. To this effect, He, Most Gracious, says, “He is Allah: There is no god but Him, the King, the Holy, the Peace, AlMu’min, the Watcher, the All-Mighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. Glory be to Allah! (High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him.” [LIX; 23] But this Divine Name, “Al-Mu’min”, needs contemplation. The word “Mu’min” in Arabic can be taken to mean (believer). When we say Allah, All-Mighty, is “Mu’min” (believer), what is meant by this word “Mu’min” (believer)? We are “Mu’mineen”, i.e. believers, for we believe in Allah, His Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), and the Last Day. But when we say that Allah is “Mu’min”, what does that mean?! In fact, the word “Mu’min” in Arabic has more than one meaning. The first meaning is derived from the Arabic word “Amana”, which mans “to believe”. This is when the Imam recites in prayer the opening Surah of the Holy Quran and Muslims who are being led by him say: “Ameen”, i.e. “O Lord! We do believe in what the Imam is reciting.” The second meaning of the word “Mu’min” is derived from the Arabic word “Al-Amn”, i.e. security. Both meanings can be found in the following two Verses: “They said: ‘O father! We went racing with one another and left Joseph at our belongings; and a wolf devoured him. But (Wa Ma Anta Bi Mu’minin Lana) [i.e. you will never believe us] even if we speak the truth.” [XII; 17] The word Mu’min in this Verse

means “believe that something is true”. The second meaning is found in the Verse: “(It is) He (Allah) Who has fed them against hunger and (Amanahum )Min Khawouf) i.e. made them safe and secure from fear.” [CVI; 4] Here the word Amanahum means “made them safe and gave them security”. Therefore, Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Mu’min” can be taken from the words “belief” or “security”. But how can we understand this Divine Name in the first meaning? In fact, a human being may, or may not, know himself. If he does not know himself and gets involved in doing something that does not befit his abilities, he loses heavily; and it is said to him, “If you had known your abilities, you would not have incurred such a heavy loss.” In other words, a person who involves himself in something that is beyond his abilities does not know the reality of himself or his abilities. On the contrary, a person who knows perfectly himself and his abilities: his acts come in full congruity with his knowledge. This is just an example to make things clear to you. In other words, the first meaning of Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Mu’min” is that He, Glory to Him, knows perfectly Himself and His Names and Attributes. This is the first meaning. The second meaning is that Allah, Most Gracious, verifies His Prophets and Messengers. For example, He, All-Mighty, sent His Messenger Muhammad, (PBUH), and verified him, i.e. made people believe him by providing him with miracles. The same thing applies to Allah’s other Prophets and Messengers, (PBUT), such as Moses, Jesus, Jonah, Noah, …etc. Therefore, the second meaning of Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Mu’min” is that Allah verifies His Prophets and Messengers and makes people believe in them. Everything that Allah promises believers comes true to verify that His Promise is true. He promises you a happy life, and when you live a happy life you surely find out that His Act of making you happy has come to verify His Promise. In other words, Allah’s Acts come to verify His Promise; and He provides His Prophets and Messengers with Signs and Miracles to verify their calls and make people believe in them. He also gives believers Signs and Evidences of the truthfulness of their faith. When you, dear Muslim brother, read the Holy Quran, for example, what makes you cling to it and adhere to its enjoinment? You do this simply because the circumstances in which you live come all in conformity with the Holy Quran. If you are straightforward in selling and buying, you feel comfortable and contented,

and Allah, Most Gracious, provides you with a good honest income and makes people come to you for their needs. And if you are honest and trustworthy, Allah, All-Mighty, ennobles your name among people and fills them with respect to you. In other words, any promise that Allah promises you: If you do what you are commanded to do, all events come to prove to you that Allah’s Promise is true, or to show you clearly that Allah’s Promise certainly comes true. Therefore, one meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Mu’min” is that He makes people believe in His Prophets and Messengers because He provides them with Miracles. Similarly, He makes His Holy Quran believed in simply because if you believe in it and work according to its enjoinments, Allah, All-Mighty, endues you with a blessed happy life. So what makes you believe in Allah’s Words?! It is this happy blessed life that He bestows on you; and also, hard miserable life makes you believe in His Words. If you follow Allah’s Guidance in all aspects of your life, you shall inevitably see with your own eyes that all events come to verify what the Holy Quran says. Hence, Allah, All-Mighty, is “Mu’min” in the sense that He makes His slaves believe in Him and in His Book and Religion simply because all His Acts come to verify His Divine Promises and Threats. He, Most Gracious, says, “Truly, Allah defends those who believe (in Him and in His Messenger and Religion) Verily, Allah likes not any treacherous ingrate (to Him).” [XXII; 38] You certainly feel that in a great many circumstances Allah inspires someone you do not know to defend you; and when you read Allah’s Words, “He (Allah) said: ‘Get you down from it (Paradise), both of you, together. Some of you are an enemy to some. Then, if there comes to you guidance from Me: he who follows My Guidance shall never go astray or be distressed.” [XX; 123], you feel that you are rightly guided, that you have a good understanding of the world, that you have a clear vision of life, and that your explanation of events is right. This is because you follow Allah’s Orders and, therefore, events come to verify such Divine Orders. This is one meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Mu’min”. And, as afore-mentioned, the great thing about Islamic religion is that it provides you with an adequate explanation not only of the universe but of life and man as well. No matter how long you live, no matter how circumstances change, and no matter what new conditions and circumstances come to light, everything remains within the framework of Allah’s Explanation of the universe, life and man. When you read the Holy Quran, you shall never be surprised by any event that is not mentioned therein. For example, if you are

given an interpretation of a new phenomenon, you may, after some time, be surprised that another phenomenon comes to foil such interpretation, which quite often happens with a great many theories and studies. But if you read the Holy Quran, which is definitely from Allah, there will never ever come an event that foils or disproves what you have read in therein. This is a very delicate point: The Holy Quran was sent down by Allah, All-Mighty, some fourteen centuries ago; and science has developed incredibly ever since that time. Nevertheless, all the things mentioned in the Holy Quran are still, and will always be, true and unchangeable. Since the dawn of human history and until fifty years ago, science developed in narrow steps; but for the last fifty years, science and technology have developed incredibly. Nevertheless, you can never ever find any scientific fact that falls in contradiction with Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran. This means that when you read the Holy Quran, you enjoy a state of peace of mind simply because all things (events, incidents, phenomena, disasters, …etc.) come to verify Allah’s Words. Therefore, Allah is “Mu’min” in the sense that His Words makes you believe Him because His Acts verify His Words. This is another meaning of Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Mu’min”. Here is another meaning: Allah, Most Gracious, bestows security and peace upon mankind, but How? Here we have a very delicate meaning of the word “Mu’min” in Arabic. If iron were made to be sometimes soft and sometimes solid, you would never feel secure when you construct a building. You would think: This iron may become soft any moment, and the whole building could be destroyed. In other words, Allah, Most Gracious, has given not only iron but all other forms of matter stable properties. In other words, if you use iron with cement to construct a building, even if you live on the tenth floor, you feel secure and safe. But what makes you feel secure and safe? The answer is: stability of the properties of both iron and cement, otherwise the whole building would be destroyed any moment. Therefore, we can say that stability of properties of elements and substances gives security and safety to people. Consider, for example, stability of the Earth’s movement! This Mosque was constructed many years ago. If the Earth shakes during the its movement, all buildings on its surface would be destroyed. The Earth moves round the sun at a speed of 30 km\second, yet with marvelous stability, calmness and balance. In order to make us know the Grace of balance and stability Allah, All-Mighty, sometimes makes the Earth quake, and, in a few seconds whole cities or regions are completely

ruined. In other words, stability and balance of the Earth’s movement verify Allah’s Words, “Is not He Who has made the Earth as a stable abode and has placed rivers in its midst, and has placed firm mountains therein, and has set a barrier between the two seas?! Is there any god besides Allah?! Nay! But most of them know not.” [XXVII; 61] You should know that Allah, Most Merciful, gave you security and enabled you to buy a flat on the tenth floor; and you know that such a flat is stable and safe and that if there were any kind of vibration or shaking, there would be no security. Furthermore, unless there is a kind of stability in the Earth’s plant-production, life would also be impossible. For example, if you planted seeds of a certain plant, such as melons, but the product were a different plant, such as tomatoes, things would get mixed and life would be too difficult or even impossible. Therefore, stability of the Earth’s plantproduction is another Divine Grace, which provides security and stability, namely that there are thousands of kinds of plants: the production of some is long-termed while that of some is short-termed, some yield their fruits earlier than others, some are suitable for food-industry while others should be eaten right after harvest, some are for table-service while others are for consumption, some for the treatment of certain diseases …even seeds of plants have different properties; and such properties are stable. So, what makes you feel secure and safe when you plant?! Stability of properties. Therefore, it can be said that stability of properties of substances and elements gives man the feeling of security and safety. The Sun always rises in the east, i.e. no surprises are expected with regards to the Sun’s rise. In other words, there are no supplications for sunrise, i.e. people do not have to pray to Allah: “O Lord! The Sun has not risen today! We beseech you to make it rise for us!” Allah has reassured you that the Sun always rises and then sets, and that the Earth always goes round the Sun. It is enough for you to read on the calendar that dawn is at 05.18 a.m. and that the Sun rises at 06.30 a.m. How long has such times been on the calendar? The answer is: since the dawn of history; and they will continue to be on the calendar till the end of the world: utmost accuracy even in minutes and seconds. The whole Earth moves round the Sun; and there are stars according to whose movement the most accurate clocks in the world, such as Big Ben, are set. Someone may say: “I have set my watch according to Big Ben!” But how is Big Ben itself set? The answer is: It is set according to movement of the galaxy.

Therefore, stability of rotation, whirling, speed, movement, angle of movement, …etc, provides man with stable laws and properties that make him feel secure and safe. Hence, it can be said: properties of metal substances are usually stable. It would be a great problem if someone bought a gold ring at a very high price, but then, after some time, gold changed into another cheap metal! Gold remains always gold, and so do other metals such as tin, iron, silver, lead, aluminum, …etc. Stability of properties of elements, metals and substances gives man a feeling of security and safety, which is a Divine Grace that a great many of us do not recognize due to familiarity, which can very often be, as wise people remark, a barrier between man and His Lord’s Graces. Although they are miraculously Great, such Divine Graces are too familiar to be heeded. Therefore, one of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names is “Al-Mu’min” in the sense that when you read His Book, the Holy Quran, all events and incidents come to verify His Divine Words in His Holy Book. Another meaning of Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Mu’min” is that He, Most Gracious, bestows peace and security to man by means of stability of properties of elements and substances. Stability of cosmic laws: laws of motion are stable, and so are laws of expansion. Also, laws of human body are stable in the sense that if a doctor at one end of the world makes a certain medicine, it can be used by people at the other end of the world. In other words, a medicine has the same influence on all people. What does this mean? It means that all human beings share the same physical qualities. Take the human heart for example, If someone studies medicine and specializes in the human heart in America, Africa, Asia, Europe or any other continent or country in the world, and if he opens any human heart, he finds that its arteries and veins, nerves and electrical centers are of the same perfect accuracy as all other human hearts. Such stability enables doctors to take any human body as a model for all other human bodies. In addition to that there is stability of systems, stability of properties of substances. And sometimes, Allah makes anti-substances or anti-properties. For example, fire has the property of burning, but water has the property of putting off fire. In other words, for everything dangerous Allah, Most Gracious, provides you with anti-substances that eliminate its danger. In fact, this applies to all things. Take, for example, diseases that afflict plants. Allah, Most Merciful, has made different kinds of chemicals that rid plants of parasites, insects, or any other kinds of danger.

In the light of the above-mentioned it can be said that one of the meanings of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Mu’min” is that He, Most Gracious, bestows security and safety to mankind. Pain is called by scientists an “early warning system”. If someone has a partial decay in one of his teeth, he feels a lot of pain, which forces him to go to the dentist to treat his bad painful tooth. If there were no nerves in the teeth, he would not feel any pain, and he would not go to the dentist to treat his bad teeth. Pain is, therefore, one of the early warning systems; and in fact, against each and every danger that may afflict man in the present world Allah has made a special kind of protection. If man seeks help from Allah, All-Mighty, Allah protects him from sins and misdeeds, for Allah teaches us to pray to Him, “You (Alone) do we worship, and You (Alone) do we ask for help.” [I; 5] That is why Imam Ash-Shafi’i said, “I swear by Allah! Even if the heaven were made of copper, the earth were made of lead, and all creatures were my dependents (i.e. I were their breadwinner), I would never fear poverty.” And in fact, if you desire to see the genuine difference between the life of a true believer and that of a disbeliever, you will certainly find that feeling of security and safety is the only point of difference between both lives. Abraham addressed his pagan people, “And how should I fear those whom you associate in worship with Allah, while you fear not that you have joined in worship with Allah things for which He has not sent down to you any authority. (So) which of the two parties has more right to be in security, if you but know? It is those who believe (in the Oneness of Allah and worship none but Him, Alone) and confuse not their belief with wrong-doing: for them (only) is security and they are the rightly guided.” [VI; 81,82] You certainly find the hearts of disbelievers empty and liable to fear, worry, fright, and expectation of disasters. But our Lord, the Almighty, the AllMajestic: if you believe in Him, He fills your heart with tranquility, He fills your heart with peace and security, He fills your heart with contentment with His Decree, He fills your heart with knowledge of His Perfection. All such Divine Graces bespeak His Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Mu’min”. Another thing: How can you be safe from Allah’s Torment in the Hereafter? He, Most Gracious, has subjected the whole universe for you; He has granted you an intelligent mind; He has granted you a pure human nature; He has granted you desires and caprices; He has granted you the ability to

make your own choices; and He has granted you the power and ability to translate such choices into actions. All such Blessings are meant to enable you to be safe in the Hereafter. Sometimes you feel that if you turn to Allah, He rids you of worry, narrow-heartedness, tiredness, and fear. This is because Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious, is the Source of peace and security. Someone or something might cause you to worry, but Allah, Whose Name is “Al-Mu’min”, bestows His peace and security upon you, providing that you believe in Him, entrust all your affairs to Him, stick to His Bidding and Forbidding. This meaning of Allah’s Name “Al-Mu’min”, which befits His Divine Might, Mercy and Majesty, shows beyond a shadow of doubt that He, All-Mighty, knows Himself perfectly. From among people is someone who knows and knows that he knows: such is a scholar; so follow him. Another one knows, but does not know that he knows: such is a heedless person; so wake him up. A third is someone who does not know, but he knows that he does not know: such is an ignorant person; so teach him. A fourth is someone who does not know, yet he does not know that he does not know: such a person is a devil; so beware him. I choose here, as the best one of the above-mentioned four types of people, the one who knows and knows that he knows that Allah, Glory to Him, is “Al-Mu’min”, i.e. he believes with absolute certainty that Allah, Most Gracious, is the One Who provides those who believe in Him with peace and security. Another meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Mu’min” is that it is less important for Allah that the whole universe be eliminated than that he fails to fulfill His Divine Promise to any of His believing slaves. It is less important for Allah that the whole universe be destroyed than that any event or incident comes contrary to what He has promised true believers. If He promises you - as a true believer - victory, victory will inevitably come; if He promises that He will defend you, He will certainly do; if He promises to protect you, He will surely do; if He promises to provide you with sustenance, He will indeed do; if He promises to establish you firmly in religion, He will inevitably do; if He promises to make you His Vicegerent, He will undoubtedly do; and if He promises to be with you, He will definitely be. The third meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Mu’min” is that He, Most Merciful, grants security to His creatures. In order to simplify things, I put

forward some facts that have to do with the human eye. When you drive your car during the day, you feel secure because the scope of vision is far enough to see clearly. But in the night, it may be dark and you may be dazzled by the light of forthcoming cars, which makes you feel worried and insecure. In other words, driving in the night is accompanied by feelings of worry and insecurity; and there are a lot of unexpected surprises on the road since the lights of the car do not show everything clearly and their scope is short. It can be said that the better vision is, the more secure you feel. Moreover, just as Allah has given you eyes to see with, He has also given you ears whereby you hear things. In the dark, you quite often depend on your ears more than your eyes to perceive things. Therefore, sharp ears are part of your safety, and so are sharp eyes and the sense of smell. For example, if food smells bad, this means that it is not edible. For your foodsecurity Allah, Most Gracious, makes you depend more on your sense of smell and taste than on hearing or seeing. He, Most Merciful, has given you a hand to push back harmful things; and He has provided you with legs whereby you move from one place to another. All such things, and countless other faculties, are meant for your own safety and security. This is another meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Mu’min”. In fact, at the end of every lecture, we have to ask: “O Lord! One of Your Names is “Al-Mu’min”, but what do I have to do with such Name?! You are “Al-Mu’min” because all events and incidents have come to verify that which You say in Your Book, the Holy Quran. This comforts me and solidifies my relationship with You. And You are “Al-Mu’min” because You have granted me peace and security: You have granted me my senses and organs of body; and You have given elements, substances and cosmic systems the property of stability and balance, which provides me with safety and security. This also solidifies my relationship with You, and increases my Faith in You!” A cardiologist one day told me: If people’s hearts were located in several different places of the body: one on the right, another on the left, a third in another location, and so on and so forth, things would be greatly confused for us. This cardiologist studied in the USA and was taught that man’s heart is located on the left side of the body. But one day, while he was operating on someone, he was greatly surprised to find the patient’s heart on the right side. He was not taught such case because it was abnormal and very rare! This calls our attention to a very serious issue, namely that all our human bodies share the same structure and nature, even on the level of highly delicate and complicated nerve-systems, which is a great source of security to mankind. This also applies to the Earth’s movement, which has

been previously mentioned. Stability of the Earth’s movement round the Sun is also a source of security to mankind. Nevertheless, Allah, All-Wise, has not made the course of rain-fall on the Earth’s surface stable, but rather changeable. This is because He, Most Gracious, desires that in cases of drought we remember Him and pray to Him; He, Most Merciful, desires that we turn to Him with repentance and devotion. In other words, Due to His Infinite Divine Wisdom and Mercy, Allah, All-Mighty, has made certain things stable while others unstable, i.e. changeable. He has made the motion of the Earth round the Sun stable, and so has He made cosmic systems and properties of elements and substances, but He has made provision of sustenance in His own Hands so that people may turn to Him with repentance, supplication and devotion. Such is another remarkable meaning of Allah’s Name “Al-Mu’min”! As a “Mu’min” (i.e. a true believer), the first thing you have to do is make your deeds conform to your words, for it does not befit you, as a true believer, that you have a kind of duality in both character and behavior, that your inner things differ from your outer ones, that you believe in something but say something else, for such things reflect serious lack of balance in your character and behavior. In this context, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “And leave you sin, open and secret. Verily, those who commit sin will get due recompense for that which they used to commit. “ [VI; 120] Your outer being, which people see, may show that you are straightforward and that you are committed to your religious obligations: prayer, fast, pilgrimage, and almsgiving; but your inner being may be something different: envy, backbiting, slander, arrogance, telling lies, malice, grudge, …etc. Such evil qualities are considered as covert, or secret, sins. Thus, as a true believer, your deeds must be in full conformity with your words. You should be a one-sided person: you should not have an interior that differs from your exterior, you should not have covert and overt things in your character or behavior; you should not have announced and unannounced attitudes. In short, you, as a true believer, should not have any kind of duality in your character or behavior. Your deeds should verify your words. If you desire to be at the proper noble level, all your deeds must be in full conformity with your words. This is the first thing. Another thing is that people should be safe from you. Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), addresses this issue, “By Allah! He is not a true believer. By Allah! He is not a true believer. By Allah! He is not a true believer.” They asked, “O Messenger

of Allah! Who is he?!” He, (PBUH), replied, “He whose neighbors do not feel safe from his evil deeds.” [narrated by Al-Bukhari] In fact, there are horrible people: if you say a word that they dislike, you can not sleep the night for fear of its evil consequences. A true believer must be a source of security and peace to everybody. No such evil things as harm, injury, treason, dishonesty, treachery, or disloyalty, whatsoever, should come from him to his fellow humans. He must be a fountain of peace and security. Even if you do him wrong, you should never expect any kind of tyranny, transgression or injustice from him. In a Divine Hadith, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “The son of Adam does hurt Me! He insults time; and I am Time: in My Hand is the Affair (of all matters); I alternate the night and day.” Despite Allah’s Infinite Divine Might and Majesty, people openly disobey Him, but He, Most Merciful, does not expose them. They forget Him, but He, Most Gracious, does not forget them. They openly disobey Him, yet He covers them, provides them and protects them. This is Allah’s Divine attitude towards His slaves. And you, dear reader, as a true believer: the first and foremost of your qualities should be that your deeds must be in full conformity with your words. You must have no duality in your character and behavior, outer and inner being, secret and public life. In both your private and secret life you should be the same. Yes, indeed! This is the second part of your share of Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Mu’min”: that all people around you should feel safe from you. If you marry your daughter to a believer, you should never be afraid that he may one day make her hungry or treat her badly. You should never fear that he may one day beat her or expose her secret affairs to others. Only good things should come from a true believer. If you do business with a true believer or have a partnership with him, you should feel comfortable and secure. You should never be afraid that he may one day play with accounts or take for himself unlawfully any money out of the profits. You should never fear that he may make any secret contracts with other people. You should never be afraid or feel uncomfortable with him. If you take your electrical appliance to a true believer in order to be repaired, you should never feel afraid that he may change a certain good piece by another bad one, or take your good appliance and give you another bad one instead. A true believer must always be honest and trustworthy in his job or profession, his words and deeds, in his marriage and partnership. Such is a true believer: safe, honest, and trustworthy.

Narrated Abu Hurairah, my Allah be pleased with him, that Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said, “A true Muslim is someone from whose tongue and hand Muslims are safe; and a true believer is someone whom people trust on their bloods (lives) and wealth.” [narrated in Sunan At-Tirmithi] If you lend a true believer any money or put any money under his custody, you should never be afraid that he may deny it even if you do not have any documents to prove that you have given him the money, for he is honest and trustworthy and he fears Allah, All-Mighty. If you are a true believer, you should believe in Allah’s Words, “He is Allah, beside Whom there is no god, the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defects, Al-Mu’min (The Giver of security), the Watcher over His creatures, the All-Mighty, the Compeller, the Supreme. Glory be to Allah! (High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him.” [LIX; 23] Therefore, Allah, Most Gracious, is the Fountain of peace and security to His slaves in both His Acts and in what He has prepared for them in the Hereafter. Allah, Most Merciful describes His believing slaves: “No sense of fatigue shall touch them in it (Paradise), nor shall they (ever) be made to leave it.” [XV; 48] If Hell-Fire is mentioned or described to you, as a true believer, you should work hard to avoid it by deliberation and admonition, by righteous deeds, by turning to Allah, Most Gracious, with obedience and devotion, fear and hope, by offering service to fellow humans, by generosity and by humbling yourself before Allah, All-Mighty. Such righteous deeds guarantee for you, through Allah’s Grace, safety from chastisement of Hell-Fire. Also, a true believer is someone who is a source of security to those around him. His neighbors feel secure with him, and those who deal with him feel secure with him, for he is honest and trustworthy, and he never tells lies or cheats. He is trustworthy: just like Prophets and Messengers, (PBUT), who are entrusted with Allah’s Divine Message. He considers his wife and children as a big trust that Allah has put in his hands. But what I want you to do, dear reader, is to invite people to Allah, Most Gracious, so that they obey Him and protect themselves from His Punishment and Torment on the Day of Resurrection. You should know that such a job is the mission of Allah’s Prophets and Messengers, (PBUT), and it is the best kind of security: the best work whereby you receive Allah’s Generous Reward is to strive to save people from the Torment of Hell-Fire by helping them know their Lord, Allah, Most Merciful. This is because once they know Him, they obey Him

and do righteous deeds for His sake. In this way you follow the course of Allah’s holy Prophets and Messengers, (PBUT); and in this way you become a true believer, for this is the holy Prophets’ and Messengers’ mission in life, namely to call people to Allah and His Religion and save them from HellFire. You should also know that if people become true believers, all their affairs are set aright in both the present world and the Hereafter. Allah, AllMighty, is “Al-Mu’min”, and He has called His obedient slaves “Mu’mineen”, which is a great honor for them, and for which honor should all people compete. It suffices them to read Allah’s Words, “Successful indeed are believers.” [XXIII; 1] Allah, Glory to Him, is the King of kings, yet He has given you permission to name yourself after His Divine Name, “Al-Mu’min”. As afore-mentioned, He is “Mu’min” first in the fact that He knows Himself perfectly, and, second, His Acts always come to verify His Words. In other words, when you read the Holy Quran, you do not fear any unexpected things, and you are never afraid that certain events or incidents may come to contradict the Holy Quran and then you feel embarrassed before other people. Nay! When you read the Holy Quran and believe in what Allah says therein, you are never afraid that one day a scientific fact will come to disprove any of its Verses. This is by all means possible, because Allah, All-Mighty, is “AlMu’min”: His Acts always come to verify His Words. This is the second meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Mu’min”. The third meaning is that Allah, All-Mighty, grants you security: in your senses, organs and parts of body, food, and even stability of the air of the atmosphere, which is very precious, stability of properties of elements and substances, stability of growth of plants, and stability of the structure of things and their work. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “Verily, We have created all things in due measure.” [LIV; 49] You, as a true believer: your deeds should come to verify your words, people should feel safe from you, for you are honest and trustworthy and no evil things such as treachery, disloyalty, grudge, feud, dishonesty, or cheating are expected to come from you. Everyday, we hear thousands of stories about people’s perfidy and treason to one another; and we hear hundreds of stories of partners’ disloyalty to one another and betrayal of husbands and wives to one another. We hear of shameful disgraceful deeds, tricks, wrong-doings, and transgressions. It is

impossible that such evil things come from a true believer, for he is honest, peaceful and trustworthy. Narrated Abu Shuraih that Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said: “By Allah! He is not a true believer. By Allah! He is not a true believer. By Allah! He is not a true believer.” They asked, “O Messenger of Allah! Who is he?!” He, (PBUH), replied, “He whose neighbors do not feel safe from his evil deeds.” [narrated by Al-Bukhari] Now, a serious question comes to light: How can we reconcile between Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Mu’min”, in the sense that He is “the Giver of security”, and the fact that He, All-Mighty, sometimes does cast terror into the hearts of His slaves. How can we reconcile between the fact that He is the Source of security and the fact that He may sometimes fill the hearts of His slaves with terror?! Allah, Most Gracious, describes Moses when he fled from Egypt after having killed a man of its people in defense of one of the children of Israel: “So he (Moses) escaped from there, looking about in a state of fear. He said: ‘My Lord! Save me from the wrong-doers!’” [XXVIII; 21] In fact, the answer to the above question is very delicate. It can be as follows: Man may quite often feel secure and comfortable in this present world and, therefore, he may forget his Lord, Allah, All-Mighty. He may get deeply involved in the life of this present world and place his confidence in it. He may become proud of his wealth and power, his position and livelihood, and he may wrongly think that this present life will last for ever and ever, that he is in a very strong position. In this way he may get involved in the present world and become heedless of the Hereafter. How can such a person be treated?! Allah, Most Merciful, treats him by casting terror into his heart, which drives him back to his Lord, Allah, All-Mighty, and causes him to stand at His Door with sincere repentance and faithful devotion, ridding himself of such heedlessness and indifference. In other words, when Allah, Most Merciful, sometimes frightens you, He does so in order to bring you back to security; He sometimes impoverishes you in order to enrich you; He withholds things from you in order to give you; He hurts you in order to do good to you; and He debases you in order to honor you. Now, in the previous paragraph there is reference to Allah’s coupled Names, i.e. both Names come successively one after another. Here scholars

emphasize that such coupled Names must always be mentioned together (one immediately after the other). For example, Allah may sometimes try you with your health and, therefore, make you ill in order to mercy you with health. In this context, a wise poet says: Illness that You bring to me may bring about laudable ends And bodies may be restored to health by illness. Narrated Abu Hurairah that Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said: “Allah, AllMighty, All-Majestic, says on the Day of Resurrection: ‘O son of Adam! I was ill, but you did not visit me!’ He (the son of Adam) says: ‘How can I visit You and You are the Lord of all worlds?!’ He (Allah) says: ‘Did you not know that My slave so and so fell ill but you did not visit him?! Did you not know that if you had visited him, you would have found Me with him…” [Sahih Muslim] When Allah, Most Gracious, sometimes takes away your health, He does so in order to recompense you with some of His Divine Mercy for what He has taken from you. If you visit a believing patient, you find him in a very high spiritual condition and his face is exceedingly bright simply because he is quite near to Allah, Most Gracious, Who made him ill in order to bestow some of His Divine Mercy upon him. In other words, Allah, Most Merciful, sometimes takes away certain things in order to give better things instead; He tests in order to reward; He does harm in order to do good; He debases in order to honor; He withholds in order to grant; and He frightens in order to grant security. If man turns away from his Lord and deviates from His Religion, his heart is filled with fear and discomfort that drive him back to his Lord and make him turn to Him with sincere repentance and faithful devotion. Therefore, I would like you, dear reader, to collect some cosmic Signs about the creation of mankind, animals and plants, which will, by Allah’s Leave, cast tranquility and comfort in your heart - after you get to know Allah’s Infinite Divine Power and Might - and provide you with adequate admonition that increases your faith in Allah “Al-Mu’min”. I would also like to inform my dear readers that such Beautiful Divine Names are but mere definitions, and are, therefore, not such a big issue; but evidences and examples of them from the universe constitute a really big issue: an issue of vast endless horizons, because the whole universe is but a manifestation and substantiation Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes.

To wrap up, I put forward the following facts: Allah, All-Mighty, is “Mu’min” in the sense that He, Most Gracious, knows Himself, and that His Divine Acts come to verify His Words. And if you believe in Him and read His Book, you will never be surprised by events or incidents that contradict that which is in His Book. Also, it is an undisputable fact that He, Most Merciful, grants you security through His Creation and Acts. Furthermore, as a true believer, you should have two qualities: first that your deeds should come to verify you words, and second that people should feel secure with you. If you find in your heart fear instead of security, this means that Allah, Most Gracious, is frightening you in order to grant you security; He is taking things away from you in order to grant you better things; and He is debasing you in order to honor you. Hence, you, as a true believer, should be reassured that all your affairs with Him will inevitably end up perfectly well.

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n this lecture we shall be dealing with the fifth of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names: “Al-Muhaimin”.

In our approach to the study of Allah’s Beautiful Names, we adopt the following procedures: -First point: the speech about Allah’s Beautiful Name, -second point: its practical applications, -third point: the relationship between true believers and this Name.

Among the meanings of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Muhaimin” is that Allah, All-Mighty, is the Observer and the Witness, Who knows all secrets and what is even more secret than secrets. He knows deception of the eyes and what the breasts conceal. He knows overt and covert things and man’s secret and public affairs. He sees things and what lies behind them. And He sees all things, both hidden and seen. This Beautiful Divine Name necessitates the ability to fulfill people’s benefits from the view-points of knowledge and power. In other words, from among mankind there are people who know but lack the power or ability to do things; and there are others who have the power or ability but lack knowledge. The Name also necessitates continuity and endurance. Hence, you may know but lack power, as is commonly said: “The eye sees but the hand is short”, and you may have the power but lack knowledge. That is to say: some people may be powerful and able to do things, but they lack knowledge, i.e. they do not know what is going on. Others may know and have the power to do things; nevertheless, they can not guarantee the future. A person may know what is going on before and around him, and he may be sure that his hand can reach things under his power, yet he does not know what the results will be in the future. But when we say that “Al-Muhaimin” is one of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, this means that He, All-Mighty, knows all things, and that His Divine Knowledge is Infinite, i.e. nothing in the heavens and the earth can ever be hidden from Him. If a doctor examines a female patient who suffers some illness in one part of her body, but he seizes a glimpse at another private part of hers, it would be a kind of treason undetectable by any human observation whatsoever. But Allah has the Ability to detect such an unlawful act on the part of the doctor. This is because Allah, All-Mighty, knows even secret glances of the eyes. He, AllHigh, knows what was, what is, what will be and what is not: if it were to be how it would be. He knows all secrets that no human beings can ever see. He knows your secret and public things: things that you keep secret for yourself or things that you announce. He knows “secrets and what is even more secret”. He knows what goes into the interior of the earth and what goes out of it. He knows what falls from the heaven and what goes up into it. And He is with you wherever you may be: in your secret intentions, hopes, ambitions, desires, motivations, movements, secrecy, publicity, interior, exterior, …etc. he knows everything. By the way, man can not dominate unless he knows all relevant things that have to do with the thing he is about to do. No man can ever dominate over anything, no matter how simple and limited it might be, if he does not know all relevant information about it.

That is why he needs to search for proper relevant facts and information, because he can not determine to do anything if he does not possess enough relevant facts about it. In other words, he who desires to dominate must have enough relevant knowledge. But what is the use of knowledge if you do not have the necessary power or ability?! You may know but lack the ability; but Allah, the Almighty, knows and is Powerful over all things. Nothing can ever escape His Infinite Divine Power and Ability. And you may know what to do and have the ability to do it, yet you can not know what will be tomorrow. Describing His Infinite Divine Power and Ability, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “Allah causes the night and the day to succeed each other. Truly, in this is indeed a lesson for those who have insight.” [XXIV; 44] Describing His Infinite Divine Knowledge, He says, “If a wound has touched you, be sure that a similar wound has touched the others. And so are the days: We give them to men by turns so that Allah may test those who believe and that He may take martyrs from among you. And Allah likes not the wrong-doers.” [III; 140] Among the meanings of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Muhaimin” is the following notion that I put forward to my dear readers: Whenever Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), was on travel, he would invoke: “O Allah! You are the Companion in travel and the Guardian on the family, wealth and children.” Do you think that such qualities as in the above Hadith can ever be in a human being: to be your companion in your travel and, at the same time, the guardian on your family, wealth and children?! That is impossible! He can either be with you in your travel or at home with your family, wealth and children. That is why they said that both qualities can not be together except in Allah, All-Mighty: He is with you in your travel, providing you with protection, care, help, and support, yet, at the same time, He is at home with your family, wealth and children, also providing them with protection and care, in your absence. Therefore, Allah, Most Gracious, can be with you in travel and, at the same time, with your family, wealth and children. Furthermore, it is very rare that both knowledge and power are found together at the same time in a human being. That is why in human communities, there are people who excel in knowledge but are short-handed and unable to do what they like to do; and there are other people who excel

in power but their knowledge is limited. But supposedly, if both qualities of perfect knowledge and perfect power were found in one person, which is very rare (perhaps the rate is 1/50,000,000), he would lack vision of the future, i.e. someone who is more powerful might come and take all that he has in his hands, someone who is more intelligent might come to overcome him, or someone who is so cunning and malicious may take away all that he has under his power or possession. In other words, you may have both knowledge and power but it is impossible that you possess the future. When you say that Allah is “AlMuhaimin”, it means that He, All-Mighty, has both Perfect Absolute Knowledge: “And Allah knows all things.” [XLIX; 16] and Perfect Absolute Power: “Certainly, Allah is Powerful over all things.” [II; 20] Moreover, nothing could ever escape His Infinite Divine Knowledge and Power, and there is no one in all existence that shares in His Decision and Rule: “They have no Guardian other than Him, and He makes none to share in His Decision and Rule.” [XVIII; 26] If there were any other gods together with Allah in the heavens and the earth, they would be corrupted, for each god would go away with that which he has created, and some gods would try to overcome other gods. In other words, no one except Allah, Alone, could possibly compete, dominate, resist, overpower. Therefore, you should put your trust in Allah, “Al-Muhaimin”, Who knows all things, Who is Powerful over all things, Who knows what was, what is, what will be, and what is not – if it were, how it would be. And nothing is the like of Him. By way of comparison and contrast, the following examples can be put forward: A person may own something but does not benefit from it. He may own a house that is worth 40,000,000 Pounds, but he has let it to another to live therein. Another person may live in a house that he does not own. A third may own a house and live therein, but suddenly an act of expropriation may be issued and he may lose thereby his ownership of the house. But when we read Allah’s Words, “And to Allah belongs the dominion of the heavens and the earth, and Allah has power over all things.”, this means that the whole universe really belongs to Allah by way of ownership, disposition, and end. Now, I would like you to know that a very important part of your belief in Allah is that you know His Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. It may

be asked whether the following often repeated Prophetic Hadith is authentic: “Verily, Allah has ninety-nine Names: whosoever knows each and every one of them enters Paradise.” Yes, indeed. It is authentic and definitive. But don’t you ever think that mere knowledge, enumeration, or reading of Allah’s Beautiful Names and Attributes enables man to enter Paradise! Nay! He should understand such Divine Names and Attributes and gets his own share of them. In other words, he should firmly believe in, and qualify himself with, each and every one of such Divine Names. “Al-Muhaimin” is, therefore, the One Who has Absolute Knowledge of all things, Whose Power is Infinite, Irresistible and Absolute. However, there are four other subsidiary meanings that add more beauty to this Divine Name: First Meaning: Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Muhaimin” embraces His Love and Compassion. Sometimes, a loving mother stands at the bed of her ill son, watching all his movements with care and worry. Such compassionate attitude on the mother’s part is that of knowledge and domination, and it is motivated by noble tenderness, sympathy, compassion, and kindness. Sometimes, people’s domination is motivated not by noble motivations such as sympathy, compassion, or tenderness, but rather by arrogance, tyranny, aggression, and transgression, …etc. In this case domination is mere tyranny and injustice. In other words, when we describe someone as being “Muhaimin”, this has controversial connotations, but when we describe Allah, Most Gracious, as being “Al-Muhaimin”, this includes positive connotations such as His Divine Love, Compassion, Tenderness, and Care for His slaves, in addition to the original meaning of the Name. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), one day, saw a woman kissing her beloved baby. He, (PBUH), said: “Could that woman possibly cast her (beloved) baby in fire?!” “By no means, O Messenger of Allah!” They replied. He, (PBUH), said, “By Allah, in Whose Hand is Muhammad’s soul! Allah is indeed more Merciful upon His slave than this mother upon her (beloved) baby!” Therefore, Allah’s Domination over His creatures is mixed with His Divine Love, Compassion, Tenderness, Mercy and Care concerning their happiness in the present world and the world to come. In other words, the original meaning of Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Muhaimin” includes His Divine Domination and Power, but one of the subsidiary meanings of this Name

includes His Divine Love and Compassion molded in His Divine Domination and Power. Second Meaning: When we say that someone is “Muhaimin” over a certain store, for example, it means that he is trustworthy and honest in being in charge of such store. He never lets anything go out of the store without his knowledge, registration, observation, or control. Such is domination of trustworthiness. Thus, another meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine name “Al-Muhaimin” is that He is the Trustworthy Protector of His slaves. To this effect the Quranic Verse goes, “He (Joseph’s father, Jacob) said: ‘Can I entrust him (Joseph’s brother) to you except as I entrusted his brother (Joseph) to you aforetime? But Allah is the Best to protect, and He is the Most Merciful of those who show mercy.” [XII; 64] The word “Muhaimin” means that if you are with Allah, believing in His existence, and if you desire to argue with someone on such basis, you will be the winner, because all events will come to prove the validity of your argument. This is because everybody puts forward a certain theory, hypothesis, analysis, doctrine, notion, interpretation, creed, …etc, but actual realities prove validity of the ideology that is put forward by Allah, AllMighty, in His Divine Book, the Holy Quran. Therefore, if you are on the Quran’s side, you will be the winner every time. To say, for example, “Allah shall indeed destroy usury and give increase for deeds of charity. And Allah does not like sinful disbelievers.” [II; 276]: Allah does indeed destroy usury or usurious transactions; and this is indeed a Quranic Verse which is part of your creed. People who deal in usury may say the opposite: Is it reasonable that I should keep my wealth or assets frozen and not deposit it in a bank to get a reasonable interest by which I make a living?! In other words, you, as true believer, say that Allah, All-Mighty, destroys usury, while a disbeliever puts forward another opinion, namely that one must invest one’s wealth. Days go on, and events come to prove that the wealth of such a usurer has been destroyed. Whose opinion is “Muhaimin”, i.e. dominates, in this issue? Yours! When you believe that a usurer’s wealth will be inevitably destroyed, the days come to prove that you are right, this means that your opinion is “Muhaimin”, i.e. the right dominant opinion. Another example: You, as a true believer, believe that lowering down of man’s gaze towards unlawful women brings sweetness and comfort to his heart and makes his married life happy; but a disbeliever may claim that his eye needs to enjoy looking at beautiful

women, whether lawful or unlawful, because beauty has been created to be looked at and admired. You confirm invalidity of his opinion, saying: “You are wrong! Such is a Divine Command, and such is a Quranic Verse!” Days go by, and you find that such a disbeliever, who spends all his time in the streets watching indecent women, suffers from a serious eye-disease, such as weakness of eye-lids, which renders him unable to open his eyes. Who is “Muhaimin”, i.e. dominant in this case?! You are! You are dominant because events have come to prove validity of what you believe is a Divine Command. A third example: If you choose your wife on the basis of her being chaste, religious, and righteous, and on the basis of her good righteous family, and if you prefer her righteousness and religiousness to her beauty, wealth, or social rank, you work according to your firm belief in Allah, AllMighty, and with full obedience to Him, because He says in His Holy Quran, “And do not marry idolatresses till they believe (in Allah, Alone). And indeed a slave believing woman is better than a (free) idolatress, even though she (the latter) pleases you. And give not (your daughters) in marriage to idolaters till they believe (in Allah, Alone). And verily, a believing slave is better than a (free) idolater, even though he (the latter) pleases you. Those (idolaters and idolatresses) invite you to the Fire; but Allah invites (you) to Paradise and Forgiveness by His Leave, and makes His Signs clear to mankind that they may remember.” [II; 221] But a disbeliever may follow his lusty desires, saying: a wife should fill one’s eyes with beauty and allurement. It does not matter if she is a true believer or not, a religious righteous woman or not. Days go by, and you suddenly find that the man who chose the righteous religious wife lives a happy, contented, stable married life, full of love and compassion. His happiness increases by days, and Allah, Most Gracious, blesses his wife and provides him with good children that fill his heart with happiness and delight. But the man who preferred beauty to religiousness: his life becomes a piece of Hell. Who is “Muhaimin”, i.e. the dominant in this case? The believer! That is why our Lord, All-Mighty, All-Majestic, says, “That Abode of the Hereafter (i.e. Paradise): We shall make it to those who do not rebel against the truth with pride and oppression in the land nor do mischief by committing crimes. And the good end is in favor of the pious and righteous.” [XXVIII: 83] The above-mentioned are some subsidiary meanings of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Muhaimin”. Undoubtedly, Allah’s being “Al-Muhaimin” includes His Divine Love, Compassion, Tenderness, Protection, Care and Trustworthiness.

Among the meanings of Allah’s Name “Al-Muhaimin” is also that He, Most Gracious, verifies His Words to you by His Divine Acts concerning all the things that you read in the Holy Quran and believe therein. Also, among the meanings of such Divine Name is that He, All-Mighty, makes you victorious; He makes your words truthful and your belief rightly guided. Things come to verify your belief and words. In other words, Allah’s Name “Al-Muhaimin” includes absolute and all-embracing knowledge, absolute and all-embracing power, perseverance and endurance. Such are the basic meanings of the Name. Other subsidiary meanings of the Name include His Overwhelming Divine Love, Care, Protection and Compassion, and not arrogance, tyranny or unjust domination, as is the case with human beings. It also includes verification of all the things mentioned in the Holy Quran. This is the theoretical part of the meaning of Allah’s Divine Name “AlMuhaimin”: knowledge, power, endurance, compassion, protection and verification. Now, let us have a few examples buy way of illustration: There are incidents and events, evidences and truths that deepen our understanding of this Divine Name and its meanings. When Allah, All-Mighty, addressed Moses and his brother Aaron, (PBUT): “Go, both of you, to Pharaoh! Verily, he has transgressed. And speak to him mildly, perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allah).” [XX; 43,44] Pharaoh! And who do you think Pharaoh was?! It was he who slaughtered the children of Israel and spared the lives of their women! Who could ever dare speak to him?! Who could disprove his false claim of being a god?! Who could ever dare?! That is why Moses and Aaron, (PBUT), said: “Our Lord! Verily, we fear lest he should hasten to punish us or lest he should transgress.” [ibid; 45] Allah, All-Mighty, said: “Fear not! Verily, I am with you both, hearing and seeing! So, go you both to him, and say: ‘Verily, we are Messengers of your Lord. So let the children of Israel go with us. And do not torment them. Indeed, we have come with a Sign from your Lord! And peace will be upon him who follows the guidance. Truly, it has been revealed to us that the torment will be to him who denies and turns away.” [ibid; 46,47] In the above Verses Allah said: “I am with you, hearing and seeing”, i.e. Pharaoh is in My Hand and under My control. Therefore, if you believe that Allah is “Al-Muhaimin” you feel safe and secure, comfortable and

peaceful. This is because all the matter is in Allah’s Hand and under His Divine Knowledge and Power. All creatures are in His Divine Hand; and He knows secrets and what is more hidden than secrets. Also, our Prophet Muhammad, (PBUH), was once on a meeting with the Jews of Bani Nadheer, who plotted against him and wanted to throw a large rock onto him and kill him thereby. Who told him to move away from that place?! It was Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious! They conspired against him in a secret closed room, but Allah told him and warned him against them. Such is another meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “AlMuhaimin”: He knew what they said and plotted. After Badr expedition, ‘Umair bin Wahab sat with Safwan bin Umayyah and told him: “I wish I could go to Medina, kill Muhammad and rid you of him! If only I were not so heavily indebted and if only I did not have children for whom I fear poverty!” Safawn soon replied: “As for your debts, I undertake to pay them back, no matter how great they are. And as for your children, they are my own children! So, go ahead with what you intend to do!” ‘Umair soaked his word in poison, put it on his shoulder, mounted on his camel and headed for Medina. Upon his arrival at Medina, Omar bin AlKhattab, may Allah be pleased with him, received him saying: “That is Allah’s enemy, ‘Umair!” He soon tied him up with the holder of his sword and drove him to the holy Prophet, (PBUH), saying: “O Messenger of Allah! This is Allah’s enemy ‘Umair. He has come seeking evil!” But Allah is “Al-Muhaimin”! The holy Prophet, (PBUH), said: “Let him go!” Omar, may Allah be pleased with him, let ‘Umair go. The Prophet, (PBUH), addressed ‘Umair: “Come nearer to me!” And ‘Umair came nearer to the Prophet, who immediately bade him: “Why don’t you greet us?!” ‘Umair said: “Good morning, Muhammad.” The Prophet added: “Say: ‘Peace be with you.” ‘Umair replied: “That is how we greet others.” The Prophet asked: “What brought you to us?” ‘Umair said: “In order to set my brother free from captivity.” The Prophet asked: “And that sword on your shoulder?!” ‘Umair answered: “May Allah cause such swords to perish! Did they avail us anything on the day of Badr Expedition?!” The Prophet asked: “Didn’t you tell Safwan: ‘If only I were not so heavily in debt, and if only I did not have children for whom I fear poverty, I would go to kill Muhammad and rid you of him.’ ?” ‘Umair soon said: “I do bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that you are His Messenger!” That was because Allah is “Al-Muhaimin”! Such a secretly

woven evil conspiracy on the part of ‘Umair and Safwan was disclosed to Prophet Muhammad, (PBUH), by Allah, “Al-Muhamimin”! Khawlah bint Tha’labah came, one day, to complain to the Prophet, (PBUH), saying: “O Allah’s Messenger! My husband, Aous bin As-Samit, married me when I was young and of a good family, wealth and beauty. But when my belly was deformed (due to several child-deliveries), my family got dispersed, my wealth was made to perish, and I grew old, he told me: ‘You are to me like my mother’s back (i.e. you are no longer my wife)!’ And I have children from him: If I quit and leave them to him, they will be lost; and if I join them to me, they will starve.” The Prophet, (PBUH), couldn’t help crying out of mercy, sympathy and compassion, saying: “I think that he has divorced you, for his words denote clear divorce.” Soon, Allah, “Al-Muhaimin” sent down: “Indeed, Allah has heard the statement of her (Khawlah bint Tha’labah) that disputes with you (O Muhammad) concerning her husband (Aus bin As-Samit), and complains to Allah. And Allah hears the argument between you both. Verily, Allah is All-Hearing, All-Seeing.” [LVIII; 1] That was why whenever Omar bin Al-Khattab went by Khawlah bint Tha’labah, he would dismount, stand before her in honor and respect and listen to her most politely. And when he was one day asked: “You are the Commander of the Faithful! So why do you listen to such a woman?!”, he replied: “Why shouldn’t I listen to her and Allah has listened to her from above seven heavens?!” This is one of the meanings of Allah’s Name “Al-Muhaimin”: He, All-Mighty, hears and sees everything! Also, Moses addressed Pharaoh: “I am Allah’s Messenger to you!”. And Pharaoh was the greatest man of his time, whose state and civilization were the greatest, who used to say to his people: “I am your all-high lord!”, and who gathered all his sorcerers and promised them the most generous rewards if they could defeat Moses and his so-called magic. Allah, “Al-Muhaimin”, says, “He (Moses) said: ‘Nay! Throw you (first)!’ Then, behold! Their ropes and sticks, by their magic, appeared to him as though they moved fast. So Moses conceived fear in himself. We (Allah) said: ‘Fear not! Surely, you will have the upper hand. And throw that which is in your right hand! It will swallow up that which they have made. That which they have made is only a magician’s trick; and a magician will never be successful to whatever amount (of skill) he may attain.” [XX; 66-69]

Who was victorious in the end? Moses, (PBUH)! That is because Allah is “Al-Muhaimin”, Who dominates over all things. All the above-mentioned examples provide sufficient evidence of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Muahimin”: domination of knowledge, power, endurance, compassion, love, care, protection and verification. As for Abraham, (PBUH), Gabriel came to him after his people had kindled a great fire for which they had gathered a great deal of wood, and after they had placed him in a catapult and cast him into it. They seemed to be dominant and superior, with everything under their control, saying: “Who is more powerful than we are?!” “Have they not seen that Allah, Who created them, is more powerful than they are!” Gabriel came to Abraham asking him: “O Abraham! Do you need anything?” Abraham answered: “From you: nothing.” Gabriel asked: “From Allah?” Abraham replied: “His knowledge of the circumstances I am undergoing suffices me from asking Him.” Suddenly, three Divine Commands came from the Lord, “AlMuhaimin”: “O fire! Be you coolness and safety for Abraham!” [XXI; 69] If Allah had not said: “coolness and safety” , Abraham would have been found frozen-dead. If He had not said: “for Abraham”, fire would have lost its property of burning at all. Three Divine Commands: “O fire! Be you coolness and safety for Abraham!” Then Allah, “Al-Muhaimin” goes on to say: “And they wanted to harm him, but We made them the worst losers.” [ibid; 70] Who is the Dominant?! It is the Almighty Allah! Didn’t Abraham say: “His knowledge of the circumstances I am undergoing suffices me from asking Him.”? Also, Moses’ mother: Show me a mother, other than Moses’ mother, that can put her most beloved baby in a box and cast it into the river! But she received, from the Lord, All-Mighty, Most Merciful, a couple of Divine Biddings, a couple of Divine Forbiddings, and a couple of Divine Promises: “And We inspired Moses’ mother: ‘Suckle him! But if you fear for him, cast him into the river! And neither fear nor grieve! Verily, We shall bring him back to you and We shall make him one of (Our) Messengers.” [XXVIII; 7] The two Biddings are: “Suckle him!” and “cast him into the river!”. The two Forbiddings are: “neither fear nor grieve!”. The two Promises are:

“We shall bring him back to you, and We shall make him one of (Our) Messengers.” But who drove Moses’ box to Pharaoh’s palace?! It is Allah, “Al-Muhaimin”, Who knows and dominates! And when they opened Moses’ box, who filled Pharaoh’s wife’s heart with love and compassion for Moses?! It is Allah, “Al-Muhaimin”, Who knows and dominates! The above-mentioned stories confirm Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, one of which is “Al-Muhaimin”. The holy Prophet Jonah: I do not think that any hardship could ever be harder than being in three kinds of darkness and loneliness as Jonah, (PBUH), was in: darkness of the whale’s stomach, darkness of the sea and darkness of the night. If a whale opens its mouth it devours three tons of fish for one meal. When still a baby, a whale suckles three times a day: each time is nearly 1000 kg’s of milk. Just imagine: every day, a baby whale needs a ton of milk. A full-grown whale weighs nearly 150 tons. Its interior is like a big room; and the great Prophet Jonah, (PBUH), suddenly found himself inside the whale’s stomach in the darkness of the night and that of the deep sea. To this effect, the Quranic Verses go: “And (remember) Jonah: when he went off in anger and imagined that We shall not punish him! But he cried out through the darkness, (saying): ‘There is no god but You (O Allah!). Glorified and Exalted are You! Truly, I have been of the wrong-doers!’ [XXI; 87] How wonderful! Is there in the whale’s stomach a fax or a telex or even a telephone or a telegraph or anything like that?! No, nothing like that at all! But he cried out through the darkness: “There is no god but You (O Allah!). Glorified and Exalted are You! Truly, I have been of the wrongdoers!” Therefore, Allah, “Al-Muhaimin”, says, “So We answered his call and delivered him from the distress (he was in). And thus do We deliver the believers.” [ibid; 88] Don’t you feel comfortable with such story, which ends up with Allah’s Divine Promise to all believers: “And thus do We deliver the believers.”?! Everywhere, at all times, and under all circumstances, Allah is AlMuhaimin”, Who hears and sees all things, and Who dominates over all things. Therefore, you should always be with “Al-Muhaimin” if you desire to be safe and secure. Look at the little baby in his mother’s lab: It says nothing; nevertheless, his father and mother strive to provide it with means of sustenance and survival. When it grows older, they strive to provide him/her with all the necessary

things for success at school and university. If you are with “Al-Muhaimin”, you are powerful over all things. Now, we go on to talk about another holy Prophet, Zechariah, (PBUH), who did not utter one single word, but rather: “He beseeched his Lord in secret.” [XIX; 3] Try to be silent and beseech your Lord secretly but honestly and truthfully of the best things of this world and the world to come! You will certainly find out that Allah has answered your call! This means that He, Most Gracious, has heard you and has known your secrecy. In other words, your relationship with Allah does not need a loud voice…“He beseeched his Lord in secret.” [XIX; 3] His secret call crossed seven heavens and Allah, “Al-Muhaimin”, answered him! On the day of Hunain Battle, the Prophet’s Companions, who had fought with him the battles of Badr, Uhud and Al-Khandaq, and who were his sincere and devoted companions, felt proud and self-confident because they noticed that they out-numbered their enemies. In this context Allah, Most Gracious, says: “And on the day of Hunain (battle), you rejoiced at your great number.” [IX; 25] In other words, they said to themselves: “We shall never be defeated because of fewness of number!”, for they were ten thousand Companions, and with them was Allah’s Messenger, after they had conquered Mecca and subjected all of Arabia. Nevertheless: “But it (your great number) availed you nothing; and the earth, vast as it is, was straightened for you, and then you turned back in flight.” [ibid; 25] Allah, “Al- Humaimin”, knew the self-conceitedness that filled Muslims’ hearts and minds, so He, All-Mighty, cast fear into their hearts, for their hearts were in Allah’s Hands: and He could fill them either with security or fear. This teaches us that people’s hearts are in Allah’s Hands: He changes them as He desires, and that Allah is “Al-Muhaimin”: the whole matter is His Hand and under His Dominion. Yes, indeed. The whole matter is in Allah’s Hand: When he took refuge in the cave of Hira’ on his migration to Medina, accompanied by his best friend Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: “O Messenger of Allah! If anyone of them looks at his foot-place, he will see us!”, with utmost calmness and security, the Messenger of Allah, (PBUH), replied: “O Abu Bakr! What do you think of two men the third with

whom is Allah?!” Afterwards, things were even more difficult, so Abu Bakr said: “O Messenger of Allah! They have really seen me!” In other words, the eyes of one of the chasers met Abu Bakr’s eyes. Nevertheless, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said: “O Abu Bakr! Haven’t you read Allah’s Words: “And you see them looking at you, but they see not.” [VII; 198] Allah, “A-Muhaimin”, protected the great Call for Islam with the weak lines of a spider’s web. Such is Allah’s Infinite Divine Power: He, All-Mighty, protects the greatest things even with the tiniest and most insignificant things. He, “Al-Muhaimin”, protects man or causes him to perish with the most insignificant causes. He does this just to show Perfection of His Divine Power and Might! On the Ahzab (Confederates) Expedition, the whole of Arabia gathered to fight against Muhammad, (PBUH), the Jews of Medina breached their covenants with him, and the Messenger’s Call to Islam seemed to have only a few hours to survive. In other words, it seemed that Islam had only a few hours to live before it was eradicated from the surface of the earth. One of the men said: “Does your fellow (i.e. Muhammad) promise us that the Roman and Persian Empires will be opened to us, while the one of us can not safely go to answer the call of nature?!” But suddenly, Allah, “AlMuhaimin”, sent forth an incredibly strong wind that put off the enemies’ fires, uprooted their tents and upset their pots; and Allah, All-Mighty, sufficed the believers the trouble of fighting back their enemies. This is because Allah is “Al-Muhaimin”: everything is in His Hand; the wind is in His Hand, and He speaks the truth as He says, “And none can know the hosts of your Lord but He.” [LXXIV; 31] A low pressure in the earth’s atmosphere makes visibility weak or impossible: that is in His Hand. A strong wind makes movement of vehicles impossible: that is in His Hand. People’s hearts are in His Hand: He casts therein fear or security. Everything is in His Divine Hand. A gigantic ship was built in 1912. Its outer walls were made double-sided so that it may withstand extraordinary powers of nature. It did not have enough life-boats because people were sure that it would never sink. A leaflet was published about that gigantic luxurious ship. The leaflet read: “Fate can not cause this ship to sink!” It was indeed one of the most luxurious ships in the world. It was said to have the most expensive and luxurious furniture, silverware, chandeliers, restaurants, saloons, rooms, swimming-pools, …etc. In other words, it was a whole floating city. But on its very first voyage, on board of

which were Europe’s richest people – it is said that women’s jewelry on board the ship was worth hundreds of millions of Pounds – it hit an ice-berg that split it into two parts. Its crew-members sent S.O.S. messages, but they were misunderstood as features of celebrations. However, almost all people on board the ship were killed. About a year ago, I read in “Al-‘Arabi” magazine that the shp was found and photographed in the sea-bottom. The ship’s name was the Titanic. A priest said: “Such is heaven’s admonition to earth.” A few years ago, one of the developed countries, whose people say: “Who is mightier than we are?!”, built a great space-ship that was supposed to stay in outer space for a whole year. Seven male and one female astronauts were on board. The plan was that the woman should have a sexual relation with one of the male astronauts in order to become pregnant and then stay in outer space for nine months. Then she was supposed to deliver in outer space; and there was an obstetrician on board. That space-ship was called “Challenger”. However, seventy minutes after it had been launched, it became a ball of blazing fire. Who is “Al-Muhaimin”, who dominates?! Didn’t they make the down-count?! Didn’t they examine each and every part of the ship?! But where is “Al-Muhaimin”?! It is Allah, Glorified and Exalted! Be with Allah, “Al-Muhaimin”, and fear nothing! A friend of mine told me that he visited an orchard near Damascus. The orchard consisted of two parts, each part belonged to either of two brothers. The wheat of the first brother grew incredibly well, but that of the other did not grow well at all. My friend, who was a true believer, and who knew the Almighty Allah, came to the first brother and asked him about the secret of the perfect growth of the trees in his orchard. The man answered: “I take care of my own orchard just as my brother does. And we have the same man to look after both orchards.” So what is the secret?! The man explained: “I had a third brother, who had died and left behind helpless orphans. I intended to give my brother’s orphans half of my orchard’s harvest.” That is the secret! The other brother did not intend to give any of his harvest to his dead brother’s children. This story confirms the fact that Allah, All-Mighty, knew the first brother’s intention and, therefore, increased his harvest for him just as He knew the other brother’s intention and decreased his harvest for him. Hence, Allah, “Al-Muhaimin” knows and does.

Also, another friend of mine told me about a group of farms around Damascus. There were some shepherds who brought their sheep to be watered from those farms. All farmers, except one, used to drive away the sheep and prevent them from drinking. Only one farmer used to allow the sheep to drink from his farm. A man swore to me that the water of the wells of all of the seven farms dried out, except that of the farmer who used to allow the sheep to come and drink from his farm. In fact, he did not only allow the sheep to come and drink from his farm but also built for them special basins from which they could drink comfortably. For whose sake did that good farmer do all that?! For the sake of Allah, “Al-Muhaimin”: in Whose Hand is the man’s well, in Whose Hand is “Challenger”, in Whose is the Titanic, in Whose Hand are clouds, in Whose Hand are ships, in Whose Hand are whales, in Whose Hand are all things. Sometimes, a true believer, lost and exhausted in a remote place, is confronted by a snake. The snake is made to stand still and even sneak away from him. And sometimes, a true believer is confronted by a hungry mad dog that has not eaten for quite a few days. The dog is made to stand still as if it had not seen anything. So who is “Al-Muhaimin”, Who protects believers?! It is, surely, Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious, Who speaks the truth as He says, “Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the Disposer and Guardian of all things.” [XXXIX; 62] Therefore, Allah is “Al-Muhaimin” in the sense that He is the One Who dominates over and disposes with all things. Everything is under His Divine Control and nothing is left unheeded or neglected. That is why “Allah is the Creator of all things, and He is the Disposer and Guardian over all things.” [XXXIX; 62] Fire is something horrible; and it attacks blindly. Fire might suddenly break out in some markets of the city and devour everything in all shops except one single shop that the fire surrounds but does not burn… Fire is in Allah’s Hand! Some fifty years ago locusts invaded this city and destroyed everything. A man, who is now dead, and who was in charge of controlling the whole matter and helping owners of orchards resist the locusts, told me: “When we examined the trees, we found that the locusts devoured everything: their leaves, fruits and even their outer crusts. But we were so surprised to see one of the orchards safe and secure, and it looked as if it were a piece of Paradise. We asked the owner about the reason why his orchard was safe and

secure. He replied that he used a certain kind of medicament. Very angrily we said: “You have a good medicament that you refrain to give to other Muslim farmers?!” “Yes, sir! They refuse to use the medicament that I use to keep my orchard safe and secure. My medicament is simply the Zakat (alms), for I always pay alms for the crops of my orchard at every harvest of the year.” The man answered. The above-mentioned stories are but a few daily examples of millions of evidences of the fact that everything is in Allah’s Hand and under His Divine Control. Therefore, it is wise to know that Allah is “Al-Muhaimin”, in Whose Hand are all things. Such knowledge cuts off your hopes for anyone but Him and makes you beseech none but Him. With Him you are most submissive, humble and poor, and, therefore, most secure. But with people you are most honorable and respectable because you know that they are mere slaves of Allah and can do neither good nor evil except by His Leave, for He is “Al-Muhaimin”, Who controls and dominates over all things. Those who are ignorant of the fact that Allah is “Al-Muhaimin” in Whose Hand is everything and nothing could ever escape His Divine Will and Power wrongly think that other fellow humans can do them good or harm. Therefore, they tend to over-estimate other human beings, who might seem to be more wealthy or powerful, and humble themselves to them, which makes those human beings disrespect and humiliate them. That is why: “He who sits with a wealthy person to whom he humbles himself loses two thirds of his religion.” That was the third part of our lecture. The first part of the lecture included theoretical definitions of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Muhaimin”: Absolute Knowledge, Absolute Power and Endurance. This is because Allah’s Domination is that of Love, Compassion, Mercy, Protection, and Verification. The second part of the lecture dealt with subsidiary definitions, three paragraphs that include the main definition and three subsidiary ones highlighting the main definition. That was the theoretical part of the lecture. And now, we go ahead to the third part, namely the practical one, which includes actual evidences: One of our brothers had a heart-disease and was strongly advised by doctors to have a surgical operation in one of the foreign countries. He went there, and when he was placed in bed to be examined, he invoked Allah, with eyes filled with tears: “O Lord! It is You Who have made my heart! Don’t let them open it!” And he cried sadly. After several tests, Allah, Most

Gracious, restored him to health by something that doctors call “selfrecovery”, i.e. without any surgical operation. But the question is: Who unblocked that man’s arteries?! It is Allah, “Al-Muhaimin”, Who has full control of man’s heart! Sometimes a person’s kidney fails to work. Why does it fail? Who makes it fail? And who makes it work? Allah, “Al-Muhaimin”! Make no mistake about it: Your nerves, kidneys, heart, lungs, arteries, veins, stomach, intestines, hearing, sight, tongue, and all other parts are in Allah’s Hand: “Say: ‘O Allah, Owner of the Kingdom! You give the kingdom to whom You will; and You take away the kingdom from whom You will. You endue with honor whom You will; and You humiliate whom You will. In Your Hand is the Good. Verily, You are Powerful over all things.” [III; 26] Those human cells: who prevent them from growing in an evil cancerous way?! Allah, All-Mighty, All-Majestic! So far, doctors have not been able to find out any definite cause for cancer. And sometimes a person is healthy and powerful: regular food, sports, movement, activity, and energy; but suddenly cancerous cells begin to show somewhere in his body. Who controls and governs these cells?! Who makes them grow, or prevents them from growing, in such evil way?! Allah, All-Mighty, All-Majestic, “AlMuhaimin”! Even your wife is in Allah’s Hand. To this effect, Imam Ash-Sha’rani says: “I know my position with my Lord from my wife’s behavior (towards me).” Sometimes, you find your wife an angel, sent down from the heaven; and sometimes, you find her an evil frightful devil. Praised is the Creator, Who has full power and control over your wife: He makes her heart soft or hard; and He makes her obedient or obstinate. Her character and behavior are in Allah’s Hand! The same thing applies to your children, customers, bosses, subordinates, … etc. Even your car: If you praise the company that has manufactured it and forget Allah, it breaks down on the road and causes you a lot of trouble. It is in Allah’s Hand. Earthquakes: man is completely helpless if afflicted with an earthquake! Even germs: they cause illnesses only if Allah, All-Mighty, permits them to do so.

That was the practical part of our lecture. Now we still have the last part of the lecture, namely that which has to do with personal application. If a believer desires to benefit from this Divine Name, he has to be conscious and well-aware of himself. In other words, he should know the reality of himself: does he suffer from any kind of deviation, arrogance, selfdeception, or self-conceit; does he desire to go beyond bounds or transgress or go astray?! Is his belief in Allah firm enough?! He should know his heart’s conditions, his psychic conditions. He should know about his income: whether it is lawful or unlawful. He should know whether his expenditure of money, dealings with others, deeds, attitudes, reactions, … etc, are rightly guided and acceptable by Allah, All-Mighty. He should know whether he is straightforward. He should know whether there is any deviation in his relationships. He should know whether there is any negligence on his part concerning the rights of others. He should know all that. But he will never be able to know all that unless he attends religious lectures, because such lectures teach him what is lawful and what is unlawful, what is legal and what is illegal, what is legitimate and what is illegitimate. Such lectures teach him whether such and such qualities are laudable or illaudable. Through attending religious lectures he gets to know so many good things; and once he has learned such good things, he attains three quarters of the meanings of Allah’s Name “Al-Muhaimin”. He should also strive to purify himself from all defects and imperfections, his deeds from sins and wrong-doings, his heart from anything except Allah, his intellect from all deviant ideologies, illusions, surmises, superstitions, tricks, forgery, idle talk, …etc. Yes, indeed! I reiterate: You should purify your mind from all deviant ideologies, your deeds from sins and wrong-doings, your heart from everything except Allah. This is an application of Allah’s Name “AlMuhaimin”: one should have full control of one’s heart as well as the secrets and depths thereof, and one should have full control of one’s qualities and traits. Therefore, you should know your conditions, you should evaluate you deeds, you should observe full straightforwardness, for you have covenanted Allah, Most Gracious, to know yourself and reform it, to show enough endurance, and , better still, to know conditions of your fellow humans, to strive to reform them as much as you can, and to stick to your covenant with Allah through your dealings and relationships with them.

Your self-reform is a part of the meanings of Allah’s Words, “So fear Allah and adjust all matters of difference among you, and obey Allah and His Messenger if you are believers.” [VIII; 1] I emphasize once again: You should reform yourself. But how can you ever reform yourself if you do not know the ailments, deviations, defects, imperfections, negligence, problems, violations, …etc, that you suffer from?! In other words, knowledge is the essence of each and every act or behavior. Therefore, you need knowledge in order to know, a will in order to reform, and truthfulness in order to endure. Unless you do that, you will never be able to get any benefit from Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Muhaimin”. Moreover, since Allah, All-Mighty, observes you and sees all the things that you do, what is your attitude towards His Observing you?! You should be shy with Allah. One application of Allah’s Name “Al-Muhaimin” is that you should be shy with Allah, for He, All-Mighty, watches you. You should trust in Him because He is the Almighty, the One and Only, Who has no partner. Also you should be confident of your future if you entrust all your affairs to Allah, All-Mighty All-Majestic: “For him (each person), there are angels in succession, before and behind him: They guard him by Allah’s Command. Verily, Allah does not change the condition of a people unless they change their state themselves. And if Allah wills a people a punishment, there can be none to resist it, and they find beside Him no protector.” [XIII; 11] The three applications of Allah’s Name “Al-Muhaimin” are: You should check the conditions that your heart undergoes, the conditions you yourself undergo, and the conditions your ideology and faith undergo. In other words, you should set aright your conceptions and beliefs, you should attend religious lectures, you should have a strong will to correct your deviations, to obey Allah and to stick to His Divine Commands, you should always be truthful and honest. In short, you should have knowledge, will, and truthfulness. Such is the first application. The second application: Since Allah is always watching you, you should be shy with Him: “O mankind! Be dutiful to your Lord, Who created you from a single person (Adam), and from Him (Adam) He created his wife (Eve), and from them both He created a great many men and women. And fear Allah, through Whom you demand (your natural rights), and

do not sever relations of kinship. Surely, Allah is Ever All-Watcher over you.” [IV; 1] Since Allah, All-Mighty, dominates over all things, you should trust in Him. In other words, if you desire to be the strongest of all mankind trust in Allah. And since Allah, the One and Only, Who has no associates or partners, tells you: “For him (each person), there are angels in succession, before and behind him: They guard him by Allah’s Command. Verily, Allah does not change the condition of a people unless they change their state themselves. And if Allah wills a people a punishment, there can be none to resist it, and they find beside Him no protector.” [XIII; 11], you should be confident of the future, you should be confident of Allah, All-Mighty, AllMajestic. You should also be sure that unless you change your state, Allah never changes your conditions, that so long as you obey Him, you move from good to good, from a high position to a higher one, and from one station to a better and nobler one. Such is Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Muhaimin”, whose definitions, meanings, applications, and evidences I hope, I have made clear to you. I also hope that Allah, Most Gracious, enables you to benefit from such Divine Name by way of both theory and application.

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n the following pages we shall be dealing with the sixth of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, “Al-‘Aziz”, which is often repeated at the end of Quranic Verses: “And He is Al-‘Aziz (the All-Mighty), the All-Wise”. I have previously made clear that it is not enough to believe that Allah exists. You have to believe in His existence, His Oneness (in His Divine

Self, Attributes and Acts), and His Perfection. In fact, your belief in Allah’s Perfection enables you to know His Beautiful Names and Attributes. Narrated Abu Hurairah that Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said: “Verily, Allah has ninety-nine Names, one hundred but one. Whosoever knows each and every one of them enters Paradise.” [narrated by Al-Boukhari] The word “knows” in the above Hadith means that you should know each and every one of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes, that you should know their exact meanings, that you should know how to react towards each and every one of them, and that you should know the denotations and connotations of each and every one of them. Therefore, our topic in the following pages is going to be about Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-‘Aziz”. This Divine Name, “Al-‘Aziz”, occurs in a great many Quranic Verses, such as Jesus’ words, “If You punish them, they are Your slaves, and if You forgive them, verily, You, only You, are Al-‘Aziz (the All-Mighty), the All-Wise.” [V; 118] If the end of the above Quranic Verse were: “…and if you forgive them, verily You, only You, are the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.”, does this end suit the beginning of the Verse? The answer is: the Verse is ended as follows: “…and if You forgive them, verily, You, only You, are the AllMighty, the All-Wise.” This is because if a human being, no matter how high his social rank or position might be, forgives a person’s mistake, he might be blamed or asked: “Why did you forgive that person’s mistake?”, “Why did you not punish him?”, or “Why were you so lenient with him?”. But when Allah, All-Mighty, forgives, He is never blamed or asked why, for He, Glory to Him, is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise: “If You punish them, they are Your slaves, and if You forgive them, verily, You, only You, are Al-‘Aziz (the All-Mighty), the All-Wise.” That is the first Verse in our study. The second Verse is: “And His (Alone) is the Majesty in the heavens and the earth, and He (Alone) is Al-‘Aziz (the All-Mighty), the All-Wise.” [XLV; 37] And the third Verse is: “They (the hypocrites) say: ‘If we return to Medina, indeed the mightier will expel from it the less mighty.’ But ‘Izah (might, honor and power) belongs to Allah, to His Messenger and to the believers, but the hypocrites know not.” [LXIII; 8] A fourth Verse is: “Glorified is your

Lord, the Lord of ‘Izah (Might, Honor, and Power)! (He is Free) from what they attribute to Him.” [XXXVII; 180] In the fifth Verse Satan says to the Lord, All-Mighty, “(I swear by) by Your ‘Izah (Might, Honor, and Power) that I will surely mislead them (mankind) all.” [XXXVIII; 82] In fact, Allah’s Divine Name “Al-‘Aziz” occurs in a great many Verses of the Holy Quran, some of which are mentioned above. But what does this Name mean from the linguistic point of view? First Meaning: “Al-‘Aziz” is He the like of Whom is none and equal to Whom is none. He is Unique and nothing is like Him. This Name is attributed only to Allah, the One and Only, the like of Whom there is nothing and equal to Whom is nothing. This is the first meaning. Second Meaning: “Al-‘Aziz” is the One Who overpowers and is never overpowered. If a person is overpowered, he is by no means ‘Aziz (i.e. mighty or honorable) but rather weak and humble. The one who overpowers him is likely to over-humiliate him. In other words, “Al-‘Aziz” is one of Allah’s Beautiful Names, which means “the One Who overpowers and is never overpowered”. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “And Allah has full power and control over His Affairs, but most of men know not.” [XII; 21] In a Divine Hadith, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “You (O My slave) will (something) and I will (something). If you surrender to Me concerning what I will, I fulfill what you will; but if you do not surrender to Me concerning what I will, I tire you out with what you will, and then there will never be except what I will.” And in His Holy Quran He, Glory to Him, says, “And Allah has full power and control over His Affairs, but most of men know not.” [XII; 21] If all people knew that Allah has full power over all things, they would obey Him, they would rely on Him, they would trust in Him, they would turn to Him with love and devotion, and they would turn away from others than Him. Third Meaning: “Al-‘Aziz” is the Mighty and Forceful, as derived from the Arabic word “’Azza”, which mans “reinforces and makes stronger”. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “When We sent to them two Messengers, they belied them both; so We ‘Azzazna (reinforced them) with a third. And they (the Messengers) said: ‘Verily, we have been sent to you as Messengers.” [XXXVI; 14]

Therefore, the first meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-‘Aziz” is: the One the like of Whom is nothing, rival to Whom is none, and equal to Whom is nothing. This Name is one of Allah’s Names of Tanzeeh (i.e. Names that denote His being free from any anthropomorphic elements). The second meaning is: the One Who overpowers and is never overpowered. This Name belongs to Names of As-Sifat (i.e. Names that are Attributes of Allah, All-Mighty). The third meaning is: the All-Mighty, the All-Powerful. This Name also belongs to Names of As-Sifat as mentioned above. There is also a very delicate fourth meaning, which believers need to understand most of all, namely that “Al-‘Aziz” is: the One Who grants power and honor to His slaves. This Name belongs to Names of “Al-Af’al” (i.e. Names that denote Allah’s Acts). To this effect, the Quranic Verse goes: “Say: ‘O Allah, Owner of the Kingdom! You grant the kingdom to whom You will, and You take away the kingdom from whom You will. You endue with honor whom You will, and You humiliate whom You will. In Your Hand is the good. Verily, You are Powerful over all things.” [III; 26] When the last of the Arab kings of ancient Spain left Spain, he cried sadly. His mother, whose name was ‘A’ishah, addressed him sarcastically, “Cry like women for a lost kingdom that you could not preserve like men!” So what is man’s value if Allah forsakes him?! Allah, All-Mighty, says, “See you not that whoever is in the heavens and whoever is on the earth, and the sun, and the moon, and the stars, and the mountains, and the trees, and all living creatures, and many of mankind, prostrate themselves to Allah. But there are many (men) on whom the punishment is justified; and whomsoever Allah disgraces none can ever honor him. Verily, Allah does what He wills.” [XXII; 18] A great part of your life has to do with your honor and dignity. Therefore, if you are with Allah, the All-Mighty, He will certainly grant you honor and dignity: Make to your Lord all your honor, It will be deeply rooted and firmly established. But if you seek honor from those who die, Your honor will similarly die.

Such are the linguistic meanings of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-‘Aziz”. But there is another more beautiful and delicate meaning: “Al-‘Aziz” is the One Who is too Rare, Who is so badly needed, and Who is too difficult to reach. Something, a metal for example, might be too rare, but, at the same time, it is not so badly needed. Such a thing is not called in Arabic “’Aziz”. We call something “’Aziz” if it has three qualities: It is too rare; it is so badly needed; and it is too difficult to reach. Something else, like air for example, might be so badly needed, but it is not rare. Water is so badly needed but it is not rare in most places. Therefore, “Al-‘Aziz” is something that is too rare, so badly needed and too difficult to reach. Such qualities, however, have to do with perfection and non-perfection. In other words, the more available a certain thing is, the less ‘Aziz it is; the less badly needed it is, the less ‘Aziz it is; and the easier to reach it is, the less ‘Aziz it is. Now, if something becomes so rare that it becomes only one, i.e. unique, it becomes the most ‘Aziz, which is a paramount quality of perfection and is given only to Allah, Alone, Who is the One and Only Creator, Who is so badly needed by all things and Who is too difficult to reach. Therefore, Allah, Alone, deserves to be called “Al-‘Aziz” in Arabic. A certain person might be needed by some, or even most, people. The more needed he is, the more ‘Aziz he is. But no human being is needed by all other people everywhere. A certain man might live in the kingdom of a certain king, nevertheless, he does not need the king because he lives in a tent in a remote place with his sheep that give him food and other things that he needs. Therefore, the more badly needed a certain thing is, the more ‘Aziz it is. Moreover, perfection of this quality is attained when everything needs such thing for everything. I might need a doctor when I am ill, for example, but I do not need him for my sleep: I need a bed for my sleep. I might need a certain teacher if my son is weak in mathematics, but a teacher is not needed by all people and all things, living and non-living: people, animals, plants, objects, substances, atoms, galaxies, …etc. In other words, no one, except Allah, Alone, is needed by all things for all things. That is why He, Glory to Him, is “Al-‘Aziz”. Just deliberate what the words “everything for everything” mean. Hence, Allah, Alone, is “Al-‘Aziz” because existence and survival of all things

depend on Him. For example, matter, which is made up of a nucleus around which electrons move in orbits, would never have existed unless Allah, AllMighty, had granted it its own existence and enabled it to survive: “Be!”, and it is; “Perish!”, and it perishes. Allah, All-Mighty, says, “Allah: there is no god but Him, the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists.” [III; 2] In other words, existence and survival of all things are in Allah’s Hand, for He is the Source of life and survival for all things. Therefore, we should not say that Allah is so badly needed but rather we should say that everything needs Him so badly for everything. The retina, for example, has more than 130,000,000 light receptors located in ten layers. Vision nerves are more than 900,000 ones. What is that substance whose composition changes whenever infringed by light, and in so doing it generates an electric current that is carried to the brain where it is perceived?! You are in bad need of Allah, All-Mighty, for your sight, hearing, speaking, thinking, moving, and living, for your brain, arteries, veins, and each and every single part of your body. Without Allah’s Grace everything becomes nothing. You survive by Allah: your bones and muscles, nerves and organs, all work by His Divine Grace. Without Allah’s Grace, man, and everything else, can not possibly exist or survive. Yes, indeed, everything needs Him for everything. Hence, the first quality of Allah’s Perfection as being ‘Aziz is that He is One and Only so that everything needs Him so badly for everything, that He is too difficult to reach, none could ever encompass Him in knowledge, not even Prophets, for no one knows Allah except Allah, Himself. You can only reach Him as a created slave of His; therefore, you should comply to His Commands and do deeds of righteousness if you desire to reach Him and be intimate to Him. This is the only way to reach Him and be intimate to Him. A young man got engaged to the daughter of a religious scholar. Her name was “Wisal” (i.e. communion). The scholar addressed the young man: “My daughter’s dowry is that you should attend the lectures that I deliver in my council.” The young man attended the scholar’s lectures and was so involved in them that he forgot his fiancée, the scholar’s daughter, who sent him a message: “You have forgotten me!” He replied: “O Wisal! You were the cause of the communion (i.e. my association with Allah), so do not be the cause of disunion (dissociation with Him)!”

You can never reach Him except as a slave of His. Therefore, you should be devoted to Him and do deeds of righteousness, you should constantly remember Him and be conscious of Him, and you should serve His other salves, your fellow humans, and do good to them. Yes, indeed. It is possible to reach Him as a slave, but it is impossible to encompass Him in knowledge or perception, for even holy Prophets and Messengers, most righteous and pure as they are, fail to do so. This is because none can know Allah, AllMighty, except Allah, Himself. If you ask yourself: “What does “Al-Aziz” mean?”, it means the Unique, the One and Only, Whom everything needs for everything, Who is impossible to be encompassed either by ones mental conception or sensual perception. It is possible to reach Him only by being a slave to Him. Some scholars say that “Al-‘Aziz” is He, All-Mighty, in the oceans of Whose Majesty the minds get drowned, Whose Graces and Blessings can not be properly enumerated or conceived, Whose Perfection and Beauty can not be described by human tongues. Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), summed up the whole thing as follows: Narrated Abu Hurairah on authority of ‘A’ishah: “I missed Allah’s Messenger from my bed one day. I searched for him, and my hand touched the soles of his feet while he was on the floor prostrating himself to the Lord, invoking: ‘O Allah! I seek refuge in Your Contentment from Your Wrath, in Your Forgiveness from Your Punishment; and I seek refuge with You from You. I can not praise you enough, for You are as You praised Yourself.’” [narrated by Muslim in His “Sahih” Book of Hadith] I swear By Allah! It is an indisputable fact that he who knows Allah belittles all others but Him. If you know Allah, it is impossible that you humble yourself to any other human being or creature. If you know Allah, you see no might or honor except with Him, you see no power except His, you see no wisdom except His. That is why Allah, Most Gracious, in a Divine Hadith, says: “O son of Adam! Seek Me, for if you find Me, you find everything, but if you miss Me, you miss everything; and I am more beloved to you than everything.” If your eyes saw of Our Beauty that which they saw, You would not turn away from Us to other ones. And if your ears heard the Beauty of Our Speech,

You would take off the cloak of pride and come to Us. And if you tasted of (Our) Love even a little, You would excuse those who died of Our Love. And if only a breeze from near Us blew to you, You would die of alienation and eagerness to Our Nearness Yes, indeed! Allah is Al-‘Aziz (the All-Mighty). Those who naively fancy that by a couple of Rak’as of prayer and a couple of pounds they can enter Paradise are mere idiots, for the price of Paradise is much dearer. In this context, it has been rightly said: “He who seeks to marry a beautiful lady should be generous enough to pay her dowry.”: Narrated Abu Hurairah that Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said: “He who is afraid sets off at nightfall; and he who sets off at nightfall reaches his destination. Verily, Allah’s Commodity is priceless! Verily, Allah’s commodity is Paradise! [narrated by At-Tirmithi] Allah, Most Gracious, says, “By no means shall you attain piety unless you spend (in Allah’s Cause) of that which you love; and whatever of good you spend: Allah knows it well.” [III; 92] Your precious time and power should be spent in Allah’s Cause, your wealth that you have worked hard to earn should be spent in Allah’s Cause: “Verily, Allah’s Commodity is priceless! Allah is All-Mighty! Very simply and naturally, Allah is All-Mighty. Now, in the light of the above-mentioned definition the question is: Who is “‘Aziz” (i.e. mighty and honorable)? The answer is: Allah’s holy Prophets and Messengers are! This is because all mankind are in need of them and of their righteous work. Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), is “aziz (i.e. mighty and honorable) simply because Allah, All-Mighty, has endued him with His Divine Secret and His Divine Knowledge; and He granted him Prophecy. Allah’s Messenger is the way to Allah and the gate that leads to Him. In other words, Prophets and Messengers are mighty and honorable because Allah, All-Mighty, has made them the gates to His Divine Mercy, Grace, Bounty, and Light. That is why when you attain the Prophet’s pleasure, you attain Allah’s Pleasure; and that is why Allah, Most Gracious, associated His Prophet’s name with His own Name. Therefore, the holy

Prophet is ‘Aziz (mighty and honorable) because all people are in bad need of him for both their secular and religious affairs. A king is ‘Aziz (mighty and honorable): If he has all matters under his control, and if all of his subjects, young and old, venerable and disreputable, go to him for their affairs. In other words, the more needed you are, more ‘Aziz (the mightier and more honorable) you are. If a true believer is badly needed, he is ‘Aziz (mighty and honorable), nevertheless, he is modest. But if a disbeliever is badly needed, he is arrogant and tyrannical. The venerable Imam and scholar Al-Hassan Al-Basri was one day asked: “How did you attain such an eminence?” Before I give his reply, I would like to whisper these words, from the depth of my heart, to my dear readers: If you know Allah and obey Him, it is impossible for you to humble yourself to anyone else. This is because Allah, All-Mighty, All-Majestic, says, “But honor, might and glory belong to Allah, His Messenger and believers, but the hypocrites know not. [LXIII: 8] How come that you be with Allah, Al-‘Aziz (the All-Mighty), yet you humble yourself to others than Him. That is impossible! Don’t you invoke at dawn prayer everyday: “Glory to You, O Allah! Your friends are never humble; and Your enemies are never honorable.”? All true believers, who know Allah, All-Mighty, All-Majestic, stick to His Divine Commands, and set their affairs aright with Him, receive special Divine Care and Treatment from Him. Through such special Divine Treatment and Care they are made to feel that they are so dear and beloved to Him. To this effect, Allah addresses His Messenger, (PBUH), “So wait patiently for your Lord’s Decision, for verily, you are under Our Eyes (Divine Care, Love and Protection).” [LII; 48] Very often you beseech Allah, Most Gracious, and He answers you, you pray to Him and He repels evil from you, you invoke Him and He casts love for you in the hearts of other people, you supplicate Him and He softens the hearts of your enemies for you, you call to Him and He responds to you, you beg Him and He gives you, and you swear by Him and He verifies your oath. We go back to the above question that was put forward to Al-Hassan AlBasri, the venerable Imam and scholar: “How did you attain such an

eminence among people?!” His answer was: “Because of two things: I do not need them but they need my knowledge.” You are by no means ‘Aziz (mighty and honorable) if you are greedy. This is because when you are greedy you are humble and submissive; when you aspire to the things that people have, you become humble, despised and disrespected. But if you aspire to what Allah has, He loves you: Never ask of a human anything, But ask the One, Whose Gates are never closed. Allah is angered if you refrain from asking Him, But a human is angered if he is asked. If you ask a human being for something, he gets angry with you, but the Almighty Lord: if you refrain from asking Him, He gets angry with you. That is why Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “A believer should never humble himself.” They asked, “How does he humble himself?” He, (PBUH) replied, “By seeking burdens that he fails to bear.” [narrated by At-Tirmithi] Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), also says, “Seek things with self-respect, for all matters run according to Divine Foreordainment.” And one day, he, (PBUH), addressed a man who was humbling himself before the others, “Raise up your head, O brother!” Then he, (PBUH), added: “He (the man) has deadened our religion for us!” One day, Imam Abu Hanifah entered upon Ja’far Al-Mansour for a certain matter. Ja’far was very pleased to receive such a venerable scholar in his palace and said: “O Abu Hanifah! Why don’t you always come to visit us! It is a great honor for us to receive you! You are most welcome!” Abu Hanifah said, “O Commander of the Faithful! Why should I visit you?! I don’t have anything with you for which I fear you! Does anyone visit you unless they have something with you for which they fear you?! I have nothing with you for which I visit you!” This means that the less aspirant you are after what other people have, the more honored Allah makes you; and the more you prostrate yourself in veneration to Allah, the more honored He makes you. A Caliph once wanted to have a scholar brought to him for religious counsel. The Caliph’s men went to Imam Malik, the venerable Imam and scholar,

saying, “O Malik! The Caliph wants you to come to him.” Malik replied, “I do not need him! If he needs me, let him come to me!” Then he added: “Knowledge is sought (come to)! It does not go to anyone!” When the Caliph, whose name was Haroun Ar-Rasheed”, was informed about what Imam Malik had said, he said, “He speaks the truth! I shall go to him!” When the Caliph went to see Imam Malik, the latter said, “Let him sit behind and wait until it is his turn to see me!” By the way, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), used to sit behind, just like anyone else, and did not have a throne or a special place to sit in. One day, when an Arabian came to see Allah’s Messenger, who was sitting with his venerable Companions, he could not recognize who was Allah’s Messenger, and, therefore, he asked, “Who is Muhammad from among you?!” What modesty! He, (PBUH), never distinguished himself in sitting from his Companions! However, when it was the Caliph’s turn to see the Imam, he came to him and sat on a chair. But the Imam addressed him: “He who humbles himself to Allah, Allah honors him. And he who displays arrogance, He (Allah) humiliates him.” The Caliph, Haroun Ar-Rasheed, stood up, saying, “Take away this chair!” and sat down on the floor. If a scholar desires to be ‘Aziz (honored and mighty), he should never aspire to what people have, he should renounce their world, and he should have a job by which he earns a decent living. Someone asked: “How can I get to Allah?!” It was wisely said to him: “If you know Allah, you will certainly know how to get to Him!” This is because if you know Allah, you know, through your natural disposition, how to please Him, how to get to Him, how to stick to His Divine Commands, how to sacrifice yourself for Him, and how to prefer Him to anyone or anything else. He asked: “How can I get to Allah?!”; and he was answered: “If you know Him, you will certainly know how to get to Him!” He asked: “I don’t understand what you mean. How can I worship someone I do not know?” He was answered: “How come that you disobey Him (Allah) after you have known Him?! You disobey Him! You disobey the Lord wile you claim to love Him! Such is indeed an amazing claim! If your love were true, you would obey Him. Verily, he who loves someone does obey him.

A man was once asked: “When did you get to know Allah?” He replied: “(I swear) by Allah! I have never disobeyed Him ever since I knew Him!” Once again, I would like to whisper to my dear reader: I swear by Allah, the One and Only God! Even if you acquire knowledge of all of the jinn and humans whereby you attain respect and honor among people, but fail to obey Allah, this means that you do not know Him, you do not know Him, you do not know Him! It has been wisely said: He who does not have enough piety that prevents him from disobeying Allah in his privacy, Allah does not care about anything good he does. Also, do not think of the size of sin, but rather think of Him against Whom you have transgressed by committing such sin. Once you disobey Allah, this means that you do not know Him. If we imagine someone who has the highest university degree in religious studies, who has written more than a hundred books, and who occupies an important religious position: if a woman enters upon him and he keeps gazing at her beauty, this means that he does not know Allah at all. On the other hand, even a naïve illiterate porter, who can neither read nor write, but has only heard Allah’s Words, “Tell the believing men to lower down their gaze and protect their private parts. That is purer for them. Verily, Allah is All-Aware of what they do.” [XXIV; 30], and, therefore, lowers down his gaze at seeing such a woman for fear of Allah, this means that he knows Allah very well. That is because Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “It suffices man in knowledge that he fears Allah; and it suffices man in ignorance that he boasts of his work.” [narrated by Ad-Darimi] Keep these words in your mind: Once you disobey Allah, this means that you do not know Him! It was asked: What are the qualities that a true believer should have towards this Name? Allah, All-Mighty, is “‘Aziz”, but what should a believer’s attitude towards this Divine Name be? The answer is: Once a true believer knows Allah, “Al-‘Aziz”, he should never believe that any creature has the right to be over-esteemed or overdignified. It is true that as a human being a true believer should be so polite and well-behaved towards other fellow humans, but he should by no means

believe that any one of such fellow humans, or anyone else, except Allah, All-Mighty, Alone, has the right to be over-esteemed or over-dignified. In other words, a true believer should belittle everyone and everything compared to Allah, All-Mighty. He should by no means over-venerate anyone but Allah, Creator of all things and Lord of all worlds. He should by no means humble himself to anyone but Him. To this effect, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “He who humbles himself to a wealthy person loses two thirds of his religion.” But why? The answer is: because belief in Allah, All-Mighty, is something that is deeply rooted in the heart, confessed by the tongue, and verified by work. In other words, belief in Allah consists of three parts: ideology, verbal confession, and action. Therefore, if you over-esteem a wealthy person for his wealth, you are apt to over-dignify him, humble yourself to him and even praise him for merits that he does not really have, and, hence, you lose two thirds of your belief, i.e. verbal confession – when you praise him - and action - when you humble yourself to him. Your act of over-esteeming or over-dignifying anyone besides Allah, Lord of all worlds, reflects weakness of belief in Him, All-Mighty. That is why Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “A true believer attains honor by standing up the night (in prayer to Allah) and dignity by being in no need of people.”

A true believer has more dignity and self-esteem than the people of a whole town. In this context, Allah, Glory to Him, says, “But honor, might and glory belong to Allah, His Messenger and believers.” A true believer sees that he is a mere slave of Allah’s and that Allah shall by no means let him down; shouldn’t he, therefore, have more dignity and self-esteem than anyone else?! There is a golden rule: If man knows how Great and All-Mighty the Creator is, he belittles all creatures; but if he fails to know how Great and AllMighty the Creator is, he over-esteems creatures. In other words, overestimation of the Creator leads to under-estimation of the created, and vice versa. For example, someone may threaten: “I shall do so and so! I can do so and so!” Such a person does not know at all who Allah is. And if you, as a true believer, praise and glorify such a person, this means that you do not know at all who Allah is. This is because if Allah, All-Mighty, causes blood to clot in one of the arteries of his brain, he will soon be completely paralyzed; and if Allah, Glory to Him, causes blood to clot in one of the arteries of his heart, he will soon die. In fact, the more elevated man’s belief in Allah, Most Gracious, is, the more sincerely and devotedly he turns to Him. To this effect, Allah, All-High, says, “So We leave those who expect not their meeting with Us in their transgression, wandering blindly in distraction.” [X; 11] If you believe that Allah, only Allah, is the One Who grants you honor and dignity, and if you believe that even if all mankind gather together to raise you up in rank without His Divine Leave, they will never be able to do so, and if you believe that if Allah, All-Mighty, raises you up in rank, none could ever degrade or humiliate you, you would never ask anyone but Allah to grant you honor and dignity, and you would do that by turning to Him with true love and sincere devotion and by showing complete obedience to Him. It has been rightly said: Even if all mankind gathered together to grant someone honor, might or glory more than the honor and glory that he attains by showing enough obedience and devotion to Allah, they would never be able to do so. In other words, you can never attain honor, dignity, or glory except by showing adequate obedience to Allah, All-Mighty. If you desire to be granted honor, glory and dignity, you have to magnify and dignify Allah’s Religion. Similarly, if all mankind gathered together to grant someone disgrace or humiliation more than those that he incurs by sins and wrong-

doing, they would never be able to do so. That is to say, there is only one thing that brings you honor or dishonor, explicitly, obedience or disobedience. The more you obey Allah, All-Mighty, the more honored you are; and the more negligent or disobedient you are towards Allah’s Commands, the more insignificant you are to Him, and, hence, the more disgraceful and lowly you are. In this context, it should be noticed that Muslims today are negligent towards their Lord’s Commands and are, therefore, insignificant to Him. In this context, it might be wrongly thought that those millions of Muslims of today are true believers or true Muslims. It should be noticed that a true Muslim has certain essential qualities. Those who are negligent as regards the Salat (prayer), those who are dishonest and untrustworthy, those who transgress against the rights of others by way of injustice or tyranny, and those who commit sins and misdeeds, are by no means true Muslims. In fact, two things sum up the status quo of Muslims of today: They are heedless and careless towards Allah’s Commands, and therefore, they are insignificant to Him. Individually, however, if you stick to Allah’s Commands and be committed to His Religion, and if you put your trust in Him, Allah grants you special Divine Care and Treatment. But if the whole Muslim nation disobeys Allah, All-Mighty, He must necessarily punish them, for He, All-Majestic, says, “If he who knows Me disobeys Me, I set on him those who do not know Me.” A prominent man went to perform the Hajj (pilgrimage) accompanied by tens of servants who kept pushing other pilgrims away from him while he was going round the Ka’bah. Anyway, he completed his Hajj rituals and returned to his country. The narrator of the story said: After some years, I came across a miserable poor man with shabby clothes, begging people for money on one of the bridges of the city of Baghdad. The man looked much like the above-mentioned rich prominent man. When I came forward to look closer at him, he humbly asked, “Why are you looking at me.” I said in amazement, “You look like someone whom I met on the Hajj one day,” and gave him the man’s name. Very sadly, he said: “It is me!” In great amazement, I enquired, “What made you in this miserable condition?!” Very regretfully, he replied, “I displayed arrogance in the place where people should be humble and deservedly incurred, therefore, such horrible punishment.” This story teaches us that going round, Allah’s

House, the Holy Ka’bah, or standing before the Lord, All-Mighty, in the Hajj or in prayer should by no means be done arrogantly or boastfully. Nay! It should be done with utmost humbleness and submission to the Lord, AllMighty. In other words, that man showed arrogance where people are supposed to show humbleness and submission. Therefore, Allah, All-Mighty, punished him by placing him in a humble position in places where people are usually respected. The above-mentioned story teaches us that the more arrogant and selfconceited man is, the more insignificant and lowly he is in Allah’s Sight. Keep away from two evil qualities: arrogance and injustice. That is because Allah, All-Mighty, easily forgives tens of sins and misdeeds, except two unforgivable sins whereby sinners incur perdition: arrogance and injustice. Keep away from two evil things: polytheism, which reflects arrogance, and doing evil to other fellow humans, which is the token of injustice and tyranny. But we still have a problem, or at least something that I consider as a problem: How does Allah, All-Mighty, All-Majestic, say, “Whosoever desires honor and glory (should know that): to Allah, Alone, do belong all honor and glory. To Him do ascend all the goodly words; and the righteous work increases them (good words) in sublimity (and makes them accepted by Allah). And those who plot evil things: theirs shall be severe Torment; and the plotting of such shall be unsuccessful.” [XXXV; 10], while in another Verse He, Glorified and Exalted, says, “But honor, might and glory belong to Allah, His Messenger and believers, but the hypocrites know not.”?! The first Verse makes clear that all honor and glory belong to Allah, Alone, while the second shows that not only Allah, All-Mighty, but also His Messenger, (PBUH), and true believers can have honor and glory. In other words, there seems to be a kind of contradiction between both Quranic Verses. In fact, there is no contradiction at all. When Allah, All-Mighty, says, “But honor, might and glory belong to Allah, His Messenger and believers”, He means to say that He, All-Mighty, is the Owner of honor and glory: If you seek them by being obedient, dutiful and devoted to Him, He bestows upon you honor and glory and makes you honorable and glorious. But if you seek honor and glory from other sources than Allah, All-Mighty, you shall never be honorable or glorified. Nay! You shall be dishonored and degraded unless you obey Allah, All-Mighty, seek His Good Pleasure and Generous Recompense, strive for His Cause, stick to

His Divine Commands, commit yourself to His Religion, and turn to Him with true love and sincere devotion. The story of the holy Prophet, Joseph, (PBUH), is known to everybody. He stayed in the palace of Egypt’s king as a slave, who had to obey his mater’s orders. Then, he was put in prison for some time. And then, he became Egypt’s king. One day, while he was in procession, one of the salves, who had previously been with Joseph and known him very well cried out: “Praised is He (Allah), Who has made slaves kings by their obedience to Him, and Who has made kings slaves by their disobedience to Him!” Perhaps he meant by the second part of his utterance Pharaoh’s wife, who tried to seduce Joseph to indecent work and then unjustly accused him of trying to do so, for she became as humble and lowly as a slave when the truth was later unveiled. Every now and then, we hear of people who built up for themselves the highest ranks of might, honor and glory. But since they built up such might, glory and honor on a sinful basis of disobedience to Allah, All-Mighty, He caused them to be the lowest of the low, while the holy Prophet Joseph, (PBUH), who said, “I take refuge with Allah! Truly, he (your husband) is my master! He made my living good (So I shall never betray him)! Verily, the wrong-doers shall never prosper.” [XII; 23], Allah made him Egypt’s king in the end. So contemplate and deliberate!! I swear by Allah! I have been told an old incredible story, which I would never believe unless its narrator were still alive. A young man had a small bookshop in one of the quarters of Damascus. He was seduced to indecent work by a loose woman, so he closed his shop and followed her. While he was following her to her place, he remembered that he had previously performed the Hajj (pilgrimage) to Mecca and thought to himself: “No! I shall not spoil my pilgrimage to Mecca because of that evil woman!” He stopped and went back home. In other words, he feared Allah and obeyed Him. The next day, a notable neighbor came to him asking: “Are you married?” “No, I’m not.” The young man replied. The neighbor said: “I have a suitable wife for you. Send your family to see her for you.” The young man thought that there was something wrong with the neighbor’s daughter so that he offered her to him to marry. Later on, however, the young man sent his family to see her for him. She was a very beautiful young girl. A few months later, the young man and the neighbor’s daughter got married. The neighbor, who became the young man’s father-in-law made

him his partner in business; and the young husband closed his small bookshop and joined his father-in-law in his business. After some time, the wife’s father passed away, but the man is still alive and has become one of the big businessmen in town. This reminds us of Joseph’s words when the king’s wife tried to seduce him to indecent work: “I take refuge with Allah! Truly, he (your husband) is my master! He made my living good (So I shall never betray him)! Verily, the wrong-doers shall never prosper.” If man quits something for the sake of Allah, All-Mighty, Allah recompenses him something better in both his religion and life. Yes, indeed! Anything that you forsake for the Cause of Allah, surely, Allah recompenses you something better in both your life and religion. Don’t you like to be honorable?! Don’t you wish to be glorious?! Don’t you like to be respected?! Then, obey Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious, as much as you can! This is because the more you obey Allah, Most Bounteous, the more honorable He makes you; and the more you disobey Him, the more lowly and dishonorable He makes you. The more heedless and negligent towards His Divine Commands you are, the more insignificant and lowly you are to Him. The more committed and devoted you are towards Him and His Religion, the more honorable and glorious He makes you. Those who go to Medina to visit the Prophet’s Mosque there know exactly what my words mean, for no other human being has been granted more honor and glory by Allah, All-Mighty, than Allah’s Prophet and Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH). Even kings and presidents seem so humble when they enter the Prophet’s Mosque and stand before his sacred tomb. It is he, (PBUH), who addressed moderately a humble slave that came to him shivering of reverence and magnification: “Take it easy! I am but the son of a (simple ordinary) woman who was from (the tribe of) Quraish and who used to eat Al-Qadeed [dried meat (simple modest kind of food)] in Mecca.” A great many people come to Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), from all parts of the word. Once they draw nearer to his tomb, they can not help weeping although he, (PBUH), has been dead for more than 1400 years. What is the secret of such love and reverence? Is there on earth a person upon whom Allah, All-Mighty, bestowed honor, reverence and dignity more than Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH)? Take the Prophet’s venerable Companions as live parables. Abu Bakr As-Sideeq, may Allah be pleased with him, had poor neighbors whose sheep he used to milk. When he became Caliph upon the

Prophet’s death, his poor neighbors were very sad because they thought that his becoming ruler of all Muslims would prevent him from helping them by milking their sheep for them. But the next day after he became Caliph, there was a knock on the door of his poor neighbors. The mother bade her daughter to open the door. “Who is it?” The mother asked. The daughter soon replied: “It is the man who milks our sheep for us.” What modesty! In fact, no one of the Prophet’s venerable Companions was granted more honor and dignity than Abu Bakr As-Sideeq, may Allah be pleased with him. In short, it is a Divine Law of positive proportion: The more you obey and glorify Allah, All-Mighty, the more honorable and dignified He makes you; and the more you disobey Him and say: “Don’t be so strict! Allah is AllForgiving, Most Merciful! Our religion is a religion of facilitation and ease! Don’t be so conformist! Do whatever you like and fear nothing!”, the more disgraceful and lowly He makes you. In other words, the more negligent and careless towards Allah’s Divine Commands, He degrades you and makes you humble and unrespectable. Those who used to admonish people: the great Imams, such as Abu Hanifah and Ash-Shafi’i, and before them the Prophet’s venerable Companions, are unforgettable, their names are on all tongues and their good fame is everywhere. In other words, they glorified Allah, All-Mighty, so He, Glory to Him, made their good names always remembered. Similarly, the holy Prophet and Messenger, Moses, (PBUH), was granted utmost honor and glory, while Pharaoh was made to drown and perish in utmost humiliation. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious, says, “And We took the children of Israel across the sea, and Pharaoh with his hosts followed them in oppression and enmity, till when drowning overtook him (Pharaoh), he said: ‘I believe that there is no god but He (Allah), in Whom the children of Israel believe; and I am one of the Muslims (those who submit themselves to Allah’s Will).” [X; 90] And He, Glory to Him, speaks the truth as He says, “And whomsoever Allah disgraces none can ever honor him. Verily, Allah does whatever He wills.” [XXII; 18] Also, Abraham’s people plotted evil against him, but Allah, All-Mighty, says: “We said: ‘O fire! Be you coolness and safety for Abraham!” [XXI; 69] Such is real honor; and such is real glory: Allah’s Honor and Glory to Abraham, Moses and Joseph, (PBUT)! Also, Allah’s Messenger

Muhammad, (PBUH): Allah has granted no other human being more honor and glory than him. This applies to Abu Bakr and Omar, who said: “I was ‘Umair (a young pre-mature person named Omar), then I became Omar (i.e. a full-grown mature person named Omar), and then I became Commander of the Faithful!” He, may Allah be pleased with him, was committed to Allah’s Book, so Allah granted him honor and glory. The same thing applies to the venerable Companions ‘Uthman and Ali, may Allah be pleased with them. On the opposite side are such bad people as Abu Jahl. How was his end? What was his reputation like? What was his esteem like? Another example of evil people was Abu Lahab. Such tyrannical disbelievers: what happened to them? As for ‘Ikrimah bin Abi Jahl, when he showed repentance to Allah, All-Mighty, Allah accepted his repentance, and he became one of the venerable Companions of the Prophet, (PBUH), despite his former hostility and evil stance against the Prophet, (PBUH). In short, each and every human being loves and strives for existence, safety of such existence, perfection of such existence, continuity of such existence. One great part of your existence is to be honored, dignified and glorified, and to be free from any kind of humbleness or humiliation; and nothing could ever bring you more humbleness and humiliation than sins and misdeeds. A righteous virtuous abstinent modest person is honorable and dignified; but when a person transgresses against other people’s chastity or looks maliciously at their women , he becomes humble and dishonored. This is because true faith is abstention from evil ambitions and unlawful things. True faith is abstinence, modesty and abstention from other people’s possessions and from doing evil to their reputation. That is why lowering down of one’s gaze as regards unlawful women is necessary for a true believer, who is immune from following his desires and caprices. The more he lowers down his gaze at unlawful women, the more honor and dignity Allah grants him, and the happier and more contented with his wife and family he is. This is because happiness and contentment are in Allah’s Hand; and He grants them to both man and his wife if they are believers and obedient to Him. In other words, Allah, Most Gracious, makes them live a happy contented married life if they obey Him in their relationship with each other.

In fact, Honor and dignity are a common demand, for each and every human being desires to be honorable and dignified. But honor and dignity are attained only by obedience to Allah, All-Mighty, and His Messenger, (PBUH). In this context, I would like to advise the young: Abstain from unlawful things, and you will be granted lawful things. Never think of committing sins or misdeeds, and you will be successful and happy with your married life, Allah will grant you a way out of all troubles, and He will provide you with a decent living and give you a respectable and honorable social position. When some people die, only one or two people go in their funeral because of their being insignificant sinful wrong-doers. But when a venerable scholar dies, a million people go in his funeral. This is because Allah, All-Mighty, grants him a special honor, dignity and respect. But why does Allah grant him such honor, dignity and respect? Because he magnifies and sticks to Allah’s Commands. In other words, if you magnify and show enough respect and commitment to Allah’s Commands, He, Glory to Him, will grant you honor, dignity and respect. Such are undisputable facts, dear reader; and whosoever seeks honor and dignity from others than Allah, he attains only dishonor and lowliness. In other words, if man takes Allah, All-Mighty, for a Friend and Guardian, he will certainly prosper in this present world and the world to come. To this effect, Allah, Glory to Him, says, “And incline not toward those who do wrong lest the Fire should touch you; and you have no protectors others than Allah, nor would you then be helped.” [XI; 113] If you incline to a deviant person, if you think that he is powerful, if you think that he has full command over this world, if you think that if you obey him you will have a lot of good, and if you incline to him and forget Allah, All-Mighty, you will receive nothing but humiliation and degradation from such person: Sometimes, a person seeks honor from some important relative, but he suddenly finds out that such important relative has let him down. He goes to him for help, but he neglects him, saying, “Sorry! I can’t violate laws at all! I can’t help you!” Such is the punishment of those who incline to others than Allah, All-Mighty. That is why Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Seek to achieve your needs by self-respect, for things are run by

(Allah’s) Divine Decree.” To the same effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “Whatever of mercy Allah may grant to mankind none can withhold it; and whatever He may withhold none can grant it thereafter. And He is the All-Mighty, the All-Wise.” [XXXV; 2] In fact, events and incidents that can be narrated concerning the issue of honor and dishonor are countless, for each and every one, through one’s relatives and friends as well as the people around him, knows thousands of stories. Such young man, who committed himself to Allah’s Commands, was granted honor and dignity in this present world and the world to come. He abstained from looking at unlawful or indecent women, so Allah granted him a chaste pure woman: “And for him who fears the standing before his Lord there are two Gardens (of Paradise). [LV; 46] Most interpreters of the Holy Quran hold that the two Gardens (of Paradise) mentioned in the above Verse are: “A Garden in this present world and another in the Hereafter - in the present world before the Hereafter.” In this context, Allah, All-Mighty, also says, “So wait patiently (O Muhammad) for the Decision of your Lord, for verily, you are under Our Eyes (Our Divine Care and Protection), and glorify the Praises of your Lord when you get up from sleep.” [LII; 48] It is very nice to wrap up this lecture about Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-‘Aziz” with the following Prophetic Hadith, which may be the last Hadith in this lecture: “Whosoever seeks to achieve something by (committing) a sinful deed is too far from that which he desires and too near to that which he fears.” In other words, if you desire to achieve anything by committing a sin or misdeed, you have to know for sure that such thing is unattainable for you; and if you desire to achieve anything by showing obedience and commitment to Allah’s Commands and Religion, you have to know for sure that it is very close and easily attainable for you: “Whosoever seeks to achieve something by (committing) a sinful deed is too far from that which he desires and too near to that which he fears.” In business and trade: be honest and trustworthy, you gain a lot of profits, and you are considered as honest and trustworthy in the sight of Allah, AllMighty. If you are a lawyer, be honest, and you will have a lot of income, and not only Allah but also other fellow humans will consider you as honest and trustworthy. Those who disobey Allah for the sake of the perishable pleasures and enjoyments of this present world are mere idiots who do no

know Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious, and who will lose the never-ending pleasures and enjoyments of the Hereafter. In this context, Allah, Glory and Praise are all His, says, “He (Allah) will help you to do righteous good deeds and will forgive you your sins. And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger has indeed achieved a great achievement.” [XXXIII; 71] This is because Allah’s Promise in True: “And after the Truth, what else can there be except error.” [X; 32] It should be known that Allah has promised true believers to protect them, He has promised to defend them, He has promised to provide them with good sustenance, He has promised to grant them honor and dignity. Here is the evidence: “But honor, power and glory belong to Allah, His Messenger and believers, but the hypocrites know not.” [LXIII: 8] This Quranic Verse shows beyond a shadow of doubt that honor, power, glory and dignity are all in Allah’s Hands. So, if you seek them, you have to be with Allah: Be with Allah, and you will see Allah with you. And leave all others (than Him) and beware of being greedy. If He gives you, who can ever prevent Him?! And who can ever give (you anything) if He withholds from you.

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l-Jabbar is one of the Beautiful Divine Names of Allah. It occurs in the Quranic Verse: “He is Allah, beside Whom there is no god, the King, the Holy, the One Free from all defects, the Giver of security, the Watcher over His creatures, the All-Mighty, Al-Jabbar (the Compeller, the Omnipotent, the Almighty, …etc.), the Supreme. Glory be to Allah! (High is He) above all that they associate as partners with Him.” [LIX; 23] Sometimes, man’s qualities are confused with the Creator’s Attributes. Therefore, it is necessary to make clear that if some qualities or attributes are attributed to the Creator, they betoken His Divine Perfection, but if they are attributed to human beings, they reflect human imperfection. For, example, if we describe a human being as being jabbar (compeller, omnipotent, almighty, …etc.), such quality denotes imperfection in him. But why? In fact, man is not self-existent. In other words, he derives his existence and survival from his Creator, Allah, All-Mighty. He is made weak, hasty, vulnerable, and easily frightened. If we describe any person as being Jabbar, the question is: can he guarantee to survive for one single second?! Tens of people pass away because of a great many diseases, known or unknown, although with the development of medical science, doctors may sometimes know the cause and say: This is because of failure of the brain, kidney, liver or heart, …etc. A great many people from among us have great expectations that vanish because of a slight insignificant disorder in one of their organs or parts of body. A young man who was a genius student in the fourth year of the medical school. He was the healthiest, most intelligent, and best looking of all students. Also, he was well-off and handsome. Suddenly, he began to develop physical weakness and paleness on his face. A doctor said: “This is because of anemia.”, and another doctor confirmed the same diagnosis. But no one could ever find the causes of such anemia. A young man of a well-off family! What anemia?! In the end, however, it was found out that it was due to hyper-activity in his liver. Liver is a store of blood, a reserve factory of blood corpuscles and a graveyard for dead corpuscles. In one second, 2.500.000 blood corpuscles die in the human body. Such dead corpuscles are carried to the liver, where they are broken into their component elements: iron and hemoglobin. The iron is sent to factories of red corpuscles in the bones in order to be recycled, while the hemoglobin goes to the liver in order to from bile. A cut was taken

from the liver of that young man and was sent to a medically developed western country, and the result was as follows: When the liver is hyperactive, it breaks not only the dead red corpuscles but also the healthy living ones, which causes shortage in the number of the red corpuscles in the blood. After some time, however, the young man passed away at a very young age. If someone boasts: “I am who I am!”, he should be asked in disdain: “Who are you?!” Quite often, hyperactive liver may be the cause of man’s death. Another person suffered from a rare kind of anemia in which factories of red corpuscles suddenly stop producing them. The causes of such deadly disease are still unknown. Also, a sudden drop in the function of kidneys is a deadly disease that makes life unbearable or even impossible. A liver-ailment also causes death simply because man can not survive more than three hours without a liver. Furthermore, a tiny drop of blood may sometimes get clotted in some part or another of the brain arteries, causing deafness, blindness, loss of memory, paralysis, …etc, according to the place where the artery is blocked. Those who boastfully say: “I am who I am!” are mere idiots! In other words, if a certain person is described as being jabbar, it would be disgraceful and imperfect for him. This is because man’s existence and survival are subject to Allah’s Divine Power and Will; man’s strength is bestowed upon him by Allah, Al-Mighty, and is subject to Allah’s Divine Will; man’s intellect is subject to Allah’s Will; and man’s judgment and reasoning are subject to Allah’s Will. If it is said that someone is jabbar, this means that he is a mere fool, simply because he assumes to himself qualities that are far beyond his human abilities. But if Allah, Creator of all worlds, the Unique, the All-Mighty, the Living, the Self-Existent, the One Whose Decision is Irresistible, if such Great Lord is described as being Al-Jabbar (the Compeller, the Omnipotent, the Almighty, …etc.), such Divine Attribute of Allah embraces praise, glorification and de-anthropomorphism in addition to its being one of the Attributes of Allah’s own Self. This applies to other qualities such as Mutakabbir (the Supreme, the Sublime). If we describe someone as being Mutakabbir, this has a negative connotation; but when we say that Allah, Glory to Him, is Mutakabbir, this has a positive connotation and is a kind of praise to the Allah, All-Mighty, because it denotes His Divine Perfection and Greatness. In other words, it is not the right of a human being to claim for himself such a Divine Attribute as Al-Mutakabbir simply because man is not only weak but also he derives his powers and abilities from Allah, Who is really the Sublime, and the

Supreme. He, All-Mighty, is the Great, and the Powerful because He is the Creator, the Lord and the Disposer of all worlds. From the above introduction I meant to make clear that when a human being is described as being Mutakabbir, this has a negative connotation, but when Allah, All-Mighty, Creator of all worlds, is described as being Mutakabbir, this has a positive connotation. In our practical life, we do have something similar to this. A husband may sometimes be described as being generous by way of praise, while a wife is sometimes described as being generous by way of dispraise, simply because if a wife spends of her husband’s money, without his permission of course, she destroys her husband’s wealth. Such quality is not laudable but rather illaudable. Sometimes a certain person is described as being daring by way of praise, but sometimes in certain situations the word “daring” has a negative connotation, specially when it reflects lightheadedness, carelessness, irresponsibility or foolishness. In fact, the word Al-Jabbar has several meanings in Arabic: First Meaning: Al-Jabbar is someone or something that is gigantic and too high to reach. When we describe a palm tree as being Jabbarah, this means that it is so high that its fruits can not be picked. When we describe a camel as being Jabbarah, this means that it is too hard to mount or ride. In the same context, Allah, All-Mighty, says in His Holy Quran, “They said: ‘O Moses! In it (the holy land) are a people Jabbareen (of great undefeatable force), and we shall never enter it till they leave it; when they leave we shall enter.” [V; 22] The word Jabbareen in the above Verse means: “too strong to be defeated, relentless and merciless.” But when we say that someone is Jabbar, this means that he is too haughty and too arrogant, that he is by no means moderate or considerate. And make no mistake about it! Those who describe themselves as being Jabareen or behave as being Jabbareen, i.e. arrogant, tyrannical and unjust, do not listen to anyone, are never moderate and are disobedient and rebellious: such people must necessarily be destroyed by the Lord, All-Mighty. That is why every now and then, you hear of such and such a tyrant has been destroyed by Allah, All-Mighty, and has been made a deterrent example for those who are prepared to get admonished. This is because Pride is one of Allah’s Divine Attributes, and so are Might and Majesty; therefore, if a human

being, any human being, tries to compete with Allah concerning such Great Divine Attributes, Allah will certainly destroy him and cause him to perish. Al-Jabbar is Allah, All-Mighty, All-Majestic, Alone, because He is far above human perception or conception. He can not be encompassed by the human minds, nor can He be seen by the human eyes or perceived by the human minds. Even if all mankind contemplate and deliberate Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes till the end of the world, they cannot possibly, and will never be able to, encompass Allah’s Divine Holy Self. All that has been so far written about Allah, All-Mighty, is mere simplification, approximation or illustration, because it is impossible to encompass Allah in knowledge. That is why Al-Jabbar is Allah, Glorified and Exalted, Who cannot possibly be encompassed by the human minds, seen by the human eyes, and the secrets of Whose Holy Divine Nature are impossible to unveil. That is why it is ignorant and impolite to think that you can conceive or understand everything about Allah. In other words, it is absolutely wrong to think that you can know the reality of Allah, All-Mighty. Your being ignorant of Allah means that you know Him; and your thinking that you know Him means that you do not know Him. And if you admit your being unable to know the reality of Allah’s Divine Self, this means that you know who Allah is. In other words, if you say: “I know only too few things about Allah.”, this means that you know Him. If you say “I do not know!”, this means that you are knowledgeable enough. But if you naively desire to convince people that you are able to know everything, this means that you are ignorant. Such is the first meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Jabbar”: He, Glorified and Exalted, cannot possibly be perceived by the minds, nor can He be seen by the eyes; and the secrets of His Holy Divine Self cannot possibly be attained by the minds. This Name, Al-Jabbar, belongs to Allah’s Attributes of de-anthropomorphism. Second Meaning: Al-Jabbar is someone who consoles and comfort others. That is why it is rightly said: Allah is never worshipped on earth by anything better than consoling other human beings, dealing with them kindly and doing good to them. The word “Jabara” in Arabic also means “to set broken things (bones for example)”. In this sense, Al-Jabbar is someone who sets things aright: whenever there is a problem, something has been demolished, a certain person has been impoverished, a certain person has been destroyed, Allah, Creator and Lord of all worlds, is Al-Jabbar, Who sets things right, who bestows His Divine Care upon the wrecked, Who enriches the poor,

Who consoles the weak, Who gives the needy, and Who graces the lowly. That is why whenever you turn to Allah with submission, humbleness and veneration, He, Most Gracious, comforts your heart, sets things right for you, removes distress from you, strengthens you, enriches you, and bestows His Honor and Grace upon you. Such is another meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Jabbar”: He always sets things right. That is why the word “Jabara” means to set right a broken thing or a broken bone, to comfort the heart of a poor person by giving him money, to comfort the heart of a sick person by healing him, to honor and respect a lowly person, to strengthen a weak person, to give security to a frightened person. Such is the second meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Jabbar”: Allah, Most Gracious, Who always sets things right for His slaves. Therefore, it is wise to invoke the Lord, All-Mighty: “O Al-Jabbar!”, just as businessmen and merchants do, because selling one’s goods is considered as a great Grace from Allah. That is why when He speaks about business or trade, Allah, says, “And commerce that you fear may be stagnant” [IX; 24] In fact, the worst thing to a businessman is to see his merchandise stagnant and kept stored in his warehouse with no demand at all. That is why when Allah, Most Gracious, speaks about business or trade, He emphasizes the most painful thing to a merchant, namely stagnation of commerce. Hence, the words: “O Jabbar!” mean: “O Lord! Make my merchandise salable! Make people like it and come to buy it!” In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “O Jaber (Allah, Who sets things right for) all those who are broken!” He, (PBUH), also says, “Verily, the broken are in Allah’s Care. Verily, Allah loves every sad heart. And the sad are enshrouded by (Allah’s) Mercy.” Therefore, in disputes it is not considered as a win to use one’s power by way of tyranny or injustice, because Allah, Al-Jabbar, will certainly destroy the tyrannical and unjust. In “Al-Jami’ Al-Sagheer” book of Prophetic Hadith, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), is quoted as saying, “An evil slave is he who displays arrogance and pride, forgetting (Allah) the Great, the Sublime. An evil salve is he who transgresses and is tyrannical, forgetting (Allah) Al-Jabbar (the Almighty, the Omnipotent, the Compeller, …etc.), the Supreme. An evil slave is he who is careless and heedless, forgetting graves and death. An evil slave is he who is insolent

and exceeds proper bounds, forgetting the beginning and end.” If the opponent is weak, Allah, Al-Jabbar, will certainly have mercy on him. Al-Jabbar is He (Allah), Who destroys the unjust and tyrannical and has mercy on the weak and wronged. So, if you are on the weak side of a dispute, Allah is with you, for Allah is with the weak. And Allah is AlJabbar, Who will console the weak; and He is Al-Jabbar, Who will destroy the unjust and tyrannical. A husband and wife may sometimes have a row, but one of them may go beyond proper bounds: prosperous is the one who plays the role of the weak; prosperous is the one who is wronged, for Allah is always with the wronged whether in married life, in partnership or in any other kind of relationship. A wealthy father died leaving a big fortune; and he had some children, one of whom was older and more powerful than the others, who were young and weak. By being more intelligent or tricky, the elder son was able to seize unlawfully most of his dead father’s wealth, but he gave only a small part of the heritage to his other brothers and sisters, which was not enough at all for them. However, Allah, Al-Jabbar, Who sets things right and destroys the unjust and wrong-doers, made powerful and successful one of the younger brothers, and, in one way or another, Allah, Al-Jabbar, impoverished the elder brother, who in the end had to sell to his younger brother all the things that he had unlawfully and unjustly taken from his father’s wealth. He also had to work as an accountant for the younger brother. Such stories are numerous and can be found in all families. Al-Jabbar is Allah, Who destroys the unjust aggressors and wrong-doers; AlJabbar is He Who has mercy on the wronged. He is Jabbar, All-Mighty, against the unjust and tyrannical just as He is Jabbar for the wronged. He is Jabbar against the strong and powerful just as He is Jabbar for the weak and powerless. He is Jabbar against he arrogant and haughty just as He is Jabbar for the humble and lowly. Al-Jabbar is Allah, Who sets all things right, gives victory to His Religion, makes easy all difficult things, consoles and comforts the broken and miserable. In fact, this Divine Name “Al-Jabbar” belongs to Allah’s Attributes that have to do with His Divine Acts.

Third Meaning: Al-Jabbar is someone who compels another to do as he (i.e. the compeller) pleases. Allah is Al-Jabbar (the Compeller) in the sense that His Divine Will is Irresistible. In this context, it has been rightly said: “You will and I will, but Allah does what He wills.” Also, in a Divine Hadith, Allah, Al-Jabbar, says, “O My slave! You will and I will. If you surrender to Me in what you will, I suffice you in what you will. But if you do not surrender to Me in what you will, I tire you out in what you will, and nothing will be except what I will.” Pharaoh addressed his people: “I am your almighty lord! I know not that you have a god other than me!” One day, he saw in a dream that a child from among the children of Israel will destroy his kingdom, but instead of turning to his Lord, Allah, All-Mighty, with repentance, and instead of giving up his arrogance, injustice, tyranny and claim for godhood, he stupidly thought of slaughtering all the baby-boys of the children of Israel; and he did kill all the baby-boys of the children of Israel. No midwife could do anything at Pharaoh’s time except to hide a newly born baby-boy of the children of Israel from Pharaoh’s men, for if it was found out that she did not kill him, she would be killed instead. Pharaoh was able to kill all the babyboys of the children of Israel except the one who would, later on, destroy his kingdom, and whom he himself brought up in his own palace. Allah, AlJabbar, the Almighty, overpowered Pharaoh and caused him to drown. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “And We took the children of Israel across the sea, and Pharaoh with his hosts followed them in oppression and enmity, till when drowning overtook him (Pharaoh), he (Pharaoh) said: ‘I believe that there is no god except He (Allah), in Whom the children of Israel believe, and I am one of the Muslims (those who submit themselves to Allah’s Will).’” [X; 90-91] In the same context, Joseph’s brothers plotted against him and put him in the depth of a well in order to get rid of him. But what happened? In the end, they entered upon him in his palace after he became the ‘Aziz (ruler) of Egypt! He, (PBUH), said “I am Joseph! And this is my brother (Benjamin)! Allah has indeed been Gracious to us. Verily, he who fears Allah, is dutiful to Him and shows perseverance, then surely, Allah makes not the reward of the good-doers to be lost.” [XII; 90] Explaining the lesson behind Joseph’s story, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “And Allah has full power and control over His Affairs, but most of them know not.” [ibid; 21] Such is another story.

Therefore, Allah, Al-Jabbar (the Compeller, the Irresistible), foiled the plots and efforts of Joseph’s brothers, who wanted to kill him and get rid of him by putting him in the well. Not only so, but also Allah, the Compeller, the Irresistible, made him the ‘Aziz (Ruler) of Egypt. Yes indeed! Allah is AlJabbar, the Compeller, the Irresistible. Also, Abraham’s people wanted to burn him and get rid of him. All things seemed to be in their hands and under their control, for they were more powerful. They kindled a great blazing fire and cast Abraham, (PBUH), into it. He could have run away, he could have hidden in a place where they could never have found him, there could have been heavy rain from heaven to put off the fire, they could not have known that it was he who destroyed their idols, but Allah, Al-Jabbar, desired that they should know that it was Abraham who destroyed their idols and seize him, a weak young man as he was, that he should admit destroying their idols, and that they should kindle a great fire wherein they cast him. Despite everything, Allah, Al-Jabbar, said, “We (Allah) said: ‘O fire! Be you coolness and safety for Abraham!’ And they wanted to harm him, but We made them the worst losers.” [XXI; 69,70] Similarly, the Holy Prophet, Muhammad, (PBUH): his people in Mecca plotted against him and wanted to kill him. They boycotted him and tortured his Companions. Nevertheless, in the end, he came back to them as a conqueror, and they were put under his mercy. If he had given one single sign to his victorious Companions, they would have killed them all. But all that he, (PBUH), did was that he said: “What do you think I shall do to you?!” They said: “(You are) A noble brother and the son of a noble brother!” He, (PBUH), said: “Then, go! You are all free!” Yes, indeed. Allah is Al-Jabbar, the Compeller, the Irresistible! On Al-Khandaq (the Ditch) Expedition, things became so hard for Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), and his venerable Companions, that some of them thought that everything was over and that they would inevitably be defeated by the confederates. The ones who were possessed of firm belief from among them said: “Does your companion (i.e. Muhammad) promise us that the Roman and Persian Empires will be opened to us, while the one of us can not go out to answer the call of nature?!” But what happened in the end?! Allah, Al-Jabbar, the Irresistible, the Compeller,caused a strong wind to blow, turning over the enemies’ pots, pulling off their tents and putting out their fires. In this context, Allah, Al-Jabbar, says, “And Allah

drove back those who disbelieved in their rage: they gained no advantage. And Allah spared the believers of fighting. Verily, Allah is All-Strong, All-Mighty.” [XXXIII; 25] Therefore, the first meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Jabbar”: is someone or something that is too high to reach; and in this sense the Name belongs to those Divine Names of Allah that have to do with deanthropomorphism. In other words, it is impossible for anyone, even holy Prophets or Messengers, to encompass Allah, Al-Jabbar, in knowledge. No one, except Allah, can possibly know the reality of Allah’s Divine Self. But we can know some aspects or features of His Divine Perfection, or His Divine Names or Attributes. No one knows the reality of Allah except Allah Himself, Alone. The second meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Jabbar” is: The One Who sets things right: He consoles the weak, helps the broken, gives victory to the wronged, and provides the poor. The third meaning is: Allah is Al-Jabbar in the sense that He, All-Mighty, compels all His creatures by His Irresistible Divine Will and Desire. I have recently heard a very impressive story of a wealthy person who is well-known for his fabulous richness. He has a very successful business from which he earns fabulous amounts of money. An engineer came to propose to his daughter. The engineer was a good righteous man who had a moderate income. The rich man rejected the young engineer’s proposal because he was not rich enough. But the problem was that he rejected the engineer’s proposal most insolently and arrogantly. Afterwards, however, the rich man’s business was suddenly stopped because of a certain law issued and, therefore, he went bankrupt and was in need of someone to help him for a living. The formerly rich, but now poor, man asked some people to convince the engineer, whose proposal to marry his daughter he had previously rejected, and the young engineer married the man’s daughter. The amazing thing about this story is that the formerly rich man, who no longer was rich, had to work as an employee for his son-in-law, the young engineer, who became very rich. Yes, indeed! Allah is Jabbar! A woman arrogantly and boastfully addressed her husband’s second wife, who was barren and, therefore, did not have any children: “I have a baby in my belly, another one in my lab and a third one in front of me! Three

children!” Who believes that afterwards, the three children died one after another before their mother’s eyes, and the barren second wife, who did not have any children, was granted by Allah, five male children?! Yes, indeed! Allah is Al-Jabbar: He, All-Mighty, is always with the wronged and oppressed, the weak and lowly, the miserable and wretched, the poor and needy. He supports them, He provides them, He helps them, He makes them victorious over their enemies, He makes them successful. I tell you that I know who of the two partners is honest and trustworthy, and who is a transgressor and wrong-doer. I know that from the future of the relationship between them. The one who, later on and after their partnership is broken, is helped by Allah and is made successful is the wronged honest and trustworthy one, but the one who is, late on, destroyed by Allah, Al-Jabbar, is, most often, the transgressor and wrong-doer. A husband and wife got divorced, each claiming that the other is bad. In the future, if the wife is granted another better husband who treats her well and honors her, and if the husband is involved in another bad marriage with another bad wife who badly treats him and causes him a lot of trouble, this means that the husband was the transgressor and wrong-doer. It is narrated that a husband was sitting with his wife eating chicken when suddenly they heard a knock on the door. The wife went to see who it was and opened the door to find a poor beggar whom she desired to give some food, but the husband rebuked her saying, “Send him away! Don’t give him anything!” The days went by and the husband divorced his wife. Afterwards, she got married to another rich man. While the woman and her new husband were sitting together eating chicken, they heard a knock on the door. When she went to open the door, she was greatly shocked. The new husband asked: “What’s the matter?! Why are you shocked?!” She said in great astonishment: “Do you know who it is? It is my ex-husband!” The new husband soon replied: “And I am the beggar!” Yes, indeed! Allah is Al-Jabbar! Everywhere and at all times people hear of such stories: a rich person who suddenly becomes poor, a poor person who suddenly becomes rich, a weak person who becomes powerful, a powerful person who becomes weak, and so on and so forth. So many are those who were under the control of other people who inflicted on them lots of humiliation and pain, but quite suddenly, the formerly powerful people fall in the hands of the formerly

weak ones and under their control. A true believer should never be proud or arrogant or unjust if he is made prosperous and powerful by the Lord, AllMighty, Most Gracious. In fact, just as Allah, Most Generous, sometimes incredibly gives wealth to some of His slaves, He also, sometimes, incredibly takes wealth away from others. Some seventy years ago, there used to be an unfair obstetrician who was the only one in Damascus. He did not go out of his clinic to see a patient unless he was given a gold pound even if the patient was poor and could not afford it. He also did not go unless he was taken by a special cart, for there were no cars at that time. Some patients even had to sell their own furniture in order to pay to him. He became very rich and built a luxurious house in the richest part of Damascus - By the way, the house still exists in Damascus. But suddenly, he was semi-paralyzed and his wife had to take care of him for some time. But then, he was put in the basement of his house, where food was carried to him by one of the servants. Very seldom was he visited by anyone, even his wife. When he used to ask the servant about his wife, the servant would tell him: “I told her that you wanted her. I don’t know why she did not come to see you.” He sent for his wife several times, but she did not come to see him except very rarely; and when she came to see him, she would say to him the hardest and most merciless words. He remained in that unbearable condition for some eight years, with no one visiting him except the servant who used to bring him food. Moreover, due to the bad smell that used to come from him in the basement, his wife had him removed to another remote place in order to keep the house tidy and safe from his bad smell and annoying shouting, although it was he who had built that luxurious house and decorated it by himself. Yes, indeed! Allah is Al-Jabbar! The above-mentioned obstetrician did not have mercy on his poor patients, some of whom had to sell their own furniture in order to pay him his wages in gold pounds. Therefore, Allah, AlJabbar, made him pay dearly for his non-humanitarian attitude to his patients. Those who are unfair, unjust, arrogant, or tyrannical, who dominate over other fellow humans and subject them to their evil desires and caprices, have to know that their Lord, Allah, All-Mighty, is Jabbar! He, Glory to Him, is Jabbar with the weak against the powerful, with the wronged against the

unjust or tyrannical, with the poor against the arrogant and tyrannical rich, for not all rich people are tyrannical. Therefore, the third meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Jabbar” is that He compels His slaves to whatever he pleases; He forces them to work, willy-nilly, according to His Divine Will. In other words, nothing could possibly happen in Allah’s Kingdom except what He wills. He is the Compeller, the Omnipotent, the Irresistible. Praised and Glorified is He, Who is Free from any imperfection! Praised and Glorified is He, in Whose Kingdom nothing could ever happen except what He wills. After such explanation of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Jabbar”, it does not befit a true Muslim to fear or pray to anyone but Him, for no one but Allah, Lord of all worlds, deserves to be feared, prayed to, or beseeched. A knowledgeable religious scholar once said: “O Lord! I am amazed at someone who knows You but beseeches someone else other than You! I am amazed at someone who knows You but asks for help someone else other than You! And I am amazed at someone who knows You but turns to someone else other than You (in worship and devotion)!” It has also been said: Al-Jabbar is He, (Allah), Whose Reality cannot be conceived by the human mind or perceived by the human senses, Whose Divine Command is Irresistible, Who compels all things but none could possibly compel Him, Who sets things right and bids His slaves to obey Him not because He needs their obedience. If a certain person is described as being jabbar in the negative sense of the word, he must necessarily be destroyed by Allah, All-Mighty. However, man can be jabbar in one way only: if he is not captivated by the love for wealth and social rank. This is because once man loves wealth and social rank, such love becomes a point of weakness in him, i.e. he becomes weak and vulnerable to wealth-and-rank allurement. That is why it is said: “You can have access to that man by money!” Also, those who aspire after a prominent social rank weaken when they are praised and glorified. Therefore, those who are captivated by the love for wealth and rank are weak people; and a person who is able to resist the love for wealth and rank can be described as jabbar in the sense that befits a human being: he is not a weak person whom you can have access to by wealth or flattery.

You can have access to a true believer only by the Truth, not by wealth or flattery. Hence, a true believer can be described as being jabbar only in the sense that he does not need to be praised or bribed, i.e. he is not influenced by flattery or bribery. However, no human being can be described as jabbar in the sense that befits the Lord, Allah, All-Mighty, i.e. the Compeller, the Irresistible, the Omnipotent, the Sublime, or the Supreme, for such Divine Names and Attributes belong to Allah, Alone, Lord of all worlds. No matter how powerful a person may be, he has two points of weakness: wealth and women. He is not seduced except through these two ways: either by a beautiful woman who seduces him to indecent or unlawful work, and he collapses thereby, or by money that he gets unlawfully, and he collapses thereby. If man is immune from allurements of women and wealth, he is immune and can never be defeated. Therefore, a person can be described as being jabbar if he makes other people follow his good example of being honest, trustworthy, straightforward, decent, chaste, good-doing, righteous, pious, venerable, … etc. Such is Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), who assumed an unmatched standard of human perfection, for he, (PBUH), used to give generously to other fellow humans and not take from them, he used to do good to all human beings and not abuse them, he used to influence them and not get influenced by them. He, (PBUH), was once asked by an Arabian about a herd that belonged to him, “Who does that valley of sheep belong to?” “It is yours!” He, (PBUH), soon replied. The man asked in amazement: “Are you making fun of me?!” He, (PBUH), said: “No, not at all. It is yours. Take it.” The man said: “I bear witness that you are Allah’s Messenger, for you give (so generously), like someone who does not fear of being impoverished!” Therefore, Al-jabbar from among mankind is a person who is generous and immune from the love for wealth, social rank or being praised or glorified.

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ow, we continue our trip with the eighth of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names: Al-Mutakabbir. Dear reader, it is necessary for a true believer to know Allah; and to know His Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes is part of knowing Him. He exists and He is One and Perfect. Once again I repeat: it is indispensable for believers to know Allah’s Beautiful Names and Attributes, for Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Verily, Allah has ninety-nine Names, one hundred but one, Whosoever knows each and every one of them (believes in them, and works according to them) enters the Garden (of Paradise).” [narrated by Al-Bukhari] The truth is, however, that no one knows the reality of Allah’s Divine Self except Allah Himself, Alone. Such fact should be clear to everybody: No one knows Allah except Allah Himself, Alone. If we desire to know Him, it is like a drop of water in the ocean. To this effect, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “The present world does not take from the Hereafter except that which a needle takes from the ocean if it is dipped therein (i.e. compared to the Hereafter, the present world is just as tiny as a drop of water in the ocean).” If knowledge of the reality of Allah’s Divine Self is just like an ocean, man’s knowledge of Allah’s reality is not more than the water that a needle holds from the ocean if it is dipped therein. However, as Imam Ali, may Allah honor his face, said, “Taking a little is better than leaving a lot.” Now, is it possible to set a few examples that enable us to know Allah, AllMighty? But is it permissible to set examples derived from our daily life in order to clarify some facts? Yes, it is possible, although nothing is the like of Allah. Here is the evidence: Allah, All-High, desires to introduce Himself to us by setting the following example: “He (Allah) sets forth for you a parable from your own selves: do you have partners among those whom your right hands possess (i.e. your slaves) to share as equals in the wealth that We have bestowed on

you whom you fear as you fear each other? Thus do We explain the Signs in detail to a people who have sense.” [XXX; 28] In order to let us know that there is no god but Allah, Alone, that He has no partners, and that He allows none to take part with Him in His Divine Decision, Allah Glory to Him, sets such example as above-mentioned. Therefore, it is possible that we set a few examples that enable us to know Allah’s Beautiful Names, particularly because the Name that we are going to study now is Al-Mutaabbir; and if the word “Al-Mutakabbir”(the Sublime, the Supreme), is also used to describe a human being, it has an evil negative connotation, simply because such an attribute belongs to Allah, All-Mighty, Alone. Let’s imagine that someone is in bad need of a hundred thousand pounds in order to have a vital surgical operation. Doctors said: “Such surgical operation is indispensable; and so is the amount of money needed for the operation.” Since he does not have such amount of money, he goes to one of his relatives asking him to lend him the money: “Do you have the money?” The relative says: “Yes, I do.” But if he does not actually have the money, he is a liar! He goes to another one asking him the same question: “Do you have the money?”, and he truthfully answers: “Yes, I do.” Now, the one who falsely claimed to possess the money, although he did not have it, is a liar and is by no means perfect. The second one would also be imperfect if he said humbly: “No, I do not have the money.”, although he is truthful. He should say: “Yes, I do have the money! Here you are! Take it!” if he desires to be perfect and truthful. Therefore, At-Takabur (i.e. being Sublime and Supreme) reflects Divine Perfection but human imperfection. This is because Allah, All-Mighty, is the Creator of all worlds. In His Hand is the Dominion of all things. If He desires a thing, His Command is: “Be!”; and it is. To Him all matters are returned for judgment and decision. His Divine Glory and Might are Infinite. His Divine Perfection is Infinite. His Divine Knowledge is Infinite. His Divine Power is Infinite. If Allah is Al-Mutakabbir, this is because He knows that He is All-Mighty. This notion takes us to another Divine Name of Allah’s, namely Al-Mu’min, one of whose meanings is that Allah, Glory to Him, knows Himself perfectly. To make things clear, we put forward the following example: If you have a PH.D. in Arabic literature and language and someone, who is a beginner, reads you a text in Arabic, making a lot of mistakes and errors, don’t you certainly feel superior to him in your own

specialization and that his reading is full of mistakes? Of course you do! Your knowledge is undisputable! Therefore, if a coward says: “I am brave!”, this would be a false claim that reflects a serious defect in him. If a mean person says: “I am generous!”, this would be imperfect of him. If someone ignorant says: “I am knowledgeable!”, it would also be imperfect of him. But if someone knowledgeable says: “I know, and I will answer your question.”, and he does answer the question, it would be perfect of him. If a brave person says: “I am brave, and I shall defend you.”, and he really does, it would be perfect of him. If someone generous sys: “I am generous. Here you are! Take this money!”, it would be perfect of him. When we say: Allah, All-Mighty, is Al-Mutakabbir (the Sublime, the Supreme), it is in fact a Name that denotes Divine Perfection. But when we say that a certain human being is mutakabbir, it denotes serious imperfection because it means that he/she is an insolent arrogant person. This is the first fact of this lecture. Al-Mutakabbir is someone who sees that all others are little compared to him; and he sees neither might nor glory but in himself. In other words, he looks upon others just like kings do towards their slaves. Allah, All-Mighty, is the Creator of the heavens and the earth. In His Hand is the Dominion over all things. To Him do return all matters for judgment and decision. If He desires anything, He says: “Be!”, and it is. If Allah, AllMighty, says about Himself that He is Al-Mutakabbir, this means that He, Glory to Him, knows Himself perfectly. And this Name, Al-Mutakabbir, has to do with another Divine Name of Allah’s, Al-Mu’min, which means that He, Glory to Him, perfectly knows Himself. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Allah, All-Mighty, says: ‘Sublimity is My cloak, and so is Might: if anyone rivals with Me for either of them, I shall cast him into the Fire.” [Sunan Abi Dawood] In another narration of the Hadith: “…, I destroy him and do not care.” Some scholars hold that: “The word “Al-Mutakabbir” is derived from AlKibria’ (Sublimity, Pride); and he who has the right to claim for Sublimity or Pride is the king.” To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says,

“They said (to Moses): ‘You have come to us to turn us away from that (Faith) which we found our fathers following, and that you two may have sublimity in the land? We are not going to believe you two!” [X; 78] Al-Mutakabbir (the Sublime) is Allah, the King, Whose Sovereignty never perishes, the Great, in Whose Kingdom nothing happens except by His Leave, the One, the Omnipotent. Such is one of the meanings of Allah’s Beautiful Name Al-Mutakabbir (the Sublime). Another meaning is derived from the words Al-Kabeer (i.e. the Great). Allah, All-Mighty, says, “So when she heard of their accusation, she sent for them and prepared a banquet for them; she gave each one of them a knife (to cut the foodstuff with); and she said (to Joseph): ‘Come out before them.’ Then, when they saw him (Joseph), they exalted him (because of his great beauty) and (in great astonishment) cut their hands. They said: ‘How Perfect is Allah, (Who created Joseph)! This is not a human being! This is none other than a noble angel!” [XII; 31] In other words, due to Joseph’s great beauty, the women cut their fingers. Allah, Glorified and Exalted, is also Mutakabbir in the sense that His Divine Sublimity is Infinite, He is Great, Whose Divine Greatness is Infinite. This is the second meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name Al-Mutakabbir. A third meaning is: Al-Mutakabbir is Allah, Who is far Exalted above being unjust or unfair to His slaves. A fourth meaning is that Allah, Most Gracious, is Al-Mutakabbir in the sense that in His Hand is Beneficence and from Him is Forgiveness. A fifth meaning of Al-Mutakabbir is that His Sovereignty, Dominion and Greatness are imperishable. Another meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name Al-Mutakabbir is: the Great and Sublime. And sublimity comes from self-existence and self-guidance. Allah, All-Mighty, has a Free Will. And Al-Mutakabbir is Allah, Who is far above any kind of imperfection or defect that does not befit His Divine Perfection, and Who is far Exalted above anthropomorphic qualities of His creatures. Therefore, we have to know Allah, since if we know Him, we obey Him. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “And likewise of men and moving living creatures, beasts and cattle, are of various colors (species). It is

only those who have knowledge from among His (Allah’s) slaves that fear Allah. Verily, Allah is All-Mighty, Oft-Forgiving.” [XXXV; 28] Our work is by no means proper and rightly guided unless we know Allah; and we are never happy in this present world or the world to come unless our work is rightly guided. Three things: we have to know Allah; if we know Him, we obey Him; and if we obey Him, we attain happiness of intimacy with Him in the present world and the Hereafter. Therefore, Al-Mutakabbir is He, Allah, Who is far above all the anthropomorphic qualities of His creatures, Who is Perfect in His own Divine Self, in His Attributes, and in His Acts. To this effect, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Verily, Allah revealed to me that you should be modest so that no one boasts before another and so that no one transgresses against another…” [Sahih Muslim] Also, in a Divine Hadith, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “I love three, and My Love for three is greater: I love the obedient, and My Love for a young obedient one is greater. I love the modest, and My Love for a rich modest one is greater. I love the generous, and My Love for a poor generous one is greater. And I hate three, and My Hatred for three is greater: I hate the disobedient, and My Hatred for an old disobedient one is greater. I hate the arrogant, and My Hatred for a poor arrogant one is greater. And I hate misers, and My Hatred for a rich miser is greater.” Do you believe, dear reader, that Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “He who has the weight of an atom of arrogance shall never be admitted into Paradise.” [Sahih Muslim]?! Why? They said: Because arrogance clashes with man’s being a slave of Allah, All-Mighty. In other words, you are a slave, and Allah is the Lord: if you rival with Him concerning His Divine Lordship, He destroys you, as afore-mentioned in the above Divine Hadith. That is why Allah’s Messenger says, “He who humbles himself to Allah one degree, Allah raises him (in honor) one degree, (and so on) until He makes him among the most honorable; and he who shows one degree of arrogance to Allah, Allah degrades him one degree, (and so on) until He makes him among the lowest of the low.” [Sunan Ibn Majah]

When Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), conquered Mecca, he entered it with a bowed head so that his hat almost touched the neck of his camel out of modesty and humbleness to Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious. And when once a man entered upon him, he was overtaken by his holy apparel and started shivering. He, (PBUH), addressed the man in great moderation, “Take it easy my brother! I am but the son of a (simple) woman - from Quraish – who used to eat Al-Qadeed (simple food of dried meat) in Mecca!” In fact, Allah’s Divine Sublimity, Supremeness, Glory, Highness, Praiseworthiness, Exaltedness, Beauty, …etc, all betoken the fact that He, All-Mighty, Most Gracious, deserves all Attributes of Divine Majesty and Perfection and is Free from all kinds of defects and imperfection. A knowledgeable holy scholar supplicated Allah: “O my Lord! How can I draw near to You (i.e. attain Your Love and Compassion)?!” So he felt in his heart (as if Allah were addressing him): “O My slave! Seek My Love and Compassion by things that are not found in Me.” He asked: “O Lord! What are the things that are not found in You?!?” The Almighty answered him: “Humbleness and lack of self-sufficiency.” That is why showing both humbleness to Allah and bad need of Him is the shortest way to attain Allah’s Divine Love and Compassion. Another most successful way that leads to Him is to hasten to Him with faithful obedience and sincere devotion. Obey Our Command, and We unveil Our Veils for you, For We grant with pleasure those who love Us. And seek refuge in Our Protection and seek help from Us, So that We may protect you from the evil ones from among Our creatures. And let nothing divert you from remembering Us, And be sincere to Us, and you will find happiness and contentment. And surrender to Us the judgment of all matters, For bringing near and casting away are but under Our Command. Be with Allah, you find Allah with you. And leave all others (but Allah) and beware of your greediness. And put yourself in humble submission to Him, Before your own self, by force, puts you.

One of the knowledgeable scholars who knew Allah said that one day, after he had performed both the late night and dawn prayers but had not spent the night standing in prayer, he said to himself: “I would rather spend the night sleeping and get up with regret in the morning than spend the night standing in prayer and be self-conceited in the morning.” In other words, he entered a state of arrogance. In this context, Allah’s Messenger was once quoted as saying, “If you did not commit sins, I would be more afraid for you of something that is more serious, namely selfconceitedness.” Of course, only those who contemplate Allah’s Signs in the universe are able to deliberate Allah’s Beautiful Name: Al-Mutakabbir (the Sublime, the Supreme). Some astronomers say: “In the universe, there are more than a million-million galaxies, in each of which there are more than a millionmillion stars. Light needs one second in order to cross the distance between the earth and the moon, eight minutes in order to cross the distance between the earth and the sun, and four years in traveling to us from the nearest of the fixed stars, taking into consideration that in one single second, light crosses 300,000 km’s.” In other words, if we desire to travel by car the distance between the earth and the nearest star, we need about 50,000,000 (fifty million) years. So, what do you think of the Polar Star, from which light needs 4,000 years in reaching us (i.e. 50,000,000X1,000: fifty billion years), or a galaxy called Super Nova, from which light takes a million years in traveling to the earth, or even a newly discovered galaxy from which light needs 16,000,000,000 (sixteen billion) years in traveling to us. In this context, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “So, I swear by the settings of the stars! And verily, that is indeed a great Oath if you but know!” [LV; 75,76] A human being may quite often boast: “I am what I am!” But who is a human being in reality?! Contemplate such fabulously great cosmic distances as above-mentioned! Such galaxy was in such place some 16,000,000,000 years ago. But where is it now?! No one but Allah, AllMighty, Alone, knows where it is now! In a previous lecture I mentioned that the distance between the earth and the sun is 158,000,000 km’s, that the sun is 1,300,000 times bigger than the earth, and that a small brilliant red star in the Cancer Constellation is as big as the earth plus the sun plus the distance between them. Therefore, Allah, is

Al-Mutakabbir, the Sublime, the Supreme! His Marvelous Creation bespeaks His Infinite Divine Greatness and Majesty. Once again, I repeat: The whole universe is a mere manifestation of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. He can not possibly be seen by the human eye, but the universe, which is His Creation, is quite visible and clearly substantiates His Infinite Divine Might, Majesty and Power. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “We shall show them Our Signs in the universe and in their own selves until it becomes manifest to them that this (the Quran) is the truth. Is it not sufficient in regard to your Lord that He witnesses all things.” [XLI; 53] Did you know that in a husband-wife sexual intercourse 300,000,000 seminal animalcules are ejected, on each of which there are millions of programmed pieces of information called genes?! Such genes are only visible under the microscope. In the human brain there are 140,000,000,000 brown cells whose job has not been yet found out. In the retina of the human eye there are 130,000,000 cells to provide clear vision; and in each of the optic sensors, there are 900,000 optic nerves. Do you believe that if someone goes to the Arctic, where the temperature is minus 70 degrees Celsius in winter, he can wear whatever heavy clothes to protect himself from the excessively cold weather, but he can not cover his eyes, because if he does, he will not be able to see?! That is why Allah, AllMighty, Most Gracious, has equipped our eyes with a special kind of antifreeze liquid, which protects the human eye from being frozen of the cold. Without such marvelous liquid, man would soon go blind because of the cold. Yes, in deed! It is Allah, Al-Mutakabbir, the Sublime, the Supreme, the One Free from all kinds of imperfection in both His Own Divine Self and Acts! Just deliberate Allah’s Words, “Verily, in the creation of the heavens and the earth, and in the alternation of the night and day, there are indeed Signs for men of understanding: those who (constantly) remember Allah (while they are) standing, sitting and lying on their sides, and contemplate the creation of the heavens and the earth, (saying): ‘Our Lord! You have not created (all) this in vain! Glory to You! Give us salvation from the Fire-Torment.” [III; 190,191] Do you believe that in the human brain there is a most accurate organ that measures the difference of the sound received by both ears?! This is because the same sound reaches the ear that is nearer to the sound-source 1/1000 of a

second before the other. The brain measures such difference and determines direction of sound-source. Without such organ direction of sound-sources cannot possibly be perceived. Yes, indeed! Allah is Al-Mutakabbir, the Sublime, the Supreme! In fact, Allah’s Beautiful Names can not be known except by means of His Divine cosmic Signs, which are wide-spread in the universe, and which betoken His Infinite Divine Might and Power. All of us have stores of liquid fuel for our heating systems; and it is known that five cubic meters of oil make five barrels. Do you believe that the human heart pumps eight cubic meters of blood in one single day, the size of the highest sky-scraper in the world in the average life-span of a human being. Do you think you are a tiny creature, While in you is imbedded the greater world?! Do you believe that the human liver performs more than 5,000 (five thousand) jobs in the human body and that without a liver man can survive only for three hours. The speech about Allah’s Divine Miracles in both man and the universe is endless. In this context, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “And also in your own selves (are Signs): will you not then see?!” [LI; 21] Your own body, dear reader, is a teaching aid; the organs of your body, different and numerous as they are, are the greatest teaching aid that leads you to Allah, All-Mighty. If you spent all your life contemplating greatness of the creation of man, you would never be able to know the reality of Allah’s Divine Self. But Allah, Glory to Him, guides you to seek some knowledge about Him through contemplation on His Divine Miracles that He has imbedded in your own human body. That is why He, Most Gracious, calls our attention: “And also in your own selves (are Signs): will you not then see?!” Those who display arrogance from among the children of Adam wrong themselves! Just a few weeks ago, Allah, Most Gracious, had mercy on us when a very mild earthquake hit our country. Had such earthquake been stronger, we would have been completely destroyed. It would have been possibly said: 80,000 killed and 70,000 injured would have been found under the debris. There would have been complete destruction of houses and buildings. Yes, indeed! It was a faint earthquake, less than 5 degrees on the Rechter Scale! If it had been more than 5 degrees, we would not be here now

in this mosque. So, why should we ever display arrogance?! We live by Allah’s Kindness and Care. A great many beautiful cities have been completely destroyed in only a few seconds. Why should we ever be arrogant?! When rain was withheld and water became scarce, we felt that we would be deprived of even a glass of water! Is there on the whole earth anyone who could determine to send us rain?! But Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious, had mercy on us and showed us that it is He, Who is Al-Mutakabbir. It is He Who sends us rain out of His Divine Mercy! Who are we?! A space shuttle that was given an arrogant name, “Challenger”, which was insolent to the Lord, Allah, All-Mighty. On board of the shuttle were seven make astronauts accompanied by a female one that was supposed to get pregnant from one of the male astronauts and give birth to a baby in outer space. However, it burst into blazing flames only seventy seconds after it had been launched. Why should we be arrogant?! Who are we?! Our existence or extinction is but by one Divine Word: “Be!” or “Perish!” That is why it has been rightly said: I have nothing but my need of You as a means, And because of my need of You I supplicate to You my need. I have no means but knocking at Your Door, But if Your Door is closed before me, at which other door shall I knock?! Yes, indeed! You are in bad constant need of the Lord, Allah, All-Mighty! In weal and woe, even when you are at your best in health, knowledge and power, you are in bad need of Him! Therefore, whenever you desire to do anything, you should invoke the Lord, All-Mighty: “O Allah! I have forsaken my might and power to take refuge in Your Might and Power! O You, Owner of Might and Power! Do you believe (I put forward these examples in order to wake people from their heedlessness and carelessness, for it does not befit man to be arrogant: if he does show arrogance, it is most foolish of him) that if a drop of blood were to clot in a certain part of the brain, man would be paralyzed. In other words, after having been in a state of comfort and ease with all people around him showing due respect, love and care, a microscopic blood-clot in the brain suddenly renders him a feeble motionless semi-dead body lying in bed with the most intimate relatives looking forward to his death. Why should we be arrogant?! If such a blood-drop were to clot in another part of the brain, man may, quite suddenly, lose his memory. A dear brother told me

that his father lost his memory before he died. He went back from work to his home in Al-Muhamjireen quarter of Damascus, but he remained more than half an hour in desperate search for his home. In what condition would you be if you lost your memory?! If you lost your memory, you would lose even yourself, you would be just like a feather in the wind. A son once entered upon his old father, who used to be a chemist. The father asked, “Who are you?” In great amazement, the son replied, “I am your son!” The father said, “I don’t know you!” Therefore, a clot of blood in the man’s brain caused him to lose his memory. If the clot were in a third part of the brain, man would lose his sight, and all the beautiful scenes would be gone: no colors, no green mountains, no blue seas, no beautiful son or daughter. All the sense of visual beauty would be lost in the darkness of his eyes. I have heard that a famous writer’s blind father used to spend the summer in a most beautiful place in Austria. I swear by Allah! Even if he was put in a small air-conditioned room in his poor town, it would make no difference for him, for he sees nothing! Therefore, if man lowers his gaze at the things that Allah, All-Mighty, determines as unlawful for him, and if, out of obedience and devotion to the Lord, Most Gracious, he guards his eyes against indecent scenes, the Lord, will most probably protect his sight and keep his eyes safe and healthy for him. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), say, “The best ones from among you are those who learn the Quran and teach it.” [Sahih AlBukhari] One of the venerable religious scholars of Damascus taught the Holy Quran to three consecutive generations. Whenever he met any one of his students, he would tell him: “O son! You were my student, and so were your father and grandfather!” He started teaching when he was eighteen and continued until he was ninety-eight; and he used to have an upright healthy body with sharp eyes and delicate ears. He was also granted a happy married life until his death. Whenever he was asked, “O Master! To what do you attribute your good health!”, he would humbly say, “O son! I have guarded my senses in my youth (against unlawful or indecent things), so Allah protected them for me in my old age. He who lives in righteousness and piety lives in strength and good health.” Don’t you wish, dear reader, to be in good health and great honor when you are old?! It has been rightly said: “If you desire to be dear to Allah, be dutiful to Him. If you desire to be the most powerful of all mankind, put your trust in

Allah. If you desire to be the richest of all mankind, be more confident in what is in Allah’s Hands than what is in your own hands.” Just contemplate factories of the red blood corpuscles inside the bones! There is a disease that affects the production of such corpuscles. These factories of the red corpuscles produce 2,500,000 corpuscles per second. Sometimes they stop working for no known reason. So, should you be arrogant?! A million dangers threaten you! So, what can you do?! I know someone who was well-off and had a good social position in this country. He lost his sight; and when a friend of his came to visit him, he said: “I swear by Allah! I wish I had no Ph.D. or such a prominent social rank. I wish I were a poor beggar asking people for money in the streets if Allah, All-Mighty, gave me back my sight!” The bliss of eye-sight can be preserved by showing faithful obedience and sincere devotion to our Lord, Allah, All-Mighty. Where does an evil tumor come from?! A healthy person may suddenly suffer from a kind of disorder in the growth of the cells of his body! Sometimes, for no known reason, man’s kidneys fail to work, and therefore, he has to go to hospital for artificial cleaning of his kidneys at least twice a week, which is unbearable… So why should you be arrogant?! Do you have control over your kidneys?! Do you have control over your heart?! Do you have control over the valves of your heart?! Do you have control over the main artery that carries blood into your heart?! Can you guarantee to keep blood-vessels inside your brain unblocked?! Can you keep your sensory nerves well and in good order?! Can you guarantee the good functioning of the joints between your bones and that your body does not become one unmovable tough block of flesh?! There are countless illnesses and diseases, so why should you be arrogant?! Do you have control over your tongue?! While you are asleep, saliva increases in your mouth, and therefore, a warning is sent to your brain, which, in turn, commands the uvula to open the way to your esophagus, into which the saliva flows automatically while you are soundly asleep. Also, while you are soundly asleep, Allah, All-Mighty, causes you to turn over from side to side more than 38 times a night, so that you may not fall off your bed. Such are Allah’s Graces and Blessings upon you! Contemplate them and turn to your Lord, Allah, Most Gracious, with true love and sincere

devotion! Do not belittle sins but rather think of Him, against Whom you transgress when you commit such sins! If upon birth, Potall Opening in the baby’s heart does not close automatically, a great amount of money is needed for a surgical operation in order to close it. It is an opening between both auricles of the heart. And as I have been informed by some doctors, a clot is sent to close it. Whose Hand is inside the heart?! Whose Hand comes and closes Potall Opening?! If it remained unclosed, the baby’s color would be blue, simply because blood would not be carried from one auricle of the heart to the other or refined through the lungs. When someone has a healthy baby, he invokes: “O Lord! Praise is all Yours!” But if the baby were to be born blue, it would need a costly surgical operation. What can we do?! Why should we be arrogant?! Allah, All-Mighty, is Able to force you to sell both your home and store in order to pay for a single surgical operation! Why should you be arrogant?! I repeat once again: Allah, Al-Mutakabbir, the Sublime, the Supreme, Alone, has the right to be Arrogant, for Arrogance reflects Divine Perfection as much as it reflects human imperfection. A friend of mine died because of an illness that resulted from lack of blood plates. Without such blood plates, man would bleed to death at the slightest wound. This is because in the human blood there are special hormones for both liquefaction and coagulation of the blood. Due to the balance between both kinds of hormones blood remains in a good condition and runs smoothly through the blood-vessels. Who regulates such hormones?! It is the Lord, Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious, the Sublime, the Supreme! While you are soundly and comfortably asleep, who controls breathing for you?! It is the Lord, Allah, All-Mighty! If anything goes wrong with your breathing due to reflexive nervous failure, a very expensive medicine is needed, a tablet of which has to be taken every single hour during the night. In other words, a person who suffers from such disease has to wake up every hour to take a tablet and then go back to sleep! He has to keep more than one alarm clock beside him if he desires to survive during the night! What a life! Due to Allah’s Infinite Divine Grace, your breathing goes on, quite smoothly and comfortably, for long hours, while you are soundly asleep. In fact, the speech about man’s miraculous nature is almost endless. The more

knowledgeable man is the more humble and submissive to Allah, AllMighty, Most Gracious, he is. To this effect, Allah, Most Merciful, says, “It is only those who have knowledge among His (Allah’s) slaves that fear Allah.” [XXXV; 28] Yes, indeed! Only the knowledgeable ones, and no other human beings, fear Allah, All-Mighty. Therefore, it has been rightly said: “One should be a knowledgeable person, a learner, a listener, or a lover of learning; otherwise one would be a great loser.” In the same context, Imam Al-Ghazali said: “Knowledge does not lend you some of itself unless you lend it all of yourself. If you lend it some of yourself, it lends you nothing.” Moreover, knowledge is the only value that Allah, All-Mighty, considers as a distinguisher between His slaves. In other words, people may excel one another in a great many things: wealth, health, beauty, power, intelligence, …etc, but knowledge is the only thing that make people excel in the sight of Allah. To this effect, He, Glory to Him, says, “Is one who is obedient to Allah, prostrating himself or standing (in prayer) during the night, fearing the Hereafter and hoping for the Mercy of his Lord (like one who disobeys)?! Say: ‘Are those who know equal to those who know not?!’ It is only men of understanding who will remember.” [XXXIX; 9] Also, a religious relic goes: “Blessed is He (Allah), who allotted intelligence differently among His Slaves, for two men may be equal in righteous work, piety, fast and prayer but differ in intelligence like an atom compared to a mountain. No better thing has Allah allotted to His slaves than intelligence and true Faith.” That is why it has been rightly said: “Every new-born dawn calls out, ‘O son of Adam! I am the dawn of a new day and a witness of your work! Avail yourself of me, for I shall never return until the Resurrection Day!” Also, the venerable devoted worshipper, Rabi’ah Al-Adawiyah, may Allah have mercy on her, was once asked, “What is a human being?” She answered, “He is but a few days; whenever a day passes away, a part of him (man) passes away.” To wrap up, Al-Mutakabbir, the Sublime, the Supreme, is one of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes, which reflect His Divine Perfection. But no human being should ever assume such Divine quality, for that would reflect not only great insolence and arrogance but also serious ignorance and imperfection. Be careful! Be careful! Allah has mercy on those who know their human limitations and abide by them!

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ur trip with Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes is very long. So, we should have a short rest; and in our garden, as it were, is a blooming tall tree with many branches under which we shall have some shade with the ninth of Allah’s Beautiful Names, Al-Ghaffar, which comes in the Holy Quran under three forms, first of which is “Ghafir”. Allah, All-Mighty, says, “Ghafir-I-Thamb (the Forgiver of sin), the Acceptor of repentance, the Severe in punishment, the One Who Bestows (Favors). There is no god but He, to Him is the Final Return.” [XL; 3] The second form is “Al-Ghafour”, as in Allah’s Words, “And your Lord is Al-Ghafour (the Oft-Forgiving), the Owner of Mercy. Were He to call them to account for what they have earned, then surely, He would have hastened punishment for them; but they have their appointed time, from which they will find no escape.” [XVIII; 58], in His Words, “And He (Allah) is Al-Ghafour (the Oft-Forgiving), the Compassionate.” [LXXXV; 14], in His Words, “Declare (O Muhammad) unto My slaves that truly, I am Al-Ghafour (the Oft-Forgiving), the Most Merciful.” [XV; 49], and in His Words, “Say to My salves who have transgressed against themselves: ‘Do not despair of Allah’s Mercy. Verily, Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is Al-Ghafour (the Oft-Forgiving), the Most Merciful.” [XXXIX; 53], among other Quranic Verses in which we read Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Ghafour”.

The third form of this Divine Name is “Al-Ghaffar” as in Allah’s Words, “And verily, I am Al-Ghaffar (the All-Forgiving) for him who repents, believes and does righteousness and is moreover rightly guided.” [XX; 82], in is Divine Words, “I said: ‘Ask forgiveness of your Lord, (for) verily, He is Ghaffar (All-Forgiving). He will send rain to you in abundance, and give you increase in wealth and children, and bestow on you gardens and bestow on you rivers.” [LXXI; 10-12] In short, “Ghafir”, “Ghafour” and “Ghaffar” are all used to the same purport in the Holy Quran, for they are derived from the same root, “Al-Maghfirah” (i.e. Forgiveness). Some scholars said: “A person who disobeys Allah, All-Mighty, is described in the Holy Quran as being “Thalim”, “Thaloum” or “Thallam”. For example, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Then We gave the Book (the Quran) as inheritance to such of Our slaves whom We chose. Then, of them are some who are Thalimun Linafsih (i.e. wrong themselves), and of them are those who follow a middle course, and of them are some who are, by Allah’s Leave, foremost in good deeds. That is indeed a great Grace.” [XXXV; 32] Another example is Allah’s Words, “Truly, We did offer the Trust to the heavens and the earth and the mountains, but they declined to bear it and were afraid of it. But man bore it; verily he was Thalouman (i.e. unjust to himself) and ignorant.” [XXXIII; 72] A third example is Allah’s Words, “Say to My slaves who Asrafou (have transgressed) against themselves: ‘Do not despair of Allah’s Mercy. Verily, Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [XXXIX; 53] Hence, Al-Musrif, as in the above Verses, means “Thallam” (i.e. someone who does a lot of injustice to himself, or wrongs himself). If man is “Thalim” (i.e. a wrong-doer), Allah, Most Gracious, is “Ghafir” (i.e. the Forgiver); if man is “Thaloum” (i.e. does a lot of injustice to himself), Allah, Glory to Him, is “Ghafour” (i.e. the All-Forgiving); and if man is “Thallam” (frequently does wrong to himself), Allah, Most Merciful, is “Ghaffar” (i.e. the Oft-Forgiving). In other words, the way man commits sins or does wrong to himself determines the Way in which Allah, Most Gracious, responds and forgives such sins or wrong-doings.

The delicate point in this context is that man’s sins and wrong-doings are by no means infinite, but Allah’s Divine Forgiveness is really Infinite. Therefore, only those who disbelieve in Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful, despair of His Infinite Divine Forgiveness! Only those who are ignorant despair of Allah’s Infinite Divine Mercy! Only those who are ungrateful despair of Allah’s Infinite Divine Grace! If your sin is finite but Allah’s Divine Forgiveness is Infinite, then it is most unwise, most ignorant, and most ungrateful to despair of Allah’s Infinite Divine Mercy. Therefore, a desperate person is an ignorant ungrateful disbeliever. Another delicate point with regards to this Divine Name “Al-Ghaffar” is that the Verses in which this Name is mentioned include verbs in the past form, as in Allah’s Words, “He (David) said: ‘He has wronged you in demanding your ewe in addition to his ewes; and verily, many partners oppress one another, except those who believe and do righteous good deeds – and such are few.’ And David guessed that We have tried him and he sought Forgiveness of his Lord, and he fell down prostrate and turned (to Allah) in repentance. So, We forgave him that, and verily, for him is a near access to Us and a good place of (final) return (Paradise).” [XXXVIII; 24,25] They also include verbs in the present form, as in Allah’s Words, “Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him, but He forgives other than that to whom He wills. And whoever sets up partners with Allah has indeed invented a tremendous sin.” [IV; 48], and also, “And those who, when they have committed an evil deed or wronged themselves, they remember Allah and ask forgiveness for their sins – and no one forgives sins but Allah – and do not persist on what they have done (of evil deeds) while they know…” [III; 135] They also come in the imperative form, as in Allah’s Words, “Our Lord! Verily, we have heard the call of one (Muhammad) calling to Faith: ‘Believe in your Lord!’, and we have believed. Our Lord! Forgive us our sins and expiate from us our evil deeds, and make us die as pious and righteous.” [III; 193] They also come as verbs in the root form, as in Allah’s Words, “The Messenger (Muhammad) believes in what has been sent down to him from his Lord, and so do believers: each one believes in Allah, His Angels, His Books, and His Messengers, saying, ‘We hear, and we obey. (We seek) Ghufranaka (i.e. Your Forgiveness), our Lord! And to You is the Final Return.’” [II; 185], and, “They ask you to hasten the evil before the good, while (many) exemplary punishments have indeed occurred

before them. But verily, your Lord is Full of Forgiveness to mankind in spite of their wrong-doing. And verily, your Lord is (also) Severe in punishment.” [XIII; 6] This means that Allah, Most Gracious, forgives you your previous, present and future sins, for He is the Oft-Forgiving. Whenever you commit sins, He is Oft-Forgiving. He, Most Gracious, also forgives all kinds of sins. In other words, for any sin or misdeed, He is the All-Forgiving. If you wrong yourself or others, He forgives you, but of course, after you have turned to Him with true repentance and sincere devotion. He, Most Merciful, forgives all kinds of sins everywhere and at all times, for He, Glory to Him, is the Oft-and-All-Forgiving, the Most Merciful. In fact I say such words so that brother believers may not despair of Allah’s Infinite Divine Mercy, for only ignorant desperate disbelievers despair of Allah’s Infinite Divine Mercy. Now the question is: why does this Divine Name come in such different forms? This is a very reasonable question. The answer is: Linguistically speaking, such variation of word-forms of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Ghaffar” denotes differences in both quantity, quality and frequency of occurrence, for Allah is Ghaffar in the sense that He is both Oft-Forgiving and All-Forgiving. In other words, whatever sins mankind commit, regardless of quality or quantity of such sins, or time or place of their occurrence, Allah forgives such sins, except for one unforgivable sin, namely associating other gods with Him in worship, which is by no means forgivable, as He, All-Mighty, says, “Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him, but He forgives other (sins) than that to whom He wills. And whoever sets up partners with Allah has indeed invented a tremendous (unforgivable) sin.” [IV; 48] In this context, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Whosoever does deeds of righteousness, it is for (the benefit of) his own self; and whosoever does evil, it is against his own self. And your Lord is by no means unjust to His slaves.” [XLI; 46] In other words, Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful, never does injustice to any of His slaves, all of whom enjoy being under His Infinite Divine Justice.

Another thing: Linguistically speaking, the Arabic word “Ghafara” means “to cover or hide”, but when Allah speaks about Moses, (PBUH), “He (Moses) said: ‘My Lord! I have wronged myself, so forgive me!’ Then, He (Allah) forgave him. Verily, He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.” [XXVIII; 16], and also about His Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), “That Allah may forgive you your sins of the past and the future, and complete His Favor on you, and guide you on the Straight Path.” [XLVIII; 2], He, Glory to Him, means that He pardons and forgives, i.e. He, Most Gracious, does not punish His holy Prophets and Messengers but rather forgives them. The problem is that when we read one part of the Holy Quran, we forget another. For example, when we read Allah’s Words, “Say to My salves who have transgressed against themselves: ‘Do not despair of Allah’s Mercy. Verily, Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is the All-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.’” [XXXIX; 53] Here, we should not stop but rather continue reading, “And turn you in repentance and in obedience with true Faith to your Lord and submit yourselves to Him before the Torment comes upon you, and then you will not be helped.” [ibid; 54] In other words, Allah, is Ghafour (All-Forgiving) for those who turn to Him, for those who repent, for those who abstain from committing sins and misdeeds, for those who reform, for those who ask for Forgiveness, not for those who insist on their sins and misdeeds and never think of repenting from them, thinking, wrongly and naively, that Allah, All-Mighty, is Oft-and-All-Forgiving, Most Merciful. To this effect, Allah, Glorified and Exalted, says, “Declare (O Muhammad) unto My slaves that, truly, I am the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful, and that My Torment is indeed the most painful torment.” [XV; 49,50] In other words, either you come to Him willingly or He forces you to do so. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious, says, “Then, He (Allah) made them repent so that He may accept their repentance.” and, “They repented (to Allah), and He accepted their repentance.” This means that if sinners and wrong-doers do not repent willingly of their sins, Allah forces them to do so. To this effect, religious scholars say: “If a sinner delays his repentance to the Lord, All-Mighty, the Lord drives for him/her hardships and disasters that make him/her turn to the Lord with sincere repentance. A great many are those sinners who turn to the Lord with repentance after having been inflicted with a disaster or hardship.” And when Allah, All-Mighty, said, “Leave Me, Alone, (to deal) with the one whom I, Alone, created and granted resources in abundance, and children to be by his side, and for whom I

made life smooth and comfortable.” [LXIV; 12-14], He addressed His Messenger Muhammad, (PBUH): “O Muhammad! If so and so does not respond to you, leave him to Me! I shall drive to him hardships and disasters that will force him to repent to Me.” In fact, the above Verses are very delicate, for due to His Infinite Divine Mercy, Allah, Most Gracious, makes a gentle kind person give you a piece of advice in a gentle kind way supported by Quranic Verses and Prophetic Hadiths as well as stories and parables. But if you do not respond, Allah has other hard methods and treatments that drive you to His Door. So, which is better for you: to come to Him willingly and gently or by the stick?! In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Your Lord is amazed at some people who are driven to Paradise with chains. All of the children of Adam will enter Paradise except those who refuse to do so.” They asked, “And who refuses (to enter Paradise), o Messenger of Allah?!” “Those who obey me enter Paradise, but those who disobey me refuse to do so.” He, (PBUH), replied. The thing of which you have to be afraid most is that you are called to Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious, gently and kindly by a loving believing brother, who advises you to lower down your gaze, to make your income lawful, to shun transgression or injustice, to shun aggression, …etc, but you do not respond to such kind gentle call, and, therefore, Allah, All-Mighty, drives to you hardships and disasters that cause you to repent to Him, i.e. He forces you to repent to Him: “Then, He (Allah) made them repent so that He may accept their repentance.” It is wise to repent to Allah willingly: “They repented (to Allah), and He accepted their repentance.” In fact, Allah is Full of Forgiveness. He is both All-Forgiving and OftForgiving. In a Divine Hadith, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “O My slaves! I have forbidden injustice for Myself, and I have made it forbidden amongst yourselves; so, do not do injustice to one another! O My slaves! All of you are astray, except those for whom I provide Guidance; therefore, beseech Me for Guidance, and I shall provide you Guidance. O My slaves! All of you are hungry, except those for whom I provide sustenance; so, beseech Me for sustenance, and I shall provide you with sustenance. O My slaves! All of you are undressed, except those for whom I provide dresses; so, beseech Me for dresses, and I shall provide you with dresses… O My slaves! If the first and last from among you, and if the jinn and humans from among you, stood up in one line to beseech Me, and I gave each and every one of you whatever they may

ask for, that would not take from that which I have except as much as a needle would take (water) from the ocean if it were dipped therein. O My slaves! It is only your deeds that I count for you in order to repay you for them; therefore, he who finds goodness should thank Allah, but he who finds otherwise should have only himself to blame.” [Sahih Muslim] The above Divine Hadith means that if man willingly turns to Allah in repentance, he guarantees Allah’s Protection, Honor and Support to himself. But if he refuses and fails to respond, he will be afflicted by torment from where he does not reckon. That is why our Lord, All-Mighty, says, “O you who believe! Answer Allah and the Messenger when he calls you to that which gives you life, and know that Allah comes in between a person and his heart, and verily, to Him you shall be gathered.” [VIII; 24], and, “O you who believe! What is the matter with you?! When you are asked to march forth in the Cause of Allah, you cling heavily to the earth! Are you pleased with the life of this present world rather than the Hereafter?! But little is the enjoyment of the life of this world as compared to the Hereafter. If you march not forth, He punishes you with a painful torment and replaces you by another people; and you can not harm Him at all, and Allah is Powerful over all things.” [IX; 38,39] If you do not come to Him, He drives you to His Door by force. Some scholars said: “When once he turned to his Lord (in invocation), Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), said, ‘O you (Allah), Who unveils that which is beautiful and veils that which is ugly!’” Just contemplate the above invocation: ‘O you (Allah), Who unveils that which is beautiful and veils that which is ugly!’ What does he mean by “ugly”? He means your evil thoughts, for lots of ugly thoughts visit man’s mind: thoughts of evil things, thoughts of committing sins. A thought that does not please the Lord, All-Mighty, may occur to you, but don’t you see that Allah, Praised and Glorified, covers all your evil thoughts and does not unveil them to other fellow humans. You may think of whatever things you like, and you may intend to do whatever you desire, nevertheless, you are respected by people, for Allah does not allow them to know your innermost thoughts and intentions unless you speak them out yourself. That is why some poets rightly said:

By Allah! If they knew my ugly thoughts, Those who meet me would never greet me, But rather they would turn away from me and get bored with my company. If either partner were to know what goes on in the mind of the other, they would both break up. If a husband were to know what goes on in his wife’s mind, he would divorce her; and if she were to know what is in his mind, she would leave him. If a father were to know what goes on in his son’s mind concerning his death, he would hate him. Sometimes, a son says to his father: “O father! Give me your hand so that I kiss it!” But in his mind is another different thought. If the father were to know what is in his son’s mind, he would not only hate him but send him away as well. Yes, indeed! Allah, Most Gracious, is the Coverer, Who veils your evil thoughts and intentions from others. This is the meaning of the Prophet’s invocation: ‘O you (Allah), Who unveils that which is beautiful and veils that which is ugly!” Therefore, your innermost feelings, intentions, thoughts and ambitions are well-protected and well-covered. This is another meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name Al-Ghaffar, i.e. He keeps your innermost thoughts and intentions hidden from other fellow humans. Another meaning is that without an outer skin man’s body would look very ugly. In other words, man’s inner muscles and innermost parts would look horrible if they were on the surface of his body. But by Allah’s Grace, the outer skin makes man’s face and body look beautiful. This is another meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name Al-Ghaffar, i.e. He, Most Gracious, covers man’s ugly inner body with a nice-looking skin. This is also the meaning of the Prophet’s invocation: ‘O you (Allah), Who unveils that which is beautiful and veils that which is ugly!” Also, Allah unveils man’s face, which is beautiful and veils his private parts, which are ugly. A third meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name Al-Ghaffar is that Allah, Most Gracious, veils a believer’s sins and misdeeds and does not show them. In other words, if a believer were to see the evil things that he formerly did when he was ignorant and heedless, he would get burnt of regret. When a believer turns to Allah with repentance, Allah forgives him his sins. But if he were to remember the evil things that he did in times of ignorance, he would bite his fingers of regret. Therefore, due to His Infinite Divine Mercy, Allah covers all the believer’s sins and misdeeds. This is, as some scholars say, the secret behind the decay of the human body upon death. The images are kept

in man’s memory, and when the body perishes, there remains the soul, which is pure, holy and perfect because it is linked with Divine Perfection. When a true believer, who has previously committed sins and misdeeds, repents to Allah, what happens? If he were to remember his times of ignorance, the evil things that he has committed and the indecent conditions he has undergone, the lowly moral standard at which he has been, and the illogical intellectual condition in which he has been, he would get burnt of regret: his present perfection would burn him. This is in the present world, in which, as it is said, a believer is made to suffer humiliation, poverty or illness. But what is meant by humiliation? In fact, it is humiliation entailed by one’s former ignorance before one has repented to Allah, Most Gracious. This is because when man repents of his sins and misdeeds and is completely cured of them: if he were to remember such sins and misdeeds, he would get burnt of regret resulting from his previous carelessness and heedlessness. Therefore, due to His Infinite Divine Mercy upon believers in Paradise, Allah, Most Gracious, veils all their sins and misdeeds, so that neither they nor anyone else can see any of such sins or misdeeds. That is why Allah, Most Merciful, says, “The Forgiver of sin, the Acceptor of repentance, the Severe in punishment, the Bestower of Favors, there is no god but He, to Him is the Final Return.” [XL; 3] In interpretation of the above Quranic Verses, some scholars said: “Allah forgives sins out of His Bounty; He accepts repentance out of His Grace; He is Severe in punishing disbelievers; and He bestows His Favors upon those whom He loves.” In the above Verses there are three of Allah’s Divine Names for believers and one Name for disbelievers. He is the Forgiver of sin, the Acceptor of repentance, the Bestower of Favors, the Severe in punishment. It is said that He is the Forgiver of sin for those who wrong themselves, the Acceptor of repentance for those who are lukewarm and follow a middle course, the Bestower of Favors for those who excel in good deeds. This is because some believers are negligent and commit sins, others are straightforward and honest, and some others are excellent. Therefore, Allah, Most Gracious, is the Forgiver of sin for negligent believers, the Acceptor of repentance for lukewarm believers, the Bestower of Favors for excellent believers, the Severe in punishment for disbelievers. But why is it only one Name for disbelievers? This is because Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Disbelief is but one and the same creed. So, beyond the Truth, what is there

except Falsehood?” In other words, disbelief is only one, but belief has ranks and degrees. Scholars said: Consider Wahshi, who killed Hamzah, the Prophet’s venerable uncle and Companion. Do you believe that there could ever be a dirtier, uglier, more horrible, or more disgusting deed than what Wahshi, the slave, did in return to his emancipation? He killed Hamzah and stabbed his abdomen with his spear. After having killed Hamzah, he regretted his evil deed and flew away to At-Ta’if, a town near Mecca. Then, he sincerely wrote to Allah’s Messenger: “Is it possible for me to repent” He was the one who killed one of the most beloved persons to Allah’s Messenger, Hamzah - and you can visit his tomb, dear reader, when you visit Medina, for it is near Mount Uhud. He wrote to Allah’s Messenger, “Is it possible for me to repent?” Therefore, Allah, Most Gracious, sent down this Verse: “Verily, Allah forgives not that partners should be set up with Him (in worship), but He forgives except that (anything else) to whom He wills; and whoever sets up partners with Allah in worship has indeed invented a tremendous sin.” [IV; 48] Wahshi thought to himself, “I might not be included in Allah’s Will as mentioned in this Verse.” Therefore, Allah, Most Gracious, sent down: “And those who invoke not any other gods along with Allah nor kill such person as Allah has forbidden, except for a just cause, nor commit illegal sexual intercourse – and whoever does this shall receive a (painful) punishment. The Torment shall be doubled to him on the Day of Resurrection, and he shall abide therein in disgrace, except for those who repent and believe and do righteous deeds: for those Allah shall change their sins into good deeds; and Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [XXV; 68-70] But Wahshi still thought to himself, “My work might not be righteous enough in the sight of Allah to accept my repentance.” So, Allah sent down: “Say to My slaves who have transgressed against themselves (by committing sins): ‘Despair not of Allah’s Mercy! Verily, Allah forgives all sins!’” In other words, even if you turn to Allah with sincere repentance from as many sins as would fill the heavens and the earth, Allah forgives you and does not care, for He, Most Merciful, is happier with His slave’s repentance than a lost one who finds his way, a barren father who suddenly has a baby, or a thirsty one who finds water. We have some delicate points concerning the above Verse: “Say to My slaves who have transgressed against themselves (by committing sins)”. In this Verse Allah, Most Gracious, does not say, “Say to My slaves who

have committed sins and misdeeds, who have committed adultery, who have drunk wine, or who have committed genocide, …etc.” He, Most merciful, said, “Say to My slaves who have transgressed against themselves…”, which means that due to His Infinite Divine Mercy, Allah does not unveil the different grievous sins and misdeeds that sinners and wrong-doers have committed. He, Most Gracious, desires to cover them so that they may turn to Him with sincere repentance and faithful devotion. Another delicate point is found in Allah’s Word “My”, which denotes that Allah, Most Gracious, still affiliates such sinners and wrong-doers to Himself, i.e. He does not dismiss them from His Infinite Divine Mercy, but rather reassures them that He accepts their repentance if they turn to Him with sincere repentance. He also desires to comfort them and give them hope: “Say to My slaves who have transgressed against themselves: ‘Despair not of Allah’s Mercy.’ …” Therefore, they should be happy with Allah’s affiliating them to Himself, and they should love Him and hasten to turn to Him with true faith and sincere repentance. They should never despair of His Infinite Divine Mercy and Love for His slaves. A third delicate point is that in the above Verse Allah does not say overtly, “Say to My slaves who have transgressed against themselves by committing sins and misdeeds towards other fellow humans…”, because when they commit such sins and misdeeds and transgress against other fellow humans, they actually transgress against themselves, they actually do harm to their own selves. None could possibly do harm to Allah, All-Mighty, for His Divine Self is far Above being done harm to. To this effect, He, AllMighty, says, “O My slaves! Even if the first and last, the jinn and humans, from among you, were as profligate as the most evil one from among you, that would by no means decrease a thing from My Kingdom.” Hence, “Say to My slaves who have transgressed against themselves” means that Allah’s Divine Self is far Above being done harm to, and “Despair not of Allah’s Mercy! Verily, Allah forgives all sins. Verily, He is the All-and-Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.” Means that whether you commit sins or not, and whether your sins are grievous or insignificant, it is His Infinite Divine Name and Attribute, everywhere and at all times, that He is Al-Ghaffour and Al-Ghaffar (the All-and-Oft-Forgiving). As for Allah’s Words, “Declare unto My slaves that I am, truly I am, the All-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.” [XV; 49], scholars said that Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), once passed by some of his Companions. Having

noticed that they were laughing, he addressed them, “Are you laughing and the Fire is ahead of you!”, which made them very sad and depressed. Therefore, he, (PBUH), reassured them: “There has come to me Gabriel, (PBUH), revealing to me Allah’s Words ‘Declare unto My slaves that I am, truly I am, the All-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.’” It is impossible for man to be in a good sound psychological state unless he combines equally both fear and hope in himself. If fear is stronger than hope, it is psychologically improper; and so is the case if hope is stronger than fear. Therefore, you have to be careful to keep both feelings in due balance. In the human blood there is a special hormone for coagulation and another for liquefaction. They should both be in a state of complete balance, otherwise human life would be impossible. If the first hormone overcame the second, blood would stagnate in the blood-vessels; and if the second overcame the first, man would bleed to death at the slightest wound. In your relationship with Allah, Most Gracious, All-Mighty, there should always be a kind of balance between both fear and hope. A great many people wrongly say, “Do not be so strict! Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful!” Such naïve kind of hope is foolish, for if you read the Holy Quran you quite often find that Allah, Glory to Him, says, “Then verily, your Lord - for those who do evil out of ignorance and afterward repent and do righteous deeds – verily, your Lord, thereafter, is All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [XVI; 119] If you search for the Quranic Verses that have to do with the issue of Divine Forgiveness, you find a great many of them go like this: “And those who committed evil deeds and then repented, afterwards, and believed, verily, your Lord, after all that, is indeed All-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [VII; 153] In other words, hope without repentance and reform is a mere stupid kind of optimism; and fear to the degree of misery and utmost despair of Allah’s Divine Mercy is nothing but deadly pessimism. You shall never be happy with Allah, Most Gracious, unless you combine both fear and hope. Allah, Most Merciful, All-Mighty, says, “And We answered his (Zechariah’s) call, and We granted him John and cured his wife (to bear a child) for him. Verily, they used to hasten to do good deeds, and they used to call upon Us with hope and fear and used to humble themselves before Us.” [XXI; 90], and, “Say: ‘Who rescues you from the darkness of the land and the sea (as) you call upon Him humbly and secretly, (saying), ‘If He (Allah) only saves us from this (danger), we shall truly be of those who are grateful.’” [VI; 63]

Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Declare (O Muhammad) unto My slaves that I am, truly I am, the All-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.” The Verse is addressed to Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), who is commanded to reassure sinners and wrong-doers that Allah is All-and-Oft- Forgiving and that He is Most Merciful. A Caliph was once visited by two of his grandsons, one was the son of his son and the other the son of his daughter. “Whose sons are you?” The Caliph asked. His daughter’s son affiliated himself to his own father, while his son’s son affiliated himself to the Caliph himself. So, the Caliph filled the lap of his son’s son with jewels, simply because he affiliated himself to him (i.e. the Caliph), while that of the daughter’s son with sweats. The lesson behind such story is that if man invokes his Lord: “O Allah! You are my Lord! There is no god but You! I have none but You!”, such invocation is sure to bring him nearer to the Lord, Most Gracious, as he affiliates himself to Him, All-Mighty. Therefore, Allah, Most Merciful, honors you by affiliating you to Himself, as He says, “Declare unto My slaves who have transgressed against themselves….” That is why those who read the Holy Quran should deliberate how Allah affiliates mankind to Himself: “Declare unto My slaves that I am, truly I am, the All-and-Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.” Also, there is repetition of the words “I am” in order to reassure His slaves that He surly is the All-andOft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful. Some scholars said: Allah’s Name “Al-Ghafir” means that He forgives you your sin in the sense that He obliterates it from the Scrolls of your deeds, His Name “Al-Ghafour” means that He obliterates your sins from the Records of the Scribes (i.e. Angels who record man’s deeds), and His Name “AlGhaffar” means that He makes you forget such sins altogether. It is most Generous of Allah that on the Day of Judgment, you find that all your sins and misdeeds have been obliterated altogether: from the Scrolls of your deeds, from the Records of the Angels, and from your own mind. That is why you are made to live in utmost never-ending Bliss in Allah’s Paradise, the breadth of which is the heavens and the earth. It is wise that a sinner repents at a young age, but it is also alright if he/she repents at an old age, for Allah, Glory to Him, is Bounty Abounding. In this context, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “O My slave! You have grown old, your back has grown bent, your sight has grown weak, and your hair has grown gray, so you should feel ashamed before Me, for I feel ashamed before you!”

The story that I like most and never forget speaks about an illiterate fiftyfive-year-old man who admired a young Sheikh (religious scholar) and wished he could be like him. Remember in this context that Allah’s High Ranks are granted only to those who are truthful and sincere. Any way, the elderly man mounted his donkey and headed for Cairo, where Al-Azhar university is located. He spent years at Al-Azhar university studying the Holy Quran and disciplines of religious knowledge until he was ninety-nine. But he did not pass away until he had assumed the highest degree at AlAzhar, Namely Seikh Al-Azhar (The Chief Scholar of Al-Azhar university). At the age of fifty-five, he turned to the Lord, Most Gracious, with sincere repentance and set off on his trip of study and education, which he achieved most successfully. Every now and then, he used to invoke his Lord: “O Allah! I have been late in coming to You! I have been very late! …”. But due to Allah’s Grace, he was not too late! If man repents to the Lord, Most Gracious, and tastes sweetness of such repentance, he says, “My heart is burning with regret for the great many years that I have spent in disobedience to Allah!” In other words, after having tried the taste of purity, the taste of intimacy with Allah, the taste of turning to Allah, the taste of righteous work, the taste of knowledge, and the taste of honor, man says, “I wish I had known Allah before this age!” That venerable scholar of Al-Azhar university used to invoke the Lord: “O Lord! I have been late in coming to you!” But Allah, Most Gracious, inspired him: “O My slave! Do not say that! Verily, those who are late in coming to Me are those who pass away before they repent of their sins!” This means that if you still have only one day to survive, you can repent to the Lord. So long as your heart is still beating, there is great hope. But the sooner the better. Now, the question is: What is our relationship with Allah’s Beautiful Name Al-Ghaffar (the All-and Oft-Forgiving)? The answer is: Allah, Most Gracious, is Al-Ghaffar (the Oft-and-All-Forgiving)! And you, as a human being, can’t you forget mistakes of other fellow humans?! Don’t you forgive them?! Scholars said: A believer’s share of this Name is that he should cover mistakes of other fellow humans, believers and non-believers, just as Allah covers his own mistakes. Such is the first and foremost thing a believer has

to do towards Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name Al-Ghaffar (the Oft-and-AllForgiving). At the time of the venerable Companion and Caliph Omar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, a woman committed adultery. After having been punished, she repented sincerely. Later on, a man came propose to her for marriage. Her brother came to Omar, saying, “O Commander of the Faithful! A man has come to propose to my sister for marriage. Shall I inform him about her previous sin and punishment?” Omar, may Allah be pleased with him, said angrily: “If you had informed him, I would have killed you! Allah, Most Gracious, has covered her! Do you want to uncover her?!” Therefore, if you, as a true believer, know that a friend of yours has committed a sin or a misdeed, you should cover it for him. You should never mention it to any other person if you are a true believer who believes in Allah’s Name Al-Ghaffar (the Oft-and-All-Forgiving). Just as Allah, AlGhaffar, has forgiven you your sins and misdeeds and accepted your repentance, you should forgive your friends and cover their mistakes. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “A sin is a misfortune for others than the one who has committed it, for if they speak about it, they slander him.” If a friend of yours commits a sin and you speak about it to the others, you slander him. If you blame him for it, you will be made to commit the same sin. And if you accept such a sin from him, you share with him the state of being sinful. If we are informed that a friend of ours has earned some money unlawfully, it is enough to say: “Well done! He has done this for a better living.” to be as sinful as he is. Praising such a wrong-doer and trying to justify his evil deed makes us as sinful as he is; blaming him for committing such unlawful earning of money makes us fall in the same trap; and speaking about his sin to others means that we slander him. All of this happens to those who have not committed the sin, so what about the one who has committed it?! A person who overlooks other people’s mistakes is a noble bounteous person. So, always try to be a positive person. Always try to mention other people’s merits. While dealing with other people, try to overlook their faults and shortcomings and highlight their merits and good deeds if you really

want them to love you. Unfortunately, some people are always inclined to forget all of the good things of others. In the same context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “O Allah! I take refuge with You from an evil neighbor who: if he sees something good, he conceals it; but if he sees something evil, he reveals it. O Allah! I take refuge with You from an evil Imam (leader) who: If you do something good, he does not accept it; but if you do something bad, he does not forgive (it).” It is indeed most horrible to conceal people’s merits and reveal their demerits. Therefore, a true believer is someone who overlooks people’s faults and shortcomings and highlights their good deeds. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Honor is helpful.” If you have a son whom you know is trustworthy, try to praise him for being trustworthy. Some fathers are so critical about their sons, and they underestimate their work. Doesn’t your son have a merit?! Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), was once asked, “O Allah’s Messenger! What saves man from the Fire?” He, (PBUH), replied, “Belief in Allah.” “Should there be any work together with belief?” He, (PBUH), was asked. “He should give from that which Allah has given him.” He, (PBUH), answered. “What if he does not have anything to give?” He, (PBUH), was asked. “He should help a helpless person.” He, (PBUH), replied. “What if he can not?” He, (PBUH), was asked. “He should bid for a good thing.” He, (PBUH), answered. “What if he can not do (that) well?” He, (PBUH), was asked. “Don’t you wish to leave for your fellow one good thing?!” He, (PBUH), asked. No human being is deprived of all merits. If you have an employee who is a little negligent but honest, try to tell him: “I am pleased with your honesty.” A man entered upon Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), while he was performing prayer. Being very careful to catch up with Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), and his venerable Companions in prayer, the man made much noise and disturbance and spoiled their prayer. Allah’s Messenger did nothing but gently addressed the man: “May Allah make you more careful! Do not do that again.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari] In other words, he, (PBUH), praised the man’s carefulness to catch up with Allah’s Messenger and his venerable Companions in prayer and bade him gently not to do that again.

Ibn ‘Abbad, one of the Princes of Andalus (ancient Muslim Spain), was a poet. One day, in the garden of his palace, he began composing a verse saying, “The breeze has spread on the water Zarad (Chains of which an armor is made).”, but he could not complete the verse. A maid of his, who was standing behind him, completed the verse saying, “What a strong armor it would be if it got frozen!” The prince greatly admired his maid and got married to her. Later on, he became king of Andalus and lived happily with her. One day, she desired to remember former days of poverty. She wanted to walk on mud, so he brought musk and camphor, mixed them with rose-water and said: “Here is some mud for you to walk on!” Days went by and someone called Ibn Tashifeen came from Africa to defeat all the kings of Andalus and put them all in jail. When things became so bad for Ibn ‘Abbad, his wife, who had previously been a maid of his and upon whom he had bestowed a great honor by making her a queen, reproached him saying, “I have never seen anything good of you!” He reminded her, “Not even the day of the mud?!” If you have a wife, do not always blame her. If you have a son, do not always reproach him. Doesn’t he have any merits?! If you keep reproaching him, you destroy him. Doesn’t your wife have any merits?! Isn’t she chaste and noble?! When you leave home for work, aren’t you sure of her chastity and honesty?! A true believer does not forget merits of other people. On one of his battles against the infidels of Mecca, namely Badr Expedition, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), saw ‘Ikrimah, his daughter’s husband, among the captives. ‘Ikrimah had come with the infidels of Mecca to fight against his father-in-law, Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), who did not forget that he was his son-in-law, but praised him saying, “By Allah! We have never known him to be a bad son-in-law!” and set him free. The best and most noble thing for you with Allah is to be fair to other fellow humans around you. If you have a wife, children, brothers, neighbors, friends, subordinates, employees, …etc, whose merits you know quite well, try, every now and then, to praise them for such merits. If you do, they will love you and accept your advice and even criticism. Remember what Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said to the man who made great disturbance in the mosque, as above mentioned: “May Allah make you more careful! Do not do that again.”

As a true believer, you should be fair to others. There is an amazing story in this context: When ‘Ikrimah Ibn Abu Jahl came to declare his conversion to Islam, what did Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), say?! He, (PBUH), addressed his venerable Companions: “Here comes ‘Ikrimah to declare his conversion to Islam. Never speak badly of his father!” But who was ‘Ikrimah’s father?! His father was Abu Jahl, one of Allah’s Messenger’s worst enemies. However, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), went on saying, “This is because speaking badly of the dead injures the living but does not reach the dead.” As a true believer, you should always highlight merits of others and cover their demerits. Hunting for mistakes and shortcomings of other fellow humans is by no means a believer’s job. One day, the holy Prophet Jesus, (PBUH), came past a stinking decaying cadaver – and I don’t think there is, in the whole world, anything that looks or smells more horrible than a stinking decaying cadaver. His companions said “How horrible it smells!” He, (PBUH), said: “Do not say that, but rather say: ‘How white and beautiful its teeth are!” Maybe, the lesson we get from such wise words of the holy Prophet, Jesus, (PBUH), is that you can never be a good father, a good teacher, a good preacher, a good merchant, a good factory or hospital director unless you know merits of those who work with you and appreciate and highlight such merits. Once you have done that, you may expect them to accept your advice. If, however, you forget or neglect such merits, and if you hunt for mistakes and shortcomings, they will surely turn away from you. Any way, this is all I can say about Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “AlGhaffar”; and I pray to Allah for success. As dear readers know, no one can ever know the reality of Allah except Allah Himself. In this lecture I mentioned some Quranic Verses and Prophetic Haiths that have to do with this Divine Name, “Al-Ghaffar”, which should always motivate us all to ask Him for forgiveness, for He, glory to Him, is the All-and-Oft-Forgiving. “O Allah! You are All-and-Oft-Forgiving, Most Generous! You like to forgive, so forgive us, o You, Most Generous!” This was one of the most favorite supplications of Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH). Therefore, we should always supplicate Allah with it.

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efore starting with a new Divine Name of Allah’s, namely “AlQahhar” (the Irresistible Subduer), it is necessary to stop at an unchangeable fact about man, explicitly that he has been granted by Allah, Most Gracious, a cognitive power substantiated by his senses, mind, and heart. The senses feel, the mind thinks and the heart feels. The five senses are something common among mankind and other living creatures. For, example, there are animals that see, hear, and perceive outer environment by some senses that Allah, All-Mighty, has bestowed upon them. But man, alone, has been granted an intellect, which is called “mind” by some people, and to which Allah, All-Mighty, refers: “And follow not (i.e. do not say, do or witness) that of which you have no knowledge. Verily, man is held responsible for his hearing, sight and heart.” [XVI; 36] In this Quranic Verse the word “heart” means “the mind”, i.e. man is held responsible for his sight, hearing and thoughts. In other words, Allah, Most Gracious, has granted man a heart (i.e. a mind) whereby he conceives things. To this effect, Allah, Glory to Him, says, “Have they not traveled through the land with hearts whereby they understand, ears whereby they hear?! Verily, it is not the eyes that grow blind, but rather, it is the hearts, which are in the breasts, that grow blind.” [XXII; 46] Now what is the difference between sense perception, mental conception and understanding? Sense Perception is to perceive light with your own eyes, hear sound with your ears, smell with your nose or feel heat with your skin. This is sense perception.

But a young child may sometimes put his hand on a snake that feels smooth and looks nice although it is very dangerous. If he were older and knew what a snake is, he would have another different attitude towards it. In other words, a young child may quite often see a snake and touch it with his hand, but he does not know its reality. Therefore, there is a great difference between sense perception and mental perception. Mental conception takes place by way of the mind. You may read an article about dangers of smoking but you still smoke. In other words mental conception is not enough to make you abstain from doing things. But in some cases mental conception reaches a certain degree that makes the mind understand the reality of something and drives us to keep away from it. The accurate difference between understanding and mental conception is that if there is something detrimental and, therefore, you keep away from it, this means that you understand its reality. You may conceive something but do not have a certain definite attitude towards it. But if you understand its reality, you must necessarily have a certain attitude towards it. In other words, there is always a practical attitude with understanding and mental conception with thinking; and mental conception makes knowledge. Sometimes man is driven by his desires and not by his knowledge. In other words, most people know what is lawful and what is unlawful, for, as Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says “Lawful things are evident and so are unlawful things.” They know that by both their minds and pure original human nature. They also know that by the admonition they receive through religious preaching. But why do they still do unlawful things?! Simply because they do not understand their danger. The senses feel and perceive, the mind conceives and the heart understands. The important thing is the heart. When you take a definite practical attitude towards something, this means that you have understood its reality. To this effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “And as to those who believed but did not emigrate, you owe no duty of protection to them until they emigrate; but if they seek your help in religion, it is your duty to help them, except against a people with whom you have a treaty of mutual alliance; and Allah sees well all that which you do.” [VIII; 72] He, All-Mighty, also says, “But if they answer you not, then know that they only follow their own desires; and who is more astray than one who follows one’s own

desires without guidance from Allah?! Verily, Allah guides not the people who are transgressors.” [XXVIII; 50] Both of the above Verses make clear that true believers understood certain obligations and had definite attitudes towards them. A person is not described as understanding unless his mental conceptions are translated into actions, attitudes, and behavior. And the thing that saves man, on the Day of Judgment, is not his knowledge but rather his behavior, attitudes, commitment, straightforwardness, obedience, devotion and adherence to Allah’s Commands. Once again, we reiterate that we perceive by our senses, conceive by our minds, and understand by our hearts. The senses, the mind and the heart constitute cognitive power in man. And if we neglect the cognitive aspect in man, he becomes a mere brute animal. In other words, without knowledge man is a mere animal, for knowledge enhances intellectual power and makes the mind more mature. Also, knowledge is the means whereby we achieve paramount and noble ends. The second fact that I hope you understand is that in Islam knowledge is not an end in itself but rather a means to an end. To this effect, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Learn whatever you desire (to learn), for you shall never be rewarded unless you work by that which you learn.” He, (PBUH), also says, “Knowledge is disastrous to those who acquire it unless they work by it.” In the light of the above two introductory parts, it can be said that man has a cognitive power manifested by the senses, the mind and the heart; and in Islam knowledge is not an end in itself but rather a means to an end, namely application of Allah’s Religion of Islamic Monotheism. The third fact is that in man there is an emotional aspect, an intellectual aspect, and a material physical aspect. The material physical aspect is common among both human beings and animals: Human beings eat, and so do animals; and human beings get tired and sleep, and so do animals. Moreover, a lot of animals excel human beings in some of these physical qualities. Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Qahhar”:

We have already mentioned that Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names do not differ in regards to their levels. A doctor may sometimes have certain knowledge according to which he treats a patient. But later on, he may acquire more knowledge and experience that make his treatment more effective. In other words, the more knowledge a doctor acquires, the better treatment he gives to his patients. Such change and improvement can be applied to human beings, but with Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, things are completely different. There is no difference between Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names. Then, how does an ordinary neutral (non-emphatic) Name such as “Al-Qahir” occur in the Quranic Verse, “And He (Allah) is AlQahir (the Irresistible Sunduer) over His slaves, and He sends guardians (Angels) over you, until when death approaches one of you, Our Messengers (Angel of death and his assistants) take his soul, and they never neglect their duty.” [VI; 61], while an emphatic form of the same Name, “Al-Qahhar”, occur in another Verse, “The Day when they will (all) come out, nothing of them will be hidden from Allah. Whose is the Kingdom today?! It belongs to Allah, Alone, the One, Al-Qahhar (the Irresistible Subduer).” [XL; 16]?! How can we reconcile the non-emphatic Name “Al-Qahir” with the emphatic one “Al-Qahhar”, taking into consideration that Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names do not differ as regards their significance?! This seems problematic. Previously, while we were explaining Allah’s Name “Al-Ghaffar”, I said that if someone eats food, he is called in Arabic “Akil” (i.e. someone eating food), but he is not called “Akoul” (i.e. someone who eats too much or too often) unless he eats a lot or too often. Emphasis is placed either on number or quality. When Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names come in the emphatic form, they mean repetition and not difference in quality, because the level of Allah’s Names is always the same. In this context, the well-known scholar and Imam, Al-Ghazali, said: “It is not possible to have better than that which has been” He means to say, “I can not have anything better than that which He (Allah) has given me.” Allah, All-Mighty, is Wise in creating both an ant and a galaxy. He is Wise to the same degree in creating both the tiniest and the most gigantic

creatures. He is All-Knowing. His Wisdom and Knowledge are both Infinite and Absolute. If His Names change, this is because of the change of the creatures not because of the change of the Creator. If a Divine Name occurs in the emphatic form, this is only for emphasizing repetition and not change of quality, for Allah’s Qualities are Absolute and Unchangeable. Sometimes a person fights an enemy and defeats him, but he might not be able to defeat a second or third enemy. But when we say that our Lord, Allah, is the One, the Irresistible Subduer, this means that all creatures are constantly subdued by His Infinite Divine Power and dominated thereby. “Whose is the Kingdom today?! It belongs to Allah, Alone, he One, AlQahhar (the Irresistible Subduer).”… “And He (Allah) is Al-Qahir (the Irresistible Subduer) over His slaves,” And Allah, All-Mighty, also says, “And Allah has full power and control over His Affairs, but most of them know not.” [XI; 21] Yes, indeed! Allah has full power over His Affairs. To this purport does go the story of the holy Prophet Joseph, (PBUH). Another story in which Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Qahhar” is clearly manifested is that of the holy Prophet Moses, (PBUH), with Pharaoh, who wanted to slaughter all the male infants of the children of Israel in order to prevent fulfillment of a dream that he saw, namely that a male infant from among the children of Israel would destroy his kingdom. Allah, the Irresistible Subduer, defeated him by making him bring up, in his own palace, the same infant who would destroy his kingdom. In fact, all of Allah’s Divine Acts stem from, and manifest, all of His Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. This is why the Quranic Verses that speak about Allah’s Divine Self include the personal pronoun “Ana” (“ I ” in English), while those that speak about His Divine Acts include the personal pronoun “Nahnou” ( “we” in English): “Verily, it is We Who give life and cause to die; and to Us is the Final Return.” [L; 43], “Verily, it is We Who have sent down the Quran to you by stages.” [LXXVI;23], and “Verily, I am Allah! There is no god but Me. So, worship Me and perform prayer for My remembrance.” [XX; 14]

As clearly seen in the above Verses, when the first person singular pronoun “Ana” (I) is used, it refers to Allah’s Divine Self; but when the first person plural pronoun “Nahnu” (We) is used, it refers to the fact that all of Allah’s Beautiful Names are included in His Divine Acts. And when we say that Allah is Al-Hearing, All-Seeing, Kind, All-Powerful, All-Mighty, All-Wise, we do this only for academic study and analysis, for all of Allah’s Divine Names and Attributes are included in one another. And sometimes, Allah, All-Mighty, gathers together all of His Divine Names in Collective Names, as in His Words, “Blessed is the Name of your Lord (Allah), the Owner of Majesty and Honor.” [LV; 78] Majesty is a quality that gives the sense of Divine Greatness; bestowing honor is another quality that gives the sense of Generosity and Bounty. In your daily life, you may deal with someone whom you glorify but do not love, and you may deal with someone whom you love but do not glorify. In your relationship with Allah, All-Mighty, the ideal thing is to combine both glorification and love towards Him. This is because our Lord, Glory to Him, is Most Merciful, Kind, Gentle, Friendly, Compassionate, Generous, AllPardoning and All-Forgiving as much as He is Majestic, Great, Sublime, Supreme, Powerful, Mighty, Exalted, Irresistible, Omnipotent, and SelfExistent. In other words, some of Allah’s Divine Names and Attributes have to do with His Divine Majesty and some have to do with His Divine Honor, which are both found in a couple of Verses: “And the Face of your Lord (Allah) full of Majesty and Honor will remain forever.” [LV; 27], and, “Blessed is the Name of your Lord (Allah), full of Majesty and Honor.” [ibid; 78] In both Names, Majesty and Honor, all of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes are included and manifested. Sometimes, in the question of straightforwardness, the Lord, Glory to Him, mentions only two of His Divine Names. For example, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “It is Allah Who has created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof. His Command descends between them (the heavens and the earth), so that you may know that Allah has power over all things, and that Allah encompasses all things in (His) Knowledge.” [LXV; 12] In the above Verse Allah, Praised and Exalted, mentions only two of His Divine Names and Attributes, explicitly, His Divine Knowledge and Power.

This is because you will never obey His Divine Commands unless you firmly believe that both His Divine Knowledge and Power encompass you. In such an issue as straightforwardness you need to believe in Allah’s two Attributes: Knowledge and Power. In order to be straightforward and magnify the Lord, you also have to believe that He is full of Majesty and Honor. As mentioned above, Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Qahhar” (the Irresistible Subduer) comes in a non-emphatic form such as “Al-Qahir”, as in the Quranic Verse, “And He (Allah) is Al-Qahir (the Irresistible Subduer) over His slaves, and He sends guardians (Angels) over you, until when death approaches one of you, Our Messengers (Angel of death and his assistants) take his soul, and they never neglect their duty.” [VI; 61], and in an emphatic form, “Al-Qahhar”, as in another Verse, “The Day when they will (all) come out, nothing of them will be hidden from Allah. Whose is the Kingdom today?! It belongs to Allah, Alone, he One, Al-Qahhar (the Irresistible Subduer).” [XL; 16]?! There is a very delicate Quranic Verse in which Allah, All-Mighty, says, “The Path of Allah, to Whom does belong all that which is in the heavens and all that is in the earth. Verily, all matters, in the end, go to Allah (for decision).” [XLII; 53] It might be surprising!! These are Allah’s Divine Words!! But why does Allah say, “Verily, all matters, in the end, go to Allah (for decision).”? Where are all matters now?! Aren’t they with Allah?! In whose hand are they now?! Allah’s Words in the above Verse may seemingly mean that all matters, before and now, in the past and present are not in Allah’s Hand, but they will be in His Hand in the end. In fact, most people are heedless of the truth, for they wrongly think that matters are in the hands of other humans, that such and such decision is in the hand of such and such person. They, quite often, say, “If so and so desires to grant you honor, he can raise you up to the utmost; but if he gets angry with you, he makes you lowest of the low.” This is mere polytheism! This is mere illusion! On the Day of Resurrection, all mankind will definitely get to know that the Kingdom and Dominion do belong, everywhere and at all times, to Allah, the One, the Omnipotent, the Irresistible Subduer. But now, in the present world, only true believers and knowledgeable holy scholars know such an indisputable truth, which all mankind will get to know in the Hereafter.

Allah, All-Mighty, says, “And He (Allah) is Al-Qahir (the Irresistible Subduer) over His slaves, and He is The All-Wise, the All-Aware.” [VI; 18], and, “The Day when they will (all) come out, nothing of them will be hidden from Allah. Whose is the Kingdom today?! It belongs to Allah, Alone, he One, Al-Qahhar (the Irresistible Subduer).” [XL; 16] This Name also comes implicitly, as in Allah’s Words, “And Allah has full power and control over His Affairs, but most of mankind know not.” This means that His decision is the Dominant Irresistible one. To this effect, A Divine Hadith goes, “O My slave! I have created, for you, the heavens and the earth; and I have not been tired out by their creation. Can I be tired out by a piece of bread that I bestow upon you every now and then?! O My salve! I have (ordained) for you an obligation; and you have provision (to receive) from Me. Even if you disobey Me concerning My Obligation (that I have ordained for you), I do not deprive you of your provision (that you receive from Me). By My Might and Majesty! If you are not contented with that which I allot for you, I shall set on you this present world, in which you shall be made to run as wild animals run in the wilderness. Then, you shall get from it (the present world) nothing except that which I have already decreed for you; and I shall not care; and you shall (then) be dispraised by Me…” In another Divine Hadith, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “O My slave! You will, and I will. If you surrender to Me in what I will, I suffice you in what you will. But if you do not surrender to Me in what I will, I tire you out in what you will, and then, nothing shall be except what I will.” The above Divine Hadith makes clear Allah’s Beautful Divine Name “AlQahhar” (the Irresistible Subduer): Allah’s Decision is Irresistible. Things may seem to turn and turn, but Allah’s Decision dominates despite all things. Some people who read some books that speak about the evil plots of the Jews say, “Such a plan is Jewish.” But Jews are mere human beings. They plan and plot, for they are the most evil treacherous of all mankind. Nevertheless, what they do is not theirs; it is Allah’s. If you think that they are the doers and that what goes on in the world is out of their plans and plots, you are grievously mistaken. You should believe that Allah’s Divine Plan contains their human plan, for Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious, may exploit their evil plots for admonishing and deterring some of His slaves. To this effect, Allah, the Irresistible Subduer, says, “And thus do We set the

wrong-doers on one another because of that of which they have earned.” [VI; 129] If you say, “So and so does what he does.”, you unknowingly fall easy prey to polytheism. The right thing to say is: “Allah has full power and control over His Affairs, but most of mankind know not.” You should the Divine Hadith: “You will, and I will. If you surrender to Me in what I will, I suffice you in what you will. But if you do not surrender to Me in what I will, I tire you out in what you will, and then, nothing shall be except what I will.” Linguistically speaking, “Al-Qahr” means subduing, oppressing or overcoming, as in Allah’s Divine Command: “Therefore, do not oppress an orphan!” [XCIII; 9] By the way, there are always Divine Names and Attributes, which, if given to a human being, they bear a negative connotation and denote dispraise, but if they are attributed to Allah, All-Mighty, they denote Divine Perfection. Let’s have the following parable: Someone is in need of financial help and, therefore, he goes to two people, one is very rich and has a lot of money, while the other is poor and has nothing. If the poor person says, “I shall give you the money.”, this would be imperfect of him and would mean that he is a mere liar. If, however, he says, “I’m sorry! I am poor. I have nothing to give you.”, this would be truthful and perfect on his part. In other words, perfection for the poor person is to be truthful and not to claim what he cannot do or does not own. As for the rich person, if he says, “I am poor! I have nothing to give you!”, while he is rich and can help the man, it would be imperfect of him. Therefore, “Al-Mutakkabir” (the Sublime, the Supreme) is one of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes; and it denotes praise and glorification of Allah, All-Mighty: if anyone takes refuge with Him, He will certainly grant him all that he asks for. The same word “Mutakabbir” denotes imperfection and dispraise to the poor person in the above-mentioned parable, who did not have anything to give to the man, or the rich person, who, due to his being niggardly, did not give the man any money. In this context, Allah, “Al-Mutakabbir” (the Sublime, the Supreme), says, “And He (Allah) found you poor, and so He enriched you. Therefore, do not oppress an orphan, nor repulse a beggar. And proclaim the Grace of your Lord.”[XCIII; 8-11]

Allah’s Name “Al-Qahhar” is the emphatic word for His Name “Al-Qahir”; and it has a quantitative rather than qualitative emphasis, since qualitative emphasis does not befit Allah’s Divine Perfection. It may be known to you, dear reader, that Allah’s Divine Names are of three types: Those that describe Allah’s Divine Self, those that describe His Divine Attributes, and those that describe His Divine Acts. In this context, scholars said that Allah is “Al-Qahir” in the sense that He is Able to prevent anyone else from doing anything against His Divine Will and Desire, i.e. His Divine Will is Irresistible. That is why it has been rightly said, “You will and I will, but Allah, Alone, does what He wills.”, and “Whatever Allah wills is, and whatever Allah wills not is not.” Moreover, Allah’s Name “Al-Qahhar” is strongly connected with Islamic Monotheism; and mankind can never learn anything better than Monotheism. If we say, “Allah’s Name “Al-Qahhar” denotes Divine Ability in a certain form.”, it is one of the Names that have to do with Allah’s Divine Self. But if we say that it is a Divine Act that prevents others from doing what they desire, then, it is one of the Names that have to do with Allah’s Divine Acts. Some scholars say that Allah’s Name “Al-Qahhar” (the Irresistible Subduer) means that He, All-Mighty, subdues non-existence, which is anything except Allah, All-Mighty. In other words, All things, except Allah, were non-existing, and it is Allah Who brought them all into existence. Furthermore, the existence of all things does not continue without Allah’s Divine Will and Power. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “Verily! Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they should move away from their places; and if they were to move away from their places, there is none that could grasp them after Him. Truly, He is Ever Most Forbearing, Oft-and-All-Forgiving.” [XXXV; 41] In the above Verse the heavens and the earth refer to the whole universe, with its planets, stars and galaxies, which are all in constant motion, without which it would be one single mass of matter. This is because the power of gravitational pull that exists between all of the heavenly objects causes them to attract one another in positive proportion with their masses. By His Infinite Divine Wisdom Allah, All-Mighty, has put such gravitational pull, which is invisible to the human eye, between all the heavenly objects in order to keep them moving; otherwise the whole universe would become an immense mass of matter. This is because the bigger heavenly object would

attract the smaller one, and so on and so forth. Centrifugal force, which is the outcome of motion and is equal to the power of gravitational pull, keeps all of the heavenly objects in constant motion and prevents them from becoming one solid block of matter. The earth has been moving round the sun for millions of years; nevertheless, it has never been attracted to it. Once again, we repeat Allah’s Words mentioned above, “Verily! Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they should move away from their places; and if they were to move away from their places, there is none that could grasp them after Him. Truly, He is Ever Most Forbearing, Oft-and-All-Forgiving.” [XXXV; 41] The words “lest they should move away from their places” mean that the One Who compelled the heavenly objects and kept them in orbit is Allah, All-Mighty. Thus, Allah, All-Mighty, is the One Who subdued non-existence and brought it into existence. All things that He created had been originally non-existing. Therefore, the origin of all things, except Allah, is nonexistence and shall perish in the end. Also, all things that are preceded by non-existence and shall be made to perish are incidental and not selfexistent, but Allah, Glory to Him, is Self-Existent. He has neither a beginning nor an end. He is the First with no beginning and the Last with no end. The Lord, Allah, All-Mighty, is Al-Qahhar (the Subduer) of non-existence in the sense that by His Irresistible Divine Power and Will He, Glory to Him, brought all things into existence after they had been non-existing. They are made to maintain their existence only by His Divine Sustenance and Protection. At any moment, Allah is Able to cause any existing thing to perish and to become non-existing. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “Allah! There is no god but Him, the Ever Living, the One Who sustains and protects all that exists. Neither slumber nor sleep overtakes Him. To Him does belong whatever is in the heavens and whatever is in the earth…” [II; 255] In other words, existence of all things is in Allah’s Hand. Therefore, one of the meanings of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “AlQahhar” is that He, All-Mighty, subdued all things and brought them into existence by His Irresistible Divine Power. To this effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “He (Pharaoh) said: ‘Who, then, O Moses, is the Lord of both of you (Moses and Aaron)?’ He (Moses) said: ‘Our Lord is He

(Allah), Who gave to each thing its form and nature, then guided it aright.’” [XX; 49,50] Before they were brought into existence by Allah’s Irresistible Will and Power, all existing things were non-existing. Therefore, non-existence is the original state of all things; and without Allah’s Irresistible Will and Power they would have never been brought into existence. It is Allah’s Word “Be!” and things are, and “Perish!” and things perish. You, dear reader: Your existence and survival are both by Allah and under His Irresistible Divine Power and Will. Organs and systems of your body provide clear evidence of such fact: your brain, with its 140,000,000,000 cells, your perception and senses, your memory, your mental judgment, your imagination, your glands, …etc. have been bestowed on you by the Lord, Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious, and they will be made to perish upon death. Compare an active living person, who is in full power and energy, moving, thinking, judging, acting, seeing, hearing, smelling, touching, feeling, taking attitudes, running businesses, and building up human civilization, to a motionless dead body! The difference between a dead body and a living person full of energy and power is simply such Divine Grace from Allah, AlQahhar (the Irresistible Subduer), Who compels non-living matter to become a living human being that thinks, sees, hears, smells, moves, makes decisions, gets angry, gets delighted, …etc. If a human being is weighed just a few moments before and after his death, it will be found out he loses nothing of his weight upon death. It is Allah’s Divine Power that grants him his soul, which is the secret of his life. Should his soul be taken away from him, he would be a mere dead mass of matter. Some scholars say that Allah, All-Mighty, is Al-Qahhar (The Irresistible Subduer) in the sense that He, Alone, is the One Who subdues non-existence and turns it into existence, and then He subdues existence by His Irresistible Divine Power and Will. The sun, for example, is 500,000,000 years old and seems to be an endless source of energy for us on earth, whose resources are too tiny compared to the sun. The tank of a car has to be refilled with fuel after running for a certain number of kilometers, and so has a fuel tank of a building’s heating system after a cold winter. All natural resources will certainly run out, even

the sun, which seems to be an endless source of energy. Their existence and survival are both in Allah’s Hand and under His Irresistible Divine Power and Will. It is Allah, All-Mighty, that brings things into existence and makes them survive for a pre-decreed term. Another meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Qahhar” is that all the heavenly objects, some of which are many times bigger than both the earth and the sun, are held and kept in orbit by Allah’s Irresistible Divine Power. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “Verily! Allah grasps the heavens and the earth lest they should move away from their places; and if they were to move away from their places, there is none that could grasp them after Him. Truly, He is Ever Most Forbearing, Oftand-All-Forgiving.” [XXXV; 41] Some scholars say: In life, there are four basic elements: water, air, fire, and soil. Such elements are non-congruent, but by His Irresistible Divine Power, Allah united them together in perfect harmony. Therefore, one of the meanings of Allah’s Name “Al-Qahhar” is that He, Most Gracious, unites incongruent things together in perfect harmony. In other words, you can not make the sea burn, but Allah, All-Mighty, can. In this context, He swears: “By the sea that will be set on fire!” How can water, which is used to put out fire, be made to burn? Water is made up of Hydrogen and Oxygen. Hydrogen is one of the most burning elements, and Oxygen is one of the most burn-augmenting elements. When you roast meat, why do you use a fan? In order to provide more Oxygen to the burning charcoal to augment fire. In other words, when Hydrogen, which is a burning element, combines with Oxygen, which helps augment burning, they both make water, which is used to put out fire. By His Irresistible Divine Power, Allah, All-Mighty, is Able to make the ocean burn. Therefore, one of the meanings of Allah’s Name “Al-Qahhar” is that He unites incongruent things together in perfect harmony. Water, air, fire, and soil are incongruent things, yet they are united in perfect harmony in creatures. This is the third meaning of Allah’s Name “Al-Qahhar”. Another thing: the soul is a weightless luminary non-material thing, while the human body is a massy material thing. Between them both there is a kind of incongruity, nevertheless, Allah, All-Mighty, by His Irresistible Divine Power has made the soul dwell in the body.

An example: If you have a metal that you want to stick to another, you are told that it cannot be welded except by using a special kind of weld. Aluminum can not be welded by the weld that we use for iron, because both metals are incongruent. Allah, All-Mighty, made the soul non-material luminary weightless and heavenly just as He made the body massy, material and earthly. Nevertheless, He, All-Mighty, united them both together in man. In other words, man is made up of both a body and a soul. Sometimes, his soul brightens, which appears clearly on his face. But sometimes, his soul darkens, which also appears clearly on his face. This means that man is a creature made up of a heavenly element and an earthly one; and quite often he clings himself heavily to the earth. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “O you who believe! What is the matter with you?! When you are asked to march forth in the Cause of Allah, you cling heavily to the earth! Are you pleased with life of this world rather than the Hereafter?! Little is the enjoyment of the life of this world compared to the Hereafter.” [IX; 38] In other words, you direct yourself towards the earth, you direct yourself towards the perishable pleasures and enjoyments of the present world. The fourth meaning of Allah’s Name “Al-Qahhar” (the Irresistible Subduer) is that sometimes He, All-Mighty, humiliates tyrants and oppressors by diseases and illnesses. Quite often, you see a great king who loves his wife, but he is made barren and, therefore, has to pay lots and lots of his wealth to have a baby, but all goes in vain. Another king suffers from an incurable disease of which he would not be cured even if he spent all his wealth. Another meaning of Allah’s Name “Al-Qahhar” is that He, All-Mighty, subdues all His slaves by death: Prophets, Messengers, the powerful, the weak, the rich, the poor, the healthy, the ill, kings, princes, common people, …etc, all human beings are inevitably made to pass away by Allah, AllMighty. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says, “You will certainly be made to pass away, and they (all mankind) will certainly be made to pass away.” Even the Angel of Death himself will be made to pass away by Allah, Al-Qahhar (the Irresistible Suduer). Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), also says, “Glorified is Allah! Verily, death has its own agonies.” Yes, indeed! Allah, Al-Qahhar (the Irresistible Subduer) does humiliate tyrants and oppressors sometimes by diseases and illnesses, sometimes by disasters and eventually by death.

The fifth meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name Al-Qahhar is that He subdues the human minds and prevents them from knowing the reality of His Holy Infinite Divine Self, which has neither a beginning nor an end. He, AllMighty, prevents the human minds from encompassing the Glamour of His Divine Majesty. Beware of saying, “I realize how Great Allah is.”, for this would mean that you encompass Him in knowledge just as you do when you hold a small thing and know its dimensions and weight. Your mind leads you to Allah, His Existence, His Infinite Divine Might and Power, but it can by no means get to know the reality of His Divine Self. In other words, no one can ever know Allah, except Allah, Himself. To this effect, Allah, AllMighty, says, “And of knowledge, you (mankind) have been given only a little.” [XVII; 85], and, “And they encompass none of His Knowledge except that which He wills.” [II; 255] Yes, indeed! Your mind can lead you to Him and helps you to know about Him only as much as He wills to allow you. This is because man’s mind is limited and can by no means know the reality of Allah’s Infinite Holy Divine Self. Therefore, a wise person does not aspire to answer all the questions about Allah, All-Mighty; and such lack of knowledge on his part does not mean that he is ignorant. Someone asked another about the sea: “How many liters does it make?”. The latter looked at him saying, “That is very simple. It makes one million, seven hundred and sixty-six liters.” This answer is mere ignorance because it gives numbers. If someone asks you, “How big is an ocean?” but you do not have any means or standards whereby you can measure the size of the ocean, if you give a certain definite number, this means that you are ignorant, but if you say, “I do not know.”, this means you are knowledgeable. This is because in answer to such a question the words, “I do not know” reflect real knowledge, but the words, “I know” reflect mere ignorance. That is why it has been rightly said: “Claiming that one knows the reality of Allah’s Divine Self is mere ignorance. But admitting that one does not know the reality of Allah’s Divine Self is real knowledge.” In other words, if you say, “I know. I have answers to all of the questions. I know everything about Allah.”, this provides clear evidence that you know nothing, for no one can ever encompass in knowledge the reality of Allah’s Divine Self. The sixth meaning of Allah’s Name Al-Qahhar (the Irresistible Subduer) is that He kept the knowledge of the secrets of a great many natural

phenomena only for Himself. Therefore, whenever a certain natural phenomenon takes place, one should say, “Glorified and Praised is Allah! I do not know the wisdom behind such incident.” A country was visited by an earthquake that claimed the lives of 90,000 people. There is wisdom underlying such a natural phenomenon, because my mind is unable to understand the wisdom behind it. Every time I see a natural disaster taking place before me, I am not supposed to give a simple explanation of it. This is because my explanation might be naïve. If I say, “They have been afflicted by such a natural disaster because of their sins and misdeeds.”, such an explanation is fairly acceptable, but sometimes, even true believers are inflected with disasters as a kind of trial and spiritual enhancement. Therefore, the ideal thing to do in this concern is to admit that you do not know everything and that you do not the secrets of such phenomenon. Another example, if you say that the AIDS is a kind of Divine Punishment for ethical deviation and illegal sexual relations. Such an explanation is fair enough, but there are other phenomena that are too hard to explain. For example, it is not easy to find an answer to the question: “Why is a certain nation or people poor?” However, it may be attributed to Allah’s Divine Wisdom. The seventh and all-embracing meaning of Allah’s Divine Name AlQahhar (the Irresistible Subduer) is that He, All-Mighty, has subdued all His creatures to His Irresistible Divine Will. To this effect, He, All-Mighty, says, “And they encompass none of His Knowledge except that which He wills.” [II; 255] An example: You have a hundred electrical appliances at home; and you have a special switch to work them all. If you turn the switch off, all of the appliances stop working: the fridge, the washing machine, …etc. All driving powers are in Allah’s Hand, i.e. no human being could ever move one single inch or do one single thing except by Allah’s Irresistible Divine Will and Leave. Therefore, Allah, All-Mighty, is Al-Qahhar (the Irresistible Subduer). Once again, we repeat Allah’s Words, “And they encompass none of His Knowledge except that which He wills.” [II; 255] In short, all things other than Allah, All-Mighty, are subdued by His Infinite Divine Power and Might and are in bad humble need to His Infinite Divine Provision and Sustenance.

However, there are other meanings of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “AlQahhar”. For example, some scholars say: “Al-Qahir is He (Allah), Who subdued the selves of worshippers.” In interpretation of such meaning and to Allah does belong the Supreme example - the following example can be put forward: A very beautiful young girl whose fiancé is up to his ears in love with her, so she has full power and command over him. The same thing applies to a powerful wealthy person who has full power and control over the poor and weak. That is why Allah, All-Mighty, says, “If only those who do wrong could see, when they will see the Torment, that all Power belongs to Allah and that Allah is Severe in punishment.” [II; 165] Allah, All-Mighty, is the Source of all kinds of power: if you turn to Him with love, obedience and devotion, He bestows on you far more happiness and peace than whatever happiness and peace human beings can ever give you. If you turn to Allah, Most Gracious, with love, obedience and devotion, He grants you much more happiness and contentment than that which the wealthiest people can ever feel. If you turn to Allah, Most Merciful, with love, obedience and devotion, you feel far more powerful than those who affiliate themselves with the most powerful of all mankind. That is why it has been rightly said: “If you desire to be the most powerful of all mankind, put your trust in Allah; if you desire to be the richest of all mankind, be more confident in what is in Allah’s Hands than that which is in your own hands; and if you desire to be the noblest of all mankind, fear Allah and be dutiful to Him.” Therefore, Al-Qahir is Allah, Who subdues, and has full command over, the selves of His worshippers so as to keep them committed and devoted to Him. In other words, those who turn to Allah, Most Gracious, are helped to get to know the real Truth and live in real happiness. That is why they keep showing faithful obedience and sincere devotion to Him. In other words, Allah, fascinates them with His Infinite Divine Beauty, Perfection and Compassion to an extent that makes them desire nothing of the perishable enjoyments and pleasures of the life of the present world. Their ultimate goal is not the Gardens of Aden Nor the Beautiful virgin Houris or Tents of Paradise. They seek to The Most Beloved (Allah): such is their Utmost Goal, And such is the desire of the noblest and most honorable.

A young man once fell in love with a young woman in Damascus. His parents were afraid that he would be fascinated by her, so they sent him to a distant foreign country to study at one of its universities. They gave him a lot of money, but he spent it all on phone-calls with his beloved girl in Damascus. In other words, his beloved girl fascinated him and subdued him by her beauty and love. If you know Allah, Most Gracious, Most Beautiful, you will certainly be fascinated and subdued by His Infinite Divine Beauty and Perfection. Therefore, Allah, All-Mighty, is Al-Qahir, Who fascinates His worshippers and keeps them devoted to Him and Who subdues the hearts of those who seek Him by His Infinite Divine Kindness. A believer’s share of Allah’s Name “Al-Qahhar” (the Irresistible Subduer): A true believer who knows Allah, knows for sure that He, All-Mighty, is AlQahhar (the Irresistible Subduer). But when does this happen? When he knows the reality of his being a slave of Allah’s. This is because it has been rightly said that he who knows himself knows his Lord; and he who knows his Lord knows himself. Such words as, “I shall do so and so.” And “I shall give so and so.” Are never used by a true believer, because they clash with his Lord’s Name “Al-Qahhar” (the Irresistible Suduer). Nevertheless, a true believer can be a “qahhar” (a subduer) in a special sense of the word, i.e. when he subdues his lusts and desires, which they are his worst enemies. If he so does, this means that he has full command over his own self. This is exactly the meaning of Allah’s Words, “But as for him who fears standing before his Lord and restrained himself from impure evil desires and lusts, verily, Paradise will be his abode.” [LXXIX; 40] A human being who follows his evil lusts, caprices and desires commits countless sins and misdeeds that displeases the Lord, Allah, All-Mighty. He backbites and slanders other fellow humans, he transgresses against the rights of others, and all his actions and movements are away from Allah’s Divine Guidance and Religion. In other words, he follows his own evil desires and lusts and, hence, he fails to be “qahhar” over such desires and lusts, i.e. he fails to subdue his lusty desires and caprices but is rather subdued by them.

Therefore, as a true believer, you have to subdue your own lusts and desires, which are your worst enemies. If you so do, you achieve in yourself this great name “Al-Qahhar”, whereby you know your Lord and attain, by showing adequate obedience and devotion to Him, His Divine Love, Compassion and Pleasure.

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ow, we move on to the eleventh of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, “Al-Wahhab” (the All-Giver). O Allah! Give us from You Mercy that overwhelms us in this present world and the world to come. Verily You are “Al-Wahhab” (the All-Giver)! First of all, man is made up of both a mind and a heart. With his mind, he gets to know Allah; and with his heart, he loves Him. As scholars see it, this Divine Name is related to love, but before we set out to explain the meaning of the Arabic word “Al-Wahhab”, I would like to give an example from our daily life. If a poor young man, who lives a poor miserable wretched life, is chosen by a wealthy person to be the husband of his dutiful, obedient, good mannered, chaste, believing, well-educated daughter, and if he is granted not only a house but also a shop and a car as well, isn’t the heart of this young man filled with love, praise, thankfulness and gratitude to the man who bestowed on him all such favors? This is the case of a human being towards another human being who does him a favor, so what would the case be if Allah, Lord of all worlds bestows on one of His slaves His Divine Favors? In this context, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “O David! Remind My slaves of My Favors to them, for people are predisposed to love those who do them favors and hate those who do them disfavors.” The purpose of knowing Allah’s Name “Al-Wahhab” (the All-Giver) is to love Allah, Most Gracious, for love is the essence of faith. In fact, Islamic religion is not only facts to understand and learn but also feelings and emotions to live. A Muslim’s mind should believe not only in Allah’s existence, Might and Majesty but also in His Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. At the same time, a Muslim’s heart should abound in love for Allah, Most Gracious. I would like to put forward the following fact before my dear readers: What motivates man is his love more than his mind. Driven by his love man sacrifices everything, but by using his mind, he may be convinced, he may believe, and he may be certain, but he does not move.

Therefore, preachers and callers for Allah have to address both people’s minds and hearts at the same time. If they effect in man mental convincement, they achieve only one half of success, but if, in addition to mental convincement, they make in him an attitude based on love, they achieve complete success. In other words, you are, above all, a human being with both a mind and a heart. If you use your mind to contemplate the universe, you get to know Allah, the Almighty. If you realize the Great Divine Favors that Allah, Most Gracious, bestows upon you, you love Him with all of your heart. Moreover, if you love Allah, this means that you are rightly guided. A human being is not a real human being unless he/she loves. While we were at the university, a professor of psychology retired and his colleagues and students held a party in honor of the occasion. He delivered a speech that I shall never forget: “A person who does not feel desirous to love and be loved is not a human being.” In other words, you do not deserve to be called “a human being” if you are hard-hearted. Therefore, love is indispensable for human life. The remarkable thing about the Prophet’s venerable Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, is that they did many feats. Why did they achieve the impossible? Why did they purchase themselves for the Cause of Allah? Why did they sacrifice everything? If the finger of one of us is wounded, he cries out, bandages it, excuses himself from meetings and even has a sick leave. Consider what the venerable Companion, Ja’far, may Allah be pleased with him, did! He received a blow of a sword that chopped off his right hand, so he held the flag with his left hand. Another blow came to chop off his left hand, so he managed to hold the flag with his upper arms and to keep holding it until he fell dead. What love could drive him to sacrifice his life? Another example is Al-Khansa’. Before she embraced Islam, she filled the world with her wailing and lamentation when her brother Sakhr was murdered. However, after she embraced Islam, her four sons died as martyrs in the battle of Al-Qadisiyah. The only thing she did was that she said: “Praise to Allah, Who honored me by their martyrdom, and I beseech Allah to join me with them in the shade of His Mercy.”

A third example is the venerable Companion Khubaib bin 'Udai, whom the infidels had seized and tied up to a tree in order to kill him. When Abu Sufian, the head of disbelievers, came to him, asking, “Would you like that Muhammad be in your place?” In this context, the words that common people usually say are: “Let a thousand mothers cry except mine.” Abu Sufian repeated his question, “Would you like that Muhammad be in your place?” Most bravely and confidently, Khubaib, may Allah be pleased with him, answered, “I swear by Allah! I would not like to be with my family and children, prosperous and healthy, while Muhammad be hurt with a prick.” What a great love! Read biographies of the venerable Companions, and you find incredible fabulous feats based on love, for they sincerely loved their Lord, Allah, Most Gracious, and His Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH). I would like to tell all dear readers: Love does stand behind every sacrifice, commitment, obedience and surmounting hardships and difficulties. Similarly, love stands behind all kinds of happiness, for one is never happy unless one loves Allah, Most Merciful, Whose Door is constantly open. The door of some human celebrities is open for some people but closed for others; they accept some people but reject others; and they are never pleased once they have been angered. However, Allah’s Door is constantly open to everyone… “If a disobedient slave turns to Allah, Most Gracious, with repentance, it is called out in the heavens and the earth, ‘Congratulate so and so, for he has become reconciled with Allah!” If we look upon Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Wahhab” from the perspective of our original pure nature and disposition, our heart will be filled with love for our Maker, Allah, Most Gracious. As soon as our heart is filled with love for Allah, we find out our Lord’s Infinite Divine Care, Love, Help, and Guidance to us, and we feel ultimate success and prosperity.

In the light of the above-mentioned facts, we understand that love is the basis of Faith. To this effect, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “He who has no love has not Faith.” However, when does man’s heart get into a state of unrest? The answer is: It is the token of a true believer that when Allah is mentioned, his heart gets into a state of unrest. To this effect, Allah, Glory to Him, says, “The believers are only those who, when Allah is mentioned, feel a fear in their hearts, and when His Verses are recited unto them, they increase them in Faith, and they put their trust in their Lord (Alone).” [VIII; 2] Such is the token of the heart of someone who believes in his Lord, Allah, Exalted and Glorified. This is because man does not adorn or be courteous towards his own self nor does he flatter his own self. On the contrary, he constantly takes care of, and examines, his heart, asking himself the embarrassing question, “Whom do I really love?” This is because love is more easily claimed than proved true. To this purport, Allah, the Almighty, says, “Say (O Muhammad): ‘if you really love Allah, then follow me, Allah will love you and forgive you your sins. And Allah is OftForgiving, Most Merciful.’” [III; 31] We are overwhelmed with Allah’s Innumerable Divine Favors. Notice what you do when someone pays for you the fare of a public means of transport. You thank him/her heartily and profoundly; and you may even invite them to your own home, just because they have paid for you the fare. Just notice yourself! If someone gives you a gift, you become very thankful and hurry to express your gratitude and love to him/her. You may invite him/her to your own home and even promise to pay him/her a visit. All of this is only because he/she has given you a gift! Such is man! In a Divine Hadith, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “O David! Remind My slaves of My Favors that I bestow upon them, for humans are predisposed to love those who do Favors to them and to hate those who do disfavors to them.” However, what is the difference between a believer and a disbeliever? A disbeliever is someone who lives with his Lord’s Divine Favors but does not remember Him, while a true believer is someone who is always thankful to the Lord for His Divine Favors that He, Most Bounteous, confers upon him. Is it polite or grateful of you, when someone invites you to a great banquet with different kinds of delicious food and drink, to leave before you express

your due thanks to the host? When a fellow human gives you something valuable or does you a favor, you are very thankful to him/her! Then, why are you not thankful enough to the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious, when He confers His Innumerable Divine Favors upon you? Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Have We not made for him a pair of eyes?” [XC; 8] You see your small child, you see your family, you see your brothers, you see forests, trees, and flowers, you see those whom you love, you see the nature around you, you see colors and people, you walk in the street comfortably and safely with things clearly seen around you, you read, you go sight-seeing. You should remember Allah’s Words, “Have We not made for him a pair of eyes, a tongue and a pair of lips?” [XC; 8,9] Once, I went to see someone who was a furniture painter. When I spoke to him, he signaled to me to speak to his assistant, for he was deaf-mute. As soon as I spoke to the assistant, a kind of sign language began to take place between the painter and his assistant. I remembered Allah’s Divine Words, “Have We not made for him a pair of eyes, a tongue and a pair of lips, and shown him the two Ways (of virtue and of evil)?” [XC; 8,9,10] You speak out, expressing your own feelings, emotions and ideas. You say, “Today, I have read an article in the newspaper.” You talk about the interpretation of a certain Quranic Verse or an interesting story. You sit with people and talk to your family and children. You should remember Allah’s Divine Words, “Have We not made for him a pair of eyes, a tongue and a pair of lips, and shown him the two Ways (of virtue and of evil)?” [XC; 8,9,10] At the faculty of education of Damascus university, they taught us that when a baby is born, it has nothing to guarantee its survival except for a single reflex, namely that of sucking. Such is the Make of the Almighty Allah, Who has perfected the Make of all things! If someone touches the burning end of a cigarette, he immediately, and without thinking, pulls his hand off. The well-known scientist, Pavlov, called this “reflex action”. Anyway, without the suck-reflex, with which Allah, Most Merciful, endues the baby, it would have been impossible for humankind to survive. Most amazingly, as soon as the mother gives her breast to her newly born baby, the latter firmly fixes its lips to it and begins sucking, allowing no air to pass through its lips into its mouth, otherwise it would be impossible for it to suck. Without such reflex action, complex as it is, no baby could ever survive.

At this stage of growth, the baby has no other reflexes or knowledge whatsoever. A baby describes any man it sees as its father. Later, it begins to distinguish its own father from other men. How does a baby attain such knowledge? When someone says “a tree”, the baby conceives the meaning of a tree and not an orange or a nut. The formation of conceptions through perceptions is a marvelous human ability! How does man think? How does he make symbols and conceptions? It is a whole world of its own! The function of 140 billion brown cells in the human brain is still unknown. In other words, the human brain is still unable to understand its own self. The difference between believers and disbelievers is that the former know the Benefactor through the Benefaction, while the latter, and similarly those who are profligate and irreligious, enjoy the Benefactions but are completely heedless of the Benefactor. Their heedlessness will certainly lead them to never ending chastisement in Hell-Fire. Believers contemplate Benefactions and their Originator. Every one of us goes home to find his wife, who has her own wisdom, feelings and emotions. He finds his meal ready and his home tidy. A true believer always remembers that these are Valuable Benefactions from the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious. In time of heedlessness, one might say, “I have got married, worked hard, established this house and furnished it. I have collected enough money for the dowry and chosen my good wife.” He says all such things, forgetting the One Who bestowed upon him all such Favors. This is heedlessness of Allah, All Mighty. You should always remember that your good wife is given to you as a gift from the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious. Who has made your baby, who fills your life with happiness and delight, so beautiful and good tempered? Who has made it innocent and naïve? If it dealt with you like an adult, you would not love it. If it were like adults, one word from you would make it angry with you for a long time. You rebuke and reproach your baby, but soon afterwards, it comes to you and even kisses you. Who has endowed the baby with such nice lovable character? Who has endued the baby with such love for his mother and father? It is the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious, “Al-Wahhab” (the All-Giver)! In the field of psychology, specialists carried out an experiment to prove that the brain is the essence of human psychic life. However, they found a baby with a liquid brain, which was very rare. The baby began crying, but when its mother came, it stopped crying. This means that in a human being there is

a Self whose reality no one has ever been able to discover. A well-known book entitled “Man: That unknown Thing” confirms that man has been so far able to discover only too few things about the nature of is own body but nothing about his own Self, which is still very much of a mystery. In this context, Allah, All Mighty, says, “And they ask you concerning the Spirit. Say: ‘The Spirit is one of the things the knowledge of which is only with my Lord.” [XVII; 85] The above-mentioned information was just an introduction by which I meant to show that when we speak about Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “AlWahhab” (the All-Giver), seeing all His Divine Favors that He, Most Gracious, bestows upon us, we must necessarily love Him; and obedience is the token of love. In this context, the verses go: You disobey Allah, claiming that you love Him! Such is, upon my life, a shameful fake claim! Were your love true, you would obey Him! Verily, a true lover obeys his beloved! The Quranic Verses in which Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Wahhab” (the All-Giver) are: “Our Lord! Let not our hearts deviate (from the truth) after You have guided us, and give us mercy from You. Truly, You are Al-Wahhab (the All-Giver).” [III; 8] “To Allah does belong the kingdom of the heavens and the earth. He creates what He wills. He gives female (offspring) to whomever He wills, and He gives male (offspring) to whomever He wills.” [XLII; 49] “And verily, I fear my relatives after me, and my wife is barren. So give me from You an heir.” [XIX; 5] “At that time, Zechariah invoked his Lord, saying, ‘O my Lord! Give me from You a good offspring! You are, indeed, the Hearer of invocation!” [III; 38] In the above Quranic Verses, the use of the imperative “give” denotes invocation, since it is addressed by an inferior slave to the Superior Lord, Allah, All Mighty. In Arabic, the imperative has different denotations. If someone of a certain status asks another of the same status to do something, this is a request. If a person of a higher status tells another of a lower status to do something, it is an order or command. The use of an imperative may give the meaning of

permission as in Allah’s Words: “And eat and drink until the white thread (light) of dawn appears to you distinct from the black thread (darkness of the night), then complete the fast till the nightfall.”[II; 187] If someone gets up before daybreak in the month of Ramadan but does not feel hungry and, therefore, he does not have As-Sohour (the last meal before daybreak during the month of Ramadan), is he disobedient? Scholars say he is not, because the use of the imperatives: “eat” and “drink” does not denote obligation but rather permission. The same thing applies to Allah’s Words, “But when you doff the Ihram (the state of ritual consecration of a Mecca pilgrim), hunt.” [IV; 2] The imperative “hunt” here denotes permission, i.e. it is permissible for you to hunt after you have doffed the Ihram. The imperative may sometimes signify recommendation, as in Allah’s Words, “And marry those among you who are single and the righteous from among your slaves, male and female. If they are poor, Allah will enrich them out of His Bounty. And Allah is All-Sufficient for His creatures’ needs, All-Knowing.” [XXIV; 32] By virtue of the above Verse, Allah, Most Gracious, recommends Muslims to marry those among them who are single and the righteous ones from among their slaves. The imperative may even indicate obligation, as in Allah’s Words, “And perform Salat (Prayer), give Zakat (Alms), and obey the Messenger that you may receive mercy (from Allah).” [XXIV; 56] The above Verse means that Muslims are obliged to perform Prayer, give Alms, and obey Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH). In certain cases, the imperative is used to stand for threat, as in Allah’s Words, “And say, ‘The truth is from you Lord.’ Then, whosoever wills, let him believe; and whosoever wills, let him disbelieve. Verily, We have prepared for the wrong doers a Fire, whose walls will be surrounding them; and if they ask help, they will be given water like boiling oil that will scald their faces. Terrible is the drink and an evil resting place!” [XVIII; 29] The above Verse means that it is up to people to believe or not, providing that they bear consequences of their belief or disbelief. In order to understand the meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “AlWahhab” (the All-Giver), we should ask ourselves: What has Allah, Most Gracious, given us?

The first thing that Allah, Most Gracious, has given us is our existence. In other words, each one of us has his/her existence that Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, has given him/her. Each one of us enjoys his/her existence, good health, food and drink, marriage, a dwelling, a job, a social status, … etc. Who has given you your existence? It is Allah, Glory to Him, Who has given you existence and provided you with sustenance and means of living. For example, how can we deal with rock and iron? We desire to place a bolt into rock to fix a metal lock. If we make a hole in the rock and insert the bolt, it goes down but remains loose. Allah, All Mighty, has created for us a metal, lead, which melts at a low temperature. If we pour the molten lead into the hole and leave it to cool down, it expands and fixes the bolt into the rock, and the bolt becomes part of the rock. Once, I noticed some workers trying to dismantle a metal fence of a garden. The fence was fixed to a rock basis, and the workers were trying to cut the metal fence with a saw. “Why don’t they uproot the fence instead of cutting it into pieces?” I thought. When I asked the workers, they said, “It is a thousand times easier to cut the fence into pieces than to uproot it, because it is fixed with lead.” If Allah, All Mighty, had not created lead, how would it be possible to fix such a metal fence into a rock basis? A dentist puts a special lead fill into your tooth. The fill is firmly fixed in your tooth as soon as the lead expands when it cools down. Allah, Most Gracious, also created gypsum to help you fix a wedge into a wall. You insert a piece of wood together with some gypsum into a hole in a wall; the gypsum expands as soon as it cools down and firmly fixes the wedge into the wall. All things contract as their temperature goes down. Nevertheless, Allah, All Mighty, has made certain substances and metals, such as lead and gypsum, which expand as their temperature goes down. Allah, All Mighty, has created water with no color, smell or taste. If water were pink, human life would be unbearable. If water were sweet, food and all things would be sweet. If water were sticky, how would man wash his body and things? Imagine how things would be if water were made sticky! However, Allah, Most Gracious, has made water fluid, colorless, odorless and tasteless. If water did not evaporate, except at 100° C., the floor of your room would remain wet forever if you spilt water thereon. However, water begins to evaporate at 14° C., and therefore, as soon as you spill some water

on the floor of your room, it evaporates. In addition, water boils at 100° C. If it boiled at 500° C., as oil does, food would burn during cooking. Who has given water its properties? It evaporates at 14° C. It has an amazing fluidity that enables it to flow through the narrowest pores. It has no color, taste or odor: “Verily, You are the All-Giver.” Shall we talk about the whole universe? Shall we talk about the eye or the ear? In a medical experiment, scientists poured some wax into the outer part of a person’s ear. Therefore, he lost the ability to determine direction of the sound-source. Allah, All Mighty, has endowed the outer part of the ear with the ability to receive sounds from all directions and reflect them into the ear’s interior. Who has given you a sound-memory whereby you distinguish different sounds and voices even through the telephone? Who has made you get annoyed when you hear noise but get amused when you hear bird singing? Surely, it is Allah, “Al-Wahhab” (the All-Giver): “Verily, You are the AllGiver.” Who has given the food a nice smell? If Allah, Most Gracious, made the good food smell bad while the bad food smell good, what would human life be like? As soon as food, such as meat for example, gets rotten, it smells horrible: “Verily, You are the All-Giver.” All things around you, your existence, your senses, and the substances and materials around you are all Divine Favors from the Lord, “Al-Wahhab” (the All-Giver)! Who has created the Sun for us? You pay hundreds of thousands of pounds more for a house that looks out on the Sun. The Sun, which has been burning more than five thousand million years, is the source of life on the Earth. It will remain ablaze for another five thousand million years. Who has given us the Sun? Surely, it is Allah, “Al-Wahhab”, (the All-Giver): “Verily, You are the All-Giver.” Who has made the Moon as a calendar in the heaven? It is He, Allah, Most Gracious, Who has made the Moon to help you know the number of years and the reckoning: “Verily, You are the All-Giver.” Who has made the wind blow in order to renew the air and refresh man? The weather changes due to its movement, which removes pollution, dust or bad

smell. Undoubtedly, movement of the wind is one of Allah’s Great Favors. Moreover, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “And We send the winds fertilizing, then cause the water to descend from the sky, and We give it to you to drink, and it is not you who are the owners of its stores.” [XV; 22] Once, we calculated the amount of water that a person needs for a whole year. We found out that he needs about 100 cubic meters. We should take into consideration that a reservoir of 100 cubic meters is equal to a flat in which one can dwell. Allah, Most Gracious, says, “…and it is not you who are the owners of its stores.” Storage of water in springs is both remarkable and amazing. Who stores water in springs and wells? “Verily, You are the All-Giver.” In Arabic the word “Wahhab” is derived from the verb “wahaba”, which means “to give someone something as a gift, i.e. without getting anything in return.” If someone has a son that is dutiful, obedient, religious, righteous, polite, well behaved, and kind, is it correct to claim, “I have done my best to make my son as such!”? The answer is: No, of course not! It is clear that such father has forgotten Allah, “Al-Wahhab” (the All-Giver), Who granted him such good righteous son. In this context, Allah, “Al-Wahhab”, says, “And We granted him (Abraham) Isaac and Jacob, each of whom did We guide; and before him, We did guide Noah, and among his progeny, David, Solomon, Job, Joseph, Moses and Aaron. Thus do We reward the good-doers.” [VI; 84] The verb “granted” in the above Quranic Verse means that Allah, Most Gracious, gave His Prophet Abraham, (PBUH), his sons Isaac and Jacob as a gift, i.e. without anything in return. In other words, if Allah, “Al-Wahhab”, gives you a son, it is a gift from Him. It is not up to you to make your son a good righteous person or not. It is all in Allah’s Hand. You might be the most powerful, influential and knowledgeable person in the whole world, but have a son who gets you in trouble and makes your life unbearable. A great many good righteous people have bad deviant disobedient children. I have heard, for example, that the son of the Imam of the Prophet’s Mosque in Medina is an evil deviant irreligious person. Therefore, if Allah, “Al-Wahhab”, gives you a righteous dutiful obedient child, you should be most grateful to Him, Most Gracious. Do not attribute your child’s righteousness, dutifulness or obedience to your own

intelligence and good upbringing. Do not say, “I am an intelligent person. I am a successful father. I always take care of my child and follow him/her step by step.” If he/she is a bad person, your care and upbringing are in vain. Hence, Allah’s Words “And We granted him (Abraham) Isaac and Jacob” should be understood that the holy Prophets Isaac and Jacob, (PBUT), were both given to their father, Abraham, (PBUH), as a gift from the Lord, Allah, “Al-Wahhab”, and not anyone else. In the light of the above-mentioned definition of the word “wahaba” (give or donate), is it correct to say that a human being gives another something as a gift, i.e. without getting anything in return? Is it believable that a human being, in the whole world, gives another something gratis? Even when a true believer gives anything gratis, he/she does so seeking good recompense from his Lord, Allah, “Al-Wahhab”. Does he/she give anything for nothing? Does he/she hasten to serve other people for nothing? Does he/she rescue a patient for nothing? Does he/she teach or preach for nothing? Does he/she serve Allah’s House for nothing? Is it believable that he/she seeks nothing in return? If a wealthy person asked a teacher: “I’d like you to give my son private lessons, and I shall give you one million pounds for each lesson. But do not take any money from my son, because if you do, I shall give you nothing”, would it be wise of the teacher to take only one hundred pounds for each lesson from the son and, hence, lose the large amount of money that the father promised to give him? A wise person is someone who does not seek recompense from people but rather from the Lord of people, Allah, All Mighty. Do you believe that a human being does anything for no reward or recompense? Utmost reward is to ask for Allah’s Good Pleasure, to ask for His Paradise, to ask for His Most Generous Recompense, to ask for His Help, because no human being could ever give you anything for nothing in return. In the light of the above mentioned, it is only metaphorically correct to say that a human being gives anything for nothing in return. Sometimes, a person gives something in order to be praised and thanked. Such praise is the reward he looks for. Sometimes, someone gives generously to a charity seeking public gratitude. He boasts, “I have given such and such amount of money!” He desires to have his name inscribed on a marble plate showing his generous contribution. In other words, he desires to have a

reward in return for his good deed. I reiterate: No human being gives anything for nothing in return; the only One Who gives for nothing in return is Allah, “Al-Wahhab”, Most Gracious. Furthermore, if a human being gives you anything, who is the Real Donor? It is Allah, Most Generous, Who inspired him to give you what he has given you! A venerable religious scholar lived in a rented house in Tripoli, Syria. The property owner wanted to send him out of the house. The law was on the owner’s side, therefore, he brought an action against the scholar and won the case. As a result, the scholar was about to be homeless. However, something very strange took place. One of the wealthy people of that town dreamed of Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), telling him to buy a house for the scholar. The wealthy person looked for the scholar everywhere until he found him and bought him a good house, just for the sake of Allah, “AlWahhab” (the All-Giver) and His Generous Reward and Recompense. No human being could ever give anything unless Allah, Most Gracious, inspires him to do so. Sometimes an official gives you permission to do something. In fact, it is Allah, Who inspires him to do so. However, if Allah, All Mighty, desires to punish you, He creates thousands of obstacles before you. A businessperson once told me that 38 lorries loaded with goods were no allowed to cross the Syrian Customs because they had not been verified by the Syrian Embassy in the country of origin. If someone offers you help or does you a favor, you should firmly believe that Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, has inspired him to do so. At any rate, should I not thank the person who does me a favor? Of course, I should! If anyone offers you help or does you a favor, but you do not thank him/her, it would be ungrateful of you, because he does so willingly. To this effect, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “He who does not thank people does not thank Allah.” Therefore, you must show adequate thankfulness and gratitude to a person who willingly offers to help you or does you a favor, although it is Allah, All Mighty, Who inspires him to do so. However, you should thank Allah first for inspiring people to help you or do you favors, and then you should offer thanks to people for helping you willingly. In this context, Allah’s

Messenger, (PBUH), says, “If someone seeks refuge with Allah, give him refuge. If someone asks you to give him something for the sake of Allah, give him (what he asks). If someone asks Allah for help, help him. If someone does you a favor, reward him (for his favor); but if you do not find (anything to reward him), invoke Allah for him until you make sure that you have duly rewarded him.” In order to make things clear, I would like to say that in case someone does Muslims a favor, they usually say, “May Allah well reward you!” or “May Allah increase you in good!” Such sayings are not sufficient. If someone does you a favor, you should do him/her a favor in return. However, if you are unable to do so, it is acceptable of you to thank him by using the above sayings. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), sets a perfect example of this in a situation with the venerable Companion Rabi’ah, may Allah be pleased with him. After Rabi’a had served Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), for some time, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), addressed him, “O Rabi’ah! Ask me anything you need.” I wondered, “Does not Allah’s Prophet and Messenger deserve to be served for nothing in return!” Nevertheless, due to his perfect noble human nature, He, (PBUH), felt indebted to Rabi’ah for serving him. In this context, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Indeed in the Messenger of Allah you have a good example.” [XXXIII; 21] Beware of mentioning the favors that you do to others, but do not forget the favors that they do to you! If you do anyone a favor, it is perfect of you not to mention it and to forget all about it, since you have done so just for the sake of Allah, Most Gracious. Allah describes true believers who do favors to other fellow humans as saying, “We feed you seeking Allah’s Countenance only. We wish for no reward nor thanks from you.” [LXXVI; 9] However, if anyone does you a favor, it would be most ungrateful of you to forget such favor. This is because if you do not show adequate gratitude to people, you do not show adequate gratitude to Allah, even though you believe that the favor that a fellow human does you is in fact from Allah, Most Gracious. First, He, Glory to Him, inspires him; second, He allows him; and third, He enables him. If He inspired him but did not allow him, he would simply say, “I am sorry! I can do nothing for you.” Sometimes, someone desires to help you, but he simply cannot. Although he is very

desirous to help you, he apologizes to you, saying, “I simply can’t help you.” This is because Allah, All Mighty, has inspired him to help you, but He has not allowed him. I reiterate: If someone does you a favor, you should never forget it. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “He who embraces Islam thanks to someone’s help, he should be loyal to him.” If a human being gives you something or does you a favor, the effects of such thing or favor end by the end of life. However, if Allah, Most Gracious, grants you a Favor of His through some human being’s good offices, this means that the effects of such Favor will last forever. To this effect, Allah, Most Merciful, says, “That is (Paradise), of which Allah gives glad tidings to His slaves who believe and do righteous good deeds. Say (O Muhammad): ‘No reward do I ask of you for this except to be kind to me for my kinship with you.’ And whosoever does a good righteous deed, We shall give him an increase of good in respect thereof. Verily, Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Ready to appreciate (the good deeds of those who are obedient to Him).” [XLII; 23] If you drink water form a spring, beware of spitting therein, for that would be very ungrateful of you! To the same purport, the verses go: I taught him shooting everyday, But when he learned well enough, he shot me! And I taught him to write poems; But when he made a poem, he defamed me! Undoubtedly, the One Who inspires other fellow humans to help you or do you favors is Allah, All-Mighty, Most Gracious; and the one who enables other fellow humans to help you or do you favors is Allah, Most Merciful. In other words, the Inspirer is Allah, and the Doer is Allah! It is called out in the universe: “We do love him!” And all that in the universe hear of Our Love! Has not anyone done you a favor for no reason or former acquaintance? Have not you wondered why he/ she did you such favor? Has not anyone been lenient and tolerant to you? Has not anyone helped you and made things easy for you? Have you not had such experiences? The answer is, of course, “Yes!” Therefore, you should remember that Allah, Most Gracious, has inspired him to do so, for Allah, Glory to Him, is the One Who inspires,

allows and enables. Hence, the proper thing to do is, first of all, to thank Allah, saying, “O Lord! All Thanks and Praises belong to You!” When Allah, Most Gracious, sent down Quranic Verses that declared ‘A’ishah, the Prophet’s wife, may Allah be pleased with her, innocent of accusations made against her, her father bade her, “Go to Allah’s Messenger (in order to thank him)!” She replied, “No! (I swear) by Allah, I shall thank none but Allah!” That was because she believed that Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), did not do or say anything for her, but it was Allah, All Mighty, Who revealed her acquittal. After she paid tribute to Allah, Most Gracious, for her acquittal, she went to Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH). In the same context, a man once addressed Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), “As Allah and you (both) will.” Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), angrily said, “Do you make me equal to Allah? Say, ‘As Allah, Alone, wills!’” Some scholars say: Al-Wahhab” (the All-Giver) is the Benefactor, Who is Bounty Abounding and Most Generous, Who grants Favors without measure, Who is Most Kind, Who gives without being asked, and Who never withholds His Favors from His slaves. “Al-Wahhab” (the All-Giver) is He Who gives you with no means and bestows His Favors upon you with no reason or cause. “Al-Wahhab” (the All-Giver) is He Who gives for nothing in return and causes to die for no purpose. We are all Allah’s slaves, and all the good things that we have or enjoy are from Allah, Most Gracious. Therefore, we should know for sure that every Blessing or Favor is from Allah, Most Generous. However, gratitude is of three ranks. The first rank is to recognize that blessings and favors are all from Allah, Most Gracious. The second rank is that your heart should abound in gratitude to Him. The third rank is to hasten to help and serve Allah’s slaves, other fellow humans. Undoubtedly, the third rank is the best, for Allah, Most Generous, says, “Is there any reward for good other than good?” [LV; 60] In this Quranic Verse, Allah addresses every human being: “O My salve! If you stick to My Commands, serve My slaves, guide them to Me, act in good faith towards them, offer them adequate help, and be generous to them. If you do this, you do well to

My slaves. Is it reasonable that I do you evil in return? Is there any reward for your good doing other than My good doing to you?” This is because Allah is the Most Thankful. If a believer fails to recognize that Allah’s Good Treatment to him is a kind of Divine Honor that Allah confers upon him and wrongly thinks that such Good Treatment is due to his own honesty, devotion or good righteous work, this reflects weakness of faith. This is because the token of true faith is to believe that all blessings and favors that you enjoy bespeak Allah’s Divine Grace to you. If you hasten to offer adequate help to other fellow humans, who are also Allah’s slaves, Allah provides you with His Divine Help, for Allah helps a slave as long as the slave helps his fellow slave. There is another Quranic Verse: “For him (each person) there are angels in succession, before and behind him. They guard him by Allah’s Command. Verily, Allah will not change the condition of a people unless they change their state themselves. But if Allah wills a people’s punishment, there can be no turning back of it, and they will find against Him no protector.” [XIII; 11] In fact, examples of Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Wahhab” (the All-Giver) are plentiful in all places and times. However, what happened to one of our good brothers, who worked in a shop where he earned only three thousand pounds. One of his brothers, who had lost his job and become penniless, came to him complaining. Without the least hesitation, he told him, “Come and work with me, and I shall give you half of my income.” As I have just said, the man’s income was only three thousand pounds. He swore to me truthfully that in the following month, his income increased ten folds. Yes, indeed, his income increased ten folds! “Verily, You are Al-Wahhab (the All-Giver)!” In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), bade the venerable Companion, Bilal, may Allah be pleased with him, “O Bilal! Expend and do not fear narrowness (of provision) from the Owner of the Throne!” However, beware of unlawful expenditure! Do not neglect Allah’s Commands concerning expenditure for the sake of other human beings, for none should be given preference to Allah and His Religion.

A scholar called Ash-Shibli asked a companion of Abi ‘Ali Ath-Thaqafi’s: “Which of Allah’s Divine Names do you remember and mention most?” He replied, “Al-Wahhab (the All-Giver), for the First of Allah’s Divine Favors that He bestows upon you is that He has brought you into existence.” To wrap up, a person’s share of this Divine Name is that he should give generously for Allah and His Cause, out of that which Allah has given him: his knowledge, experience, time, power, effort, and social status. Such is a person’s share of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Wahhab” (the AllGiver)!

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n His Divine Book, the Holy Quran, Allah, Glory to Him, says, “Is there any creator other than Allah, Who provides you from the heaven and the earth? There is no god but He. How, then, are you turning away (from Him)?” [XXXV; 3] The above Quranic Verse leads us to the twelfth of Allah’s Divine Names, namely “Ar-Razzaq” (The AllProvider). This Name occurs in the Quranic Verse, “Verily, Allah is the AllProvider, Owner of Power, the Most Strong” [LI; 58]

In Arabic, the word “Ar-Razzaq” is an emphatic epithet of Allah that means that He, Most Gracious, provides all of His slaves no matter how numerous they might be. If He so desires, He provides any of them abundantly and without limits. In other words, Allah, All Mighty, is “Ar-Razzaq” (the AllProvider), Who provides all of His slaves with sustenance regardless of their number or quantity of provision. That is why it is rightly said: “If Allah gives, He astonishes.” In this context, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “And so many a moving (living) creature carries not its own provision! Allah provides for it and for you. And He is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.” [XXIX; 60] The holy Prophet, David, (PBUH), used to invoke the Lord, “O Allah, Who grants provision to Al-Bughath (the baby raven)! Grant us provision!” A baby raven is one of the weakest kinds of birds; and the Arabic proverb goes, “Even a baby raven becomes like an eagle in our land”, which means that because of our weakness and lack of power, even a baby raven, which is the weakest of all birds, is too strong compared to us. The Bughath (baby raven) has a very strange story. When it hatches, it looks white, just like a piece of fat, and, therefore, its mother, whose color is black, denies it and does not recognize it. But Allah, Most Gracious, sends it some insects to feed on until its feathers grow and become black. Only then its mother recognizes it. The strange thing about the baby raven is that it is left forsaken and helpless, but Allah, Most Merciful, sends it its provision from Him. That is why people follow David’s tradition of invocation, “O Allah, Who grants Provision to the baby raven in its nest! Grant us provision!” However, it is not only wrong but also naïve to beseech Allah only for material provision, i.e. food and drink. To this effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says about the chaste holy woman, Mary, “So her Lord (Allah) accepted her with goodly acceptance. He made her grow in a good manner and put her under the care of Zechariah. Every time Zechariah entered AlMihrab (her private place of prayer) to (visit) her, he found her supplied with provision. He said, ‘O Mary! Where did you get this from?’ She said, ‘This is from Allah.’ Verily, Allah grants provision to whomever He wills, without limit.” [III; 37] In interpretation of the above Quranic Verse,

scholars say that the word “provision” refers to spiritual more than material provision. In this context, they say: “provision of the body is food and drink, but provision of the spirit is knowledge.” This means that spiritual provision, i.e. knowledge is nobler and more sublime than material provision, i.e. food and drink. If Allah provides you with good income whereby you have the most delicious kinds of foods and drinks, but He provides another person with knowledge, this means that He likes him/her more than you, because He provides him/her with spiritual provision, knowledge. To this effect, Allah, Glory to Him, says about the holy Prophet Moses, “And when he attained his full strength and was perfect (in manhood), We bestowed on him Al-Hukm (i.e. Prophecy and good judgment) and religious knowledge. And thus do We reward the good doers.” [XXVIII; 14] Such is real provision! In the same context, Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), says, “I stay with my Lord (Allah), and He provides me with food and drink.” He, (PBUH), uses the words “food and drink” metaphorically to mean spiritual provision, which is the noblest and most sublime of all kinds of provision. Dear reader! Here is a good piece of news: One of the things that enlarge one’s provision is Salat (Islamic Prayer). To this effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “And enjoin Prayer on your family and be patient in offering it (Prayer). We ask not of you a provision. We provide for you. And the good end is for the pious.” [XX; 132] In other words, if you desire to have your provision enlarged, you are not demanded to perform Salat (Islamic Prayer), as you already do, but rather to perform it properly, i.e. with solemnity and submissiveness. This is because solemnity and submissiveness are not merely a merit of Salat but rather an essential part thereof. To this effect, Allah, Praise belongs to Him, says, “Successful indeed are believers who offer their Prayer with all solemnity and full submissiveness.” [XXIII; 1,2] Of the decorum of man’s servitude towards his Lord, Allah, All Mighty, is to turn to Him in all issues, whether important or trivial. This is because the Lord, Allah, Glory to Him, likes His slave to ask Him even if the strap of his shoe is cut off. If you lose your door keys, for example, He likes you to invoke Him, “O Allah, Who will gather up all people on the Day of Resurrection, help me find my keys!” I reiterate that Allah likes you to invoke Him for all your things, whether important or trivial. If you

suddenly forget how to get to a certain place of appointment, make use of the following story: Someone went to Medina to visit the Prophet’s Mosque there. But he forgot the address of the place he was heading for. On the way, he invoked Allah, Who helped him find his way easily. Another person who forgot to invoke remained lost for more than ten hours. Therefore, you should ask Allah, Most Gracious, for both serious and paltry things, for this reflects your complete servitude to Him, All Mighty. The holy Prophet, Moses, (PBUH), asked Allah, All Mighty, a very serious thing. He invoked, “O my Lord! Help me to see You!” But when he was hungry, he invoked, “My Lord! I am in need of whatever good that You bestow on me.” [XXVIII; 24] Moses’ attitude provides clear evidence that a slave should ask his Lord for everything. In this context, the venerable Companion and Caliph, Ali, may Allah be pleased with him, said, “You are not demanded to ask for provision, but you are demanded to ask for the Garden (of Paradise).” In other words, when you neglect the things that you are demanded to ask for and ask for the things that you are not demanded to ask for, this means that you deviate from the right way due to lack of confidence in the Lord, All-Mighty, Who guarantees to grant you provision in many Quranic Verses. He, Most Gracious, says, “Verily, Allah is the All-Provider, Owner of Power, the Most Strong” [LI; 58], “Allah is He Who created you, then provided food for you, then will cause you to die, then (again) will give you life (on the Day of Resurrection). Is there any of your (so-called) partners (of Allah) that do anything of that? Glory is to Him! And far Exalted is He above all that (evil) they associate (with Him).” [XXX; 40], “Kill not your children because of poverty. We provide sustenance for you and for them. Come not near shameful sins, whether committed openly or secretly. And kill not anyone whom Allah has forbidden, except for a just cause. This has He commanded you that you may understand.” [VI; 151] and, “And kill not your children for fear of poverty. We shall provide for them as well as for you. Surely, the killing of them is a great sin.” [XVII; 31], among many other Quranic Verses, such as, “And also in yourselves (are Signs for those who have Faith with certainty). Will you not see? And in the heaven is your provision and that which you are promised. Then by the Lord of the heaven and the earth it is the truth, just as it is the truth that you can speak.” [LI; 21-23]…

By virtue of the above Quranic Verses, our Lord, Allah, Most Merciful, reassures us that He has undertaken to grant us provision. Nevertheless, people strive and purchase their religion for the sake of provision. In a Divine Hadith, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “O My salve! I have created the heavens and the earth, but I have not got tired of creating them. Do I get tired if I send you a dough of bread every now and then?!” The Lord has undertaken to provide us with sustenance, but He has commanded us to strive for the Hereafter. He, Glory to Him, says, “And that man can have nothing but what he does (good or evil).” [LIII; 39] But what happens is that people, due to ignorance and lack of Faith, neglect the things that Allah has commanded them to do and strive for those that He has undertaken to provide for them. Therefore, it is wise to strive for the things that Allah has commanded you to strive for and do not waste time seeking the things that Allah has undertaken to provide for you. The holy Prophet Jesus, (PBUH), says, “Do not worry about your bellies!” Someone’s brother passed away leaving him five orphans but no money at all. He felt desperately helpless and began to lament his bad luck. Later, he met his Sheikh (religious scholar), who asked him, “What is the matter, my son?” ”My brother passed away leaving me five orphans.” he replied sadly. The Sheikh asked, “Hasn’t he left anything for them?” The answer came, “Yes, he has. He has left provision that suffices them for a year.” The Sheikh said, “Good! When this provision is over, start crying?” The story goes on to say that the man, who went to the Sheikh complaining about the five orphans his brother had left him, passed away before the provision left by the dead father was over. I knew someone whose house was to be brought down due to some municipal arrangements. He got furious and began raging and roaring. He became helplessly desperate and began crying and asking for help. Despite all good truthful promises that he would be given another house instead, he remained worried and miserable; and he passed away several months before his house was brought down. Man should not worry more than necessary about worldly things, for Allah, “Ar-Razzaq” (The All-Provider) is always there.

Some scholars say, “Ar-Razzaq” (The All-Provider) is He (Allah), Who provides people’s bodies (with sustenance) by His Grace, and adorns the hearts of the elite with true Faith.” In other words, provision is of two kinds, material and spiritual, the former is for physical bodily needs while the latter is for spiritual ones. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “If the soul finds its provision, it feels secure.” Some scholars interpret the word “provision” in the above Prophetic Hadith as spiritual provision. In other words, if you perform prayer with true solemnity and submissiveness, if you cry while performing prayer, if your heart is filled with humility and veneration while reading Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran, if you feel secure and tranquil for being near to Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious. Other scholars interpret the word “provision” as material bodily sustenance. However both interpretations are acceptable. Some scholars say, “Ar-Razzaq (The All-Provider) is He (Allah), Who singles out the rich for material provision, while poor true believers for recognition of the Provider.” In other words, rich people enjoy the perishable pleasures and enjoyments of the present world. They have lots of money. They eat whatever they like. They buy the most beautiful palaces. They buy the best furniture. They travel wherever they desire. They choose the most beautiful cars and the very best clothes. On the other hand, poor but believing people enjoy incredible spiritual enhancement for being near to their Lord, Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful and intimate to Him. Being linked with the Upper World, they do not care about ephemeral mundane enjoyments. In other words, either you dwell in material provision or witness the All-Provider. Either you get indulged in the perishable enjoyments of this present life or live in the bliss of intimacy and nearness to the Lord, Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful, the All-Provider. In fact, there is a kind of justice and balance in what Allah, the AllProvider, gives to all of His human slaves. Materialistically calculated, all the things that Allah gives to His human slaves reflect His Infinite Divine Justice. If we give one mark for every thing human beings are given, the final result will be one and the same for each one of them. If we give one mark for each of the following: wife, house, income, job, health, beauty, …etc, we find out that most people get equal marks despite certain individual differences. In other words, the total number of marks is always

the same for all people. The rich who have big income lack peace of mind which poor believers enjoy. Someone has a good health but is poor while another is rich but lacks good health, … and so on and so forth. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Take from this world whatever you desire, and get worry as much as you take (from it). Whosoever takes from this world more than he needs, he unconsciously brings about his own destruction.” Here is another thing about provision: “Provision”, dear reader, can be accurately defined as “something that you make use of”. In this sense, provision includes such things as wealth, knowledge, good manners, security, peace of mind, spiritual enhancement, …etc. A man asked Hatim Al-Assam, “Where do you get your food from?” “From His (Allah’s) Stores.” He replied. “What! Does Allah send down bread to you from the heaven?” The man asked in amazement. Hatim answered, “Unless the earth is His, He would send down bread to me from the heaven. He provides me from the earth.” In other words, when man asks Allah for provision, Allah sends it to him one way or another. Quite accidentally, someone may meet another who is unemployed and offer him a good job. In fact, such issue as provision is multi-sided, and there are thousands of examples and evidences thereof. You might be provided from where you have never reckoned and for a very silly reason: a look, a message that you receive by mistake, certain merchandise that is selling badly, …etc. In this context, I heard that during World War II, one of the merchants of Al-Buzouriah market in Damascus City sold sugar at a price higher than that determined by the authorities. Therefore, his shop was kept closed and sealed until the war ended a few months later. During that period of time, the price of sugar went up a hundred times, and thus he became a very rich person in a period of few months during which he was forced to close his shop. You might be provided by means of something that seems unpleasant to you. This is because Allah, All-Mighty, is “the All-Provider, Owner of Power, the Most Strong.” The remarkable thing is that when you know that Allah is “the AllProvider, Owner of Power, the Most Strong”, you beseech Him, Alone, for provision. Due to weakness of Faith, ignorant people usually ask other fellow humans for provision. If they beseeched the Lord, Allah, Alone, for

provision, knowing that He, Most Gracious, is “the All-Provider, Owner of Power, the Most Strong”, they would attain honor, dignity, security, and intimacy with Him. Someone was asked, “Where do you get your food from?” He replied, “From the Stores of the King, Whose Stores are never robbed or devoured by worms.” Yes, indeed! Allah’s Stores are always open and full. To this effect, He, All Mighty, says, “And there is not a thing but with Us are the stores thereof. And We send it not down except in a known measure.” [XV; 21] One of the silliest theories of the materialistic scientists of the West and the like of them says that natural resources of the earth are becoming scarcer and scarcer, that the earth is threatened with a great famine, and that world population is increasing according to a geometric series. Someone called Maltus claims that such huge increase in world population will inevitably cause a great famine. These words come from someone who does not know Allah, the All-Provider. This is because any kind of straitening or decrease of provision on the part of Allah is meant to deter people and bring them back to piety, for Allah’s Divine Stores are constantly abundantly open in all places and times. And when He, All Mighty, straitens provision for people, He does so not due to disability, as is the case with human beings. A righteous knowledgeable woman was once asked, “Where does your husband get provision for you?” Most wisely, she replied, “My husband is not a provider; he is a mere consumer.” She meant that the Provider is Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious. Among the common ideological mistakes committed by ignorant people is that they say that someone is the guardian of the family. This is only metaphorically true, because the real Guardian is Allah, the All-Provider. In other words, all human beings are dependents on Allah, the Most Merciful. As afore-mentioned, Allah, the All-Provider, singles out the rich for material provision but believers, poor as they might be, for spiritual provision, i.e. the ability to be conscious of the All-Provider. If you are conscious of the All-Provider, it does not do you any harm to lose material provision. In other words, those who know Allah and are always conscious

of Him do not care about material provision, i.e. the perishable pleasures and enjoyments of this present world. On the contrary, those who are very careful about material provision, i.e. the ephemeral pleasures and enjoyments of this present world, do not know Allah, the All-Provider. In this context, the venerable Companion and Caliph, Abu Bakr, may Allah be pleased with him, never regretted anything he missed from the material provision of this present world. Another type of people is someone who regrets profoundly everything that he loses from the perishable pleasures and enjoyments of the present world. For example, he feels most miserable if he sells a piece of land at a certain price, but afterwards, its price rises a hundred times. In fact, most of the diseases and illnesses that are widespread today are those related to the heart, stomach, nerves, and blood vessels, which are mainly caused by psychological and emotional problems such as depression, stress, disorders, feelings of regret and sorrow, …etc. If you believe in Allah, as the All-Provider, the Most Gracious, and are constantly conscious of Him, no loss of material provision can ever bring you misery or depression. He who knows that Allah is the Only Provider turns only to Him. Consider the following well-known story: The Umayyad Caliph, Soulaiman bin Abdul Malik sent for a venerable scholar. They both met at the Ancient Sacred House in Mecca. In order to honor the scholar, the Caliph told him, “You may ask me for anything you need.” In reply, the scholar said, “In Allah’s Ancient House I never ask anyone but Allah. This is Allah’s House, and I feel ashamed to ask anyone but Him in His House.” Later, when they met again outside Allah’s Ancient Sacred House, the Caliph repeated, “You may ask me for anything you need.” The scholar replied, “I did not ask the One Who owns my needs. How come that I should ask the one who does not own them?” However, when the Caliph insisted that the scholar should ask him for anything he needed, the scholar said, “Alright! I ask you to admit me into Paradise.” The caliph said in amazement, “Such a thing does not belong to me!” The scholar said, “Then, I need nothing of you!” Such is real honor of modesty and abstinence! It is very nice if a rich person gives to the poor, but much nicer it is when a poor person, out of modesty, abstains from the wealth of a rich person, saying, “Praised be Allah.”

Some religious scholars say: “Just as Allah has no partners in His Creation, He has no partners in His Provision. Just as there is no god but Allah, there is no Provider but Allah.” People always say, “If He (Allah) gives, He astonishes.” And the verse goes: And if provisions were granted due to knowledge, Brute animals would die because of ignorance. Quite often, you find that someone’s provision is straitened although he is very intelligent, while the provision of another is enlarged although he is very stupid or naïve. This is because provision is governed by other factors than intelligence or labor. Make no mistake about it! Provision has to do with honesty and uprightness. Common people understand that provision is something pre-decreed and that none could ever earn or withhold it except by Allah’s Leave. This is partly true, as Allah, All-Mighty, says, “And if they had believed in Allah and gone on the Right Way, We would surely have bestowed on them water in abundance.” [LXXII; 16] He, Glory to Him, also says, “And if the people of the towns had believed and had been pious, certainly, We would have opened for them Blessings from the heaven and the earth. But they belied (Our Messengers), so We took them (with punishment) for what they used to earn (of evil deeds).” [VII; 96] Nevertheless, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “A person might be deprived of some provision due to a sinful deed.” To make this point clear, we put forward the following example: If you think that your son is not yet well qualified to possess money, you give him the minimum, i.e. only the amount necessary for his basic needs. However, if your son is not only righteous and intelligent but also trustworthy, you give him as much money as he desires. To the same effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “And if Allah were to enlarge the provision for His slaves, they would surely rebel in the earth. But He sends down by measure as He wills. Verily, He is, in respect of His slaves, the Well-Aware, the All-Seer (of the things that benefit them best).” [XLII; 27] This is a very serious and important issue. When Allah Straitens provision for His slaves, He does so only for punishment or deterrence or, more precisely, it is out of Allah’s Divine Wisdom rather than lack of power or ability.

It is narrated that the holy Prophet, Moses, (PBUH), asked his Lord, Allah, Most Gracious, “O Lord! Sometimes, I need a paltry thing. Shall I ask You, or shall I ask someone else, for it?” Allah, Glory to Him, revealed to Moses, “Never ask anyone but Me!” This means that a human being should ask his Lord for all the things he needs, whether they are small or big, for there is no Provider but Him. A junior physician who had just opened a clinic in the countryside needed money for his mother who was seriously ill in Damascus city. He prayed sincerely to the Lord to provide him with such amount of money. Quite unusually, the young doctor’s clinic was soon filled with patients, and Allah, the All-Provider, provided him with the money he needed for his ill mother. Whenever you are in debt or have to discharge certain financial dues, you should turn to Allah with sincere invocation, “O Allah! I am in need of Your Generous Provision! So provide me!” Make it your habit to beseech Allah, the All-Provider, for everything. If your wife is obstinate, ask Allah to make her compliant. If your partner is unbearable, pray to Allah to make him manageable. If your son is deviant, ask Allah to bring him back to the Right Way. If your job is hard, beseech Allah to make it easy and comfortable or provide you with another better one. Make it your habit to beseech Allah for everything. Once again, I repeat that the holy Prophet, Moses, (PBUH), asked his Lord, Allah, Most Gracious, “O Lord! Sometimes, I need a paltry thing. Shall I ask You, or shall I ask someone else, for it?” Allah, Glory to Him, revealed to Moses, “Never ask anyone but Me!” Sometimes, in order to honor a dear friend, a person may tell him, “Never ask anyone but me for anything you need. Whenever you need anything, come and take it from me.” This is utmost intimacy and compassion. If you love someone sincerely, you try hard to protect him from sacrificing his honor before other fellow humans. Therefore, you tell him, “Please, never ask anyone else. If you need anything, please come to me and take it.” In the same context, when Allah, Most Gracious, bade Moses never to ask anyone but Him, He, Most Gracious, meant to honor Moses and show him His Divine Care for him.

A righteous man, Hammad bin Muslimah, was quoted as saying, “One of my female servants was a widow who had orphans. One rainy night, I heard her invoking the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious, ‘O Most Kind! Be kind to me!’ I thought that she was in bad need of money. I waited until the rain stopped, took a good amount of money and went to her. When I knocked on her door, she asked, ‘Is it Hammad bin Muslimah?’ ‘Yes, it is. How are you?’ I asked. ‘Very well! The rain has stopped and the children are warm.’ She replied. ‘Here is some money for you. Take it. You might need it.’ Said I. Her little daughter interfered, ‘O Hammad! We do not want you to be between Allah and us.’ Then she turned to her mother saying, ‘Why did you speak out and unveil our secret? You know that Allah punishes us by showing His Kindness to us on the hand of a creature!’” Sometimes, Allah’s Bounty comes to you directly from Him, and you owe none but Him such Divine Favor. Sometimes you complain to another fellow human, and he feels sorry for you and tries hard to help you. This means that Allah’s Favor does not come to you directly from Him but rather on the hand of such fellow human. However, if you complain to a disbeliever, he gloats over this and may, or may not, offer you adequate help. This is most humiliating for you. Yes, indeed! It is most humiliating when Allah grants you something by the hand of a disbeliever. It makes me most unhappy to see a believer cringe, humble himself, complain, or sacrifice his honor before a disbeliever. Man is motivated to act by his love more than his mind. Love drives man to sacrifice everything even his own self for those he loves. Man’s mind helps him to be convinced, to believe, to conceive, but it does not make him move or act. Therefore, preachers and callers for Allah are advised to address both people’s minds and hearts. If they realize mental convincement in people, they accomplish only one half of success. But if they create in people, in addition to mental convincement, an attitude based on love, they achieve full success. This is because man is endued with a mind and a heart. If he uses his mind properly, contemplating the universe, he gets to know Allah, All Mighty; and if he recognizes Allah’s Divine Favors, he gets to love Him with all of his heart. If he loves Allah, he is rightly guided. Moreover, man is not called as such unless he loves.

While we were at the university, a professor of psychology retired and his colleagues and students held a party in honor of the occasion. He delivered a speech that I shall never forget: “A person who does not feel desirous to love and be loved is not a human being.” In other words, you do not deserve to be called “a human being” if you are hard-hearted and do not desire to love and be loved. Therefore, love is indispensable for human life. The remarkable thing about the Prophet’s venerable Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, is that they did many feats. Why did they achieve the impossible? Why did they purchase themselves for the Cause of Allah? Why did they sacrifice everything? If the finger of one of us is wounded, he cries out, bandages it, excuses himself from meetings and even has a sick leave. Consider what the venerable Companion, Ja’far, may Allah be pleased with him, did in one of the battles! He received a blow of a sword that chopped off his right hand, so he held the flag with his left hand. Another blow came to chop off his left hand, so he managed to hold the flag with his upper arms and to keep holding it until he fell dead. What love could drive him to sacrifice his life? In spiritual affairs, true believers always invoke, “O Lord! Enter me into Your Paradise! O Lord! Help me to know You! O Lord! Do not let me die before You are well pleased with me! In other words, their requests have to do with such sublime issues as Paradise, knowledge, understanding Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran, reading Quranic interpretations …etc, while others remember their Lord for trivial worldly issues. For example, they invoke, “O Lord! Get such a tenant out of my house!” Therefore, in respect to their relationship with the Lord, Most Gracious, people are of two kinds: Those who ask for noble paramount things, and those who seek paltry trivial things. O Allah! Grant us wisdom, which is also a kind of provision! However, some people say, “I do not ask anything of my Lord except my Lord. As for paltry things, I ask them of those who are paltry.” In other words, they do not ask of Allah but Allah Himself. For insignificant things, they ask other fellow humans. It is narrated that the wife of Yahya bin Mou’ath once told him, “I was greatly amazed when my daughter asked me for some bread to eat. I told her, ‘Ask Allah for that.’ She said, ‘I feel ashamed to ask the Almighty Allah

for something to eat.” In this context, however, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Let the one of you ask his Lord for all his needs, even for salt or the strap of his shoes if it is cut off.” Consider though, dear reader, this paradox: That young girl in the above story felt ashamed to ask Allah for something permissible, bread, while a very old man is not ashamed to disobey Allah. A man in his sixties might be sometimes seen playing trick-track in a café when it is time for prayer. Another boyish old man in his fifties might be seen showing off before girls or standing on a balcony, in a café or on a sidewalk, watching them. Such behavior is not only strange but amazing as well. To this effect, Allah, All Mighty, says in a Divine Hadith, “I hate the disobedient; but My Hatred for an old disobedient one is even more.” Undoubtedly, Allah, Most Gracious, provides both man’s spirit and body. I reiterate that if you perform prayer properly, if you perform the Hajj properly, standing at Mount ‘Arafat to pray to the Lord and invoke Him, and crying in humility and veneration, if you observe the fast in the month of Ramadan properly so as to abstain from any sins or misdeeds, if you stay up the nights praying to the Lord and invoking Him with true love and sincere devotion, and if you seek Allah’s Good Please and nearness to Him, this is not only real spiritual Divine Provision but also the fountain of success and prosperity. Scholars say, “Verily, Allah provides people’s souls and hearts just as He provides their bodies. Provision of the hearts is knowledge and revelation, while provision of the body is food and material sustenance.” In other words, a true believer recognizes things that others cannot recognize. He has a special understanding and awareness. He knows the essence of life. He knows where he came from, and where he shall go. He knows the most Valuable things in human life. A person may spend his time either on trivial paltry things or sublime valuable ones. This is also a kind of provision. Another point with regards to provision is that it is sometimes made easy or uneasy to earn. In this context, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “As for man, when his Lord tries him by giving him honor and bounties, then he says (in exultation), ‘My Lord has honored me!’ But when He tries him by straitening his means of living, he says, ‘My Lord has humiliated me!’ Nay! But you treat not the orphans with kindness and generosity, and urge not one another on feeding the poor, but

you devour the inheritance all with greed, and love wealth with much love.” [LXXXIX; 15-20] Sometimes you find someone who is very intelligent and educated, yet his income is low and he has no good job or work. This is all by Allah’s Divine Decree. Just as Allah, All Mighty, straitens for a person his provision, He straitens for him his spiritual provision. He performs prayer but with no humility, submissiveness or veneration. An accountant once told me that he did not remember how to solve problematic accounts except while performing prayer. In other words, there is a barrier between him and his Lord. This is because Allah, All Mighty, straitens for man his spiritual provision just as He straitens for him his Material one. Spiritual straitening means two things. The first thing is that there must be a sin, a deed of disobedience, a breach, non-discharged rights, and deviation from the Right Path, …etc. All of these make a barrier between man and his Lord, Allah, Most Gracious. We take refuge with Allah from falling in such felonies. Each sinful deed has its own barrier. However, there is another interpretation: You might be committed to Allah’s Commands and Religion, yet He, Glory to Him, straitens your provision for you. This kind of straitening is meant to help you ascend to a higher spiritual state, i.e. to provide you with more spiritual enhancement. You might be in a certain spiritual state in which you desire to remain for long because you think that it brings you spiritual comfort and peace. Nevertheless, Allah, Most Merciful, desires to promote you to a higher more sublime spiritual state. Therefore, He straitens not only material but also spiritual provision for you, which makes you feel worried, uncomfortable and afraid. Such feeling drives you to do more righteous good deeds and work harder to please the Lord, Most Gracious, and thus, you go up another step and get yourself promoted to a higher state of spiritual enhancement. In this sense, straitening your provision is meant to provide you with spiritual promotion and to help you ascend to a better spiritual state than that in which you have dwelled for some time. In this kind of straitening, you may feel that your prayer is not adequate enough, nor is your reading of the Holy Quran or your remembrance of the Lord. You may feel that your heart has become like a lifeless desert and your life unbearable. Someone might be straightforward and honest, yet he does not feel any spiritual comfort. This motivates him to hasten to do more righteous work, which helps him ascend to a higher and better spiritual state that Allah, Most Merciful, due to His Divine Love and Mercy, desires him to reach.

Before I put forward the following story, I would like to tell you something. You, as a believer, if you feel happy for being near to Allah and intimate to Him, this means that you are a true believer; and if you find utmost happiness and delight in being near to Him, this means that you are a true believer. However, if you feel happy and delighted for some financial profits or material achievement, this is something else. So who are you? Where do you belong? Do you belong to this present world or the Hereafter? If you are delighted with people’s donation, you belong to this present world; but if you are delighted with Allah’s Donation, you belong to the Hereafter. By the way, if a believer denies his heart, and if his connection with Allah weakens, he becomes as miserable as an orphan. You find him most unhappy. If you ask him, “What is the matter?” he replies, “Nothing.” In other words, he feels unwell, but he does not know what is wrong with him. In this context, Al-Hassan Al-Basri says, “If you read the Holy Quran and remember Allah, Most Gracious, yet you do not feel happy or delighted, you should know that you are barred from the Lord.” To this effect, Allah, All Mighty, says, “Nay! Surely they (the evil doers) on that Day will be veiled from seeing their Lord.” [LXXXIII; 15] The veil in this Quranic Verse is meant to be in the Hereafter. But there is another kind of veil in this present world. If you feel that you are being veiled from the Lord, Most Gracious, go and search for the reason. You might be negligent, you might be self-conceited, and you might feel that you are in no need of Allah, you might be unconsciously thinking badly of Allah, Most Merciful, or His Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH). If you feel that you are being barred from Allah, Glory to Him, you should strive to find the reason. Be careful not to allow the barrier to get thicker, because if it does, the problem will be so serious. In this context, the venerable Companion and Caliph, Omar bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him says, “Take care of your heart.” In other words, you should look after your heart, you should be well aware of your spiritual condition and your peace of mind. If someone gets up after sunrise, i.e. when time for the Dawn Prayer is over, but does not feel anything wrong with him, this means that his spiritual condition is seriously bad. However, if he feels most unhappy and miserable, if he feels disgraceful and ashamed of the Lord, All Mighty, and if he feels lost, this reflects true faith and righteousness. If one says, “It is alright. It does not matter. I have done nothing wrong”, it is a really serious problem.

The story that I would like to tell you goes as follows: Someone entered upon Dawood At-Ta’i and found him happy and delighted, which was unusual, because whenever he had entered upon him, he had found him unhappy and discontented. He asked him, “What is the matter with you?” Dawood At-Ta’i answered, “Yesterday, He (Allah) gave me to drink the nectar of His Intimacy. Therefore, I want to make this day a celebrated anniversary.” This means that he is connected with Allah, he is conscious of Allah, and he feels the ecstasy of intimacy with Allah. Therefore, he felt so happy and delighted that he decided to make that happy day a celebrated anniversary. In this context, it is said that when a slave turns to the Lord in true faith and sincere repentance, it is called out in the heavens and the earth, “Congratulate so and so, for he has been reconciled with Allah!” Such is a true believer’s great ecstasy of being near to Allah and intimate to Him. If someone is delighted with this present world, this is a serious negative sign, so he must be very careful. The far better and happier feeling is to be delighted with Allah, which is a positive good sign that reflects real happiness and prosperity. Another very important fact that I find necessary to remind you of is that man cannot be happy and delighted except with Allah. If man seeks happiness or delight with anyone but Allah, he attains only misery and loss. To this effect, Allah, All-Mighty, says in His Divine Book, the Holy Quran, “But whosoever turns away from My Reminder: verily, for him is a life of hardship; and We shall raise him up, on the Day of Resurrection, blind. He will say, ‘O my Lord! Why have You raised me up blind, while I had sight (before)?’ He (Allah) will say: ‘Like this: Our Signs came to you, but you disregarded them. Therefore, this Day you shall be neglected.” [XX; 124-126] A man once asked: “Why do kings and wealthy people have the whole world in their hands? They have everything!” The answer is: The anxiety, depression, stress, discontentment, and distress that they have suffice a whole people. Allah, All Mighty, may give you the whole world but deprive you of peace of mind and heart comfort, or He may give you heart comfort and peace of mind but deprive you of the world. However, the latter case is far better and happier. In other words, spiritual provision, as manifested by heart comfort, tranquility, and peace of mind, which are the fruit of one’s good relationship with Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, is far

better and more enduring than the perishable pleasures and enjoyments of this present world. Any way, let us continue our story. When Dawood said, “Yesterday, He (Allah) gave me to drink the nectar of His Intimacy. Therefore, I want to make this day a celebrated anniversary.” The man asked, “Shall I get you some food to celebrate this anniversary?” Dawood soon replied, “I did not mean material nectar. A big difference is there between material nectar, drunk by the hand and spiritual nectar of Allah’s Divine Kindness and Revelation!” Therefore, “Ar-Razzaq” (the All-Provider) is Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious. But what should man’s attitude towards this Divine Name be? First and foremost, you should be contented with Allah’s Provision that He, Most Merciful, allots for you. You should be contented with your mother and father, whom Allah has allotted for you by His Divine Decree. It is wisest, dear Muslim brother, to be contented with your own mother and father. You should also be contented with your shape, which Allah has given to you: tall, short, handsome, beautiful, ugly, healthy, ill, strong, weak, …etc. This is the way Allah, Most Gracious, has made you. If you show any objection or dissatisfaction towards Allah, Most Merciful, this means that you are not a true believer. You should be contented with Allah’s Choice of your being born of whichever father and mother, your shape and form, your provision, your wife, your children, …etc. This is because it is Allah Who has chosen for you such wife or children, provision, …etc. Most unbelievers spend their lives in agony and dissatisfaction. A disbeliever says, “I have not been successful in choosing my wife! It was a bad choice!” You should firmly believe that it is Allah Who has chosen your wife, whether she is good or bad, for you. He knows that you are a good believer and, therefore, gives you such a bad wife so that you may guide her to the right way and help her know the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious. A true believer thinks well of Allah. If, for example, Allah gives him a bad wife or child, he never complains but rather says, “This is what Allah, Most Merciful, has chosen for me.” In other words, a true believer should always be well contented with what Allah has allotted for him. This is the first attitude that man should have towards his Lord’s Divine Name “ArRazzaq” (the All-Provider).

The second attitude that man should have towards this Divine Name of Allah’s is that he should be very careful and trustworthy of the Provision that Allah, Glory to Him, gives him, i.e. whatever things Allah provides for him. This is because all the things that man has belong in reality to Allah, All Mighty. Allah, Most Gracious, describes true believers as, “And those who, when they spend, are neither extravagant nor niggardly, but hold a medium (way) between those (extremes).” [XXV; 67] To sum up, man’s attitude towards Allah’s Divine Name “Ar-Razzaq” (the All-Provider) should be: first to be contented with Allah’s Provision to him and second to be honest and trustworthy of Allah’s Provision that He, Most Gracious, the Real Owner, bestows on him.

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n this lecture we will be dealing with the thirteenth of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, “Al-Fattah”, an emphatic Epithet of Allah, Glory to Him, which means that Allah, All Mighty, is the One Who opens all of the gates that no one but Him can open. The emphasis that this Name denotes can be both qualitative and quantitative, i.e. He opens all of the gates of profit and sustenance for His slaves no matter how difficult to open, or how numerable, such gates might be. Someone may suddenly suffer from an incurable disease. All doctors may determine that such disease is incurable, that there is no remedy or hope whatsoever, and that the patient will inevitably die in a few days. No surgical operation is helpful even if carried out in the most advanced countries in the

world. All doctors say there is no hope for recovery. No medicament could avail him anything. A friend of mine had a baby, whose birth was so difficult that it was pulled out of its mother’s womb by a special machine that caused a great injury to the brain. Every now and then, the baby gave certain convulsive movements, as its brain was seriously injured. A doctor said that it would certainly suffer from blindness, mental retardation, or paralysis. The baby was taken to another more experienced doctor who gave the same diagnosis. Two or three more doctors were consulted for the same purpose, but they were of the same opinion. The baby was taken to hospital for more accurate examination. However, all of the diagnoses carried out showed that the baby suffered from a serious incurable damage to the brain. In fact, the damage was untreatable because cells of the brain do not grow, nor do nerve cells. In this context, it should be noticed that if nerve cells were to grow, man would die of pain. But due to Allah’s Mercy upon humans, particularly those who suffer from such damage to their brain, nerve cells do not grow. Anyway, all doctors confirmed that the baby would grow up to be mentally retarded, paralyzed or blind. And believe me! His father really wished that his baby had died, because the baby’s death was far better than its growth that way. Later, the baby was taken to another doctor who was a true believer and had good faith in Allah, Most Gracious. In the hope that Allah, Most Merciful, would heal the baby, this doctor made a scanning of the brain and gave it some medicament. Six months later, the baby was restored to health and became like other normal healthy babies. The baby is now 12 years old, and he not only moves and plays but excels other students at school as well. Is there a secret in such issue? Yes, there is. The One Who opened the gate for this baby’s recovery is Allah, “Al-Fattah”, the Opener of the gates of recovery. Yes, indeed! After all doctors had despaired of the baby’s recovery, Allah, “Al-Fattah”, opened for it the gate of recovery. The simple meaning of this Divine Name of Allah is that He opens all gates: if He so wills, He opens to you the gate of provision and sustenance, He opens to you the gate of work, He opens to you the gate of marriage, He opens to you the gate of tranquility and peace of mind, He opens to you the gate of success, He opens to you the gate of righteous work, He opens to you the gate of the Call for Him and His Religion. He also opens the gates that no one else, but Him, can open. To this effect, Allah, Al-Fattah (the Opener), says, “Whatsoever mercy Allah opens to mankind, none can withhold;

and whatsoever He withholds, none can loose after Him. And He is the All Mighty, the All-Wise.” [XXXV; 2] If Allah so wills, He, Glory to Him, opens the door of His Mercy; but if He so wills, He withholds it. If He withholds His Divine Mercy, no one else can grant it after Him. If He withholds His Divine Mercy, no power in the whole world could ever award it. If He opens the gate of His Divine Mercy, no force or power in the whole world could ever withhold it. If all forces and powers in the whole universe unite together to open what Allah closes or to close what Allah opens, they will never be able to do so. Allah, All Mighty, “Al-Fattah” (the Opener of the Gates of profit and sustenance) says, “Whatsoever mercy Allah opens to mankind, none can withhold; and whatsoever He withholds, none can loose after Him. And He is the All Mighty, the All-Wise.” [XXXV; 2] Therefore, the whole matter is in Allah’s Hand and under His Divine Control. If you believe that the whole matter is only in Allah’s Hand, you must necessarily turn to Him, Alone, and no one else. In fact, this Quranic Verse has a very good impact on true believers. Whatsoever mercy Allah opens to mankind, none can withhold. All of your relationships are confined by your relationship with Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious. All other things than Allah are mere illusions and can do nothing for you. Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), who is the first and foremost human being, who is the one most beloved by Allah, All Mighty, who is Allah’s Prophet and Messenger, who received Divine Revelation from Allah, and who is the most honorable creature with Allah, was commanded by Allah, “Say (O Muhammad): ‘I possess no power over benefit or harm to myself except as Allah wills,” [VII; 188] If Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), possesses no power over benefit or harm to himself, then, it is more proper that he has no power over benefit or harm to others! Yes, indeed, Allah is “Al-Fattah” (the Opener of the gates of profit and sustenance)! A god-wish that our righteous ancestors used quite often to say to someone who was energetic, open-minded, or enthusiastic was, “May Allah open to you as He does to the knowledgeable!” Such god-wish has various connotations: may Allah open to you the gate of sustenance, may Allah open to you the gate of being near and intimate to Him, may Allah open to you the gate of moral exaltation, …etc. This is because Allah is “Al-Fattah”, Who opens the gates of all good things.

In this context, the first and foremost Quranic Verse is, “Whatsoever mercy Allah opens to mankind, none can withhold; and whatsoever He withholds, none can loose after Him. And He is the All-Mighty, the AllWise.” [XXXV; 2] Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Fattah” has another meaning derived from the Quranic Verse, “We should have invented a lie against Allah if we returned to your religion after Allah rescued us from it. And it is not for us to return to it unless Allah, our Lord, should will. Our Lord comprehends all things in His Kingdom. In Allah (Alone) we put our trust. Our Lord! Judge between us and our people in truth, for You are the Best of those who give judgment.” [VII; 89] Things might get confused, forces might clash, someone might claim that he/she is on the right side of a conflict, someone might heap charges against others or vice versa, someone might speak badly of another, someone might fight against another, someone might say that a certain Sheikh (religious scholar) is the most holy man ever, someone else might say that the same Sheikh is the most evil disbelieving human ever, and so on the so forth. Who is the judge? Who has the just judgment? Who knows reality of people? It is Allah, “Al-Fattah”, i.e. the Just Judge. To this effect, the Quranic Verse goes, “Our Lord! Judge between us and our people.” Everyone claims that he/she is right, everyone heaps accusations against others, everyone believes that he/she is a true believer while others are not, he/she is honest and trustworthy while others are not, he/she is so near to Allah, All-Mighty, and so intimate to Him while others are not. This happens among adherents of the same religion, but what would the case be among adherents of different religions? Everyone accuses other religions as being forged and not god-sent, or deviant and not rightly guided. The irreligious accuse the religious of folly, foolish talk, falsehood, and weakness, while the religious accuse the irreligious of profligacy and immorality. But who is the judge? Who has the decisive word? Who is the one who determines whether this or that party is right or wrong? It is Allah, “Al-Fattah” (the Just Judge). This is the second meaning of Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Fattah” (the Just Judge), which is derived from the Quranic Verse, “Our Lord! Judge between us and our people in truth, for You are the Best of those who give judgment.”

However, what should your attitude towards this Divine Name of Allah be? If you are on the right side, do not be afraid, because Allah is ‘AlFattah” (the Just Judge). People may speak badly about you, and they may heap false accusations against you. If you are right, do not be afraid, do not forget Allah’s Words, “So put your trust in Allah; surely, you are on manifest truth.” [XXVII; 79] and “Say, ‘Allah (sent it down).’ Then leave them to play in their vain discussions.” [VI; 91] If you believe that Allah is “Al-Fattah”, the Just Judge, the One Who exalts and debases, the One Who unveils all facts and brings all things to light, the One Who removes all misunderstandings and misconceptions, and the One in Whose Divine Hand is the Absolute Good, if you believe that Allah is the Just Judge, you should never worry or be anxious even if people misunderstand you or think badly of you or even heap false accusations against you for trivial reasons, do not be afraid, because he who knows himself is not harmed by what people say about him. But what worries man these days? In fact, what causes man great anxiety nowadays is that he does not know where to go or whom to please. Just imagine, for example, an employee in a company or factory that has ten partnership owners. Different controversial orders might come from such ten partners; and the employee does not know whom to obey or please. A partner orders him to come, another to go a third to travel, a fourth to come in the afternoon, a fifth to leave early, …etc. Life would be unbearable or even impossible under such different controversial orders coming from several masters, who might, or might not, be in harmony with one another. The same thing applies to a polytheist, a disbeliever or someone whose faith is weak. He/she does not know whom to obey or to please. His life is totally confused and even disrupted. Shall he obey or please his boss or subordinate? Shall he obey his wife? If he obeys his employers, his wife would be angry with him; and if he pleases his wife, his partners would be displeased with him. If he pleases his neighbors, he displeases Allah, All Mighty. If he does not attend a certain meeting or party, his relatives or friends would be angry with him. His life is unbearable. He is torn up and confused. He does not know whom to please or obey! A true believer, however, knows that “Al-Fattah”, the Just Judge is Allah, All Mighty. In other words, he is happy and comfortable because he strives to please only one Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious. Do not forget Allah’s Words,

“So call not upon another god with Allah, lest you should be one of those that are chastised.” [XXVI; 213] One of the most grievous kinds of tortures is to be a polytheist, i.e. to call upon other gods with Allah. However, to call upon other gods with Allah does not mean to say that someone is a god besides Allah, but rather to obey him just as you obey Allah, to deal with him just as you deal with Allah, to put your trust in him just as you do with Allah, to rely on him or hope for him just as you do with Allah, to obey him and disobey Allah for him. Such is the meaning of polytheism. This is the third meaning. The first meaning is: “Whatsoever mercy Allah opens to mankind”: the closed gates are innumerable. You might be told that all of the gates are closed and that all of the ways are blocked. Wherever you go, doors might be closed in your face, as common people usually say. But who is “AlFattah”? It is He, Allah, Who opens all of the closed gates, no matter how numerous or hard to open such gates might be. Yes, indeed! It is Allah, “AlFattah”, Who opens all gates. Once you purify yourself, once you have a pure sacred soul, and once you deserve Allah’s Divine Honor, the whole world is made to come to you. This is because the Lord, All Mighty, has commanded the world: “He who serves Me, serve him; and he who serves you, enslave him.” In another Divine Hadith, He, Glory to Him, addresses man, “O My slave! I created for you the heavens and the earth; and creating them did not tire me. Does a loaf of bread tire me to send you every now and then? You owe me an obligation and I undertake to grant you provision. If you fail to fulfill the obligation that you owe Me, I shall not withhold My provision to you. (I swear) by My Divine Might and Majesty! If you are not contented with that Which I allot to you, I shall give power to the present world over you: you run therein as brute animals run in the wild, but you get not from it except that which I have allotted to you, and I do not care, and you will be worthy of dispraise in My Sight!” If you are in a noble condition that makes you worthy of Allah’s Divine Honor and Mercy, the whole world is forced to come to you. I shall never forget the following Prophetic Hadith, in which Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “He whose care is for this present world, Allah makes (all) his matters hard for him and makes his poverty right before his eyes; and he gets nothing from this world except that which has been

decreed for him. And he whose intention is the Hereafter, Allah makes (all) his matters easy for him and makes his richness in his heart; and the whole world is forced to come to him.” Once a person is overwhelmed with love for this present world, he is afflicted with three things: labor that is constantly toilsome, hope that is unattainable, and poverty that never ends. However, a true believer is included in Allah’s Words, “And seek forgiveness of your Lord and turn to Him in repentance that He may grant you good enjoyment, for a term appointed, and bestow His abounding Grace to every owner of grace. But if you turn away, then I fear for you the torment of a Great Day.” [XI; 3] A true believer’s mundane enjoyment is rightly guided. He is overwhelmed with complete psychological comfort, and he hopes for his Lord’s Garden of Paradise, whose width is as great as the heavens and the earth. But a disbeliever’s worldly enjoyment is full of worry and discomfort. He is constantly afraid of an unknown future, deadly afraid of something unknown, particularly death that lurks in ambush for him. In this context, Allah, Glory to Him, says, “And remember when Abraham said, ‘My Lord! Make this city (Mecca) a place of security, and provide its people with fruits, such of them as believe in Allah and the Last Day.’ He (Allah) answered, ‘As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that end.” [II; 126] When He heard Abraham’s invocation, Allah, Most Gracious, said, “As for him who disbelieves, I shall leave him in contentment for a while, then I shall compel him to the torment of the Fire, and worst indeed is that end.” Then, what is the difference between the worldly enjoyment of a true believer and that of a disbeliever? The worldly enjoyment of a true believer is filled with comfort and peace of mind mixed with a laudable feeling that Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, keeps for him great enjoyment in the Hereafter, whereas a disbeliever, while being in utmost worldly enjoyment, is filled with worry and discomfort mixed with fear of something unknown coming, namely death, which puts an end to all his worldly pleasures and enjoyments. That is why I always like to invoke the Lord, Allah, Most Merciful, “O Allah! We take refuge with You from an incurable disease, from the enemies malicious joy, and from deprivation after donation!” It is indeed something that breaks the back if you are deprived of something

that Allah, Most Gracious, has given you. Because He likes to honor a true believer, Allah, Most Gracious, makes the best part of his life its end. He tires him at the beginning of his life but makes him comfortable and contented at its end. As for those who love this present world, He grants them honor at the beginning of their lives but then they are afflicted with punishment, debasement, disgrace, humiliation, and poverty. That is why Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), used to invoke, “O Allah! Make the best (part) of our life its end and the best (day) of our days the day on which we encounter You while You are well pleased with us.” Similar Quranic invocations go, “Our Lord! Judge between us and our people in truth, for You are the Best of those who give judgment”, “Whatsoever mercy Allah opens to mankind, none can withhold; and whatsoever He withholds, none can loose after Him. And He is the All-Mighty, the AllWise”, and, “And with Him (Allah) are the keys of the Unseen, none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea: no leaf falls down without His knowledge thereof, and no grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry is but written in a Clear Record.” [VI; 59] Now, what is your relationship with this Divine Name of Allah? A true believer should understand the above Verse properly, just as Allah desires. If Allah said “And the keys of the Unseen are with Him”, instead of “And with Him are the keys of the Unseen”, would the meaning be different? Yes, of course. It would mean that the keys of the Unseen could be with another one besides Allah, All Mighty. However, the way the Verse is composed shows that the keys of the Unseen are only with Allah, Alone, and not with anyone else. In other words, no one knows the Unseen or how to get to the Unseen except Allah, Alone. That is why it is commonly said, “What is with Allah is not with any of His slaves.” Some time ago, it did not rain for quite a long time. Therefore, people said in despair, “There will be no more rain! There will be permanent drought.” But then suddenly, it began to rain so heavily that rivers and streams flooded with water. That is because “With Him (Allah) are the keys of the Unseen”. If a doctor tells you, “There is no more hope for recovery”, don not believe him, but say, A doctor has knowledge whereby he helps people So long as there is a respite in their lives. But as soon as one’s life trip is over, The doctor is baffled and his medicines betray him!

It depends on man’s lifetime decreed by the Lord, All Mighty. As soon as man’s lifetime is over, and the doctor says, “There is no more hope for recovery”, this means hat the doctor is right. But if there is still a respite in man’s lifetime, it is wrong for the doctor to say that there is no more hope for recovery. I remember a doctor who told one of his patients that his life would end in only four hours. The patient’s people bought special mourning clothes and had death announcements published. But then, suddenly, Allah, Most Gracious, cured the patient, who lived for thirty more years. The funny thing is that the patient outlived the doctor, who passed away after only twenty years. This is because “With Him (Allah) are the keys of the Unseen”. I do not want to belie doctors but rather to confirm that doctors speak according to their knowledge. But no one except Allah, All Mighty, Alone, knows both the Unseen and the future. For example, a country in the Far East was in complete security and peace: prosperity, wealth, oil, …etc. No one ever thought that a terrible war would break out to destroy the whole country! In the year 1974, Lebanon was a real Paradise on the earth: peace, security, prosperity, luxury, extravagance, …etc. All good things in the world existed in that beautiful country. No one ever thought that in a few years of civil war, it would be completely ruined. “With Him are the keys of the Unseen” There are always Divinely interpretations although people understand only the earthly interpretations: conflicts, civil wars, troubles, problems, …etc. But there is always a religious interpretation. Allah, All-High, says, “And Allah puts forward the example of a township that dwelt secure and well-content: its provision coming to it in abundance from every place, but it denied the Favors of Allah. Therefore, Allah made it taste extreme of hunger and fear because of that which they used to do.” [XVI; 112] As for myself, I always adopt the Quranic interpretation of events although there is always a certain earthly one: Arabic, foreign, international, political, economic, …etc. Always, the right thing to do is to adopt the Quranic interpretation. Once again I repeat Allah’s words, “And Allah puts forward the example of a township that dwelt secure and well-content: its provision coming to it in abundance from every place, but it

denied the Favors of Allah. Therefore, Allah made it taste extreme of hunger and fear because of that which they used to do.” Lebanon and other countries in the east, west, north, and south: “And with Him are the keys of the Unseen, none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea: no leaf falls down without His knowledge thereof, and no grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry is but written in a Clear Record.” If you understand this Quranic Verse properly, you never believe swindlers, imposters, fortunetellers, diviners, soothsayers, magicians, sorcerers, witches, astrologers, or liars. In our modern age, you hear that even in developed countries, there are astrologers, fortunetellers and diviners who are consulted by remarkable personalities, concerning, for example, their financial, economic, administrative, or political future. If such officials read this Quranic Verse, they would never believe such fortunetellers or astrologers: “And with Him are the keys of the Unseen, none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea: no leaf falls down without His knowledge thereof, and no grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry is but written in a Clear Record.” Everything is quite clear: Once you consult a diviner or astrologer to ask him about the Unseen, this means that you do not know Allah, All Mighty. To this effect, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “He who consults a diviner and believes him is a disbeliever in that which was sent down to Muhammad.” You turn away from Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran, with all its truthfulness, clarity, and right guidance, while Allah, Glory to Him, says, “Say (O Muhammad), ‘I do not tell you that with me are the treasures of Allah, nor that I know the Unseen; neither do I tell you that I am an angel. I only follow what is revealed to me.’ Say (O Muhammad), ‘Are the blind and those who can see equal?’ Will you not then take thought?’” [VI; 50], “Say (O Muhammad), ‘I possess no power over benefit or hurt to myself except as Allah wills. If I had the knowledge of the Unseen, I would have secured for myself an abundance of wealth, and no evil would have touched me. I am but a man who brings warnings and glad tidings to people who believe.’” [VII; 188], “Say (O Muhammad), ‘I know not whether (the punishment) which you are promised is near or whether my Lord will appoint for it a distant term. (He is) the (only) One Who knows the Unseen; and He reveals to none His Unseen, except to a Messenger whom He has chosen, and then He makes a band of watching guards (angels) to march before him and behind him.’” [LXXII; 25-27], and, “And with Him

are the keys of the Unseen, none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea: no leaf falls down without His knowledge thereof, and no grain in the darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry is but written in a Clear Record.” Such is a true believer’s attitude. This Quranic Verse is very important, because quite often, you read an article in which a journalist or thinker writes about what will happen in the next year or years. Such articles should never be read because, “And with Him (Allah) are the keys of the Unseen, none knows them but He.” Unless such predictions are not meant to be definitive but mere expectations based on present phenomena or scientific data, they should be rejected, simply because all keys of the Unseen are with Allah, Alone. Such an idea helps you feel secure and comfortable. It has been rightly said, “What has passed belongs to the past, what is hoped for belongs to the Unseen, but you own only the hour in which you are now.” In other words, you own nothing but your present time, wherein you can turn to the Lord, Most Gracious, with faithful repentance and sincere devotion. Some sixteen years ago, a dear sister who used to attend these lectures, in An-Nabulsi Mosque, had a son-inlaw who was far from being religious and even denied the existence of Allah, All Mighty, altogether. She bade her daughter to invite her husband to attend even one, only one, of these lectures; and the daughter kept inviting her husband for more than two years, but it was all in vain. Once, the mother was very pleased when her daughter told her that her husband accompanied her to attend one of the lectures. However, the husband attended only two lectures, but then he had a sudden heart attack and was taken to hospital. While on the stretcher, he addressed his children, “All the things that I have told you about are not true. The truth is that which is in Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran.” Soon later, he passed away. I shall never forget the words that he told to his children just before his death. He had brought up his children to be just like him, atheists who did not believe in the existence of Allah. He attended only two lectures in our mosque and then passed away. While on his deathbed, he addressed his children, one of whom was an engineer, “All the things that I have told you about are not true. The truth is that which is in Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran.” We pray to Allah, Most Gracious, to forgive him. “And with Him are the keys of the Unseen, none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea: no leaf falls down without His knowledge thereof, and no grain in the

darkness of the earth nor anything fresh or dry is but written in a Clear Record.” Yes, indeed! What has passed belongs to the past, what is hoped for belongs to the Unseen, and you own only the present hour in which you are now. Why did scholars say that a Muslim should perform the Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) as soon as possible? They said so simply because man does not know when he will die. Since the Hajj is a religious obligation enjoined on those who are able to perform it, you should perform the Hajj the moment you are able to do so, simply because your life is not in your hand. To this effect, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Make haste to perform the Hajj, as the one of you does not know what happens to him.” In other words, he might suddenly be ill, he might have a problem that prevents him from performing the Hajj, and he might even pass away. Allah, All Mighty, says, “Say (O Muhammad), ‘Our Lord will assemble us all together (on the Day of Judgment), then, He will judge between us with the truth. And He is the Just Judge, the All-Knowing.” [XXXIV; 26] In Arabic, the word “Fataha” means, “to open something closed”. Your relationship with Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Fattah” (the Opener of the gates of profit and sustenance) is that whenever a gate is closed in your face, you should remember this Divine Name of Allah and ask Him to open it for you. This avails under all circumstances, whether serious or insignificant: even if your key-holder, wallet, or anything else, valuable or not, is lost. A brother once told me that he was going to the seaport of Lattakia to remove a shipment of expensive goods; and he had a lot of documents that he was supposed to submit to the authorities there. When he got to the bus station, he suddenly found out that he had left such indispensable documents in the taxi. As he did not know the taxi’s platenumber, he turned pale and desperate: goods worth millions could not be removed from the Customs without those documents. He stood helpless for more than an hour invoking the Lord, “O Al-Fattah, Who opens the gates of all things! Help me find my bag!” He kept invoking the Lord most faithfully and sincerely. All of a sudden, he saw the same taxi coming towards him. It stopped and the driver asked him, “Aren’t you the man who was in my car an hour ago? It seems you’ve left your bag in the

car. Here it is!” Thanks to the man’s sincere invocation to the Lord, Most Gracious, his bag was returned to him. He just could not remember the plate-number of the car or the car itself. But the driver was in Allah’s Divine Hand; and since Allah wanted the driver to return, in due time, to bring back the man’s bag, He, All Mighty, Most Gracious, cast kindness in the driver’s heart, or perhaps fear of Him, and inspired him to bring back the bag to the man. Most happily and gratefully, the man got back his bag, which brought him back to life. Therefore, the Arabic word “fataha” means, “to open something closed”, and hence, Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Fattah” means that He, All Mighty, Most Gracious, opens all the gates of mercy, profit and sustenance to His slaves. The gate of the solution of every difficulty can be easily opened by the Lord, Allah, Most Merciful. In this context, Allah, Glory and Praise belong to Him, says, “So We opened the gates of the heaven with water pouring forth.” [LIV; 1] This means that the gates of the heaven were closed and then Allah opened them. The weather forecast may or may not come true, i.e. the gates of the heaven are opened with rain only when Allah, the Opener of all gates, opens them: “So We opened the gates of the heaven with water pouring forth.” In other words, the heaven is closed and its gates are in Allah’s Hands. In wars, conquest comes when Allah, All Mighty, opens the gates for it. The countries conquered by Muslims were strongly closed and fortified with armies and forces, but when Allah, All Mighty, opened the gates of victory to Muslims, such countries became Muslim countries. The Romans had occupied them before Allah opened them to Muslims. Another meaning of Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Fattah” is that He is the Just Judge, Who judges among His human slaves, i.e. every time a dispute arises among them, He opens the gates for its solution and settlement. Also, another meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Fattah” is that He, Most Gracious, opens the gates of His Mercy to true believers and casts His Divine Light into their hearts and knowledge into their minds. This is what scholars usually call “Al-Kashf” (Unveiling), i.e. Allah unveils their insight whereby they see the truth as it really is and falsehood as it really is. Other scholars call it “Ira’ah” (Showing). In this context, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Thus did We show Abraham the

kingdom of the heavens and the earth that he be one of those who have Faith with certainty.” [VI; 75] Sometimes, you feel that you see nothing, but then, suddenly, you find yourself able to see, I mean in your mind’s eye. Sometimes, a salesperson sees that if he lies to customers concerning his goods, he will sell more, and earn more. Such a salesperson has no good sight unless he sees that honesty is the only way to safety and unless he sees that honesty is the best policy. Some people tell lies, cheat and play tricks on other fellow humans. They wrongly think that this is clever of them. They are, indeed, blind and can not see the truth. What does Allah’s Name “Al-Fattah” mean in this context? It simply means that Allah, Most Gracious, opens your sight to the truth. In other words, He, Glory to Him, unveils the truth to your mind and helps you see good things as they really are and evil things as they really are. Therefore, some scholars say, “ ‘Al-Fattah’, is He, Allah, Who opens the hearts of true believers by His Divine Knowledge, Who opens the gates of His Forgiveness to the disobedient and wrong-doers. If one is disobedient, Allah not only opens the door for him/her to repent but also accepts his/her repentance; and if one is a true believer, Allah opens for him/her the door of His Knowledge.” You should compare your present condition with that some five years ago. You should ask yourself whether your emotions now are the same as they were five years ago, or whether you have now a new vision, a deeper insight, a more mature understanding, and more firmly established values? If you have changed to the better, this means that Allah, Most Gracious, has opened to you the gate of development and knowledge. He, Glory to Him, has unveiled to you some strategic facts about the universe and your own self. He has opened to you the gate to obeying Him and being dutiful to Him. In fact, believers differ in view of their wakefulness or heedlessness. Some of them are most of the time heedless, i.e. they believe in Allah, but are heedless and careless. Other better ones are constantly conscious of Allah and are always in a state of full wakefulness, praying to Allah, beseeching Him, invoking Him, seeking His Divine Guidance, and committing themselves to His Religion. On His Part, Allah, Most Gracious, confers His Blessings upon such devoted believers and casts

His Divine Light into their hearts and Knowledge into their minds. This is another meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name, “Al-Fattah”. And this is real opening. Religious scholars quite often use the word “Al-Fatih” in the above meaning. They usually say, “May Allah open to you (i.e. gates of Good).” They also say, “So and so has received an Opening [(of Good) from the Lord]. In the same context, Allah addresses His Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), “When there comes (to you) the Help of Allah and the Opening (i.e. of victory and conquest over disbelievers), …” [CX; 1] The strange, yet funny, thing in this context is that a lot of common people, when they start a new business or a shop, they, in the hope of success and profit, have certain Quranic Verses posted on their walls, such as, “Verily, We have given you a manifest Opening (of the gate of success and profit),” [XLVIII; 1] although the things that they deal in might be indecent or irreligious, and although they themselves, or their employees, might be deeply involved in sins and misdeeds. Is such kind of business an Opening by Allah?! Is it an Opening to sell indecent things to indecent women, for example, and to have impolite talk to them?! Is it a manifest Opening of the gates of Good to them?! Such ignorant businesspeople purchase Allah’s Quranic Verses for a low price! Such ignorant salespeople do not know that Allah, All Mighty, revealed the above Quranic Verse to His Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), when He opened to him the gate of victory over disbelievers of Mecca and made people come in groups to Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), to announce their conversion to the religion of Islam. Such is real Opening! Therefore, Al-Fattah is Allah, Who opens the hearts of true believers to His Divine Knowledge, and opens the Gates of His Forgiveness to the disobedient. Also, Al-Fattah is Allah, Who helps you in distress and grants you His Divine Favors and Blessings. In case of hardship, He, Praise belongs to Him, helps you; and in case of ease, He, Glory to Him, grants you more and more. Hence, He is All-Fattah, the Opener of the gates of profit and sustenance.

Some religious scholars say that Al-Fattah is Allah, Who opens the gates of Good to His human slaves and makes difficult things easy for them. Such Opening might sometimes be in religious affairs. In other words, someone might tell you, “I have a book to read, but I understand nothing of it. It is too difficult to understand.” But after some time, Allah, Most Gracious, opens the gates of understanding to his mind, and he reads and understands, reads and goes deeper, reads and enjoys, reads and contemplates, reads and commits to memory, and reads and speaks out. Allah, Most Gracious, causes wisdom to run on his tongue, after he helps him follow the way of learning and acquisition of knowledge. First, he says, “I can not understand this book. It is as though I were digging in a rock!” “What is this book?” “I read the Holy Quran, but I do not understand a thing of it!” and “I read a Prophetic Hadith, but I do not understand it.” But after some time, he begins to understand, he begins to go deep and ask questions, he begins to seek answers, he begins to commit to memory, he begins to enjoy, and he begins to preach. Therefore, Allah is Al-Fattah: He opens to you the gates of knowledge, He opens to you the gates of wisdom and makes it run on your tongue. If you are truthful and sincere to Allah, He makes wisdom run on your tongue. The first kind of Opening is that Allah opens to you religious knowledge. Then, He opens to you gates of worldly affairs: you are poor, but He enriches you; you are weak, but He empowers you; you are oppressed or defeated, but He grants you victory over your enemies; you are depressed, but He removes depression from you and replaces it with happiness and delight. Therefore, if man turns away from Allah, he can never attain happiness. To this effect, Allah, All Mighty, says, “But whosoever turns away from My Reminder: verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up, on the Day of Resurrection, blind.” [XX; 124] Yes, it is depression! Ask those who cleave to the life of this present world, ask those who have millions or thousands of millions of pounds, ask those who have super powers, ask the richest people in the world, ask them all, dear reader! They will probably say, “We are the most miserable of all.” Once again, I repeat Allah’s Words, “But whosoever turns away from My Reminder: verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up, on the Day of Resurrection, blind.”

What does Allah’s Name “Al-Fattah” also mean? It means that Allah, Most Gracious, opens to you the gate to be intimate to Him; He opens to you the gate to turn to Him with love and devotion; He opens to you the gate to His Good Pleasure; He opens to you the gate to contentment, whereby you are contented to live even in a single room in the basement, saying, “Praise belongs to Allah.” Sometimes, you enter a flat 500 square meters big, which is worth 30,000,000 Pounds, yet its owner tells you in great discontentment that the marked is stagnant, that losses are so heavy this year, and that profits went down greatly. Although he has such great amounts of money that suffice his children and grandchildren, he is always discontented and unhappy. However, Allah, Most Gracious, may open to a poor person the gate to contentment, thankfulness, and peace of mind. In full gratitude to the Lord, Most Gracious, he says, “Praise belongs to Allah. I am very well. I am very happy.” A person who does not know Allah, is always unhappy and discontented even if he were the richest person in the world. Allah opens to you the gate to His Religion by opening to you the gate to knowledge. If you are poor, He opens to you the gate of riches. If you are weak, He opens to you the gate of strength and power. If you are ill, He opens to you the gate to good health. If you are depressed, He opens to you the gate to happiness. Some poets invoked the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious: O Allah, Who opens to me every closed gate! I seek Your Forgiveness to my sins! So bestow on me that which brings me happiness! Allah, All Mighty, opens all closed gates. He also opens to His slaves the gates to success and Divine Help. To this effect, the Quranic Verse goes, “And my guidance (and success) cannot come except from Allah. In Him I trust, and unto Him I repent.” [XI; 88] Some scholars said: “Nothing can ever happen in the whole universe except by Allah’s Divine Help and Leave.” In the West, they wanted to build a spacecraft, which they called “Challenger”, in order to carry out a unique experiment. They sent seven men and a woman out into space so that the woman get pregnant and give birth in outer space. They prepared everything perfectly and made for each apparatus or machine two other control ones to guarantee complete success. All apparatuses

and machines were checked most accurately. They called the spacecraft “Challenger”. However, seventy seconds after it had been launched, it turned into a big mass of blazing matter. In other words, Allah, AlFattah, did not open to them, i.e. He closed to them, the gate to success. Therefore, “And my guidance (and success) cannot come except from Allah.” If you open a new shop, or establish a factory or school, if you want to get married, or if you desire to do anything, you should ask Allah, AlFattah, for help and success. You should deny yourself. Do not say, “I have a great experience and talent. I am an expert, and I shall make use of all of my expertise. I shall consult other experts. I shall consult a lawyer.” I knew a man who was always discontented and dissatisfied. After a great deal of thinking and calculation, he thought that if he sold his enormous wealth, which consisted of a big factory, a huge store and a luxurious home, which were all very expensive, and that if he invested his great wealth in a bank in Europe, at an interest of 18%, he would live there, in Europe, like a king. After long consideration and calculation, he put his plan into action. He sold all his possessions in Syria and traveled to Sweden, one of the most developed and comfortable countries in the world, thinking that he would buy a luxurious house and a big car, and then deposit all his money in the bank and live, happily and extravagantly, on the high interests that he would get on his money. But what happened? Being unable to provide the bank with the necessary documents, as the amount was so large, he had to deposit the money under someone else’s name, maybe a friend or a relative residing there, until he provided such documents. The very next day after he had deposited all his money under the other person’s name, he went to him to reclaim his money. The other person denied the whole matter and claimed hat he owed him nothing. Thus, in only a few hours, all his wealth was completely lost. What intelligence! Keep this in mind: In your relationship with Allah, no intelligence or smartness on your part can ever avail you anything. That is why it is wisely said, “No care could ever avail against something Divinely decreed.” However, prayer and invocation to Him do avail, “And my guidance (and success) cannot come except from Allah”. Nothing can avail except by Allah’s Leave!

To sum up, your attitude towards Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name, AlFattah, should be to strive sincerely so that Allah, Most Gracious, may open to you the gate of knowledge. Also, you should open to other fellow humans the gates of your own good work and benefaction in the best moderation and wisdom.

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ow, we go on to deal with the fourteenth of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, “Al-‘Aleem” (the Omniscient). Allah, All Mighty, says, “And over all those endowed with knowledge is the Omniscient (Allah).” [XII; 76] First of all, it should be noticed that all of Allah’s Divine Names are Beautiful and that each Name stands alone and does not depend on any of the other Names. Nevertheless, some of Allah’s Divine Names have more impact on people than other Names. Concerning Allah’s Beautiful Name, “Al-‘Aleem” (the Omniscient), He, Glory to Him, says, “It is Allah Who created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth) that you may know that Allah has power over all things and that Allah encompasses all things in Knowledge.” [LXV; 12] While speaking about His Divine Creation and Revelation, Allah, Praise belongs to Him, mentions only two of His Beautiful Divine Names, “Al-‘Aleem” (the Omniscient) and “Al-Qadeer” (the Omnipotent). This is because man does not obey Allah’s Divine Commands unless he firmly

believes that both Allah’s Divine Knowledge and Power encompass him. Moreover, Allah’s Name, “Al-‘Aleem” (the Omniscient) plays first fiddle in regard to man’s belief in Allah. In other words, if you know that Allah, the Omniscient, knows all things, both secret and open, that He knows your publicity and secrecy, that He sees you while you are in seclusion and in other people’s company, and in your travel and settlement, that He knows all of your secret thoughts and intentions, all that you wish or desire, and all that you hope for, if you firmly believe that Allah knows all things, you stick to His Divine Commands. Therefore, Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names “Al-‘Aleem” (the Omniscient) and “Al-Qadeer” (the Omnipotent) have the most impact on man’s uprightness and obedience. The above Quranic Verse reiterates this meaning: “It is Allah Who created seven heavens and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth) that you may know that Allah has power over all things and that Allah encompasses all things in Knowledge.” Knowledge can be defined in terms of a stable relationship between two things. Such stable relationship must be indisputable, i.e. definitive, provided with sufficient authentic evidence, and in conformity with the actual and real state of things. However, Allah’s Divine Knowledge differs completely from that of human beings. His Divine Knowledge encompasses all things, overt and covert, inner and outer, micro and macro, seen or unseen, …etc. It also encompasses the beginning and end of all things. In order to make things clear, I give the following example: If a genius invents a machine, and then other following generations come to study such machine and know everything about it: its parts and the relationships between them, the laws that govern its work, and the laws on the basis of which it was made. Knowledge of the following generation differs from that of the genius who invented the machine. Knowledge of the genius brought this machine into existence, for he existed before the machine; while knowledge of later generations who study the machine came after it had been invented and brought into existence. Imam Al-Ghazali gave this example in his book Revival of Religious knowledge, showing that our human knowledge is derived from the universe and the laws that govern it, i.e. from the laws that Allah, All Mighty, has put for the universe. In other words, Human knowledge is acquired from the universe in which man lives: its laws, relationships governing its components, properties of such

components, …etc, which have been brought into existence by Allah’s Divine Knowledge. It is Allah, Who has given things their properties or qualities; it is He Who has made cosmic laws. Great is the difference between Allah’s Divine Knowledge and that of human beings! Great is the difference between discovery of relationships among existing things and the creation of such things from nothing. This is the difference! Human knowledge is post-existence and acquired, while that of the Creator, Allah, All Mighty, is pre-existence and creative. Here is another example: When man first constructed bridges or buildings, he did not realize that they would collapse as soon as iron expanded in hot weather. But later, after discovery of the property of expansion of metals, man took laws of expansion into consideration while constructing bridges or buildings. Hence, man’s knowledge is something acquired, while Allah’s Knowledge is Original and has no beginning. Man’s acquired knowledge also led him to make a double-isolation system for oil tankers in order to prevent fire in hot weather. Each and every fact man gets to know is acquired through experiment and by way of a miss-and-hit process. A 1912 car is by no means comparable to a 2000 one. The former has no pneumatic wheels. Its headlights are oil lamps. It has no speed gearbox but only one speed. Its engine is started manually. Just compare a car made a hundred years ago to one made only a year ago! This provides evidence that human knowledge is acquired, while Allah’s Divine Knowledge is has no beginning or end. Once again, I reiterate that Allah’s Divine Knowledge, Power and Will are the essence of all existing things. In other words, Allah’s Divine Knowledge not only existed before all things but also caused them to exist. This fact includes human beings, whose knowledge comes later and is acquired… Mountains, rivers, lakes, …etc, helped us know properties and laws of water, such as law of Archimedes, through which we made ships, just as the atmosphere helped us know properties of the air, through which we made airplanes. Therefore, all human knowledge is derived from Allah’s Divine Laws and Norms that He, All Mighty, has decreed for the universe in which we exist. Hence, it is absolutely wrong to believe that Allah’s Divine Knowledge is similar to our human knowledge.

As a human being, you are governed by dimensions of place and time, where you move from one place to another, at some time or another. In other words, dimensions of place and time confine you. But Allah, All Mighty, is the Creator of both place and time. We should not ask, “Where is He?” because He is the One Who created place, nor should we ask, “When did He come into existence?” because He is the One Who created time. He knows what was, what is, what will be, and what is not: if it were to be, how it would be… This is one thing. By the above-mentioned I intend to show the essential difference between human and divine knowledge. I want to show that Allah’s Divine Knowledge is infinitely old, and it caused all things to come into existence. In other words, whenever Allah’s Divine Knowledge, Will, and Power necessitate that something come into existence, it does really come into existence. If Allah’s Divine Knowledge, Will and Power necessitate that such thing assume a certain shape, it does really assume such shape. In fact, Divine Decree, in its reality, means that Allah’s Divine Knowledge necessitates that something exist, and it does exist just as Allah, All Mighty wills. In fact, this issue is multi-sided and cannot be made clear in only a few pages. But we can say in short that the whole universe is but a manifestation of Allah’s Divine Knowledge. Consider, for example, a man-made spacecraft whereby man was able to fly to the moon. It goes without saying that all human knowledge, ever since mankind first appeared on the earth, took part in making such spacecraft. How did scientists know that the spacecraft should move at a certain speed in order to get off the earth’s gravity? How did they study the moon’s movement and the angel according to which the spacecraft should move in order to get to the moon in its new location after three days that the spacecraft needs to reach the moon? Such disciplines of knowledge as mathematics, astronomy, physics, among many others, took part in the trip of that spacecraft to the moon, in addition to a careful study of life conditions on the earth in comparison to those existing on the moon’s surface. The special suit that astronauts wore in outer space cost 16 million Dollars; and it provided them with the proper air, pressure, temperature and communication. I just desire to emphasize that if you see such spacecraft being launched into outer space and then landing on the moon’s surface, you should know for sure that all the science of mathematics, ever since it was first established, and in its most advanced form, has taken part in the sending of such spacecraft to the moon; and, similarly, the science of physics, in its

most advanced form, including such notions as, “theory of relativity, the bent space theory, bent lines theory, and laws of motion, gravity and acceleration,…etc,” has also taken part in the sending of such spacecraft to the moon. Other branches of science, such as chemistry, physiology, and medicine, including such notions as, “the proper blood pressure, the proper heart-beat, the proper condition of blood vessels, how is it possible for man to live in a state of weightlessness where there is no gravity”…etc, also took part in such an enterprise, which, undoubtedly, reflects great advanced human knowledge accumulated all through human history. Similarly, if you see an oil field in the middle of the Northern Sea discovered, you might wonder, “How was such oil field discovered?” “What instruments or methods were used?” “Did they use the laser, magnetic or wave method?” “Which principle did they use?” “And when the oil-field had been discovered, how could they reach it?” “How could they dive 5,000 meters deep into the sea?” “How could they reach the sea-bed?” “How could they dig for another 5,000 meters below the sea-bed?” “How did the sea’s salty water not get into the pipes?” “How did they insert the pipes into the sea-bed” “How did they empty sea water from these pipes?” “How did they inject molten cement?” They constructed a platform on the sea for the helicopters to land on; they built a small city with houses, offices, and headquarters, all floating on the surface of the sea. They studied the power, height and depth of waves as well as sea-currents, the rate of salt in the seawater and its relationship with metals. Nevertheless, on a stormy night, strong waves come to destroy the whole base. This is because the study was no adequate enough. They build an airplane, but it suddenly falls down with no reason. There must be something wrong with its construction. In fact, I put forward the above examples to incite dear readers to contemplate Allah’s Perfect Divine Knowledge and Creativity, which brought the whole universe into existence. You might also see a small watch that is programmed for two hundred years to show times for the five prayers in all countries of the world. If you are in Damascus, you set it so as to show you times of all prayers (dawn, midday, afternoon, evening and late evening prayers) in Damascus. The watch, which is of normal size, gives the times for prayer for two hundred years to come. Doesn’t such watch provide evidence of a great scientific development?

I have been shown a small computer as big as the palm of the hand. It can hold 35,000 pieces of information and 10,000 phone numbers. You can instantly retrieve any of these numbers by pressing the first letter of the person’s name. Don’t you feel the great ability of the human mind, which is one of the things that Allah, All Mighty creates? Once again, I reiterate that I give such examples not in order to draw attention to human inventors or manufacturers, but rather to Allah, All Mighty, Who creates and originates. In fact, the greatest and most developed apparatuses or machines that you might be shown or told about (examples of this are: such apparatus or machine is electronic, such apparatus is automatic, such electronic microscope magnifies things 5,000 times and helps you see an ant as big as a large elephant, pores of the skin as big as caves, and a piece of human skin as big as an Amazon jungle, such highly sophisticated computer can hold 5,000,000,000 pieces of information), show clearly greatness of the human mind and the Infinite Divine Wisdom and Power of its Creator and Maker, Allah, All Mighty. Once, I was shown a computer on which the whole Quran is recorded. The person who showed me the computer told me, “You may ask it whatever question you like.” I asked the computer, “How many times does the word ‘Lakum’ occur?” It immediately answered, “118 times.” I asked it to display the Verses in which this word occurs, and it soon displayed them in succession and asked me if I would like to have them printed out, which can be most easily done. I asked the computer, “Which is the letter that is most repeated in Surat ‘Qaf’?” It soon replied, “The letter ‘Kaf’ and not ‘Qaf’.” It is all but a small disc as big as the palm of a hand. In front of a computer, an oil derrick, an airplane, or a spacecraft, you stand fully amazed!! However, did you know that all such highly sophisticated machines and inventions are but simple primitive things compared to your human body? Consider the human brain: ten billion cells that have to do with mental judgment, reasoning, imagination, memory and remembrance, vision, hearing, smell, touch, feeling of pressure, among lots of other functions. If I go on talking about wonders of the human body, dear readers will certainly find out that the most developed and sophisticated man-made machine is too simple and primitive compared to the human body. You may, sometimes, be amazed at the sight of a certain machine or instrument because of its tiny or gigantic size or amazing function. Aren’t

you amazed at the sight of a galaxy that is 16 billion light-years away from the earth, or of the fact that light travels at a speed of 300,000 km/second? Aren’t you amazed when you know that in your human head there are 300,000 hairs, each of which has a nerve, an artery, a vein, a fat gland, and a dye gland? Aren’t you amazed when you know that in your brain there are 140 billion cells whose function is not known yet? Aren’t you amazed when you know that in the retina there are 130 million cells and that 900 nerves run through the optic nerve? Aren’t you amazed at the brain, the nerves, and the heart, which pumps eight cubic meters of blood a day without any cessation, the kidneys, through which the blood of the whole body runs five times a day crossing a distance of 100 km’s, the pituitary body, which, in case of any danger, gives orders to the supra-renal gland, which, in turn, gives four orders: one to the heart in order to increase its beating, another to the lungs in order to increase breathing, a third to all blood vessels in order to narrow their inner walls to provide more blood for movement and attack, and a fourth to the liver in order to send more sugar into the blood vessels?
Have you contemplated the different parts of your human body, which conforms to the most advanced up-to-date theories of mechanics? Did you know that the upper part of the thighbone can bear more than 250 kg’s on either side or that man can bear 500 kg’s before his ribs are broken? If I kept talking about the human body for hours and hours, I would never give it its due study or analysis. The same thing applies to plants. For, example, I once read amazing things about the leaves of plants. Scientists say that the most developed man-made factory is simply too primitive compared to a leaf, which is, indeed, a whole factory on its own. It takes 18 minerals from the rising sap. In the leaf there is the chlorophyll; in the leaf there is the photon of the solar energy; in the leaf there is nitrogen; and in the leaf there is iron compounds. Together with the rising sap, the leaf makes the falling sap, which, in turn makes .flowers and fruits

Does man, for example, have the ability to inject a liquid with something that turns it into wood, iron or sponge? Is this possible?! The liquid is one and the same but it gives different forms of matter. I once read that the rising sap of a tree runs along special vessels or pipes. If a tree grows wide wise, the pipes may get narrowed and the flow of the liquid becomes improper. Therefore, the pipes are .provided with spiral fibers to prevent narrowness of pipes as the tree grows

This is the case with plants, but what about birds? A bird’s vision is eight times stronger than human vision. Further more, the sense of smell is a million times stronger in dogs than in man. What shall I say about fishes? There are more than a million kinds of fishes. What shall I say about whales, some of which weigh more than 150 tons and have more than 50 tons of flesh, 50 tons of fat, and 90 barrels of oil? A baby whale needs more than 300 kg’s of milk for one sucking, i.e. one ton of milk per day. An average small meal for a grown-up whale is more than four tons. What shall I say about god fish that you see in aquariums?!

All of the above mentioned facts manifest clearly Allah’s Infinite Divine Knowledge: laws, relationships, and marvelous most accurate things and phenomena. Like all other liquids, water expands as temperature rises. What happens if it is cooled down below 4 º C.? It begins to expand! How does this happen? Who has made water behave like this? Certainly, it is Allah, the All Mighty, the Omniscient! It is well known that man’s survival on earth is conditional on this odd property of water. In other words, if water went on contracting down to the freezing point, human life would be impossible on the earth, simply because rivers, seas, and oceans would become solid blocks of ice, evaporation would cease to be, and so would rain, plants would die, and so would animals and human beings. Before people talk about whether Allah, All Mighty, knows or not, there are so many things that have to be considered and contemplated. The whole universe is but a manifestation of Allah’s Infinite Divine Knowledge. Once again, I remind my dear readers of the gigantic oil derrick in the Northern Sea. If you fly there, you will see a whole integrated city: houses, offices, communication systems, an airport, …etc, all floating on the surface of the sea, pipes 5,000 meters long down to the sea-bed, and then other pipes 5,000 meters long underneath the sea-bed. How could they get to the oil there, and how could they pump such oil out? When you see all this, don’t you feel that great genius minds have designed and constructed such a site? If you fly on board one of the biggest and most developed airplanes, don’t you feel as if the five hundred passengers on board were in a beautiful city, sitting in one of its restaurants, on luxurious comfortable chairs, and the food brought to them hot and delicious, while they are flying at a height of more than 43,000 feet? How does the air carry the plane? How can the air carry such a gigantic body? The question is so complicated, although very important. How complicated are the laws that govern an airplane? Common people might think that the plane’s wing, in which the plane’s fuel is stored, is a simple hollow structure. If it were so, the plane would dive down the moment it inclined to the right or left. In fact, the plane’s wing has a great many chambers separated with special barriers or walls with lots of openings and pumps that pump fuel to the opposite direction. Moreover, the plane’s wings had to withstand high moisture and very low temperatures in the high layers of the atmosphere, sometimes even minus 50 degrees Celsius. Once a pilot told me about the incredible accuracy and precision with which the different parts of an airplane are made. This provides clear evidence of

the great intelligence and knowledge of its makers and inventors. A gigantic ship, which can sometimes carry more than a million tons of goods or oil and the engines of whose helm or rudder are more than 4,000 horsepower, also manifests such great intelligence and knowledge of the part of its makers and inventors. What would you say about Allah’s Infinite Divine Knowledge, Which created the whole universe?! In this context, Allah, All Mighty, says, “So I swear by the settings of the stars. And verily, that is indeed a great oath, if you but know.” [LVI; 75,76] Poor indeed are those who do not know about Allah’s Infinite Divine Knowledge except the question whether He knows or not. They know nothing, or too little, about His Great Divine Name “Al-‘Aleem” (the Omniscient), whose meanings and innumerable manifestations, most delicate as they are, can be encompassed by no human knowledge. The only thing that common people know in this respect is that Allah knows, but they never contemplate the marvelous manifestations or substantiations of His Infinite Divine Knowledge in the universe. However, before we go into details of this Divine Name, “Al-‘Aleem” (the Omniscient), I would like to remind my dear readers that Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names are all Revelation-specific. In other words, we cannot derive a name by ourselves and then claim that it belongs to Allah. For example, Allah, All Mighty, says, “Verily, they are plotting a plot (against you, O Muhammad). And I (Allah) am planning a plan.” [LXXXVI; 15] and, “And (remember) when the disbelievers plotted against you (O Muhammad) to imprison you, or to kill you, or to get you out; they were plotting; and Allah (too) was plotting; and Allah is the Best of those who plot.” [VIII; 30] It is not permissible to derive from the verb “plot” or “plan” a name and claim that Allah is a “Plotter” or “Planner”. I reiterate that all of Allah’s Divine Names and Attributes are Revelation-specific, i.e. we do not accept or use any of Allah’s Names except those that are mentioned in Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran or Prophetic Sunna and Tradition. For example, can we say Allah is a “Teacher”? No! Can we say that Allah is a “Scholar”? No! The whole Islamic nation does not accept the Name “Teacher” although Allah, All Mighty, says, “He has been taught by the One, Who is Mighty in power.” [LII; 5] and “He (Allah) has taught you that which you did not know…”

Is it possible to say that Allah is “’Arif” (i.e. the One Who is Able to know)? No! This is because this Arabic word means “someone who gets to know something after having been ignorant thereof”. It means that before knowledge there was ignorance, which does not befit Allah’s Divine Knowledge, which has no beginning. Allah’s Knowledge is not acquired but rather comes even before existence. Similarly, can we say that Allah is “Fatin” (Clever) or “Thaki” (Intelligent)? No, of course not! Allah’s Divine Names are definitely Revelation-specific. No one is permitted to invent a name and then attribute it to Allah. No Name is acceptable unless it is mentioned in the Holy Quran or Prophetic Sunna and is, therefore, accepted by the whole Islamic nation.
However, there is a great difference between Allah’s Infinite Divine Knowledge and human knowledge. Allah’s Divine knowledge is not derived from things, but, the opposite is true, i.e. things are derived from His Knowledge, whereas human knowledge is derived .from things and is based thereon

I would like to tell you this: Allah honors knowledgeable humans when He attributes knowledge to them, but their human knowledge is, definitely, unlike His Infinite Divine Knowledge. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Allah is All-Knowing; and He loves those who are knowledgeable.” But here we have a question: Which branch, or branches, of knowledge are the noblest and most sublime? Where does a certain branch of knowledge get its eminence and honor? What makes a certain branch of knowledge more honorable than another? If someone has knowledge of how to break locks of shops and rob them, is such knowledge honorable? No, of course not! Such a person is a robber, and his knowledge, great as it might be, is by no means honorable! If someone has great knowledge of forging banknotes, i.e. he has a highly sophisticated equipment, great copiers, special paper, and he has acquired great knowledge and made a lot of study and research, is his knowledge noble or honorable? No! Is knowledge of ways of trafficking drugs, which some traffickers most intelligently acquire, an honorable or noble kind of knowledge? No, of course not!

However, if someone acquires knowledge about heart diseases because people are in bad need of it, you certainly feel that such knowledge is noble and honorable. Hence, the question is: what makes a certain branch of knowledge noble or honorable? The answer is simply: The kind of information and its importance make knowledge honorable and noble or not. In other words, the more noble and honorable the information and its uses are, the more honorable and noble knowledge of such information is. If someone has a lot of accurate and detailed information about singers, male and female: when they get up or go to bed, their kind of food, the massages and holidays they have, …etc, do you feel that such kind of knowledge is noble or honorable? I would like to reiterate that knowledge is not noble or honorable unless its subject matter is as such. On the basis of this principle, one may ask: what is the noblest and most honorable branch of knowledge? The answer is theology, i.e. knowledge about Allah and the foundations of religious beliefs. This is because superiority of Allah’s Words over those of His human slaves is like superiority of Allah, Himself, over His human slaves. We have known lots of disciplines of knowledge, such as physics, chemistry, math, medicine, engineering, physiology, morphology, …etc, and we have known Allah. The former kind of knowledge has to do with things created by Allah, while the latter has to do with Allah, the Creator, Himself. Therefore, the noblest and most honorable knowledge is theology, i.e. to know Allah, His Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes, His Religion, …etc. Such is the noblest and most honorable knowledge! To know the way that leads to Allah is honorable knowledge; to know Allah’s Religion is honorable knowledge; to know Allah’s Commands and Laws, as derived from His Divine Book, the Holy Quran, is honorable knowledge; to know how to be near to Allah and how to attain spiritual enhancement is honorable knowledge. Hence, the noblest and most honorable knowledge is, first, to know Allah, and, next, to know the way that leads to Him and His Divine Love. Make no mistake about it! There is one, only one, Truth in the whole universe, namely Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious. Anything that leads you to Him is noblest and most honorable. To learn Arabic, for example, in order to understand Allah’s Words, is noblest and most honorable.

In this context, Imam Al-Ghazali, may Allah have mercy on him, says, “There are three kinds of knowledge: knowledge about Allah, knowledge about His Divine Commands, and knowledge about His creatures.” The second and third kinds of knowledge, i.e. those that have to do with Allah’s Commands and Creatures, need to be acquired by means of the usual methods of learning, such as reading books, attending lessons or lectures, committing pieces of information to memory, …etc.; and they are usually stored in one’s mind and memory. But the first kind of knowledge, i.e. that which has to do with Allah, All Mighty, is completely different. This kind of knowledge conduces to spiritual enhancement and moral transcendentalism, i.e. it makes one nearer and more intimate to his Lord, Allah, Most Gracious. It does not need the usual above-mentioned methods of learning but rather persistent strife to come near to Allah and attain His Divine Love. Also, it is not merely something stored in the mind but also an active spiritual and emotional state that is conducive to both spiritual and emotional transcendentalism. It is by no means easy to attain, nevertheless, its consequences are magnificent. Once again, I reiterate that the noblest and most honorable branch of knowledge is to know Allah, His Religion, and His Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. The noblest and most honorable thing to do is to know Allah and that He is the All Mighty, the Omnipotent, the Omniscient, the All-Wise, the Irresistible Compeller, the Sovereign, the All-Holy, the Peace Giver, the All-Forgiver, the Security Giver, the All-Preserver, and so on and so forth. The best thing to do is to be, from the viewpoint of character and behavior, as Allah pleases: to be faithful, sincere, devoted, committed, honest, trustworthy, pious, dutiful, truthful, …etc. Such noble character and behavior are attainable only by Allah’s Divine Grace and Help.
Explanation of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes has to do with both Allah Himself and man’s heart. It also has to do with how man’s heart should be: aware, sincere, loving, confident, truthful, honest, straightforward, pious, dutiful, …etc. Moreover, .explanation of Allah’s Beautiful Names and Attributes comprises all disciplines of knowledge

:Here are some elaborations

First, whenever the Holy Quran speaks about knowledge, it confirms that knowledge belongs to Allah, and that human beings acquire knowledge only if Allah so wills. To this effect, Allah, the Omniscient, says, “Verily, Allah: with Him (Alone) is the knowledge of the Hour, He sends down the rain, and knows that which is in the wombs. No person knows what he will earn tomorrow, and [no person knows in what land he will die. Verily, Allah is All-Knower, All-Aware (of things).” [XXXI; 34

“And they shall never encompass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills. His Kursi extends over the heavens and the earth, and He feels no fatigue in guarding and preserving them. And He is the Most High, the Most Great.” [II; 255] “But Allah bears witness to that which He sent down to you; He sent it down with His Knowledge; and the angels bear witness. And Allah is AllSufficient as a Witness.” [IV; 166] “And Allah did create you from dust, then from a sperm drop, then He made you pairs (male and female). And no female conceives or gives birth but with His Knowledge. And no aged man is granted a length of time, nor a part is cut off from his life but is (recorded) in a Book. Surely, that is easy for Allah.” [XXXV; 11] Therefore, lots of Quranic Verses pivot round the fact that all knowledge belongs to Allah. To the same effect, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Verily, Allah is All-Knowing; and He loves those who are knowledgeable.” This Prophetic Hadith is in full conformity with the above-mentioned Quranic Verse, “And they shall never encompass anything of His Knowledge except that which He wills.” An old traditional scholar once wanted to disparage Imam As-Shafi’i in front of his students. He asked disparagingly, “Young man! We have never heard of that which you say. Where did you get it? No one, except you, claims this.” Most wisely, Imam Ash-Shafi’Ii said, “Master! Do you claim that you know all things?” If the old scholar had answered that he had known all things, it would have been foolish of him, as Allah, All Mighty, says, “And they ask you (O Muhammad) concerning the Spirit. Say, ‘The Spirit is one of the things the knowledge of which is only with my Lord. And of knowledge, you (mankind) have been given only a little.” [XVII; 85] Therefore, he soon replied, “No.” The intelligent young Imam replied, “Then, this is simply one of the things that you do not know!” Who can encompass all knowledge?! Who knows everything?! No one, except Allah, the Omniscient, can encompass all knowledge and knows all things. That is why it is rightly said: A person is considered as knowledgeable as long as he is still learning. The moment he thinks that he is knowledgeable; this means that he is a mere ignorant person. In other words, if you claim that you are knowledgeable, you are definitely ignorant

and self-conceited. Therefore, those who have an ardent desire for knowledge and strive to attend religious lectures in order to properly understand Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran, and Prophetic Hadith and Tradition, are strongly recommended to say always, “We are mere learners”, because such statement reflects politeness and modesty. In fact, I have heard such statement from great well-known scholars. Some time ago, someone wrote a book in which he claimed to be one of the great scholars of Damascus. It seems that he forgot the fact that whenever our venerable righteous ancestors had to speak about themselves, they would simply say, “May Allah forgive me my sins,” or “I am but someone who is in bad need of his Lord, Allah, Most Gracious.” As above mentioned, a great many Quranic Verses confirm that knowledge belongs only to Allah, and that He grants it to whomever He desires. By the way, some people claim that Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), was illiterate. A highly placed person in a university was once asked to open a faculty for an M.A. post-graduate degree in religious studies. He said, “Why should we open such faculty? The Holy Prophet (Muhammad) was illiterate.” The dean of the faculty, however, most cleverly answered, “But Prophet Muhammad used to receive Divine Revelation from the Lord, Allah, All Mighty. The moment we receive Divine Revelation, we will give up learning and leave the university.” That is why religious scholars usually say: “The holy Prophet’s illiteracy reflects perfection, while illiteracy of other people reflects imperfection.” In other words, if you say that someone is illiterate, this means that he is ignorant; but if you say that Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH) was illiterate, this means that he was in no need of human knowledge or education, as he, (PBUH), received knowledge directly from the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious. Sometimes, university graduates may claim boastfully that they have the highest degrees from such developed countries as America, England, or France. Others may boast of having studied under a well-known scholar or scientist. In other words, people usually feel proud of having received knowledge at one famous university or another, or under a certain famous scientist or scholar. But I would like to ask, “Who taught Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH)?” The answer is: Allah, the Almighty, the Omniscient, Himself, taught him; and this suffices him in honor and knowledge. To this effect, the Verse goes:

O illiterate (Prophet)! It suffices you in rank Of knowledge that savants are indebted to you. Moreover, quite often, a genius scholar takes some fifty or more of the Prophetic Hadiths of Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), studies and analyzes them as regards their composition, formation, eloquence, content, denotation, connotation, ...etc; and for this he is awarded a Ph D in religious studies. All his study and research is about only fifty Prophetic Hadiths of Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH); yet he says boastfully, “I have a Ph D in Religious Studies!” in the hope of attaining due appreciation and respect from other fellow humans. Once again: O illiterate (Prophet)! It suffices you in rank Of knowledge that savants are indebted to you. Therefore, the holy Prophet’s illiteracy is the token of perfection on his part, while illiteracy of other people reflects imperfection. To this effect, Allah, All Mighty, says, “Neither did you (O Muhammad) read any book before it (the Quran), nor did you write any book (whatsoever) with your right hand. In that case, indeed, the followers of falsehood might have doubted.” [XXIX; 48] Other Quranic Verses confirm that Allah, All Mighty, is the All-Knower. To this effect, He, Glory to Him, says, “Say (O Muhammad), ‘I know not whether (the punishment) which you are promised is near or whether my Lord will appoint for it a distant term. (He Alone is) the All-Knower of the Unseen, and He reveals to none His Unseen, except to a Messenger whom He has chosen, and then He makes a band of watching guards (angels) to march before him and behind him.” [LXXII; 25-27] “Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of the Unseen of the heavens and the earth. Verily, He is the All-Knower of that is in the breasts.” [XXXV; 38]
In the first place, the Verses confirm that Allah, All Mighty, is “’Aleem” (Omniscient), i.e. all knowledge belongs to Him. In the second place, they describe Him as “’Alim” (All-Knower), i.e. He knows all things, irrespective of their quantity or quality. In the third place, the Verses describe Allah as being “’Allam” (The One Whose Knowledge is Infinite), i.e. His Divine Knowledge is Absolute and Infinite. In other words, when you say that Allah is “’Allam” of the Unseen, this means that He knows all of the unseen things, i.e. His Knowledge is Absolute and All Embracing. He knows how each creature will end, He knows when and how each leaf falls off a tree. In this context, He, Glory to Him, says, “And with Him are the keys of the Unseen, none knows them but He. And He knows whatever there is in the land and in the sea; not a leaf falls but He knows it. There is not a grain in the darkness of [the earth nor anything fresh or dry but is written in a Clear Record.” [VI; 59

.Allah knows what was, what is, what will be, and what is not: if it were, how it would be

In the fourth place, the Verses describe Allah, All Mighty, as being “Al-A’lam”, i.e. the One Who knows more than anyone else. To this effect, He, Praise belongs to Him, says, “And thus We made their case known (to the people), that they may know that the Promise of Allah is true and that there can be no doubt about the Hour. (Remember) when they (the people of the city) disputed among themselves about their case, they said, ‘Construct a building over them. Their Lord knows best about them.’ [(Then) those who won their point said, ‘We verily shall build a place of worship over them.’” [XVIII; 21

The venerable Companion and Caliph, Abu Bakr As-Siddeeq, may Allah be pleased with him, was once praised by people. Let’s listen to what he said. He, whose firm belief in Allah overweighs that of all people, said, “O Allah! You know me more than I know myself; and I know myself more than they know me. O Allah! Make me better than they say, forgive me what they do not know (about me), and do not blame me for that which they say (about me).” Such was Abu Bakr’s attitude whenever he was .praised

Therefore, Allah, the Omniscient, attributes Knowledge to Himself, and describes Himself as being “’Aleem”, “’Alim”, “’Allam”, and “Al-‘A’lam”, as above mentioned, but it not permissible to say that Allah is “Mu’alim” (i.e. Teacher). In this context, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “They (angels) said, ‘Glory to You! We have no knowledge except that which You have taught us. Verily, it is You, Who are the All-Knowing, the All-Wise.” [II; 32] “The Most Gracious (Allah) has taught (mankind) the Quran, created man and taught him eloquent speech.” [LV; 1-4] “And He (Allah) taught you that which you knew not. And Ever Great is the Grace of Allah unto you.” [IV; 113] “Then they found one of Our slaves, on whom We had bestowed mercy from Us, and whom We had taught knowledge from Us.” [XVIII; 65] A Marginal note: Allah, All-High, says, “Thus Adam disobeyed his Lord.” Scholars say that it is impermissible to say that Adam is a “disobedient”. In other words, you do not have the right to derive from the above verb “disobey” a name for Adam. Similarly, when Allah, All Mighty, says, “And one of them (the two women), ‘O my father! Hire him (Moses)! Verily, the best of men for you to hire is the strong and trustworthy.” [XXVIII; 26] Scholars say that it shouldn’t be said that Moses, (PBUH), was a “hireling”. Of course, there are minute reasonable justifications for Allah’s use of such attributes in His Holy Quran. Allah’s Command to Adam in Paradise was by way of advice more than obligation; and real disobedience comes only when there is a command that denotes obligation. Therefore, when the great holy Prophet, Adam, (PBUH), ate the apple in Paradise, he did not disobey an obligatory command of Allah but rather an advisory one. Allah, Most Gracious, clarifies what happened, as He, Glory to Him, says, “And they both ate of the tree, and so heir private parts became manifest to them, and they began to cover themselves with the leaves of Paradise for their covering. Thus Adam disobeyed his Lord, and so he went astray.” [XX; 121] Hence, it shouldn’t be said that Adam was disobedient or Moses was a hireling. What is said about Allah’s holy Prophets and Messengers should by no means undergo any change, alteration or derivation.

To end up, “Al-‘Alim”, “Al-‘Allam”, “Al-‘A’lam” and “Al-Mu’alim” all occur in the Holy Quran, but they do not occur as Beautiful Divine Names of His. The only Name that comes as one of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names is “Al-‘Aleem” (the Omniscient), an emphatic Name which denotes Absolute and Infinite Divine Knowledge as regards both number and kind of the things known. Now, I would like my dear readers to consider the following question: What benefit can we get from Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-‘Aleem” (the Omniscient)? In some religious books it is mentioned that Allah, the Omniscient, addresses His human slaves, “If you do not know that I see you, there is something wrong with your faith. But if you know that I see, why do you make me the most inconsiderable of those who behold you?!” If you do not know that Allah, the All-Seeing, sees you, this means that there must necessarily be something wrong or weak with your faith; but if you know that Allah, the All-Seeing, does see you, why do you make Him the most inconsiderable of all those who see you. To this effect, Allah, the All-Seeing, says, “They may hide (their crimes) from men, but they cannot hide (them) from Allah, for He is with them (by His Knowledge), when they plot by night in words that He does not approve. And Allah ever encompasses what they do.” [IV; 108] Therefore, you should worship Allah as if you saw Him, for even if you do not see Him, He sees you. And some religious scholars say, “The state of consciousness (in which a true believer should always be as regards his relationship with his Lord, Allah, Most Gracious) means ‘to feel that Allah is always with you’. And such feeling makes you both afraid of Him and dutiful to Him.” Once again, we go back to the first Quranic Verse that we mentioned at the outset of our lecture: “It is Allah Who created seven heavens, and of the earth the like thereof (i.e. seven). His Command descends between them (heavens and earth) that you may know that Allah has power over all things and that Allah encompasses all things in Knowledge.” You will never stick to Allah’s Divine Religion and Commands unless you firmly believe that His Divine Knowledge and Power encompass you.

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n the following pages, Allah will manifest Himself to us through His Beautiful Divine Names, “Al-Qabid” (the Withholder) and “Al-Bassit” (the Extender); and the study will be both elaborate and ample if Allah so wills. In fact, a great many brothers who have turned to Allah, Most Gracious, in sincere repentance and reformed their relationship with Him always ask this question: Sometimes we feel happy, delighted, satisfied, and relaxed, as if we were in Paradise; and sometimes, we feel so wretched and miserable that we wish we were dead. What is the explanation of these two opposite conditions? That is why I will try to give a brief but sufficient answer to such question, which a great many believers ask. Among Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names are “Al-Qabid” (the Withholder) and “Al-Bassit” (the Extender). The first thing I would like to say is that these two Names of Allah are inseparable, i.e. it is not permissible to mention either without the other. This is because if you say that Allah is “AlQabid” (the Withholder), it would mean that you describe Allah as being niggardly or miserly; and Allah, All Mighty, is far above such evil qualities. However, when you say that Allah is “Qabid, Bassit” (Withholder, Extender), you describe Him as being Powerful and Wise. This is because Allah, All Mighty, says, “And it is Allah that withholds or extends (your provisions for you), and unto Him you shall return.” [II; 245] Therefore, if you desire to say that Allah, Most Gracious, withholds in order to extend, does harm in order to do good, decreases in order to increase, or abases in order to exalt in honor, you are on the right way. Linguistically speaking, the first Name denotes decrease while the second denotes increase; and these two actions embrace all things in existence, i.e. if Allah decreases something, this means that He withholds it; and if He increases something, this means that He extends it. Now, we have to speak about fields of withholding or extension. The first meaning of Allah’s Divine Names “Al-Qabid” and “Al-Bassit” has to do with people’s provision or sustenance. In this context, Allah, Most Gracious,

says, “Allah extends provision for whom He wills of His slaves, and straitens it for whom (He wills). Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of all things.” [XXIX; 62] “Do they not see that Allah extends provision for whom He wills and straitens (it for whom He wills)? Verily, in that are indeed Signs for a people who believe.” [XXX; 37] As regards people’s provision, do not say that someone is intelligent or talented, another has a great experience in business, a third is a good planner, a fourth is proficient, a fifth is well aware. This is because it is Allah, All Mighty, Who withholds or extends provision for people. It is He Who gives or withholds sustenance for people. It is He Who makes people rich or poor. If He desires to provide you with sustenance, He inspires you and enables you to have the necessary ways and means to earn money and make your living. On the contrary, if He desires to withhold sustenance from you, even though you might be rich, you, quite unknowingly, go bankrupt and penniless. If, for some reason or another, He desires to withhold provision from you, He blocks all ways in your face, even though you might be so smart or brilliant. Quite often, one might be forced to quit a certain business or break a partnership. When Allah, All Mighty, says, “Allah withholds and extends (provision), and unto Him you shall be returned,” or “Allah extends provision for whomsoever He wills and straitens”, you should firmly believe that Allah is the All-Provider, and that He, only He, is the One Who withholds or extends provision for His human slaves. That is why it is usually said: If He (Allah) gives, He astonishes; but if He desires to settle accounts (with one of His slaves), He leaves nothing unheeded. However, dear reader, do not think that extension of provision on Allah’s part is a kind of extravagance or prodigality, or straitening of provision a kind of avarice or niggardliness. Such evil thoughts should never occur to you. Nay! When Allah, All Mighty, withholds, He does so not due to avarice; and when He enlarges provision, He does so not due to extravagance. He withholds due to His Infinite Divine Wisdom, Might, Power, Knowledge, and Ordainment; and He extends when He desires to honor or to try. In other words, Allah’s Extension of provision is for honor or trial; and His Withholding of provision is for treatment or protection. To this effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “And if Allah were to enlarge provision for His slaves, they would surely rebel in the earth, but He sends down by measure as He wills. Verily, He is, in respect of

His slaves, the Well-Aware, the All-Seer (of things that benefit them).” [XLII; 27] Hence the first meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name, “Al-Qabid” (the Withholder) has to do with people’s provision. The second meaning of this Divine Name has to do with clouds. To this effect, Allah, All Mighty, says, “It is Allah Who sends the winds so that they raise clouds and spread them along the sky as He wills, and then break them into fragments until you see rain drops come forth from their midst! Then when He has made them fall down on whom He wills of His slaves, lo, they rejoice!” [XXX; 48] Clouds are spread along the sky as Allah, All Mighty desires. He might withhold them from some people and provide them to others. At the same time, in some places the rain would be much heavier than in others. This means that Allah withholds rain from some and provides it to some. The third meaning of these two Divine Names has to do with light and dark. In this context, Allah, All Mighty, says, “Then We withdraw it (daylight) to Us a gradual concealed withdrawal.” [XX; 46] Where is the day when the night is made to come, and where is daylight when the dark is made to fall? And where is the night when the day is made to come? You might feel lonely, worried, or afraid in the dark, but then, suddenly, the sun is made to rise, and you feel comfortable and peaceful. Hence, it is Allah, All Mighty, Who withholds, i.e. conceals, daylight and then brings it back. The fourth meaning of these two Divine Names is that Allah, All Mighty, withholds, i.e. seizes, people’s souls and causes them to die, or releases them, i.e. brings them back into life. Hence, provision, clouds, light, dark, and souls are all under Allah’s Divine Control; and He, All Mighty, either withholds or extends them. The fifth meaning of these two Names has to do with the earth, as Allah, All Mighty, withholds it, that is to say, He grasps it by His Divine Power. To this effect, Allah All Mighty, says, “They made no just esteem of Allah such as due to Him. And on the Day of Resurrection, the whole of the earth will be in His Grasp, and the heavens will be rolled up in His Right Hand.

Glorified is He and far Exalted is He above all that they associate as partners with Him!” [XXXIX; 67] Allah, Most Gracious, also extends the earth in the sense that He stretches it and makes it suitable for human life. He also withholds the earth in the sense that He terminates it or causes it to perish, as He, All Mighty, has made it an abode for a certain limited appointed term. The sixth meaning of Allah’s Divine Names, “Al-Qabid” and “Al-Bassit” is that Allah, Most Gracious, takes, i.e. accepts alms and charities. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “If a slave (of Allah) gives a good charity, Allah accepts it from him, and He takes it in His Right Hand and breeds it as the one of you breeds his colt or young camel. And if a slave (of Allah) gives a mouthful, it grows in Allah’s Hand until it becomes as big as a mountain. Therefore, you should give alms.” [Narrated by Imam Ahmad in his Musnad] These two Divine Names of Allah also have to do with a very delicate and important thing that we all need badly, namely that Allah, Glory to Him, straitens and widens people’s hearts in the sense that He, All Mighty, fills them with both fear and hope. You are always either fearful of Allah or hopeful of Him. This has to do with your present condition. You should always ask yourself which condition you are in for the time being. You should make sure whether you are in a state of fear or hope in your relationship with your Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious. If you do not know, this means that you are careless and heedless, i.e. outside Allah’s Divine Care, just like a negligent student who does not care about his grades or exam results and knows nothing about them. In other words, a true believer should always be in either of two states: dispirited with fear or spirited with hope. In fact, if Allah withholds spiritual enhancement from you, you feel lonely, dispirited, unhappy, deprived, miserable, and even outcast or rejected. This is because Allah, All Mighty, withholds spiritual enhancement from you. You read the Holy Quran, but you do not feel dully responsive towards it, you perform prayer, but you do not enjoy any feeling of veneration or submissiveness, you desire to sit down to contemplate Allah, Most Gracious, and His Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes, but you feel distracted from so doing. What do we call this state? It is simply a state of “Qabd”, i.e. withholding or straitening, which makes you feel dispirited or miserable

because Allah has withdrawn His spiritual Enhancement from you. He makes you feel that He is the All Mighty, the All-High, the Exalted, while you are a mere slave of His and too insignificant to deserve His Divine Love or intimacy. This is because Allah is the best educator. If He, All Mighty, extends to His human slave such good feelings and conditions as happiness, delight, gaiety, and intimacy, and if such good conditions and feelings continue for long, the salve, after some time, may become negligent as regards his worship, devotion, prayers, or performance of good righteous deeds. Therefore, Allah, Most Gracious, withdraws such good feelings and conditions from him and causes him to feel miserable and dispirited, which makes him hasten to turn to his Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, in sincere repentance and faithful devotion, and, hence, he is restored to his good condition from which he was deprived for some time. Therefore, Allah’s withholding of good feelings and conditions from His believing slave is meant to make him feel afraid and worried and in order to motivate him to turn to Allah in sincere repentance mixed with good hope. Therefore, our Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, treats true believers with the above-mentioned treatment. But this kind of Divine Treatment does not apply to disbelievers or atheists, whose feelings of depression and misery come as a natural result of their sins and misdeeds and their deviation from their original pure nature in which Allah has created them, since every human being is created in a pure original nature. Once he blemishes such pure nature by transgressing against the rights of other fellow humans, making his glory on their destruction, and committing sins and misdeeds, he will certainly feel miserable and dispirited. However, disbelievers and atheists are not our concern in this lecture; our concern is pious righteous true believers, who are singled out for a very special kind of treatment by the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious. Such true believers sometimes undergo the above-mentioned conditions of distress and unhappiness, which are meant to be a kind of treatment and remedy from the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious, Who fills their hearts sometimes with depression and worry and sometimes with hope and happiness. True believers are sometimes optimistic, happy, fluent, eloquent, good looking, spirited, confident, hopeful, positive, bright, hopeful and cheerful. Such good condition is called in Arabic “Al-Bast” (gaiety), which Allah, Most Gracious, bestows upon a true believer’s heart. However, there is a treacherous pitfall here: when a believer feels that he is nearer and more intimate to Allah, that he is successful and prosperous, that other people are miserable, negligent, and weak, their determination and will

are weak, they are drowned in sins, they are disconnected, cast away, dismissed and damned, and that he, alone, is happy, such a feeling may conduce to a state of arrogance, pride, haughtiness, vanity, and conceit. The proper treatment for such case is called in Arabic “Al-Qabd”, i.e. Allah’s withholding of such good feelings and conditions from believers by way of punishment and in order to make them turn to Him with sincere repentance and true devotion. That is why a true believer is sometimes found miserable and depressed although he does not know what has happened to him. When asked why he is in such bad spiritual condition, he only says, “Praised belongs to Allah,” but he does not know the reason lurking behind such bad condition, as he has not committed a sinful deed. This applies only to true believers; unbelievers undergo a completely different condition. We tell them: since you have disobeyed Allah, All Mighty, He casts feelings of depression into your heart, and since you have deviated from your pure original human nature, you are made to suffer such melancholy and downheartedness. Once a true believer commits a sin or misdeed, he feels that the whole earth, vast as it is, is straitened for him. To this effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “And (He did also forgive) the three who failed to join in (Tabouk Expedition) until the earth, vast as it is, was straitened for them and themselves were (also) straitened for them, and (until) they perceived that there was no fleeing from Allah and no refuge but with Him. Then, He forgave them and accepted their repentance that they might beg for His Pardon. Verily, Allah is the One Who forgives and accepts repentance, the Most Merciful.” [IX; 118] Those Companions, whom Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), commanded his venerable Companions not to talk to, felt that the earth, vast as it is, was straitened for them, and they realized that there was no fleeing from Allah nor was there a refuge but with Him. Sinners, deviants and the negligent are made to undergo such state of depression. Suppose your mother asked you something, to get her a drug from a drugstore at midnight, for example, but you said, “Sorry Mum! I can’t! I feel I need to go to bed,” or “There is no drug-store open at such late hour,” Such a behavior on your part makes you feel guilty and depressed. This is something else. If someone neglects as regards his duties and responsibilities, if someone commits a sinful deed, deviates from the Right

Path, slanders another fellow human or speaks badly about him, if he transgresses against rights of other fellow humans or looks at indecent or unlawful things, and if someone commits a sinful deed or deviation, he will certainly feel depressed. However, such kind of depression resulting from sinful deeds or deviations is not our concern in this lecture. I would like to say that if man obeys Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, and, therefore, he feels superior and prosperous or that Allah loves him and bestows his Divine Favors upon his heart, he might slip into a dangerous condition in which he might become arrogant, hyper-confident and self-conceited. The proper Divine Treatment or such an illness is “AlQabd”, i.e. Allah’s Withdrawal of such good spiritual condition from him and replacing it with feelings of depression and misery. Therefore, you might sometimes find a true believer unhappy and depressed: he reads the Holy Quran, but he does not feel any tranquility or peace of mind, he is not so eloquent or fluent in speech as he usually is, he stands to perform prayer, but he does not feel due submissiveness or veneration to the Lord, Most Gracious. This is a kind of Divine Treatment for those who become self-conceited or arrogant, or feel superior to other fellow humans. This is a state of “Qabd”, as mentioned above. However, when a true believer feels lonely, depressed, uncomfortable, dispirited or downhearted, he might slip into a very serious condition, namely despair, which is, in turn, followed by a state of “Bast”, i.e. Divine Extension of good feelings of happiness, gaiety, and contentment. Therefore, as a true believer, you should know that you are always in a state of either “Qabd” or “Bast”. This is because Allah, All Mighty, is “AlQabid” (the Withholder) and “Al-Bassit” (the Extender). If the state of “Qabd” (Withholding of good feelings) suits you best, Allah, Most Gracious, causes you to be in a state of “Qabd” by straitening the world for you and making you feel lonely, depressed, dispirited and downhearted. But once you reach a state of despair, there comes the state of “Bast”, in which Allah, Most Merciful, fills your heart again with such great feelings as nearness, intimacy, happiness, and spiritedness. As a true believer, you are between either of two cases: “Qabd” or “Bast”. But what is the proper treatment? The treatment is, simply, that if Allah deservedly puts you in a state of “Bast”, you should never become self-conceited, selfconfident, or arrogant; and you should beware of the feeling that you are superior to other fellow humans or better than they are.

Once again, I reiterate that with “Bast” there is the danger of slipping into self-conceitedness. That is why Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “If you were not to commit sins, I would be afraid for you of something more serious.” What is that thing which is more serious than committing sins? It is self-conceitedness. However, if you are befallen by a state of “Qabd”, you should never slip into despair. Allah, the Lord of all worlds, is also the Lord of the human race. He, Most Gracious, breeds their bodies with material sustenance and their souls by causing them to shift from one spiritual condition to another. In this context, Allah, All Mighty, says, “So invoke not with Allah another god lest you should be among those who receive punishment. And warn your tribe of near kindred. And be kind and humble to the believers who follow you. Then if they disobey you, say, ‘I am innocent of what you do.’ And put your trust in the All Mighty, the Most Merciful, Who sees you when you stand up (alone for prayer at night), and your movements among those who prostrate themselves (to Allah in prayer). Verily, He, only He, is the All-Hearer, the All-Knower.” [XXVI; 213-220] As a true believer, you are made to shift from one spiritual condition to another, from a state of “Bast” to another of “Qabd” and then again from the latter state to the former, and so on. This is because you are under Allah’s Divine Care and Education; and, therefore, you should surrender yourself to Him. However, if you are rendered into a state of “Qabd”, after having committed a sinful deed or an act of deviation, transgression, or disobedience, you should be certain that such state of “Qabd” comes after each and every sinful deed that one commits, and, therefore, has nothing to do with our lecture. In other words, man is naturally predisposed to feel depressed after each sinful deed that he commits. This is “Al-Fitrah”, i.e. the pure original human nature. Why does Allah, Most Gracious, grant us our mind? The answer is: so that we know Him thereby! Why does He grant us our pure original human nature? The answer is: so that we know our mistakes thereby! With our mind we know our Lord; and with our pure original human nature we know our mistakes, by feeling unhappy and depressed.

Narrated An-Nawas bin Sam’an: I asked Allah’s Messenger concerning “AlBir” (piety) and “Al-Ithm” (sin), and He, (PBUH), said: “Piety is good character, and sin is something that clashes in your breast and you do not like other people to see (it).” [Sahih Muslim] You should also know that you are equipped with a special scale or criterion, “Al-Qabd”, whereby you feel depressed and dispirited as soon as you commit a sinful deed: when you tell lies to others, when you transgress against others, when you betray others, when you look at indecent or unlawful things, when you calumniate or slander others, …etc, which you feel only if your heart is sill alive and you are sensitive. Sometimes, man’s pure original human nature is obliterated and the criterion, whereby he distinguishes right from wrong and good from evil, is destroyed; and man becomes another creature that does not know what goodness is. To this effect, the venerable Companion, Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, quotes Allah’s Messenger as saying, “If a believer commits a sinful deed, a black mark grows in his heart. If he repents, gives up (sins), and asks for forgiveness, his heart is polished again; but if he adds more (sins), it (the black mark) increases: and this is the ‘Ran’, which Allah mentions in His Book (the Quran), ‘Nay! But on their hearts is the Ran (covering of sins and evil deeds) which they used to earn.’” [Sunan At-Tirmithi] Consecutive sins and misdeeds, deep involvement in the perishable pleasures and enjoyments of the present world, transgression against other fellow humans, shunning worships and devotional services, and forsaking remembrance of Allah, are all conducive to a sealed, wrapped up, heart: “Allah has set a seal on their hearts and on their hearing; and on their eyes there is a covering. And theirs will be a great torment.” [II; 7] If man’s heart is filled with love for this present world, there is no room left for other things. Therefore, if the Lord seals the heart, there is “Qabd”, i.e. depression, downheartedness, and loneliness resulting from sins and misdeeds. This can be cured with acts of devotion and obedience. However, the state of “Qabd”, which true believers incur but for no overt reason, is definitely a kind of Divine Treatment to such believers. In this case, scholars say: “A believer has to endure until such state is removed by Allah’s Will.”

There is another delicate meaning of Allah’s Divine Name, “Al-Qabid”, namely that “He is the One Who controls everything.” Another meaning is the “All-Powerful”. Sometimes, you cannot implant sadness in the heart of a happy person. If you speak to him, he does not listen to you. But our Lord, Allah, All Mighty, is Powerful over all things, and He withholds or extends, as He pleases. He withholds good thinking from you and causes you unable to understand a thing. An old friend of mine, who was a self-conceited student, was taking an exam in which he was asked about Berlin Conference. He sat for a whole hour trying to remember where the conference was held, although the name of the conference itself shows clearly that it was held in Berlin! Sometimes, in critical situations, we see things contrary to what they really are. Therefore, if man feels proud of his mind and intelligence, he is made to commit the silliest mistakes that even the most stupid people never do. This is just because Allah, All Mighty, desires to show him that He, the Almighty, is “Al-Qabid”: He, Glory to Him, withholds understanding from you and makes your mind unable to understand a thing. He, All Mighty, withholds happiness from your heart and makes you feel depressed and dispirited, although there is no apparent reason for such bad state in which you are put: your house is vast, your wife is more than excellent, your children are healthy and your income is quite good. This is because your heart is in Allah’s Divine Hand and under His Divine Control. It is He Who makes you happy or withholds happiness from you. Not only that, but also He has full command over your heart and mind: He withholds understanding from your mind just as he withholds happiness from your heart. Hearts are of two kinds: one that is full of happiness, contentment, and Divine Enlightenment, and another that is hard, desolated, petrified, dead, senseless, and merciless. If Allah withholds happiness from someone’s heart, he is by no means happy; if He withholds magnanimity from someone’s heart, it will never be magnanimous; and if He withholds provision from someone, he will never be provided. Quite often, you meet people who sorrowfully say, “Things are never as I desire.” In the same context, an emigrant Lebanese poet wrote: I go after provision westwards, while it is going eastwards, And, I sear, if I went eastwards, it would go westwards!

If Allah, All Mighty, desires to withhold provision from you, you will be poor even if you travel to the richest countries in the world. But if He so wishes, He makes you well off in your own poor country and under the worst circumstances. This is because He is the All-Provider. Such is true Faith! They also say: Allah also withholds happiness from the soul, and hence, it does not taste of happiness but is invaded by pessimism and melancholy. And He withholds delight from the spirit, and, hence, it does not taste of delight. None of Allah’s creatures could ever escape from His Divine Judgment and Ordainment. And He is Most Wise in His Divine Work and Decree. That is why our Lord, Allah, Glory to Him, says, “And I respite them: certainly, My Plan is Strong.” [VII; 183] In this Quranic Verse Allah, All Mighty, describes His Divine Plan as being Strong, like a tough unbreakable cable whereby a disbeliever is tied. But Allah, All Mighty, usually leaves this cable loose; and a disbeliever, due to his ignorance, wrongly thinks that he is free and, therefore, he moves around, does harm to other fellow humans, does mischief in the earth, boasts, displays arrogance and insolence, challenges, philosophizes, goes beyond bounds, transgresses against other human beings, and wrongly thinks that he is powerful over all things. But suddenly, in one single instant, Allah, All Mighty, pulls the cable and seizes him. Hence, Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Qabid” is manifested in this Quranic Verse, “And I respite them: certainly, My Plan is Strong.” Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Qabid” also means that He, All Mighty, can block your mind for you, make your heart desolated and your soul melancholic and pessimistic. There are extreme cases of depression that drive people to commit suicide. However, a true believer is safe from such bad psychological disorder. Here is another opinion proposed by Al-Qushairi, who says, “ ‘Al-Qabd’ and ‘Al-Bast’ are two conditions whereby Allah educates those who are conscious of Him.” In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “My Lord has educated me, and He has educated me (perfectly) well.” One of our mosque brothers had a small factory for making clothes. The factory did not sell by retail but only by hundreds of dozens. However, another brother went to the factory to buy some clothes - only six pieces actually. Feeling rather humiliated, the owner of the factory answered arrogantly, “We do not sell by retail here.” Having been shocked by the

factory owner’s answer, the other brother said good-bye and left the factory with much embarrassment and shame. The factory owner said: “I swear by Allah! No customer, or any other human being, entered my factory to buy anything for twenty-three days! I have taken the lesson and now I sell even one piece to anyone who enters my factory.” Such is Allah’s Divine Education! You utter one word out of its proper place, and hence, you are barred from the Lord for a whole week and your heart is filled with loneliness, sorrow and depression. If there is any kind of negligence or indifference, “Al-Qabd” (withdrawal of the good laudable feelings and conditions) comes from the Lord. Such withdrawal provides clear evidence that Allah is rejecting you, rejecting your bad work, and rejecting your bad behavior. Therefore, He withdraws happiness from your heart and replaces it with depression. Only sensitive believers conceive such delicate notion! The scale that is designed for measuring the weight of heavy cars does not weigh a kilo of coffee, five grams of gold or a small piece of diamond. In other words, it is insensitive to small weights. Some people are just like this scale, i.e. they are not sensitive enough. They are totally heedless of their Lord. Such heedless people are not our concern in this lecture. However, after having received Allah’s Divine Kindness, Care and Guidance, a true believer is highly sensitive in his relationship with his Lord, Allah, Most Gracious. Once he feels that, while performing prayer, his heart is not comfortable or submissive enough, he realizes that there is something wrong with his behavior: perhaps he has uttered an unpleasant word, perhaps an evil thought has occurred to him, perhaps he has thought badly of Allah, perhaps he has hurt someone’s feelings, perhaps he has broken an innocent heart, or perhaps he has made a guilty sign, … etc. That is why in His Divine Book, the Holy Quran, Allah, Most Gracious, swears by the self-reproaching self, i.e. the self that is constantly reproaching itself. In fact there are three kinds of selves: a peaceful self (that of the holy, righteous, good-doing, pious, dutiful Prophets and saints), a self that incites to evil (that of disbelievers and the disobedient), and a self-reproaching self (that of believers). Therefore, a true believer’s self is of the third kind, i.e. a self-reproaching self that is constantly reproaching itself: perhaps I have uttered a bad or improper word, perhaps I have withheld a charity, perhaps I have misbehaved, perhaps I

have not been good mannered. In other words, the self of a true believer is constantly blaming and reproaching itself, i.e. it is self-reproaching. Religious scholars say that “Al-Qabd” and “Al-Bast” are two conditions whereby Allah, Most Gracious, refines His slaves who are conscious of Him, and whereby He opens to them gates of knowledge and wisdom. If “Al-Qabd” befalls them, it comes from the gates of Divine Majesty and Wisdom of the Almighty Allah, the Most Great, the Most High. Thoughts come abundantly and fear gets stronger, and the slave tastes of the Divine Majesty of his Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious. Allah’s Divine Self is withheld from the slave, who feels his Lord’s Majesty. If this condition gets harder for the slave, Allah treats him with kindness, and, at a certain extent, which he can bear, his heart is relieved by “Al-Bast”. If he is befallen by a state of “Al-Qabd” and, hence, he feels afraid, Allah, the AllWise, the Most Merciful, does not crush him, but rather gives him an amount of “Qabd” that he bears, and then causes a state of “Bast” to befall him. Such words are said to people who have great experience in their relationship with Allah, who have their own purity, kindness, delicacy, truthfulness, faithfulness, dutifulness, devotion, piety, and carefulness, and whose hearts are so sensitive and responsive. We beseech Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, to endue us with such hearts and such feelings! As we mentioned above, there are scales that are insensitive to light weights because they are designed to weigh only heavy things such as cars or lorries, but there are scales that are highly sensitive to very light weights such as milligrams of gold, for example, or a tiny piece of thin paper. The same thing applies to scales of people’s sensitivity: the more faithful a believer is, the more accurate the scale of his sensitivity is. In other words, tell me at what level your scale of sensitivity is, I tell who you are and how much faith you have. Moreover, an accurate scale should always give the same reading, i.e. it should never give different or wrong readings. The same thing applies to scales of people’s sensitivity: the more sensitive a person is, the fewer mistakes he makes, and the fewer sins and misdeeds he commits. The more faithful a believer is, the more accurate the scale of his sensitivity is and the stricter reckoning he gives to himself. The thing that I always like to say is: “He who gives himself a hard reckoning in the present world will receive an easy reckoning on the Day of Judgment; and he who gives

himself an easy reckoning in the present world will receive a hard reckoning of the Day of Judgment.” As regards Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names “Al-Qabid” and “Al-Bassit, the Prophet’s venerable Companions, may Allah be pleased with them, asked him, “O Messenger of Allah! Prices have risen. So set prices for us” He, (PBUH), said, “Verily, Allah is the Creator, the ‘Qabid’ (the Withholder), the ‘Bassit’ (the Extender) and the Price Setter.” Those who bought apricots on the basis of “Daman” (i.e. purchase of fruits when they are still on the trees and before they are ripe) paid 20 pounds for each kilo. Upon harvesting, they sold them at only 5 pounds per kilo. This is because the yield was abundant, and, therefore, prices of apricots went down. When Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says that the One Who sets prices is Allah, Alone, this means that the yield is in His Divine Hand and under His Divine Control. Once, in Al-Jazeerah province, one sack of wheat yielded 80 sacks, while it had usually yielded 10-15 sacks. Remarkably, every year, the harvest of one of the plants yields extraordinarily abundant harvests: sometimes olives, sometimes potatoes, sometimes onions, …etc. Therefore, the prices of such vegetables or fruits go down remarkably. This provides clear evidence that Allah, All Mighty, is the only One Who sets prices: He withholds land production, and, thus, makes quantities decrease and prices go up, or He extends land production, and, hence, makes quantities increase and prices go down. Once again, I reiterate that Allah, All Mighty, is the Withholder, Extender and Price Setter. Some scholars said that “Al-Qabid” (the Withholder) is He (Allah), Who reveals things to you in order to protect you, and “Al-Bassit” (the Extender) is He, (Allah), Who manifests His Divine Beauty and Majesty to you in order to preserve you. Thus, you are either protected or preserved by Him, Most Merciful. Also, Allah, All Mighty, is “Al-Qabid” and “Al-Bassit” in the sense that He receives charities from philanthropists and increases them, or extends His Divine Favors in abundance to His slaves and enables them to enjoy such Favors. “Al-Qabid” is also He (Allah), Who makes you feel afraid of being separated from Him, and “Al-Bassit” is He (Allah), Who makes you feel secure with His Divine Pardon and Forgiveness. In this context, Imam AlGhazali says: “ ‘Al-Qabid’, ‘Al-Bassit’ from among human beings is someone who has great wisdom and eloquent speech.” For example, a

preacher quite often tells people about Allah’s Divine Mercy, Love, Generosity, Bounty, Pardon, Forgiveness, …etc. He reassures them that Allah is All-Forgiving, Most Compassionate, Most Gracious, Most Merciful, …etc, that His Divine Mercy and Love embrace all of His righteous dutiful slaves, and that they should not worry at all since Allah is All-Pardoning and Most Generous. Such is great wisdom! By the way, Imam Al-Ghazali was once writing a book when a tiny insect suddenly perched on his pen to drink some ink. He stopped and waited until it finished drinking. When he passed away, one of his students saw him in a dream. He asked him, “O Master! What did Allah do to you?” The Imam answered, “He had mercy on me because I waited for that tiny creature to drink.” Now, the question is: Is all his other righteous work of no value?! Certainly, such words on the student’s part are not wise enough! We have already mentioned that Allah, All Mighty, seizes people’s souls just as He brings them to life, that He withholds provisions or extends them, and that He fills peoples’ hearts with depression or happiness. Now, the question is: As a true believer, what is your relationship with these two Divine Names? The answer is: If you call people to Allah, you should always keep balance between reassuring people of Allah’s Divine Mercy and making them despair of His Paradise. This is because despair is an illness and so is extra-ambitious desire. If you speak only about Allah’s Divine Mercy, Pardon, Forgiveness, Generosity, and Forbearing, and if you do not speak about His Divine Punishment, Torment, and Chastisement, your are not wise enough. In this context, Abdullah bin Omar, may Allah be pleased with him, quoted Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), as saying, “A woman was chastised for a cat that she kept imprisoned until it died of starvation; and therefore, she entered the Fire for it (the cat). She did not feed it, nor did she let it go to eat from the vermin of the earth.” [Sahih AlBukhari] It is quite clear that Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), desires to frighten us by this Prophetic Hadith. Narrated Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him: A man said, “O Messenger of Allah! So and so (he mentioned a woman’s name) is said to do lots of praying, fasting, and almsgiving, but she injures her neighbors with her tongue.” Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said, “She will be in Hell-Fire.” The man continued, “So and so (he mentioned a woman’s name) is said to do little praying, fasting, and almsgiving, but she does not injure her

neighbors with her tongue.” He, (PBUH), said, “She will be in the Garden (of Paradise).” [Musnad of Imam Ahmad] Narrated Abu Hurairah: A man came to Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), and said, “O Allah’s Messenger! If someone comes to take my money, (what shall I do)?” “Do not give him your money!” replied Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH). “What (shall I do) if he fights me?” The man asked. He (PBUH) said, “Fight him back!” “What if he kills me?” The man asked. “You will be in the Garden (of Paradise).” He (PBUH) replied. “What if I kill him?” The man asked. “He will be in Hell-Fire.” He (PBUH) answered. [Sahih Muslim] When you read the Prophetic Hadiths of Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), you wonder that they make you sometimes very frightened and worried and sometimes delighted and calm. In fact, they put you in a state that comprises both fear and hope. Such is wise method! As a preacher, you should follow the good example of Allah’s Messenger. Unfortunately, the speech of some preachers is focused only on Hell-Fire and the horrible things therein, while that of others only on Paradise and the good things therein. Both parties are wrong, and both methods are incorrect. Just as Allah, All Mighty, is simultaneously “Al-Qabid” (the Withholder) and “Al-Bassit” (the Extender), you, as a preacher, should also simultaneously warn people of disobeying Allah and encourage them to obey Him. Here is another example: In a Divine Hadith, Moses speaks to the Lord, “O Lord! Which one of Your slaves is more beloved to You, so that I love him with Your Love?” Allah, Most Gracious, replies, “O Moses! The most beloved one of My slaves to Me is he who has a pure heart and clean hands: he does not walk to anyone with evil, he loves Me, and loves those who love Me, and makes Me beloved to My creatures.” Moses says, “O Lord! You know that I love You, and that I love those who love you, but how can I make You beloved to Your creatures?” Allah, Most Gracious, says, “O Moses! Remind them of My Favors, Blessings and Trials to them.” This is very delicate: “Remind them of My Favors, Blessings and Trials” means “remind them of such Great Signs of Mine as make them glorify Me, of such Favors of Mine as make them love Me, and of such Trials of Mine as

make them fear Me”. In other words, three things must always be dwelling together in the heart of a true believer, namely glorification of Allah (through contemplation on the miraculous universe), love for Allah (through contemplation on Hid Divine Favors), and fear of Him (through contemplation on His Irresistible Wrath and Punishment). Sometimes, Allah shows you someone suffering from an incurable disease that makes his life unbearable or from great poverty and deprivation that make him search in rubbish for food. By Allah! I have seen, with my own eyes, people searching in rubbish for something to eat. Is it not said, “If He (Allah) gives, He astonishes; and if He calls to account, He leaves nothing unheeded”?! Behind Allah’s Divine Withholding or Giving, does lurk Allah’s Marvelous Divine Wisdom, which we may recognize or not. “O Moses! Remind them of My Favors, Blessings and Trials.” Means “remind them of My Favors that they may glorify Me (as it is only those who have knowledge among Allah’s slaves that fear Him), remind them of My Favors that they may love Me, and remind them of My Trial that they may fear Me”. There are a great many cases in which man goes beyond proper bounds and does harm to one of Allah’s creatures; therefore, Allah, All Mighty, makes him pay dearly for that, and punishes him severely in order to deter not only him but also other transgressors, who are usually frightened with such punishment. This punishment is meant to be a kind of deterrence, jut as Allah’s honor, which He confers upon His good righteous slaves, is meant to be a kind of encouragement. Final and full punishment and reward will be on the Day of Judgment. To this effect, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, says, “Every self shall taste of death. And it is only on the Day of Resurrection that you shall be paid your wages in full. Whosoever is removed from the Fire and admitted to the Garden (of Paradise), he, indeed, is successful. And the life of this present world is only the enjoyment of deception.” [III; 185] To wrap up, when Allah, Most Merciful, honors anyone of His slaves in this present world, this is a kind of encouragement to him as well as his other fellow humans. Similarly, when He, All Mighty, punishes anyone, this is a kind of deterrence to him as well as his fellow humans. Therefore, our human hearts must always be filled with love for Allah, Most Gracious, fear of Him, All Mighty, and glorification of Him, All-High!

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(The One Who honors and abases)

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n the vastness of this sixteenth Divine Name of Allah, Most Gracious, we seek happiness. The Name is “Al-Mu’iz, Al-Muthil” (the One Who honors and abases). However, before we set out in our study and analysis of this Beautiful Divine Name of Allah, I would like to put forward the following introduction: When Allah, All Mighty, originated man, He equipped him with certain laws that govern his life. For example, He created in him the instinct, or motive, of hunger, which is the cause of his survival. Without such motive, man would not feel the need for food, and he shun food and drink and fade away. In other words, man’s appetite for food motivates him to search for it in order to survive. Such human motive, with which Allah, All Mighty, has endued mankind, is well known to everyone. As for the survival of the human race, Allah, Most Gracious, has provided man with another motive, namely the sex motive, with which Allah has endued both males and females and which motivates them to meet together. That is why Allah, Most Gracious, has legislated marriage for mankind. In other words, food and drink guarantee survival of man as an individual, whereas sexual need guarantees survival of the human race.

However, psychologists confirm the existence of a third motive in man, which is by no means less important than the motives of food and sex mentioned above. This motive can be called the motive for “selfimportance”, “self-achievement” or “self-confirmation”, which can be classified under what people call “dignity” or “self-esteem”. In addition to food, drink and women, man needs to feel important, needs to be admired whether for his body, wealth, family, experience, job, or even, sometimes, his tyranny or ability to do mischief. In other words, man is pre-disposed to feel proud of himself, to confirm himself, and to make others feel that he is important, excellent, mighty, or even dangerous. Now, the question is: Why does Allah, All Mighty, implant in man the motive for food and drink? The answer is simply: in order to enable him to survive as an individual. Why does Allah implant in man the need for sex? The answer is simply: so that the human race survives. But why does Allah implant in man the motive of self-esteem, self-respect, or self-importance? The answer is simply: This is a kind of Divine Help from Allah, Most Gracious, to man in order to protect him from deviation or going astray. Quite often, man feels worried about his good name, his honor, his dignity, his social status, his respect, his reputation, or his prestige, …etc. He feels afraid that people may speak badly about him or find out anything disgraceful or humiliating about him. Without such motive of self-esteem, it would be easy for man to commit grievous sins and misdeeds and, hence, to fall into the swamp of vice. Of course, this does not mean that no human being is lowly or disrespectable, as man’s pure nature may, sometimes, be deformed and his dignity violated. However, this is not the common thing but rather an exception to the rule; and there are always exceptions. An example: Suppose that a child at school saw a pen, liked it and put it in his pocket. The student to whom the pen belonged went to the teacher and complained to him that his pen was stolen. The teacher asked who stole the pen, but no one answered. Therefore, he kept the students in class and began searching them, one by one. Suddenly, he found the pen in the student’s pocket. Now, even if the student was in the first primary class, or perhaps even in kinder garden, he would certainly feel not only embarrassed but also most shameful before other students. Why does one feel so ashamed or

disgraceful? The answer is: because of the feeling of self-esteem, or selfrespect, with which Allah, Most Gracious, has endued all human beings. Once again, Allah, Most Gracious, has implanted in man the feeling of selfesteem, or self-respect, in order to help him avoid committing sinful evil deeds. Therefore, I would like to reiterate that Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, has implanted in man the motive of food and drink, the motive of sex, and the motive of self-respect. Such motive can be given such names as the feeling of “self-importance”, “self-confirmation”, “self-fulfillment”, or “self-respect”. Quite often, you hear people boastfully and proudly say: “I took an unforgettable stance!” “I did such and such great deed!” “I am the very best in my job!” “My work is perfect!” “I am the best!” …Etc. In fact, you find none that is not proud of his job, wealth, health, strength, family, status, … etc. Once again, I reiterate that Allah, Most Gracious, implanted in man such motive of self-respect only to protect him from falling into vice, to protect him from deviation, and to protect him from defamation. Here is a story in support of our argument; and I hope that my dear readers find admonition therein: A frivolous deviant profligate libertine married young man bought a video camera whereby he filmed himself with his wife in very shameful sexual postures. By mistake, he put the video in the case of another one that he had previously rented at a video-rental center. Later, also by mistake, he gave the video to the video-rental center. The owner of the video-rental center was surprised to find a new video among his old ones. So he made a lot of copies and put them in circulation. Quite accidentally, the man’s brother went to the center and borrowed the same video. When he went home to play the video, he was greatly amazed and embarrassed to see his brother and sister-in-law in such indecent shameful postures. He immediately went to inform his brother, who felt so embarrassed and disgraceful that he sold his house and fled with his scandal to another city, where none of his relatives or friends could see him. What made the man flee? The answer is: his feeling of selfrespect! It was indeed a grievous scandal that destroyed not only the man’s reputation but his whole life as well.

In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Prosperous is he who is confined by my Sunna and is not allured by innovation.” Such a grievous mistake as to film oneself while having sexual intercourse with one’s wife or husband is manifest deviation from Prophetic Sunna and Tradition, which confirm that such married relationships must by all means be kept top secret. However, the question is: what made the man in the above story flee away from his home city? The answer is: fear of scandal! Unveiling of scandalous indecent affairs may sometimes even lead to committing suicide. Therefore, we should by no means belittle or underestimate the motive of self-respect, self-esteem, self-confirmation, or self-importance, for it is very important and dangerous. Allah, Most Gracious, implanted it in man only to protect him from falling easy prey to scandal and disgrace. Now, one of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names is “Al-Mou’iz” (the One Who honors) and another is “Al-Muthil” (the One Who abases). In fact, you are honored as long as you are committed to Allah’s Divine Commands: as long as you lower down your gaze at things that Allah considers unlawful, as long as you do not stay alone with a woman who is unlawful to you, as long as you do not tell lies, as long as you do not commit open or secret sins, as long as you do not place yourself is dubious or suspicious situations where people may accuse you of indecency or immorality. In other words, once you stick to Allah’s Divine Command, you acquire such good qualities as being chaste, honest, religious, decent, …etc, and attain honor of Allah’s Religion. This is the first point: you are honorable so long as you devotedly commit yourself to Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, and sincerely stick to His Divine Religion of Islam, which safeguards your reputation. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), who does not speak out of his own desire but most honestly communicates Divine Revelation from the Lord, All Mighty, says, “Let no man stay alone with a woman (that is unlawful to him).” So long as you are committed to the above Prophetic Hadith, no one in the whole world could ever slander, accuse or defame you, simply because you stick to Allah’s Divine Commands, which guarantee your good fame, dignity, honor and respect. Hence, the first point in this lecture is that if you adhere to Allah’s Divine Commands with sincere devotion, if you are obedient and dutiful to Allah,

and if you take a religious stance towards all your affairs, you are honorable. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), gave us a lot of lessons. For example, he was once walking with his wife, Safiah, may Allah be pleased with her, when he came across two of his venerable Companions. He suddenly stopped and addressed them, “Hold on! This is my wife, Safiah!” He, (PBUH), desired to teach us that making things clear expels Satan, i.e. prevents Satanic insinuations and suspicions. Having realized that such a thing is lawful or unlawful, such a thing is permissible or impermissible, you may be asked, for example, to enter a house where there is only a woman in order to fix something therein, like plumbing or anything else, you, as a true believer, should never enter such a place, no matter how much money you may lose by not entering such a house. If you do not enter a house where there is only a woman, you protect your reputation, honor, and dignity. This is the first meaning: you should be honorable and honest, because an honest person is chaste and honorable, a chaste person is honest and honorable, and a truthful person is also honest and honorable. Imagine that you told a lie in a place where someone who knew the truth suddenly came in to disprove publicly what you said and to show that you were a mere liar. You would certainly be greatly embarrassed and ashamed. Therefore, you will never be honorable unless you are truthful and honest, you will never be honorable unless you are chaste, and you will never be honorable unless you are trustworthy. An example: if your son asks you to answer the phone and say that he is not there, while you know for sure that he is there, if you do as he asks, your son will not show adequate respect to you after that, because he thinks that you are not honest enough. The right thing to do, however, is to tell your son’s friends that he is there but he is too busy and, therefore, cannot see them or speak to them. This is the right thing to do. In other words, you will never be honorable or dully respected unless you stick to Allah’s Divine Commands. I reiterate: A chaste person is honorable, an honest person is honorable, an upright person is honorable, a trustworthy person is honorable, a truthful person is honorable, a sincere person is honorable, and a frank person is honorable. However, deviation from the right way is conducive to scandal. If anyone knows that you are dishonest, you are humiliated and degraded, if anyone knows that you are not wise enough, you are reproached, if anyone knows that you are dishonest, you are distrusted, and if anyone knows that you are unchaste, you are suspected and censured.

Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Mou’iz” (the One Who grants Honor) means that He, All Mighty, Most Gracious, sent down to his Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), His Divine Book, the Holy Quran, which includes His Divine Religion of Islam, including His Commands, Laws, Systems, and Legislations. If you stick to His Divine Laws and Legislations and adhere to His Commands, the first fruit you reap is to live among people with honor and respect: no one can ever slander or defame you, no one can ever raise false accusations against you, and no one can ever tell bad lies about you, simply because there is no evidence against you. However, if there are deviations, if there is co-mingling with women, if there are suspicious places, if there are notorious relationships, or if there are dubious transactions, you fall easy prey to slander and calumniation, even though you might be innocent. This is the first meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name, “Al-Mou’iz” (the One Who grants Honor): He grants you Honor once you stick to His Divine Religion and Commands. It suffices you to adhere to His Religion and Commands if you desire to be honorable and if you desire to be happy and prosperous. If you are honorable, you achieve one third of your existence. The first part of man’s existence is food and drink, the second part is marriage and regeneration, and the third part is selffulfillment, self-confirmation, self-respect, and self-honor. It is not permissible, as mentioned above, to say that Allah is “Al-Mouthil” (the One Who abases) without saying that He is also “Al-Mou’iz” (the One Who grants Honor), for these two Names are inseparable. The right thing to say is that Allah, Most Gracious, abases in order to honor. For example, one of our noble brothers had a shop, wherein he employed an assistant who was not honest enough. Being most of the time alone in the shop, the latter would, every now and then, secretly pilfer some of the master’s money, as he was newly married and had to fulfill his wife’s numerable requirements. After some time, the master got suspicious and felt that something was going wrong in the shop. He asked one of his friends to come to the shop and buy some things at nine in the morning and then to return them in the evening under certain excuses. The master’s friend came and bought the things in the morning. At eleven, the master came to the shop to ask his assistant, “Haven’t you sold anything so far today?” The assistant claimed that he hadn’t sold a thing. In the evening, however, while the master and assistant were both in the shop, the master’s friend came in to return the things that he had bought in the morning. The assistant was so shocked and embarrassed that he almost fainted with disgrace and

humiliation that he brought upon himself due to his dishonesty and disloyalty. Didn’t Allah humiliate the shop assistant by putting him in such terrible situation? Why did Allah disgrace him? The answer is: in order to make him repent. If he does repent and stick to Allah’s Commands, he becomes honorable. In other words, Allah does not put anyone in a shameful or disgraceful situation except to treat him and bring him back to honor and self-respect. We should know for sure that Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, is both “Al-Mou’iz” and “Al-Mouthil” (the One Who grants Honor and abases), i.e. if He abases someone, He does so in order to help him to be honorable. But a true believer is already honorable, i.e. he does not have to undergo humiliation in order to be honorable. As I mentioned above, a person may discover facts by himself in due time, just as he may discover such facts after it is too late. He may also discover the facts after having paid a dear price, his life perhaps, or after having destroyed his whole family or married life. A married man once forced his wife to go out to work and co-mingle with other men just for the sake of money and under the fake pretext of being open-minded, modern and liberal. He claimed that he was confident of his wife’s chastity and honesty although he pushed her to mingle with other men, to wear the most up-to-date clothes, and to look attractive and beautiful. However, after only a short period of time, the wife began to be negligent and careless about her husband, to be absent from her home for long hours, and to have suspicious communications and relations. The great shock came when the husband knew that his wife suddenly bought another house for herself, from her own special income of course, and even gave him up altogether. The only thing that he said was: “I should have been killed for what I did to my wife!” In other words, he loved her and, therefore, foolishly pushed her to be free, which he foolishly thought was the right thing to do, but she got to love someone else and forgot all about him. I would like to say that if such man had had the least honor or self-respect, he would have known that he was wrong from the very beginning, and he wouldn’t have destroyed his married life or lost his wife, mother of his children. Such man discovered the truth, but only after it was too late! I would never desire that you have such a horrible experience. I would never desire that you become wise after it is too late or after you have paid so

dearly. I reiterate that if you follow Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran, and His Messenger’s Prophetic Sunna and Tradition, you will be rightly guided by the One Who is All-Aware of the things that befit His human slaves. It is all like an important machine that you desire to use. If you use it according to your own unqualified desire, it will certainly break down. It will cost a lot to repair and will not be productive enough. If, however, the manufacturer’s instructions are followed properly, the machine will work perfectly and most productively. It is not wise to know the truth after it is too late; it is wise to know the truth in due time. Therefore, you can be honorable if you willingly follow Allah’s Words, or you can be honorable after Allah disgraces you because of your deviation or negligence. In other words, you can attain honor either after being humiliated or after knowing the truth on your own. The difference between both cases is both great and remarkable. Hence, you should strive to know the truth before you pay dearly for it. Strive to be honorable from the start and save yourself humiliation or disgrace. Get the lesson from the beginning and be honorable, and beware of paying a dear price for honor by being humiliated, debased, or distressed. It has been said: The Names “Al-Mou’iz” and “Al-Mouthil” are two of Allah’s Divine Names and also two of His Divine Attributes that are derived from His Divine Acts. This is because Allah, All Mighty, has a Self, Attributes, and Acts. Hence, He has Names derived from His Own Self, Names derived from His Attributes, and Names derived from His Acts. Most religious scholars confirm that “Al-Mou’iz” and “Al-Mouthil” are of Allah’s Names that are derived from His Divine Acts. He honors his slave in both abodes: the present world and the Hereafter. Beware of being deceived by honor of this present world, as it may be a kind of gradual allurement. That is why Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Verily, many a self is nourished and made to dwell in luxury in this present world but will be starving and naked on the Day of Resurrection; and many a self is hungry and naked in this present world will be nourished and made to dwell in luxury on the Day of Resurrection. Many a person honors his own self while he humiliates it; and many a person humiliates his own self while he honors it. Many a person is indulged luxuriously in (the Blessings) that Allah has conferred upon His Messenger, but he has no good share with Allah. Verily, the work of the Garden (of Paradise) is (as hard as climbing) a hard ground in a hill; and verily, the work of the Fire is easy and done inattentively. Many an hour’s lust entails long sorrow.”

Sometimes, you find someone whose life is very comfortable and luxurious: a vast house furnished with the most beautiful furniture, air conditioning, heating systems, ornaments and decorations, chandeliers, …etc. Everything he has is unmatched in beauty and elegance: his car, office, income, business, social position, clothes, …etc. He lives in absolute comfort and luxury in this present word, but his final end may be in Hell-Fire. On the other and, you may find someone whose clothes are shabby, whose food is simple, whose house is small, and whose life is of the fifth grade, but he is dutiful and obedient to his Lord, Allah, All Mighty, and, consequently, his final end will be in Paradise. What really matters is one’s final end: “Verily, many a self is nourished and made to dwell in luxury in this present world but will be starving and naked on the Day of Resurrection; and many a self is hungry and naked in this present world will be nourished and made to dwell in luxury on the Day of Resurrection.” However: “Many a person honors his own self while he humiliates it; and many a person humiliates his own self while he honors it.” Driven by his fake dignity, man may sometimes disobey his Lord, Allah, All Mighty, in order to preserve his status or prestige. If you were among profligate irreligious people and desired to show yourself willing to please them by doing the same things that they do in order to preserve your position with them, this may please them and make you agreeable to them, but, by so doing, you will bring yourself a lot of unbearable humiliation and disgrace on the Day of Resurrection: “Many a person honors his own self while he humiliates it; and many a person humiliates his own self while he honors it.” You may humiliate yourself in this present world for the sake of your religion and honesty, and in order to please the Lord, All Mighty, and win His Generous Recompense in the world to come. You may put yourself in very difficult or embarrassing situations just for the sake of Allah and His Religion. You may relentlessly resist both pressures and allurements and endure punishments, mockery, ridicule, comments and accusations: “And many a person humiliates his own self while he honors it.” You might be a member of a committee and reject an alluring offer of bribery or refuse to do something that blemishes your religious beliefs, and, consequently, you might be made to resign under a lot of pressure, reproach and disdain. You might be described as being foolish or stupid for rejecting

such a tempting never repeated offer of becoming rich: “Many a person honors his own self while he humiliates it; and many a person humiliates his own self while he honors it.” In the same context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “If you desire to do something, think of its consequences.” By the way, I have read an interesting questionnaire with which a hundred husbands were asked, “Why do you not betray your wife?” i.e. “What prevents you from betraying your wife?” Surprisingly, one of the answers was, “Because we are always together!” In other words he desires to betray his wife but simply he cannot. Sometimes, a person cannot endure pain resulting from a sinful deed, even if it has been done in complete secrecy and nobody knows about it. He faces himself with bitter self-reproach; he faces internal self-censure; he faces internal self-humiliation; and he faces internal collapse. Therefore, another answer came: “Because I cannot bear such an evil sin.” In other words, if he bore it, he would do it. This means that he seeks self-comfort. A third answer came, “I hate disloyalty.” However, it goes without saying that the first kind of answer is the silliest, but the last one is the best. Anyway, a wise person is someone who places himself in hard situations for the sake of his future happiness and honor; a stupid person is someone who lives for his present moment. That is why Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “A clever person is someone who condemns himself and works for the Afterlife; and a helpless person is someone who follows his own desires and raises (false) hopes to Allah.” In the Abbaside times, a writer, called Ibn Al-Mouqaffa’, translated a book entitled “Kaleelah Wa Dimnah” from Persian. The book told fables about animals. The fables included a lot of lessons for human beings. A fable was about three fishes: a clever one, a cleverer one, and a helpless one. They all lived together in a stream that was linked to a river with a small opening. One day, two fishermen came past the stream and saw the fishes. They said to each other, “We shall come back tomorrow to catch the fishes.” The fishes heard what the two fishermen said and were so afraid and worried. The cleverest one thought, “A wise person is someone who bewares of things before they happen,” and hastened away to the river. The less clever one remained in the stream and naïvely thought, “It is still early! I shall swim out when they come.” But when the two fishermen came, it wanted to escape from the opening through which the cleverest fish escaped, but it suddenly found out that the fishermen had blocked it. It thought to itself: “I have been

careless! Such is the bad end of carelessness!” But it did not surrender. It said, “A wise person does not despair of good thinking.” In fact, it was clever, but not as clever as the first one. However, it feigned to be dead, floating with no motion on the surface of the water. One of the fishermen took it and put it on the ground between the stream and the river. Suddenly, the fish jumped up into river and swam away. It managed to escape but only after it had been frightened to death because of being careless. The third, least clever, fish remained helplessly in its place and did nothing until it was caught and eaten by the two fishermen. Such is the attitude of desperate helpless people who do nothing but wait hopelessly for their end. Cleverer people are those who start work after danger is come. The cleverest are those who work before danger is come. In fact, we need to be like the cleverest fish, which thought, “A wise person is someone who bewares of things before they happen.” We need to work before danger is come. Undoubtedly, Allah, All Mighty, quite often gives honor to someone by way of trial and gradual allurement. Quite often, one faces serious allurements in one’s life: a high income or social position, a huge amount of money whereby one solves all one’s financial problems, an expensive car, a magnificent villa, a great power or hegemony, ...etc, but all at the expense of one’s good morals and religious beliefs. Such worldly honor is by no means real, and it avails you nothing against the Almighty Allah on the Day of Judgment. Therefore, you have to be very careful! It is a million times better for you to be obedient and dutiful to the Lord, All Mighty, even though you might live in the shadows and lead a life of simplicity and plainness. They said: As for the life of the present world, honor can be manifested in wealth or good circumstances: wealth, beauty, power, family, supporters, children, wives, high social rank, worldly pleasures and enjoyments, houses, gardens, …etc. One may have a beautiful resort or a shady verdant orchard, to which one may invite one’s friends to receive their praises and phrases of admiration: “How Great!” “How magnificent!” “What beauty!” “Fantastic!” One may feel proud of such a worldly glory, but forget that the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, has granted it to him. We should never be deceived by such fake perishable worldly glory or honor. To the same purport, the verses go: Make all your glory for your Lord, It is deeply rooted and firmly established. If you seek glory with that which perishes,

Your glory will similarly perish. Glory or honor sought in the perishable ephemeral enjoyments and ornaments of this present world are mere illusion. It is mere illusion to feel proud of perishable worldly odds and ends or dead celebrities. That is why one of the portents of the Day of Judgment is that a person is valued by virtue of the wealth or property that he has: his house, clothes, furniture, … etc! Does vastness or location of your house really make you glorious or honorable?! Those who derive their glory and honor from worldly values are indeed great losers. Some knowledgeable scholars said: “Honor of the present world is (attained) by wealth, but honor of the Hereafter is (attained) by (good righteous) status.” In other words, If you have a good status of purity, morality, innocence, chastity, uprightness, piety, righteousness, devotion, sincerity, love for Allah and nearness to Him, you attain honor in the Hereafter. Wealth is honor of this present world and is just as perishable. In the same context, it is narrated that Fatih Al-Maousili was once asked, “What is someone who runs covetously after his desires like?” Some boys were playing around. One of them had only a small piece of bread while another had a piece of bread with some food. The former asked the latter to give him some of the food that he had. The latter said, “I agree to give you some food provided that you be my dog!” The former agreed, and the latter tied a robe round his neck. Every time he gave him a piece of food, he pulled him by the robe like a dog. Having seen the boys doing that, Fatih AlMaousili said, “If that boy was contented with his own piece of bread, and if he didn’t crave for his friend’s food, he wouldn’t become his dog.” It is indeed an excellent story. The holy Prophet, David, (PBUH), narrated that Allah, Most Gracious, revealed to him, “O David! Warn your friends of desires and caprices, for the hearts that crave for pleasures of this present world are barred from Me.” It is also narrated that a student came to his teacher with some bread with nothing to be eaten with it. The teacher noticed that the student wished that the bread had contained anything eaten with it. He desired to teach the student a lesson, so he took him to a prison where there were some prisoners. He said, “Look at all those prisoners! They were not contented

with bread alone! What happened to them? They stole and caused themselves to be put in prison.” Another story goes that a prisoner came out of prison with cuffs on his feet asking people for a piece of bread. One of the people addressed him, “Had you been contented with pieces of bread, cuffs would not have been put on you feet.” Here is another symbolic story: A man stood at the door of a prince’s palace. He noticed that one of the prince’s servants entered upon the prince without asking for permission. When he asked about the reason, he was told that honesty and chastity made the servant so favored by the prince and intimate to him. Make no mistake about it! Nothing brings people destruction and humiliation more than greed. Yes, indeed! Allah is “Al-Mou’iz” (the One Who gives honor) provided that you stick to His Religion and that you seek none but Him. That is why Abu Hurairah quoted Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), as saying, “It is unlawful for a believer to humiliate himself.” They asked, “How does he humiliate himself?” “He puts himself to distress for that which is not up to him.” He, (PBUH), also said, “Seek (your) needs with self-respect, as things are run by Divine Decree.” Narrated At-Tabarani in his “Al-Awsat” book of Prophetic Hadith, on authority of Sahl bin Sa’ad: Gabriel came to Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), saying, “O Muhammad! Live as long as you desire, you shall pass away. Do whatever you desire, you shall be dully rewarded for it (that which you do). Love whomever you desire, you shall part with him/her. And know that a believer’s honor is (attained) by his standing up the night (in prayer, invocation and reading the Holy Quran); and his dignity is (attained) by his being in no need of (other) people.” Honor, which belongs only to Allah, All Mighty, is also one of the qualities of true believers. To this effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “They (hypocrites) say, ‘If we return to Medina, indeed the more honorable will expel from it the more dishonorable.’ But honor, power and glory belong to Allah, His Messenger and believers, but hypocrites know not.” [LXIII; 8]

If you are a true believer, you are honorable because you are with the Almighty, because you follow the Almighty’s Religion, because you are in need of the Almighty, because you rely on the Almighty, and because the Almighty will never let you down. Some said: Allah honors his believing slaves by making them contented, because all humiliation is imbedded in greed. To wrap up, “Al-Mou’iz” (the One Who grants Honor) and “Al-Mouthil” (the One Who abases) are two of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names. They are derived from His Divine Acts. Man’s relationship with these two Names is that if he sticks to Allah’s Religion and Commands, he is made honorable and wise, because Allah’s Religion and Commands include utmost wisdom and honor. By His Divine Cosmic Command, He grants you honor and wisdom if you seek honor from Him, put your trust in Him, devote yourself to Him, turn to Him, Alone, and associate none with Him in worship. The two Names are inseparable; and it is better and more adequate to say that Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, humiliates in order to honor.

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(The Creator)

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ll Praise belongs to Allah, Lord of all worlds. Now, we start with the seventeenth of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, “Al-Khaliq” (the Creator). First of all, Allah, All Mighty, says, “O mankind!

Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you, so that you may attain self-protection.” [II; 21] The above Quranic Verse shows clearly that you should worship “AlKhaliq” (the Creator), Allah, Alone, and no one else. If you call upon another god than the Creator for worship and service, you will go far astray from the Right Way. This is because only the Creator guarantees happiness and prosperity to you if you worship Him. If you worship Him, you are safe from His Torment. If you worship Him, you are successful in the life of this present world and the world to come. If you worship Him, you will be admitted into His Garden of Paradise, wherein you will be happy forever. That is why the Creator, Allah, All Mighty, says, “O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you, so that you may attain self-protection.” In the sense that is common these days: The maker is the only one who can provide ways for using a certain machine or apparatus. Who has the right to issue instructions for the proper use or operation of a certain apparatus or machine? It is certainly the maker or producer of such apparatus or machine. If you follow the instructions of other parties than those of the maker, you will not be able to operate the machine properly, and you may even destroy it completely. Very simply, the mind tells you: Only the Maker should be worshipped, i.e. none except the Maker should be worshipped, none but the Maker should be obeyed, none except the Maker should be followed: “O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you.” Why? The answer is: does not the One, Who has created, know? Yes, indeed, because He is the Omniscient, the All-Aware, the AllWise, the One Who knows man’s human nature and needs, Who knows what makes him good or evil, what makes him happy or miserable, what makes him high or lowly, what makes him peaceful or frightened. Yes, indeed! He, Allah, is the All-Aware, the All-Knowing. To this effect, He, All Mighty, says, “If you call upon them, they hear not your call; and if they were to hear, they could not grant it to you. And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your worshipping them. And none can inform you like Him, Who is the All-Knowing.” [XXV; 14] Therefore, if you have a very expensive machine, and if you are very careful about its safety and proper work, the wise thing to do is to go to specialized experts and no one else. If you desire to buy a car, the first thing you should do is to go to experts in order to be informed of its price, engine power,

price, color, make, safety, maintenance, …etc. In other words, in your daily affairs you always go to experts and specialists for advice and you always seek help from those who are knowledgeable and aware. In this context, Allah, the Omniscient, the All-Aware, the Creator, says, “If you call upon them, they hear not your call; and if they were to hear, they could not grant it to you. And on the Day of Resurrection, they will disown your worshipping them. And none can inform you like Him, Who is the AllKnowing.” [XXV; 14] As regards married life, for example, Allah, the Creator, says, “O Prophet (Muhammad)! If you divorce women, divorce them at their prescribed periods (‘Iddah); and count accurately such periods; and fear Allah, your Lord. And turn them not out of their homes, nor should they (themselves) go out except in case they are guilty of some open illegal sexual intercourse. Such are the set limits of Allah; and whosoever transgresses the set limits of Allah, then indeed he has wronged himself. You know not! It may be that Allah will afterward bring some new thing to pass.” [LXV; 1] In the above Quranic Verse, Allah first forbids men to sent their wives out of their homes in case they are divorced. Similarly, He forbids women to go out without their husbands’ permission in case their divorce is revocable. This is because He, the All-Knowing, knows human nature. Man and woman are naturally inclined to each other; and anger may calm down after some time. If they were separated from each other, things would get worse and many parties would interfere in their marriage and would probably spoil it. When the woman stays in her husband’s home, things will most probably get better, and disputes will be settled in a couple of days. But if the woman left her husband’s home angrily to her family’s home, things would get worse and marriage would be disrupted. Such Law has been ordained by the One Who is All-Knowing, the All-Aware Maker, the All Mighty Creator, Who also says, “Men are the protectors and maintainers of women, because Allah has made some of them more adequate than some, and because they (men) spend from their means. Therefore, the righteous women are devoutly obedient (to Allah and to their husbands), and guard, in the husband’s absence, what Allah orders them to guard (their chastity, their husbands’ property, …etc.). As to those women on whose part you see ill-conduct, admonish them (first), (next) refuse to share their beds, and (last) beat them (lightly if it is useful); but if they return to

obedience, seek not against them means (of annoyance). Surely, Allah is Ever Most High, Most Great.” [IV; 34] If you are more adequate in knowledge, character, piety, righteousness, and manners, and if you spend of your money on your wife, you are a good protector and maintainer of your wife. And if you desire to set things right with your wife, go to Allah’s Divine Book, the Holy Quran, wherein you find goodness, prosperity and happiness. To this effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Verily, this Quran guides to that which is most just and right. And give glad tidings to believers who work good righteous deeds that they shall have a great reward.” [XVII; 9] For anything, even your health, private relationships, livelihood, work, or old age, you should resort to Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran, for guidance and success. In this context, in his book “Al-Kamil” Ibn ‘Adi, on authority of Anas, quotes Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), as saying, “He who learns the Quran, Allah keeps his mind sound for him until he passes away.” Once, I noticed a doctor who was treating a patient with narrowness of brain arteries, which made his motion slow. The doctor addressed the patient’s people, “You should speak to him.” When I asked the doctor about that, he answered, “If you speak to him, he has to answer; and in order to answer, he has to use his mind. This reactivates cells of the brain and widens the arteries of the brain.” In great amazement, I said, “Glory to Allah! Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), speaks the truth as he says, “He who learns the Quran, Allah keeps his mind sound for him until he passes away.” In fact, the mind of someone who is reading the Holy Quran, performing prayer, or worshipping Allah, All Mighty, is constantly working: Is it time for prayer? Has “Az-Zuhr” (the noon prayer) been called for? How many Rak’as have I performed? The first, second, or third Rak’a, the first Rak’a includes recitation of the Quran, but the third does not…. His mind is in constant work and activity. When he reads the Quran, he comes across the rules of Tajweed: here there is “Idgham”, and there is “Izhar”, here is “Ikhfa’” and there is “Qalqalah”, here is “Madd Tabee’i” and there is “Madd Muttassil”, …etc. His mind is always working. He tries to understand meanings of Quranic words and verses. In other words, a person who is reading the Holy Quran is in a constant mental activity. Hence, “He who learns the Quran, Allah keeps his mind sound for him until he passes away.” In this context, Allah, All Mighty, says, “He (Allah) said, ‘Get you

down from it (Paradise), both of you! Some of you are an enemy to some. Then, if there comes to you Guidance from Me, whosoever follows My Guidance shall neither go astray (i.e. his mind shall not go astray) nor be distressed.’” [XX; 123] He, Most Gracious, also says, “We (Allah) said, ‘Get down from it (Paradise), all of you! Then, whenever there comes to you Guidance from Me, whoever follows My Guidance: there shall be no fear on them, nor shall they grieve.’” [II; 38] In the next pages we shall be dealing with the above Quranic Verse, “O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you, so that you may attain self-protection.” [II; 21] You should by no means follow someone who is aloof from Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious. Beware of seeking guidance from someone who is aloof from Allah and barred from Him. To this effect, Allah, Glory to Him, says, “And keep yourself patiently with those who call upon their Lord in the morning and afternoon, seeking His Face. And let not your eyes overlook them, desiring the pomp and glitter of the life of this present world. And obey not him whose heart We have made heedless of Our Reminder, who follows his own lusts, and whose affair has been a complete loss.” [VIII; 28] He, Praise belongs to Him, also says, “And follow the path of him who turns to Me (in repentance and obedience).” [XXXI; 15] Therefore, the only One, in the whole universe, Who deserves to be obeyed and worshipped, is the Creator, All Mighty, All-High, Who says, “O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you, so that you may attain self-protection.” [II; 21] I have already mentioned that if man follows other parties than Allah, the Almighty Creator, he will be greatly shocked and disappointed, because such parties may, quite often, not give him the real truth that enables him to live in peace and tranquility. This is because man’s happiness and tranquility are achieved only when his beliefs conform to authentic religious texts, logic, pure human nature, and reality. This means that in order to be happy man needs four things: reality, authentic religious texts, logic, and pure human nature. This is the Truth! If you base your life and daily activities on authentic religious texts, logic and good reason, objective reality, and pure human nature, you are rightful, happy and prosperous, i.e. you are with the

Truth; and whosoever is with the Truth is rightly guided and suffers no shocks, disappointments, frustrations, despair, or loss. Among the Quranic Verses that speak bout Allah’s Divine Name, “AlKhaliq” (the Creator), is, “He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Shaper, to Whom do belong the Most Beautiful Names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him; and He is the All Mighty, the AllWise.” [LIX; 24] The word “Allah” is a proper Divine Name that refers to the One, Who is Self-Existent, Unique, and Perfect. Although numerable, Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names stem from three basic notions: Allah is Self-Existent, Allah is Unique, and Allah is Perfect. The first notion refers to the fact that Allah must necessarily be Existent, i.e. no one brought Him into existence, but it is He Who has caused the whole existence to be. Moreover, Allah is Unique, i.e. there is none like Him: He is Unique in His own Divine Self, He is Unique in His own Divine Attributes, and He is Unique in His own Divine Acts. Furthermore, Allah is Perfect in His Own Divine Most Beautiful Names and Attributes. Therefore, it is not strange to invoke, “O Lord! There is no distress so long as you are the Lord!” It is most grievous and painful for man to have two masters or lords: one bids him to do something, while the other bids him to do another. A friend of mine once told me about a factory owned by three partners. Workers of the factory were torn among the three partners and did not know what to do or whom to please. The first partner would suddenly give an order that had to be accomplished, the second would give another contradictory order and the third still another. Things got confused and the whole project was a great failure. In this context, Allah, All Mighty, says, “Allah puts forth a similitude: a man (slave) belonging to many partners disputing with one another and a man (slave) belonging entirely to one master. Are those two men (slaves) equal in comparison? All Praises and Thanks are to Allah! Nay! Most of them (mankind) know not.” [XXXIX; 29] Why do lots of people incur misery and wretchedness in the life of this present world? The answer is: simply because they are torn among several parties. The one of them does not know whom to please. He has to please his wife, his mother, his boss, someone threatening him, …etc. He is dispersed and confused. However, a true believer strives to please only one party, Allah, the One and Only, Who is the All Mighty, and in Whose Hand are all

other parties. That is why Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Work for one party (Allah), Who suffices you all other parties.” Medical scientists and doctors confirm that most diseases and illnesses are caused by psychological problems and disorders; and it is common sense that ulcer is caused by psychological problems, and so are most diseases of the heart and nervous system. Psychological problems stem from life problems that man has in his daily life. Moreover, most up-to-date medical studies show that most organic diseases are caused by psychological disorders. Therefore, it is wrong to separate organic disorders from psychological ones. In this context, a friend of mine told me that he went to a foreign country for a surgical operation to his heart. As soon as he was admitted into hospital, a good experienced nurse came in with some flowers that she put in a beautiful vase. While arranging the flowers, she kindly asked, “What is the matter?” “I need a heart operation.” He replied. “Who is going to do the operation?” She asked. “Dr. so and so.” He said. “Oh!” she said encouraging, “This is the best doctor! And he has so far done thousands of successful operations similar to yours!” Her nice words made him feel very comfortable and safe. Later on, he found out that the nurse was actually a psychiatrist who was employed by the hospital to make him feel safe and comfortable before the operation. This is because the good psychological and spiritual condition of the patient helps a lot in making the surgical operation successful. The close link between man’s body and spirit is one of the most up-to-date discoveries of modern medical science. But why is a true believer happy? The answer is: simply because all his relationships are confined by only one, namely his relationship with his Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, Who knows and sees all things. In fact, the whole issue can be put in only a few words: True faith is good health; and a true believer looks healthy just because he is a monotheist. In this context, Allah, Glory to Him, says, “So invoke not with Allah another god lest you should be among those who are tortured.” [XXVI; 213] Only Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, deserves your worship, love, devotion, work, and sacrifice of your effort and life. To this effect, Allah, glory to Him, says, “And they will not receive admonition unless Allah so wills; He (Allah) is the One, deserving that mankind should be afraid of, and should be dutiful to Him, and should not take any god along with Him, and He is the One Who forgives.” [LXXIV; 56]

The above Quranic Verse shows clearly that Allah, Alone, deserves that you should spend all of your life for Him, that you spend all of your efforts serving Him, that you spend all of your money for His Cause and sacrifice all that you own for His Good Pleasure. In short, it is, indeed, a sincere yet rewarding sacrifice. That is why when man cheaply consumes himself and becomes old and at the threshold of an unknown life while he possesses nothing for it after having spent his life in trivial things that avail him nothing for the Hereafter, he will find himself in complete loss. Therefore, I would like to reiterate Allah’s Words, “O mankind! Worship your Lord, Who created you.” The only one who deserves your obedience, love, sincerity, and worship is Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious. In this context, I do not think that two men, in the whole world, loved one another as much as Abu Bakr AsSiddeeq and Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), did. Nevertheless, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said, “If I were to take an intimate beloved friend, from among all mankind, I would take Abu Bakr as one; but he is only a brother and a companion. However, (my) relationships are all with Allah, Alone.” Make no mistake about it: The secret behind your happiness is to work for only one party, to strive to please only one party, and to devote yourself only to one party, namely your Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious. In this context, Allah, Glory to Him, says, “He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Shaper, to Whom do belong the Most Beautiful Names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him; and He is the All Mighty, the AllWise.” [LIX; 24] Therefore, the Creator is Allah, and the One Who has the Most Beautiful Names and Attributes is Allah, Who says in His Divine Book, the Holy Quran, “Such is Allah, your Lord! There is no god but Him, the Creator of all things. So worship Him (Alone). And He is the Disposer of all things.” [VI; 102] Undoubtedly, everything needs Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, for everything. So, you should worship Him. The remarkable thing about the Holy Quran is that the command therein to worship Allah always comes

after mentioning that Allah is the Creator of all things: “worship your Lord, Who created you”, “the Creator of all things, so worship Him (Alone).” The Verses also reiterate another fact, namely that Allah is the Only Creator. To this effect, Allah, All-High, says, “O mankind! Remember the Grace of Allah upon you! Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the heaven and the earth? There is no god but Him. How then are you turning away (from Him)?” [XXXV; 3] When the holy Prophet Abraham, (PBUH), disputed with Namroud, Abraham, (PBUH), said, “My Lord is He Who gives life and causes death.” Namroud boasted, “I give life and cause death.” To this effect, the Verses go, “Have you not looked at him who disputed with Abraham about his Lord (Allah), because Allah had given him the kingdom? When Abraham said, ‘My Lord is He Who gives life and causes death.’ He said, ‘I give life and cause death.’ Abraham said, ‘Verily! Allah causes the sun to rise from the east; then cause it to rise from the west.’ So the disbeliever was utterly defeated. And Allah guides not the people who are wrong-doers.” [II; 258] In the above dispute, Namroud symbolizes utmost stupidity, misguidance, loss and infidelity. At times of drought, I usually address those around me, “Is there, in the whole world, a party, other than Allah, that can meet together and determine to have the rain fall down?” And the answer always comes, “No! Of course not!” No one can do anything in such case except to roar with sincere invocation to the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, to send down His Divine Mercy. Hence, Allah is the Creator: “Such is Allah, your Lord! There is no god but Him, the Creator of all things. So worship Him (Alone). And He is the Disposer of all things.” [VI; 102] “O mankind! Remember the Grace of Allah upon you! Is there any creator other than Allah who provides for you from the heaven and the earth? There is no god but Him. How then are you turning away (from Him)?” [XXXV; 3] “Is not He Who created the heavens and the earth Able to create the like of them? Yes, indeed! He is the All-Knowing Khallaq (Supreme Creator).” [XXXVI; 81] The word “Khallaq” (the Supreme Creator) in the above Verses is an emphatic Divine Attribute that denotes both quality and quantity. For

example, one of the galaxies is 16,000,000,000 km’s away from us, and one of the stars, called Antares, is as large as the sun, the earth and the distance between them; the seas and oceans constitute 4/5 of the surface of the earth, and some oceans are more than 10,000 meters deep; some mountains, like the Himalayas, are horribly high; some fish, like the blue whale, weigh 150 tons and contain 90 barrels of oil, 50 tons of flesh, 50 tons of fat, and 50 tons of bowels! Is there a creator other than Allah?! That is impossible! “Yes, indeed! He is the All-Knowing Khallaq (Supreme Creator).” Amplitude of the Amazon is 3,000 cubic meters per second, and its stream goes more than 85 km’s deep into the ocean without getting mixed with ocean water. Such is Allah’s Creativity. So show me what others than Him have created?! A small man-made water pump fills the air with noise, but Allah-made Mountains, incredibly enormous as they are, move along most smoothly and quietly. To this effect, Allah, All Mighty, says, “And you see the mountains and think them standing still, but they pass away as clouds do. (Such is) The Work of Allah, Who perfected all things. Verily, He is Well-Acquainted with what you do.” [XXVII; 88] Great masses of clouds are loaded with thousands of tons of water, yet they move along most smoothly and quietly bringing with them glad tidings of good rain. To this effect, Allah, Glory to Him, says, “And among His Signs is that He sends the winds as glad tidings.” [XXX; 46] He, Praise belongs to Him, also says, “Then We made the semen into a clot, then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh, then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it forth as another creation. So Blessed is Allah, the Best of Creators.” [XXIII; 14]

The above Quranic Verse embraces a great many meanings. When man makes something, he starts by making it very simple, but then, as his knowledge and experience improve, his work becomes better and more developed. Look at a car made in 1900, for example and another made in 1999. They are incomparable. The former had a couple of oil lamps for the headlights, which had to be lit by matches. Its wheels had no pneumatic tires; and its engine was started manually. Its gearbox had only one speed, and its horn was manually blown. Such car is not at all comparable to a modern one. This means than man’s knowledge and experience has developed so much during these hundred years. In other words, man’s knowledge and experience are something acquired. Look at the creation of a human being. Is there a human being that is made in a more developed or more experienced way that another? Is there a person whose model or make is more modern or more developed than another? Can we say that such man is of the 1900 model and another is of the 2000 model? The answer is: Of course not! In other words, human beings are all alike from the viewpoint of creation. This is because the Creator’s Knowledge is not acquired and has no beginning or end. His Divine Make is Perfect. To the same effect, Allah, All Mighty, says, “Such is Allah’s Creation! So show me that which those (whom you worship) besides Him have created!” [XXXI; 7] “Yes, indeed! He is the All-Knowing Supreme Creator.” [XXXVI; 81]

Yes, indeed: “Blessed is Allah, the Best of Creators.” If you desire to make a comparison between man-made things and those made by Allah, All Mighty, you will certainly find out that they are incomparable. When a dentist, for example, wants to pull a child’s tooth out, he has to give him an anesthetic injection in his gum, which causes the child a lot of pain. But when Allah, Most Gracious, causes a child’s tooth to come out, it is made to come out smoothly and painlessly, as its root is made to melt and the nerve is disconnected so smoothly and easily that the child feels no pain whatsoever. Yes, indeed: “Blessed is Allah, the Best of Creators.” Just make a comparison between the things that man makes and those made by Allah, All Mighty! A man-made camera, for example, needs film processing, while you see things with your eyes, without any processing, in their right size, color and motion! At one look, you can see a hundred people in their different features and colors. In fact, the human eye can distinguish 800,000 shades of the same color. In other words, if we graduate green into 800,000 different shades, our human eyes can differentiate between any of these shades. Yes, indeed: “Blessed is Allah, the Best of Creators.” Great, indeed, is the difference between a man-made camera and the human eye! The human eye does not need to be set at a certain distance, aperture or speed. It does all that automatically, spontaneously and most easily. Quite spontaneously, the eye measures the distance between itself and an object, and its tiny muscles make its lens contract or expand so as the picture is rightly reflected on the retina. This process is called vision congruence and is, I think, one of the most complicated operations in the human body. Yes, indeed: “Blessed is Allah, the Best of Creators.” “Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and then He established Himself on the Throne. He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, and the stars: (they are all) subjected to His Command. Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed is Allah, the Lord of all worlds.” [VII; 54]

When a factory sells an aircraft to a certain country, the manufacturer is no longer responsible for the way the country is going to use such aircraft. It may be used to bomb another country, to carry passengers, or whatever other purposes the country may use the aircraft for. But when our Lord, Allah, All Mighty, creates something, all its affairs, work, and functions remain in His Divine Hands and under His Divine Control. To this effect, Allah, All Mighty, says “Indeed your Lord is Allah, Who created the heavens and the earth in six days, and then He established Himself on the Throne. He brings the night as a cover over the day, seeking it rapidly, and (He created) the sun, the moon, the stars subjected to His Command. Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment. Blessed is Allah, the Lord of all worlds.” [VII; 54]

In fact, Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran, is man’s life book. It is the Book prescribed by Allah to all mankind. Therefore, when they read the Holy Quran and come across the word “creation”, I would like my dear readers to search for the relationship between this word and the other words that come before or after it. “It is Allah, Who is the Creator.” Yes, indeed! The Creator of all things is Allah, All Mighty, Lord of all worlds, to Whom do belong all the Most Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes, Creator of all things. None except Allah created anything. He, Alone, is the Creator of all things. So worship Him. This is the positive meaning. As for the negative meaning, it is deduced from Allah’s Words, “Is there any creator other than Allah?” “Nay! And He is the All-Knowing Khallaq (Supreme Creator).” This means that it is He, (Allah), Who has created the mountains and galaxies and all other things, irrespective of their numbers or qualities. This is the meaning of “Al-Khallaq” (the Supreme Creator): “Blessed is Allah, the Best of Creators.” This means that you have to make a comparison between man-made things and those made by Allah, the Great Creator. “Surely, His is the Creation and Commandment” What reassures man is that the things that Allah creates remain in His Divine Hands and under His Divine Control. Now, let us go into more details, beginning with the meaning of the word “create”. Linguistically speaking, the word “create” means: “cause something to exist”, which includes invention, origination and bringing things from non-existence to existence. First Verse: “Then We made the semen into a clot, then We made the clot into a little lump of flesh then We made out of that little lump of flesh bones, then We clothed the bones with flesh, and then We brought it forth as another creation. So Blessed is Allah, the Best of Creators.” [XXIII; 14] Although this Verse refers to the existence of more than one creator, it does so only metaphorically. The Only Real Creator is Allah, All Mighty, the Lord of all worlds. Others are only metaphorically said to create. In other words, when you create a chair of leather and wood, the only thing you do is that you determine the amount, kind and quality of wood, and the kind, quality and color of leather, and you make them into a chair. This means that you do not create a chair from nothing but rather from certain things that are already in existence. This meaning is deduced from Allah’s Words, “So Blessed is Allah, the Best of Creators.”

Second Verse: “The likeness of Jesus is the likeness of Adam. He (Allah) created him (Adam) from dust, then He said to him: ‘Be!’ And he was.” [III; 59] This Verse shows clearly that dust existed before creation of Adam. In this sense, the word “create” means “decree”, i.e. Allah decreed the amount of dust, its qualities, and the way it should be formed. The first Verse goes, “So Blessed is Allah, the Best of Creators,” and the second one, “The likeness of Jesus is the likeness of Adam. He (Allah) created him (Adam) from dust, then He said to him: ‘Be!’ And he was.” It is well known that Allah’s Words “Be! And he was” mean that Allah, All Mighty, brought Adam into existence from non-existence. In other words, He created him from dust and said to him “Be!” and he was. Hence, bringing something into existence differs from creating it. Some religious scholars even go further to interpret Allah’s Words, “So Blessed is Allah, the Best of Creators,” to mean that Allah, All Mighty, created, i.e. decreed, and then commanded: “Be!” and it was, i.e. brought it from non-existence into existence. The third Verse shows that creation is “Decree”. There is a reason for this, as Allah, All Mighty, says, “He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Shaper, to Whom do belong the Most Beautiful Names. All that is in the heavens and the earth glorify Him; and He is the All Mighty, the AllWise.” [LIX; 24]

Although nothing can be likened to the Creator, Allah, All Mighty, the process of creation may be likened to an engineer who designed a building on paper, on which he put all his knowledge and experience. The plan includes the bases, and then the first, second and third floors, together with cement supports and balconies…etc. Creation is Decree: “the Creator, the Inventor,” but invention is to bring something from nonexistence into existence: i.e. “Be!” and it is. Next, there comes the builder’s turn: digging the bases, pouring cement, constructing the first, second, and third floors, and so on, until the building is completely constructed. Hence, creation is Decree while invention is bringing something from nonexistence into existence. But the building still needs extra ornamentation and decoration from both outside and inside in order to look beautiful. Here comes the work of the Shaper. Once again, “He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Shaper” Allah is the Creator in the sense that He decrees, i.e. sets the plans, then He is the Inventor in the sense that He constructs the building and brings it into existence, and then He is the Shaper in the sense that He ornaments it and makes it good looking. Look at a human being, for example! He has lots and lots of muscles, bones, nerves, blood vessels, …etc, which look horrible without the skin which covers them all and makes the human body look beautiful. The skin not only holds all of the body systems together but also covers them and makes the body look beautiful. It is our Lord, Allah, Who gives the human body its beautiful shape: “He is Allah, the Creator, the Inventor, the Shaper”

However, if Allah so wills, we shall deal with this issue more elaborately when we explain Allah’s other two Names: “Al-Bari’” (the Inventor), and “Al-Mousawir” (the Shaper) in the forthcoming lectures. Now it is enough to say, in short, that the Creator is He Who decrees, the Inventor is He Who brings into existence, and the Shaper is He Who gives proper shapes to the things that He creates. But we still have another question: what is the difference between “Al-Khalq” (creation) and “Al-Fatr” (origination) in Allah’s Words, “Praise belongs to Allah, the Originator of the heavens and the earth!” [XXXIV; 1] Notice what a young girl usually does. Irrespective of the structure of her body, organs, tissues, shape, or look, she has a special kind of psychological setting up: she is naturally predisposed to bring up children, as she quite often holds a doll in her hands and tries to imitate her mother, looking after the doll. A boy has another different psychological setting up: he quite often imagines himself riding horses or fighting wars. Why does a girl choose looking after a doll while a boy prefers riding a horse? The answer is: each has his/her own different human original nature and psychological setting up. Such psychological setting up may be called “Al-Fitrah” (original nature). Man has his own “Fitrah” (i.e. original human nature): “Verily, man was created very impatient; irritable when evil touches him; and niggardly when good touches him.” [LXX; 19-21] “And man invokes (Allah) for evil as he invokes (Allah) for good; and man is ever hasty.” [XVII; 11] “Man is created of haste. I will show you My Signs; so ask Me not to hasten (them).” [XXI; 37] “Allah wishes to lighten (the burden) for you; and man was created weak.”[IV; 28]

Such are manifestations of man’s original human nature and psychological setting up. In this context, a Divine Hadith goes, “O David! Remind My slaves of My Favors (that I do) to them, for the human selves are predisposed to love those who do them favors and to hate those who do them disfavors.” Such psychological setting has certain qualities and characteristics. A lamb, for example, has special physical qualities of its body, muscles, skin and wool. But a lamb also has psychological setting up of being, for example, obedient and easily subdued. To this effect, Allah, All Mighty, says, “And We subdued them (cattle) to them (mankind), so that some of them they have for riding and some they eat.” [XXXVI; 72] A lamb is naturally predisposed to obey its master and follow him wherever he goes. Sheep are also naturally predisposed to gather together, while dogs are not. Camels are said to be malevolent while horses are reliable and foxes cunning. There are domestic tamable animals and wild untamable fierce ones. In other words, each creature has its own physical stature and psychological setting up. This is “AlFitrah” (original nature). As for mankind, Allah, All Mighty, says, “(Such is) Allah’s Fitrah (original nature) with which He has created mankind. Let there be no change in Allah’s Creation.” [XXX; 30] As for domestic animals, Allah, All Mighty, says, “And We subdued them (cattle) to them (mankind), so that some of them they have for riding and some they eat.” [XXXVI; 72] To wrap up, the Quranic Verse that goes, “Praise is to Allah, Originator of the heavens and the earth” shows clearly that Allah, Glory to Him, has created all things and has given each one of these things a special original nature and psychological setting whereby it deals with other creatures. Creation is Decreeing, Invention is bringing into existence, Shaping is giving each creature its own shape, and Origination is giving each creature its own psychological setting and natural disposition.

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(The Inventor, The Shaper)

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nd now, we go ahead to the eighteenth of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, “Al-Bari’, Al Mousawir” (the Inventor, the Shaper). In fact, our previous speech about Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “AlKhaliq” (the Creator) included some hints about this new Name of our lecture of today, as it is mentioned in the Holy Quran accompanied by this Name “Al-Bari’, Al-Mousawir(the Inventor, the Shaper). This is because books speaking about Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names usually explain the three Names together. However, before we set out to elaborate Allah’s Name “Al-Bari’, Al-Mousawir”, we had better stop for some time with His Divine Name “Al-Khaliq” (the Creator). It might be asked: how does Allah, All Mighty, say, “So Blessed be Allah, the Best of creators.” [XXIII; 14], while in another Verse, He says, “O mankind! Remember the Grace of Allah upon you! Is there any creator other than Allah who provides you from the heaven and the earth? There is no god but He. How, then, are you turning away (from Him)?” [XXXV; 3] In the former Quranic Verse, Allah, All Mighty, confirms the existence of multitude of creators but Allah is the best of them all. In the latter Verse, however, He says, “Is there any creator other than Allah?” which means clearly that He negates completely the existence of another god besides Him. A primary premature reading might display a certain contradiction between Verses of the Holy Quran. That is why some Western people or orientalists who studied eastern religions and cultures concluded naively that there is a

kind of contradiction between different Verses of the Holy Quran. Knowledgeable religious scholars, however, maintained that when Allah says, “Blessed is Allah, the Best of all creators”, He does so only metaphorically. If a human being takes certain substances from the earth, for example, and makes of them a certain thing, he is not a real creator, as he has not created the substances from which he makes things. Therefore, when you say, “Blessed be Allah, the Best of creators”, it is correct only metaphorically. Those who make certain statues as fashion models on which they exhibit clothes, such models are made of wax, gypsum, …etc. They are by no means comparable to a real human being that has a mind, feelings, and a heart, that thinks and carries out mental judgment and reasoning, that reacts and becomes happy or displeased, that fears and hopes and has a brain and a nervous system. A man-made statue is by no means comparable to a real human being, of flesh and blood, that has been created by Allah, All Mighty. That is why you should say, “Blessed be Allah, the Best of creators.” When you see a natural fragrant rose, you like it, and its sight makes you feel comfortable and delighted. Similarly, a bunch of flowers fills the room with pleasure and happiness. When someone is invited to a wedding, he sees such beautiful flowers and roses of different odors and colors that reflect the Great Make of the All-Wise Lord, Allah, Glory to Him. In fact, flowers, roses and butterflies are teachers of color designers. When you see a new car, you notice that its color is derived from that of a rose or a butterfly; and it is a common thing to say: “Such yellow is not beautiful” or “such color is very beautiful”. In fact, the human eye can differentiate between 800,000 shades of one color. If you have some artificial flowers at home, you feel bored with them after only one or two weeks, which makes you cast them away, despite their beautiful appearance, big size or bright colors. Great is the difference between artificial and natural flowers. Look at a man-made eye that has been made as a teaching aid and a real human one, which has 130,000,000 optic nerves – and an optic nerve is made up of 900,000 particles. Just compare between a man-made camera and Allah-made human eye, which can see successively tens of things in one second. The first image has to be eliminated in order to be replaced by another. If the first image remained on the retina, vision would be impossible. The human eye can also see things while they are moving or stopping. The cinema is based on exposing successive pictures one after another at a certain speed that makes one feel as if objects were moving, because the first image vanishes and is replaced by another. In short, man-made cameras are by no means

comparable to a real Allah-made eye, nor are artificial flowers comparable to natural Allah-made ones or a statue of wax to a real human being. If you desire to see more of Allah’s unmatched Make, listen to a deafening water pump and the quiet smooth downfall of rain. In this context, Allah, All Mighty, says, “And you see the mountains: you think they are standing still; while they are passing away as the clouds do. (Such is) the Make of Allah, Who perfected all things. Verily, He is Well-Acquainted with what you do.” [XXVII; 88] Yes, indeed, mountains move as fast as clouds but quite noiselessly and smoothly. Therefore, when you read Allah’s Words, “So Blessed be Allah, the Best of creators.” [XXIII; 14], it is not surprising that man is metaphorically called “a creator”, as he makes things from existing substances. But when you read Allah’s Words, “Is there any other creator than Allah?”, you should understand that there is no real creator other than Allah, All Mighty, Who creates things from nothing and according to no former model. Great is the difference between creation of things from nothing and according to no former example or model and making things on the basis of a former original model or example. There is no one but Allah, Who can create anything from nothing and without a former model. But when you say that man can create something, the reality of your words is to be found in Allah’s Words about the holy Prophet, Jesus, (PBUH), “…that I design for you, out of clay, a figure like that of a bird…” [III; 49] Yes, indeed! Jesus, (PBUH), designed something like a bird and not a real one, from clay, and not from flesh, blood and soul. Hence, there is no contradiction between Allah’s Words, “So Blessed be Allah, the Best of creators” and His Words, “Is there any creator other than Allah?” However, the remarkable thing, which I have previously made clear, is that the Holy Quran includes certain words that have certain meanings if they come individually and another different meaning if they are combined with other words. Take, for example, the words “Al-Fouqara’” (the poor) and “AMasakeen” (the needy). When these two words come together, each one has a different meaning, but when they come separately, they both have one and the same meaning. Hence, when the word “Khaliq” (creator) is used to refer to Allah, it means that He, All Mighty, is the One Who brings things into existence from non-existence and without a former model; but when it is

attributed to human beings, it means that they make things from materials that have already been created by Allah, All Mighty. Moreover, when Allah, All Mighty, says about Himself, “He is Allah, Al-Khaliq (the Creator), AlBari’ (the Inventor), Al-Mousawir (the Shaper),” the word “Khalq” (creation) means Allah’s Divine Decree to create something, the word “Bar’” (invention) means His Divine Act of bringing such thing from nonexistence into existence, and the word “Tasweer” (shaping) means His Divine Act of giving such thing a certain shape or form. Now, someone might ask: What do we have to do with such study and analysis of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes? I think it is now the proper time to answer such question. The answer is: If you know that Allah, All Mighty, is only a Creator, you add nothing new to what common people believe and say. In other words, if you ask an ordinary person, “Who created the whole universe?”, he immediately says, “Allah!” But if you ask him, “What do you now about Allah?”, he has nothing to say. That is why it is necessary to study Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. We do need to know more about them! It is not enough to bear witness that Allah has created the whole universe. Even Satan confessed such fact when he swore by Allah’s Might, as the Quranic Verse confirms, “He (Satan) said, ‘By Your Might! I will surely mislead them all.” [XXXVIII; 82] Satan did confess that Allah, All Mighty, is the Almighty Lord, Who created all worlds, but such confession is by no means sufficient. The important thing is: what else do you know about Allah? Such a question brings to light your belief in Allah and the degree or momentum of such belief. Here we have a very accurate and unfailing criterion: if your belief in Allah is firm enough to make you obey Him and stick to His Divine Religion, this means that you are safe and secure; but if your belief in Him is not strong enough to make you obey Him or stick to His Religion, you are a great loser. I tell you what Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said, “Your Lord (Allah), All Mighty, said: ‘If My slaves obeyed Me, I would water them with rain in the night and would cause the sun to rise unto them in the day, and I would not make them hear the sound of thunder.’” He, (PBUH), said, “Thinking well of Allah is part of good worship to Him (Allah).” He, (PBUH), also said, “Renew your faith!” They asked, “How can we renew our faith?” He, (PBUH), said, “Repeat constantly the words: ‘There is no god but Allah.’” [Narrated by Ahmad]

Therefore, mere theoretical knowledge of Allah is by no means sufficient; what is important is the fruits of such knowledge, namely to obey Allah and be dutiful to Him. That is why some religious scholars said about Allah’s Words, “To Him (Allah) ascend the goodly speech; and the righteous work exalts it (him).” [XXXV; 10] “To Him (Allah) ascend the goodly speech”: what makes the goodly speech ascend to Allah, All Mighty? The answer is: good righteous work. In other words, if goodly speech is not accompanied by goodly righteous work, it is not made to ascend to Allah, All Mighty. Therefore, what exalts your position with Allah is your good righteous work, which is based on how much you know Allah, All Mighty, and His Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. If (as it were) we put man’s faith on a scale and his desires and caprices on another: if the scale of man’s desires and caprices overweighs the scale of his faith, this means that his faith is not adequate enough; and the conflict between both scales is always there. When our Lord, Allah, All Mighty, described His Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), He said, “And verily! You are (O Muhammad) are on an exalted (standard of) character.” [LXVIII; 4] In other words, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), had firmly established exalted character that contained no conflict between true faith and desires. And you, as a true believer: if the size of your faith is equal to that of your desires, there will certainly be a conflict between both; but if the size of your faith is greater that that of your desires, this means that you are secure from conflicts between your faith and desires and, consequently, successful and quite near to have an exalted character. If, however, the size of man’s desires is more than that of his faith, he gets involved in another thing, which brings about the following question: why does Allah implant in us desires? In order to answer this question, let us first imagine that Allah did not implant in man any desires or lusts, but gave him only a mind that bids him to turn to his Lord, Allah, All Mighty, with full obedience. Where would man’s servitude to his Lord, Allah, All Mighty, be? Undoubtedly, all man’s servitude, love, faithfulness, obedience, and even the whole reality of his life in this present world – which is based on trial – would certainly be meaningless. Hence, it is due to Allah’s Infinite Divine Wisdom that He, Most Gracious, implants in us desires and lusts and endues us with an intelligent mind: the mind has its own call, and, similarly, desires

and lusts have their own call. If the call of man’s desires and lusts dominates, then man falls into a most serious situation, which Allah, All Mighty describes: “Until, when death comes to one of them, he says, ‘My Lord! Send me back, so that I may do good in that which I have left behind!’ No! It is but a word that he speaks; and behind them is a barrier until the Day when they will be resurrected. Then, when the Trumpet is blown, there will be no kinship among them, that Day, nor will they ask one another. Then, those whose scales (of good deeds) are light: they are those who lose their own selves; and in Hell will they abide. The Fire will burn their faces, and therein they will grin with displaced lips (disfigured). (The Lord Will say):‘Were not My Verses (this Quran) recited to you, and then you used to deny them?’ They will say: ‘Our Lord! Our wretchedness overcame us, and we were an erring people. Our Lord! Bring us out of this. If ever we return (to evil), then indeed we shall be wrong-doers.’ He (Allah) will say: ‘Remain in it (Hell-Fire) with ignominy! And speak not to Me!’” [XXIII; 99-108] In other words, desires and lusts of such people overcome them and bring them a lot of misery and wretchedness in the life of this present world and the world to come. On the Day of Resurrection, they will invoke, “Our Lord! Bring us out of this. If we return (to evil), then indeed we shall be wrong-doers.” Allah, All Mighty, will say: “Remain in it (Hell-Fire) with ignominy! And speak not to Me! Verily, there was a party of My slaves, who used to say: ‘Our Lord! We believe; so forgive us, and have mercy on us, for You are the Best of all who show mercy!’ But you took them for a laughing stock, so much so that they made you forget My Reminder while you used to laugh at them! Verily, I have rewarded them, this Day, for their patience: they are indeed the ones that are successful.” [Ibid; 109-111] Therefore, it must necessarily be known that in man there is the power of his desires and that of his mind. If his mind overpowers his desires and lusts, he is safe and happy; but if his desire and lusts overpower his mind, he is completely lost and destroyed. Due to Allah’s Infinite Divine Wisdom, you are in constant testing and trial. You are tried whether to remain in bed or to get up to perform prayer: your mind bids you to get up and perform prayer, while your body allures you to stay in bed and have some rest. You hear the Azan (Call) for the Dawn Prayer: your mind bids you: “Get up! It is time for prayer! Prayer is better than sleep!” Your body tells you: “Stay in bed! You are tired! You have to get up strong and powerful in the morning! You can perform prayer later on!” You should notice that you are always in a conflict

between the call of desire and that of mind. If your mind dominates, you are safe and happy; but if your desire does, you are lost and destroyed. That is why Imam Ali, the venerable Caliph and Companion, may Allah honor his face, said, “An angel is made up of a mind with no desire; an animal is made up of an instinct with no mind; and man is made up of both (mind and desire). If his mind dominates over his desire, he is exalted above angels; but if his desire dominates over his mind, he is abased lower than animals.” What we see in this present world of people’s deviations, evil deeds and indulgence in unlawful worldly pleasures and enjoyments is all but a substantiation of a battle wherein desire is victorious. In this context, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “But as for him who feared standing before his Lord and restrained himself from impure evil desires and lusts, verily, the Garden (of Paradise) will be his abode.” [LXXIX; 40,41] So, why are Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes there? The answer is: in order to make us sense greatness of Allah’s Command through greatness of His Divine Majesty. If you were a soldier and received an order form a corporal, you would react in a certain way towards it. But if the order came to you from a high-ranking officer, your reaction towards it would be completely different. In other words, the higher the rank of the commander, the more seriously and respectfully the order is taken. If you received and order from the General Commander of the army, you would carry it out as soon as possible and as best as possible, for fear of punishment and responsibility. The problem is that Allah’s Divine Commands are available to all people, His Divine Book, the Holy Quran, is also available, and religious scholars are also there to explain Allah’s Divine Commands, but why do people disobey Allah, All Mighty? The answer is: simply because they do not know the reality of the Commander. Did they know the Commander really well, they would stick to His Commands. In other words, if we get to know Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes, and if we get to know the Majestic Divine Greatness of Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, we will certainly magnify and duly respect His Divine Commands. And if we magnify Allah’s Divine Commands, we will hasten to stick to them. That is why the wisest and most knowledgeable ones of mankind are those who love Allah Most.

Narrated Muslim on authority of Masrouq that Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said: “It suffices man in knowledge to fear Allah; and it suffices man in ignorance to feel proud of his work.” When we read Allah’s Words, “O mankind! Worship your Lord (Allah), Who created you and those who were before you, so that you may attain self-protection.” [II; 21] we wonder: Why should we worship Allah? The answer is: simply because He is the One Who created us, and because He is the Creator, the Lord, and the Disposer of all things. Therefore, we should believe that Allah is the Creator, the Lord, and the Disposer, and we should believe that He is One and Only in His Creativity, One and Only in His Lordship, and One and Only in His Disposition. Hence, monotheism, as regards Allah’s Creation, Lordship, and Disposition, is sure to guarantee safety and happiness to you, provided that you believe therein and comply thereto. By the way, understanding Allah’s Name is one thing and living it is another. In other words, if you understand that Allah is the Creator in the sense that He, All Mighty, created all things from nothing and according to no former model, this should make you lead a life in which you believe that all things that take place around you are all by Allah’s Divine Act and Will. Some of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names are emphatic Names that denote exaggeration of multitude, frequency or number. But in your daily life, you see people and things, actions and incidents, and forget that Allah is the One Who creates and does all these things and that His Divine Will runs along them all, then, you know the theoretical meaning of Allah’s Name “AlKhaliq” (the Creator) but you do not live or deliberate it. In short, great happiness does not lurk in knowing theoretically Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes but rather in living them, which you cannot achieve except by striving against your desires and caprices and by performing deeds of righteousness and sacrificing everything. Only then you will be able to turn to Allah with love and devotion; only then Allah, Most Gracious, will bestow upon your heart security, peace, enlightenment and tranquility; and only then you will see Allah in all things. In fact, I would not like to make the whole lecture of today an academic one, as they say, i.e. mere theoretical information and definitions whereby I fill the pages of this book, but I would like every one of us to live such Divine Names. This leads us to another topic, namely the difference between a

teacher and an educator. A teacher, or lecturer is someone who gives people facts, evidences, and organized, classified, and arranged pieces of information supported with textual, mental, theoretical and practical evidences; and the topic, from this view-point is well organized, well programmed and well arranged, as it is a very nice topic. But an educator is someone who strives to help people live such Divine Names and Attributes in their actual life, and not only to fill their heads with theoretical information about them. Great is the difference between knowing the theoretical definition and explanation of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “AlKhaliq” (the Creator) and living it in our daily life as long as we live. In this context, I have already given the example of someone who reads Allah’s Words, “And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger indeed achieves a great achievement” [XXXIII; 71] and claims to believe therein, yet he feels jealous of an irreligious friend who is better off. If he feels jealous of his irreligious friend’s good condition, this means that he does not live Allah’s Words, “And whosoever obeys Allah and His Messenger indeed achieves a great achievement” nor does he understand their meaning or is influenced by them. Great is the difference between knowing Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names – their meanings, limitations, definitions, differences between them and sayings of religious scholars concerning them – and living such Names. If you contemplate the universe, get to know its Maker, Allah, All Mighty, and strive to obey Him and come nearer to Him, this will certainly bring you a lot of good, as Allah, Most Gracious, will fill your heart with comfort and happiness, your mind with enlightenment and guidance. Then, you will be able to see what others cannot see and hear what others cannot hear. Therefore, I reiterate: We should not only acquire theoretical knowledge about Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes and their definitions, meanings, and limitations, but also live them in our actual daily life. There must always be a kind of constant contact with Allah, All Mighty, so that one lives Allah’s Divine Names and feels that he is always with Him; and if Allah is with you, who can be against you?! This is what Imam AlGhazali said. Also, we should know that human knowledge is of three types: Knowledge of Allah’s Commands, knowledge of Allah’s Creatures, and knowledge of Allah Himself. The first two kinds of knowledge, namely those of Allah’s Commands and creatures, require study and research: books that we read, study and

understand, and then we take tests and exams and receive certificates and degrees. But where is such kind of knowledge kept? It is simply kept in the mind! But such good righteous deeds as suppressing desires and lusts, abstention from unlawful things, expenditure of wealth in the Way of Allah, dutifulness and obedience to parents, charities and almsgivings, standing up the night in prayer and invocation, performing prayer adequately, constant remembrance of Allah, calling out His Beautiful Divine Names, and reading the Holy Quran, are all kinds of both spiritual and moral transcendentalism and acts of obedience and devotion to the Lord, Allah, All Mighty. Also if you abstain from going on a trip that displeases Allah, attending a party that displeases Allah, or eating delicious food but in evil company that displeases Allah, and refuse, saying, “No! I take refuge with Allah!”, such is real strife against your desires and lusts and real suppression of them; and this is what makes you connected with Allah and rightly guided by His Divine Guidance and Enlightenment. This is what makes the Lord, Most Gracious, confer upon you enlightenment, tranquility and peace of mind, happiness, and deep insight. In other words, a true believer is someone who has a unique character because he has a special insight that enables him to see things as they really are and to see the secrets and real dimensions of things, which other fellow humans cannot see. Such deep insight is a special characteristic of only true believers, because of the Divine Light that Allah, All Mighty, casts into their hearts. To this effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “O you who believe! Fear Allah, and believe in His Messenger! (If you do), He will give you a double portion of His Mercy, and He will give you a Light whereby you shall walk (straight), and He will forgive you (your sins and misdeeds). And Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [LVII; 28] Yes, indeed! Such deep insight into the reality of things is singled out for a true believer, for Allah gives tranquility and peace of mind to the elite of His believing slaves, who have unique characters. Moreover, no sooner does someone suppress his desires and lusts for the sake of his Lord than the good results of his holy strife come to him: a light in his heart and deep insight of the reality of things. His heart is firmly established in faith in Allah, Most Gracious; his speech is rightly guided; his thoughts are rightly guided; and his attitudes are balanced. He has a special strong undefeated character that reflects great confidence in Allah and firm belief in Him, simply because he

has gained the good fruits of his strife for his Lord, All Mighty, Most Gracious, and enjoyed them. Therefore, knowledge of Allah is attained by strife against one’s desires and lusts for the sake of the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious; while knowledge of both Allah’s Religion and creatures is attained by study. Great is the difference between study and strife! Study needs only a book, a table and a pen, even though the learner might be somewhere and the material under study somewhere else. That is why people might get the highest degrees while they are drowned in the lowest desires and lusts. However, someone who strives against his own desires and lusts for the sake of the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, is colored by His Divine Color, i.e. he enjoys a unique feeling of moral and spiritual enhancement away from his desires and lusts, just as he enjoys honor in his noble intentions and inclinations, accuracy and sobriety in his mind, eloquence in his speech, and honor and dignity in his principled attitudes. Hence, all of the good fruits of religion come from knowledge of Allah; and knowledge of Allah is attained by strife against one’s desires and lusts. In other words, those who desire to live the reality of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes, and not only to acquire theoretical knowledge about them, have to live them practically in their daily life. A true believer should see Allah’s Divine Hand and Power in everything; and he should always feel that Allah is the Creator and Maker of all things and that He is with him in all places and times. In fact, from the above talk about Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes I intend to make a short analysis of the benefit gained from the knowledge of Such Names and Attributes. In this context, I would like to emphasize that mere theoretical knowledge of such Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes of Allah is fairly easy and can be acquired by anyone, even a non-Muslim, but fighting against one’s desires and lusts for the sake of the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, is by no means easy yet highly rewarding, for once you are connected with Allah a lot of goodly things visit you. That is why Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), was quoted by Anas, the venerable Companion, as saying, “Envy devours good deeds just as fire devours wood. Charity puts out sinful deeds just as water puts out fire. Prayer is Light for a believer. And the Fast is protection from the Fire.” [Narrated by Ibn Majah] Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), also says, “Prayer is purification,” and, “Prayer is joy.”

Yes, indeed! Prayer is purification, as it purifies a believer’s heart from such evil qualities as grudge, hatred, arrogance, selfishness, transgression, injustice, and tyranny. In this context, I always say that turning away from Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, has certain symptoms! Among symptoms of turning away from Allah are the above-mentioned evil qualities. Once you are properly connected with the Almighty Lord, Allah, you assume your normal position, namely that of modest servitude to Him and love for his fellow slaves, simply because you feel that He is always with you as a Watcher and Protector. In the same context, Abu Hurairah, the venerable Companion, may Allah be pleased with him, narrated that Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), was, one day, out with people when (the holy Angel) Gabriel came to him asking, “What is Faith?” He, (PBUH), answered, “Faith is to believe in Allah and His angels, Books, the Encounter with Him, His Messengers and the Resurrection.” He (Gabriel) asked, ”What is Islam?” Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said, “Islam is to worship Allah, Alone, and associate none with Him, to perform prayer, give the ordained Zakat (alms) and fast (during the whole month of) Ramadan.” Gabriel asked, “What is good (perfect) work?” He, (PBUH), answered, “It is to worship Allah as if you saw Him, for even if you do not see Him, He sees you.” [An agreed-up Hadith] And whenever Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), looked at mirror, he used to invoke, “O Allah! You have perfected my creation, so perfect my character!” [Narrated by Ahmad] Man should always thank his Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, for granting him a perfect stature and a head provided with eyes, ears, a nose and a tongue, for such things are of Allah’s Infinite Divine Favors. And when we have a perfect healthy newborn baby, we should also remember that this is of Allah’s Infinite Divine Favors. This is part of the meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Mousawir” (the Shaper), i.e. the One Who gives things their nice shapes. If a good-looking face were a man – as Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says – it would be a good man; and if an evillooking face were a man, it would be an evil man. Once again: mere theoretical knowledge of Allah’s Beautiful Names and Attributes is one thing and living with these Names and Attributes and being in good terms with Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, is another. In other words, when you live these Divine Names, you feel greatness of this religion of Islamic Monotheism. Remember that time is priceless and that your short human life cannot bear so many mistakes and errors! In this context, Allah’s

Messenger, (PBUH), once asked Zaid, one of his venerable Companions, “How are things with you, Zaid?” Zaid answered, “I love Allah and His Messenger… It is (as it were) that I see people of Paradise living in utmost Bliss and people of Hell-Fire reproaching one another, and (as it were) I see my Lord’s Throne outstanding.” Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said, “(You are) a slave whose heart Allah has enlightened with faith! You have known (the truth)! So stick (to it)!” Man should see with his own eyes that the whole universe is of Allah’s Creation, that Allah, All Mighty, is its Maker and Disposer, and that nothing happens except by Allah’s Divine Will and Power, which bespeak His Infinite Divine Wisdom. However, disbelievers are completely unaware of such fact. To this effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Else, did an affliction visit them for that their own hands have forwarded, then they might say, ‘Our Lord! Why did You not send a Messenger to us that we might follow Your Signs and so be among the believers?’” [XXVIII; 47] In fact, Allah’s three Beautiful Divine Names “Al-Khaliq” (the Creator), “Al-Bari’” (the Inventor) and “Al-Mousawir” (the Shaper) are both coherent and inseparable, as they all elaborate the process of Allah’s Creation of things: creation, invention and shaping. The Name “Al-Mousawr” (the Shaper) means that Allah gives all things not only their external shape but also their full stature. To this effect, Allah, All Mighty, says, “It is Allah, Who has made for you the earth as a stable dwelling place and the heaven as a canopy, and has given you shape, and made your shapes good looking, and has provided you with good things. Such is Allah, your Lord! Blessed is Allah, Lord of all worlds!” [XL; 64] He, Most Gracious, also says, “Verily, We have created man in the best stature.” [XCV; 4] In this context, Shaping means that Allah gives things full shape: width, length, tallness, and depth. An ant, for example, has a certain shape, and so do a whale, a human being and every other creature. Allah is the Shaper, Who, Glory to Him, says, “It is He (Allah), Who shapes you in the wombs as He wills. There is no god but Him, the All Mighty, the All-Wise.” [III; 6] This is one of the meanings of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “AlMousawir”. And also, an embryo in his mother’s womb: when its eyes and ears are opened and its head and body are given certain sizes, and when it is

given skin, organs and movement, this is also of Allah’s shaping of things. However, the two processes of creation and shaping are only theoretically separable, because they practically take place at the same time.

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(The Subtle, the All-Kind, the Most Gentle)

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ow, we move on to the nineteenth of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, “Al-Lateef” (the All-Kind), but before we start defining the Name it is necessary to have a short introduction. When someone intends to deal with a certain topic or study, he has to go back to the main goals of such study and points them out. For example, he has to mention the general and particular purposes of his study, simply because a researcher may sometimes deviate from the main purpose and get distracted by unnecessary details, and consequently, the reader may miss the main point of the topic. Moreover, our subject matter today is very important and delicate, and the purpose is noble and paramount. Therefore, by Allah’s Help, we shall not deviate from the main topic or indulge in unnecessary details. Undoubtedly, honor of knowledge is derived from honor of its subject matter. This is a fact that I always like to reiterate in my book. In other words, if you study a trivial insignificant issue, all of your study and research will also be trivial and insignificant. Why? The answer is: simply

because the topic in itself is trivial and insignificant; and the more honorable the subject matter is, the more honorable knowledge is. Now, a constantly persistent question goes: Is the Creator comparable to the created? Is the One Who has no beginning or end by any means comparable to someone who has a beginning and end? Is the Perfect comparable to the imperfect? The answer is: Of course not! Therefore, when one gets to know Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, he gets to know the Creator and Maker of the universe. However, someone might ask, “What do I have to do with Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names?” The answer is simply: Religion comes originally from knowing the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious. In this context, Allah, Glory to Him, says, “And (remember) when your Lord said to the angels, ‘Verily, I am going to place in the earth a vicegerent.” [II; 30] You, as a human being, are Allah’s vicegerent in the earth; and you will never be Allah’s vicegerent in the earth unless you color yourself with His Divine Color. Hence, when we get to know one of Allah’s Beautiful Names, we should ask: what is a believer’s share of knowing such Name? What is his share of knowing Allah’s Name “Al-Aziz” (the One Exalted in Might and Honor)? The answer is: he should strive to be “aziz”, i.e. exalted in might and honor. In this context, Huthaifah quoted Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), as saying, “A believer should not humble himself.” They said, “And how does he humble himself?” He, (PBUH), said, “He puts himself to trial that he cannot bear.” [Narrated by At-Tirmithi, Ibn Majah, and Ahmad] Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), also says, “Seek to attain (your) needs with self-respect, as things run with Divine Decree.” In the following pages, we will be dealing with Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Lateef” (the All-Kind, the All-Subtle); and the fact that I would like everyone to understand clearly is that Allah, All Mighty, has subjected the whole universe for man for two main purposes: first, to help man know his Lord’s Infinite Divine Wisdom, Might and Power, among all of His other Divine Names and Attributes, and, second, to honor man by creating for him such great universe. When you drink a glass of water, you quench your thirst; but water has been created for another more sublime purpose than quenching thirst. It has been created to help you know Allah through it, wondering, “Who has made water as such: colorless, odorless and

tasteless?” “Who has given it the quality of permeation?” “Who has made it evaporate at a very low temperature?” “Who has made it dissolve a lot of substances?” “Who has made it the essence of a living cell?”…etc? If you know Allah by contemplating water, you achieve the major purpose of its creation. But if you drink a glass of water whereby you quench your thirst but fail to contemplate it, you achieve only the minor purpose of its creation. In other words, the major purpose of creating water is to help you know its Maker and Creator and not only make use of it. The same thing applies to the air, food, and all others things around you. This is because you are supposed to know your Lord by contemplation on your own self, your child, and everything around you. Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), made this fact clear whenever he saw the moon. Qatadah narrated that whenever Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), saw the moon, he would say, “A moon of goodness and guidance! A moon of goodness and guidance! A moon of goodness and guidance! I believe in the One Who created you! I believe in the One Who created you! I believe in the One Who created you! Praised be Allah, Who took away the month of so and so and brought the month of so and so.” [Narrated by Abu Dawood] When you stand before a florist’s and contemplate Allah’s Divine Name “AlJameel” (the Most Beautiful) through the flowers and roses, their fragrance, colors, you know for sure that such flowers and roses have not been created to be eaten but rather to please your eyes and nose; and, therefore, you know how Generous and Kind your Lord, Allah, is and, hence, you turn to Him with glorification and gratitude. When you read a book about honey and wonder at the marvelous creation of those tiny insects, bees, with their wonderful social relations and wellorganized societies, which are far more advanced than those of human beings, and in which each and every citizen bee knows perfectly their duties and rights and sticks to them. Tell me: which human community is so well organized as that of a beehive? No human community is as socially advanced as that of bees or ants! Yes, indeed! When you read a book about bees, you feel humble and submissive before the Creator, All Mighty, Most Wise, Who has perfected their creation. You may even cry in amazement at such wonderful sight as a beehive. By so doing, you achieve the major purpose of Allah’s creation of bees, even though you might not afford to buy any of their honey; while

another person might be fed up with lots and lots of honey but fails to contemplate its Maker’s Divine Might and Generosity. Therefore, let us all agree that the whole universe is but a substantiation and manifestation of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. And since we are now dealing with Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Lateef” (the All-Kind), do you see things in the universe that bespeak Allah’s being AllKind? Yes, of course. Take, for example, the air, which surrounds us from all sides: we breathe it, and if we move it, we feel that it exists. It carries an airplane that weighs even 350 tons: 150 tons of the body of the airplane itself, 150 tons of fuel, and 150 tons of passengers and their luggage. The air is a really marvelous thing! When a spaceship enters the earth’s atmosphere, it becomes a blazing mass of flames because of fraction with the air. However, on the surface of the earth, the air cannot be seen and is noiseless when it is calm. In other words, it is there as if it were not, for it does not eclipse vision and allows sound to travel through it. Hence, the air manifests Allah’s Beautiful Name “AlLateef” (the All-Kind). In this context, Allah, All-Kind, says, “Allah is Ever All-Kind to His slaves. He gives provision to whom He wills; and He is the All-Strong, the All Mighty.” [XLII; 19] “Should not He, Who has created, know? And He is the All-Kind, the All-Aware.” [LXVII; 14] In Arabic, the word “Lateef” has a lot of meanings, one of which is “something that is too tiny or too subtle to feel.” For example, your radio set receives radio waves that you cannot see or feel. Such waves are weightless and have no smell. Therefore, a thing that is like a radio wave is said to be “Lateef”, i.e. too subtle to be seen, smelled, or felt. In order to make things clear, let us have some more examples. Radio waves exist but in a subtle way; and the air also exists but in a subtle way. But if the air is made to move at a speed of 800 km/h, it destroys everything on the earth’s surface. I have read about a hurricane that took place in USA and destroyed a great many houses and buildings. After the hurricane, one of the people there found the engine of his big car 15 km’s away, but his house or car could not be found anywhere. Movement of the air caused such disastrous hurricane. But when calm, the air is too subtle to feel, hear, see or smell.

Therefore, linguistically speaking, the Arabic word “Lateef” means “something that is too tiny or too subtle to feel”. Another example is water. If you look at a tiny drop of water under a microscope, you see countless microscopic living creatures that are invisible to the unaided human eye. Such microscopic living creatures are “Lateefah” i.e. “too tiny to be seen or felt”. Therefore, the air is “Lateef” in the sense that radio waves are as such, i.e. they cannot be smelled, heard, felt or seen. This is another meaning. Similarly, the microscopic living creatures in water are “Lateefah” in the sense that they are too tiny to be smelled, heard, felt or seen by the unaided human eye. When we say that Allah is “Lateef” (Subtle) with His slaves, it means that He, All Mighty, is always with you. He hears your voice, and knows what is in your mind and heart of ideas, thoughts, ambitions, conflicts, opinions, beliefs, imaginations, and conceptions. He also knows what is in your heart of troubles, pains, worries, hardships, pressures, distresses, fears, …etc. Nevertheless, His being with you is not at all obvious or heavy. Imagine that someone keeps another company all the time. Whenever he sits, he sits just like him; whenever he walks, he walks just like him; whenever he enters his home, he enters with him; and whenever he eats, he eats with him. If this went on for only five or six days, it would be unbearable; and the former would address the latter, “Go away from me!”, “Get lost!”, even though the latter would not utter one single word or criticize or even object to any of the former’s deeds or ask him anything whatsoever. Such an inseparable companion is an unbearable nuisance. However, you, dear reader, know for sure that Allah is always with you, yet you do not feel that He is with you. In other words, Allah’s Being with you is not obvious or heavy. In this context, Allah, the Subtle, the All-Kind, says, “And He is with you wherever you may be; and Allah is the All-Seer of what you do.” [LVII; 4] He, Glory to Him, also says, “There is no secret counsel of three but He (Allah) is their fourth, nor of five but He is their sixth, nor of fewer than that or more but He is with them wherever they may be. And afterwards, on the Day of Resurrection, He will inform them of what they did. Verily, Allah is the All-Knower of everything.” [LVIII; 7] The word “Lateef” here means that Allah, All Mighty, is too Subtle to be heard or seen although we feel that He is always with us. In the same context, Abu Hurairah, the venerable Companion, may Allah be pleased with

him, narrated that Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), was, one day, out with some people when (the holy Angel) Gabriel came to him asking, “What is Faith?” He, (PBUH), answered, “Faith is to believe in Allah and His angels, Books, the Encounter with Him, His Messengers and the Resurrection.” He (Gabriel) asked, ”What is Islam?” Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said, “Islam is to worship Allah, Alone, and associate none with Him, to perform prayer, to give the ordained Zakat (alms) and to fast (during the whole month of) Ramadan.” Gabriel asked, “What is good (perfect) work?” He, (PBUH), answered, “It is to worship Allah as if you saw Him, for even if you do not see Him, He sees you.” “O Allah! Make us fear You as if we saw you!” Therefore, the first meaning of the Arabic word “Lateef” is “something that is too tiny or subtle to be seen or felt”. And since Allah, All Mighty is far Exalted above any physical incarnation or anthropomorphic elements or qualities, since nothing is the like of Him, since it is impossible to have Him confined in a certain place or time, because He is the One Who created both place and time, and since Allah is Free from all qualities and properties of His creatures, where is Allah? He, All Mighty, Most Subtle, is everywhere with all things, but not like a thing in a thing. He encompasses in knowledge all things. He is with all things, above all things, beside all things. But He cannot be confined in a certain place, direction or volume. But what does the word “volume” here mean? This glass of water, for example, occupies a certain space and has a certain weight, height, and diameter. It occupies a certain space on the table or anywhere else. Our Lord, Allah, All Mighty, does not occupy a space, and cannot be confined by a certain direction, place or time or anything else. Therefore, when we read Allah’s Words, “And your Lord comes with the angels in rows” [LXXXIX; 22], we should understand that Allah does not come in Himself; but what comes is His Divine Command and Punishment. Sometimes, someone is profligate and deviant, yet his days are as usual: Every morning, he gets up in good health and has his normal food and drink. He still enjoys his high social rank, power, affluence and tyranny. But suddenly, he is inflicted with a serious incurable disease, or suffers great pains in his chest or any other part of his body. Here we say, “Your Lord has come”, i.e. “Your Lord’s Command or Punishment has come.” Therefore, when we say that Allah is “Lateef” (Subtle), this means that He does not occupy a certain space and cannot be confined by a certain

direction, place or time. He cannot be incarnated in a certain physical body or image, nor is He divisible or confined by anything. Since Allah, All Mighty, is far Exalted above being incarnated or confined, He is described in Arabic as being “Lateef” in the sense that He is too subtle to be felt or seen. Hence, Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Lateef” is one of the deanthropomorphic Names in the sense that Allah is with you all the time, but you do not see or feel Him, because He is too Subtle to be seen or felt. Sometimes, you do something that displeases Allah, and are, therefore, soon punished for it. This means that He sees you. Sometimes, you intend to do something that displeases Allah, and you find that He soon punishes you. This means that He knows your intentions. He is so Subtle that you do not feel His Existence, because His Existence is not heavy on you although He exists and even stands between man and his own heart and knows all secrets and what lurks behind such secrets. He knows what was, what is, what will be, and what is not: if it were, how it would be. He knows all about you, while you do not feel or see Him. This is because He is Subtle and knows your innermost feelings, emotions, ambitions, intentions, conflicts, and sorrows. Yes, indeed! He knows all about you while you do not feel or see Him. As long as a true believer worships Allah and believes that He sees him in all places and times, he is well behaved even when he is by himself. He does not see Allah with his eyes, but he sees Him with his mind. True believers always watch their steps with their Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, simply because they believe that He is constantly watching them. The stronger your faith in Allah is, the more conscious of Him you are. In this context, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, addressed Moses in a Divine Hadith, “O Moses! Do you like me to be your Sitter?” Moses, (PBUH), asked, “O Lord! How can this be?” Allah, Most Gracious, said, “Don’t you know that I sit with those who remember Me and that wherever My slave seeks Me, he finds Me.” Now, while performing prayer Muslims say, “Allah hears whosoever extols praises to Him”. But do they know what this sentence means? It means that the Lord addresses you, “O My slave! I hear you! So extol praises to Me!”

But where is Allah?! Therefore, whenever you stand to perform prayer, you should know that you stand before Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious. In this context, ‘A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, said, “Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), would be speaking to us, and we would be speaking to him, he would be sitting with us, and we would be sitting with him; but when it was time for prayer, it would be as if he had never known us and we had never known him.” This is how a true Muslim should be! A person usually takes great care of his apparel when he is invited to meet and official or an important one, who is a human being just like him: he gets hungry, gets thirsty, gets tired, gets angry, and even dies. What should he do when he stands to perform prayer before the Almighty Lord, Allah, the One, the Judge?! He should know that Allah is “Lateef” (Subtle): He is there, but He is Subtle. His non-material Divine Existence cannot be perceived by senses. Such is the first meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “AlLateef”. The second meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Lateef” is that He, All Mighty, knows secrets and minute details of all things. The word “Lateef” can also be used to describe someone who is proficient and skillful in his job, and can do what others cannot do. In this sense, when we say that Allah is “Lateef”, it means that He is Omniscient or All-Knower of all things. You may understand something only from outside, but fail to understand its deep secrets or the hidden intentions lurking behind it. In fact, the more knowledgeable and experienced you are, the more you understand secrets of things and intentions behind them. In this context, I would like to give an example of an irreligious man. In winter, one of his wife’s female friends came to visit her. He invited both his wife and her friend to come and sit with him in the living room where it was warmer, as he claimed. In fact, he desired to introduce himself to his wife’s friend and make friends with her. Now, who knows the real intention behind the man’s invitation? It is, indeed, Allah, All Mighty, Who knows secrets of all things, including the real intentions of this man! In this sense, Allah is “Lateef”, i.e. He knows the real motives lurking behind your deeds and intentions. It is He Who knows all secrets and

realities of all things, including people’s innermost ambitions and intentions, which other fellow human do not know. Therefore, it is Allah, Alone, Who knows all secrets and realities of all things as well as their causes and effects. This is the second meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Lateef”, i.e. “the One Who knows everything about all things”. The third meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Lateef” is that He is Ever All-Kind to His slaves. He is infinitely Kind to them although they do not feel or know that. He disposes of their affairs in the most beneficial way while they are heedless. For example, in hot summer days, while people are completely unconscious, He makes fruits ripe for them. He alternates conditions and circumstances for the benefits of His slaves while they are completely heedless and unconscious. In this context, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Allah is Ever All-Kind to His slaves. He gives provision to whom He wills; and He is the All-Strong, the All Mighty.” [XLII; 19] This is the third meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Lateef”, i.e. He, All Mighty, Most Gracious, is Ever All-Kind to His slaves. The fourth and greatest meaning of this Divine Name is that proposed by Imam Al-Gjazali: Allah, Most Gracious, is “Lateef” in the sense that He, Glory to Him, knows minute details of things and takes his slave from one condition to another most gently. A small child has to have new teeth instead of first deciduous ones, for if it had permanent teeth from the beginning and while its mouth were still too small, its apparel would be unacceptable, and its teeth would be too big for its small mouth. If it had teeth while still suckling milk from its mother’s breasts, it would harm her thereby. Therefore, in its first year, an infant has no teeth, but then it develops primary deciduous teeth that are afterwards changed into permanent ones. But this change goes on most easily and smoothly. In other words, Allah, Most Gentle, causes an infant’s milk teeth to change into permanent ones most gently and painlessly. No dentist in the whole world can take out a tooth for a small infant without making it cry. Even an anesthetic injection causes a lot of pain that makes an infant cry pitifully. But our Lord, Allah, the Most Kind, causes an infant’s milk teeth to melt away little by little while the infant feels no pain at all. Therefore, as Imm Al-Ghazali says, “Al-Lateef (the All-Kind and Subtle) is He Who

knows realities and secrets of interests and grants them to those who deserve them gently, without any violence.” Sometimes, you love something that is improper or dangerous for you. Therefore, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, imposes on you a certain solution gradually, in a period of five years, for instance. He afflicts you with some troubles whereby He removes 5% of His Love, and after a couple of weeks, He afflicts you with some other troubles whereby He removes 10% and then, after another couple of weeks, 15%, …etc. After two or three months, you say, “That’s enough! I can’t stand that any more!” In other words, there is something improper that you love, but Allah removes from you your love for it most gently and gradually. This is how wine was first prohibited in Islam. The Arabs loved wine and were strongly attached to it. If Allah had bidden Muslims to give up wine altogether by one Quranic Command, some, or perhaps, half of them would have rejected Islam. But Allah is Most Gentle and Kind! He, Most Gracious, sent down, an indirect reference to wine, saying, “And from the fruits of date-palms and grapes: you derive strong drink and a goodly provision. Verily, in that is indeed a Sign for people who have wisdom.” [XVI; 67] In this Verse, Allah, Most Kind, gives an indirect reference to the fact that although wine may be a kind of provision, and although some people might think that it is goodly provision, it is by no means good, because it is an intoxicant. This is the first reference, but then Allah, All Wise, says, “O you who believe! Approach not the prayer when you are in a drunken state, until you know what you utter, nor when you are in a state of major ritual impurity – except when traveling on the road – until you wash your whole body.” [IV; 43] This means that if they desired to drink wine, it was okay, but they had to avoid it when they stood up to perform prayer. Later on, Allah, Most Gracious, sent down: “They ask you (O Muhammad) concerning alcoholic drink and gambling. Say, ‘In both of them is a great sin and (some) benefits for men; but the sin of them is greater than their benefit. And they ask you (O Muhammad) concerning what they should spend. Say, ‘That which is beyond your needs.’ Thus Allah makes clear to you His Laws in order that you may give thought.” [II; 219] The above Quranic Verse shows clearly that benefits of wine are only for those who deal in it and earn their living from it. Afterwards, Allah, Most Kind, prohibited wine altogether, saying, “O you who believe! Intoxicants (all kinds of alcoholic drinks), gambling, Al-Ansab (animals that are sacrificed for idols), and Azlam (arrows for seeking luck or

decision) are an abomination of Satan’s work, so avoid it in order that you may be successful.” [V; 90] Therefore, the gradual and most wise way in which Allah, Glory to Him, prohibited wine shows clearly that He is Most Kind and Most Gentle. Another example is when a young man goes to the mosque to attend a religious lecture or preaching. He thinks, “It is a really nice lecture, and I would like to attend more other lectures!”, although he might be sinful in many ways. However, due to His Infinite Divine Kindness, our Lord, Allah, does not cause him to remember his numerable former sins all at once. Every now and then, Allah, Most Kind, reminds him of one of his former sins and misdeeds. He causes him to think, “Such a thing is unlawful. I feel most regretful. I was so ignorant.” This helps him give up his sins and misdeeds. If he were given an immediate list of all of his sins and misdeeds, he would reject the whole religious affair altogether. However, Allah, Most Kind, gradually reminds him of his former sins and helps him quit such sins one by one. After six or eight months of gradual treatment, he gives up all his sins. Allah, Most Gentle, may also cause another human being to remind him kindly, saying, “Dear brother! Such a deed is unlawful! You should not do such a thing! You should not attend such a meeting! You should not sell such illegal merchandise! Do you sell backgammon? Listen to Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), who says, “He who plays backgammon is like someone who dips his hand the flesh and blood of a pig.”[Narrated by Muslim, Abu Dawood, Ibn Majah, and Ahmad]!” Allah, All Mighty, manages all things in a smooth gradual way, for He is Most Gentle in dealing with His slaves. Someone might be more hopeful than fearful, and therefore, Allah, Most Kind, frightens him; and someone else might be more fearful than hopeful, therefore, Allah, Most Kind, reassures him and makes him more hopeful. “Accurate knowledge combined with gradual work”: this is the most accurate and most comprehensive meaning of the word “Lateef”; and the one who deserves to be described by this word is someone who knows the realities and secrets of interests and then, once he has got such knowledge, he conveys such interests to those who deserve them gently and smoothly without any violence. For example, if a father’s son commits a religious or moral misdeed, he may punish him severely and violently, but it is better for the father to observe his son step-by-step, and to direct him by constant but compassionate punishment and encouragement, and sometimes even by

turning away from him. After two or three months, the son willingly and freely returns to the straight path. In this way the father takes his son from the state of sinfulness to that of reform and repentance but all in a smooth gentle way that does not destroy him, hurt his feels or cause him great pain. Hence, a believing educator is “Lateef” in the sense that he teaches and brings up people from one condition to another most tenderly and gently. An Arabian once entered the mosque while Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), and his venerable Companions were performing prayer, and because he desired to hurry up and catch up with them in prayer, he made a lot of noise and disturbance. When prayer was over, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), turned to the man, saying gently, “May Allah increase you in care! But do not do this again.” He, (PBUH), showed utmost tenderness to the man and counseled him gently. This is because Allah is Gentle, and He loves those who are gentle. To this effect, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Verily Allah grants (in return) for gentleness that which He does not grant (in return) for violence. Teach and do not reproach, for someone who teaches is better than someone who reproaches.” Of Allah’s Gentleness and Kindness to His slaves is that He, Most Generous, gives them more than what they need and imposes on them things that are within their abilities. For example, He imposed on them five prayers a day, each prayer takes about only 20 minutes. This means that all prayers take only one hour forty minutes a day. If He imposed on you to perform fifty prayers a day instead of five, you would not be able to be committed to them. Similarly, He enjoins on you the fast for the whole month of Ramadan every year. If He enjoined on you to fast for six continuous months, you would not be able to fast for that long period of time. Allah is Most Kind in His Divine Commands and Creation. If you needed special sophisticated equipment to eat an apple, for example, it would be too hard to eat. But you need only a small knife, or even nothing, to eat it. If you needed a special key to open an egg, and if you had to look for the key, which you may not find, life would be unbearable. All you have to do is simply to hit it at a hard thing, like the side of a plate, peel it, and then eat it. Allah’s Divine Kindness makes a peach, an orange, or a bunch of grapes so easy for you to pick and eat. Each fruit has it own different taste, shape, composition and stature. If an apple were as hard as a rock, how would you eat it? You would need a special stone-mill in order to eat an apple or make

some apple juice. But due to His Infinite Divine Kindness, Allah has made an apple so easily eaten. He Who disposes of all things is the Most Wise; He Who brings them into existence is the Most Generous; He Who gives them their forms and statures is the Most Wise Shaper; He Who puts all things in their proper places is the Most Just; He Who knows everything about all things is “Al-Lateef” (the Subtle); “Al-Lateef” (the All-Kind) is He Who gives His slaves more than they need and less than they can bear; “Al-Lateef” (the Most Gentle) is He Who makes hard things easy, helps His slaves to do good things and accepts such good things from them; and “Al-Lateef” is He Who has full power over His slaves, yet He does not disclose their secret sins and misdeeds, Who gives His slaves and suffices them, Who bestows His Favors in abundance upon His slaves, and Whose Knowledge bespeaks His Perfection. As for man’s share of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Lateef”, it is to be kind to other fellow humans and to be gentle with them when calling them to Allah, Most Gracious. In this context, Allah, Most Kind, addressed his two holy brother Prophets, Moses and Aaron, (PBUT), “Go, both of you, to Pharaoh! Verily, he has transgressed. And speak to him mildly perhaps he may accept admonition or fear (Allah). They said, ‘Our Lord! Verily, we fear lest he should hasten to punish us or lest he should transgress.’ He (Allah) said, ‘Fear not! Verily, I am with you both, hearing and seeing.’” [XX; 43-46] It happened once that a man entered upon a king, saying, “I shall admonish you harshly.” The king said, “Why harshly, brother? Verily, Allah sent someone who was better than you to another who was worse than I am. He sent Moses and Aaron to Pharaoh, and commanded them: ‘Speak to him mildly.’” Therefore, if you know anything bad about your fellow humans, try to veil it and be kind to them. If you intend to do anything, try to be kind and gentle. If you desire to have someone do something, try to make such thing easy and achievable. Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), was once in the midst of devoted prayer to the Lord, All Mighty, with some of his venerable Companions when he suddenly heard a baby cry. Therefore, he hurriedly finished his most enjoyable prayer for the sake of the baby, whose mother was among the worshippers. When you call other fellow humans to Allah, try to be kind, gentle, and merciful. Religious scholars say that

knowledgeable preachers should invite people to good things gently and kindly, not violently or harshly, simply because they are enlightened by Allah’s Divine Light. To wrap up, since Allah is Subtle and Most Kind in His Knowledge, Existence and Acts, you, as a true believer, should assume such great qualities for your own self.

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(The All Just)

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ow, we go on to the twentieth of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, namely “Al-‘Adl” (the All-Just), which the whole Muslim nation agrees to attribute to Allah, All Mighty, and which is, therefore, one of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names. In fact, Allah, Most Gracious, is All Just in His Creation just as He is AllJust in His Legislation, Cosmic Laws and Acts. In other words, whenever He creates something, bids to something, or does something, He is All Just. Allah is All Just in His Creation: consider location of your arm! It is located in a very suitable place: in the middle of the body. And things are said to be right and just if they stand between two controversial extremes. An electric switch, for example, is usually located in a place where all members of the

family can easily use it. We describe such location as being right and just. If it were located in an excessively high place, we would need a special ladder in order to switch it on or off; and if it were put in a low place, we would also find difficulty in turning it on or off. However, when a switch is properly located, we say that such location is right and just, as it does not lend itself to extremism. In this context, we should notice that if man were made to see all living microscopic creatures that exist in water, he would abstain from drinking it. If the human eye were given the power to see all things, our life would be not only miserable but also unbearable; and if the human eye were made too weak to see dangerous things around us, we would not be able to survive. Both cases symbolize improper deviation from the right and just work of the human eye. Therefore, Allah, Most Gracious, is All Just in His Creation not only of the human eye but all other things as well. Another example is the human ear, which is specially designed by the Lord, Allah, the All Just, to hear only the sounds that befit the human life on earth. There are a great many sounds that exist in the world, but we do not hear them. If we did, human life would be unbearable. Ordinary sound waves fade away, while electro-magnet ones do not. By the way, a spacecraft was launched to Jupiter at a speed of 40,000 m/h. As soon as it reached Jupiter after six years of continuous travel, it sent radio messages to the earth. Radio waves do not fade away, while those of ordinary sound do. That is why electro-magnet waves are used for radio transmission and communication. Now, if ordinary sound waves were like electro-magnet ones that do not weaken or fade away, you would hear, in this mosque in Damascus, all sounds existing in the whole world. All at once, you would hear the sounds of the sea-waves, factories, and volcanoes, and life would be impossible. Hence, creation of the human ear and the nature of sound in such a way as to fit each other is right and just. In this context, Allah, All Mighty, All Just, says, “Verily, We (i.e. Allah) have created all things in due measures.” [LIV; 49] In other words, your sight is made in due measures and so is your hearing. If your sense-nerves were made to grow more than they do, your life would be impossible. The same thing applies for your pressure-nerves as well as nerves that have to do with your vision, hearing, and movement. Joint of the elbow is most properly located in the human body. It helps you eat and drink most easily. If it were located somewhere else in your body, you would have

to put a plate on the ground and lie down in order to eat food with the help of your tongue as animals do. Therefore, location of the joint of your elbow is right and just. Location of the arm on the shoulder is also right and just. If it were located on the hip and made to hang down to the feet, life would be unbearable. If the eye were located on top of the head, on the back, or in the palm of the hand, your life and work system would get confused. In the same context, Allah, the All Just, says, “O man! What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous, Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion? In whatever form He willed, He put you together.” [LXXXII; 6-8] In other words, Allah, the All Just, has created you - your senses, parts, organs, apparatuses, and systems - in a right just way and in due measures and proportions. Allah’s Rightness and Justness are also manifested in the fiber used in textile. If a piece of clothes were to get worn out from the very first time we wore it, life would be too hard for people. It is totally unreasonable and even unbearable for people to buy new clothes or have them made every day. However, fiber is usually strong enough to endure at least one or two years before it is worn out. Hence, the fiber that we use in textile shows clearly that the Lord, Allah, has created it in a right just way. A hen usually lays one egg a day. This is right and just, for if it laid one egg a month or a year, eggs would be too expensive. If fodder cost more than the milk that cows would produce, no one would keep cows. But the quantity of milk that a cow produces is right and just compared to the cost of fodder a cow needs. We can go on for a hundred years giving innumerable examples of the Quranic fact that goes, “Verily, We (i.e. Allah) have created all things in due measures.” [LIV; 49] This Verse means that Allah, the All Just, has created all things in due measures and in a right just way. In Allah’s Creation there is no extremism, immoderation or contradiction. The earth is most rightly and justly spaced apart from the sun. If the earth were closer to the sun, it would be a blazing furnace; if it were farther, it would be an ice grave. Distances between the sun and the earth, and between all of the heavenly objects are most rightly and justly designed.

An embryo remains in its mother’s womb for nine months. If it remained for five years, it would be intolerable. If it remained for only one week, one mother would have hundreds of children, which is also unbearable. But the period of time that an embryo has to stay in its mother’s womb is most rightly and justly designed. If a woman’s ovulation went on till the end of her life, she would have babies even when she were eighty or more years old, which would be really unbearable. Due to Allah’s Mercy upon women, He, Most Gracious, makes ovulation usually goes on until they are only forty-five or fifty. In other words, ovulation in women is most rightly and justly designed. The foregoing examples are spontaneous unprepared ones derived from the creation of the heavens and the earth, the sun and the moon, and the night and day. If the day were fifty hours long, while your power were only eight hours, you would, for example, open your shop for eight hours and then close it, go home to sleep and have some rest during the day while other fellow humans would be working. Then, you would come back to resume work in the shop while others were asleep. If the day were made fifty hours long, human life would be unbearable. In this context, Allah, the All-Just, says, “Say (O Muhammad): ‘Tell me! If Allah made the night continuous for you till the Day of Resurrection, which god besides Allah could bring you light? Will you not then hear?’ Say: ‘Tell me! If Allah made the day continuous for you till the Day of Resurrection, which god besides Allah could bring you night wherein you rest? Will you not then see?’” [XXVIII; 71,72] Hence, you should believe that the length of the day and the night, the distance between the sun, the moon and the earth, and the size of the moon and the earth are all most rightly and justly designed. If the earth were five times as greater as it actually is, your weight would be five times greater than it is, and your movement on the surface of the earth would be unbearable. This is because man’s weight is proportional with the size of the earth; and man’s weight on the moon’s surface is 1/6th of his weight on the earth. Therefore, the size of the earth, its density, its power of gravity, and its distance from the sun and the moon while going round the sun in orbit, are all most right and just. Praised is Allah, Who has created all things most rightly and justly.

As for crops: if wheat were made to get ripe successively like melons, for example, we would need to check spikes of grain one by one in order to see if they have ripened or not. However, all spikes of grain need three months to ripen and are harvested altogether at one time. As for fruits, they ripen successively. Hence: “O man! What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous, Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion? In whatever form He willed, He put you together.” [LXXXII; 6-8] Allah, Most Gracious, is All Just in His creation, as He, Glory to Him, creates all things with Utmost Divine Wisdom and Justness. This is what the foregoing Quranic Verse tries to reiterate: Allah is All Just in His Creation. If you get up early in the morning in order to perform the Dawn Prayer, and then sit down to contemplate and deliberate, this will help you to know Allah better and to realize particularly that He, Most Gracious, creates and controls all things with utmost rightness and justness! Imagine that a melon’s crust were as soft and thin as that of a tomato! You would never be able to eat a melon, as it would be impossible to carry from one place to another. And imagine that the peel of a tomato were as thick as the crust of a melon! It would be nothing but mere crust. However, the size, outer cover, stature, taste, and sweetness of the different kinds of fruits are most rightly and justly designed, for our Lord’s Creation is really marvelous. Man may make mistakes in making sweets by using improper quantities of ingredients, but our Lord, Allah, the All Just, makes all kinds of fruits, such as apples, pears, grapes, apricots, figs, dates, …etc, with utmost rightness and justness. Therefore, the first meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-‘Adl” (the All Just) is that He, All Mighty, Most Gracious, is Most Just in His Creation; i.e. He creates all things most rightly and justly, and with Utmost Wisdom. To this effect, the Quranic Verse goes, “And it is He, Who has created the heavens and the earth in the truth, and on the Day (of Resurrection) He will say: ‘Be!’ and it will be.” [VI; 73] The word “truth” in this Verse means “Utmost Divine Wisdom, which is Most Right and Just”. Just contemplate your own body and food, and then contemplate camels and other animals! In this context, Allah, the All Just, says, “Then let man look

at his food.” [LXXX; 24] “So let man see from what he is created! He is created from a liquid gushing forth, proceeding from between the backbone and the ribs. Verily, He (Allah) is Able to bring him back (to life).” [LXXXVI; 5-8] “Do they not look at the camels: how they are created, at the heaven: how it is raised, at the mountains: how they are deeply rooted (and firmly established), and the earth: how it is outspread?” [LXXXVIII; 17-20] The foregoing facts are about Allah’s Divine Name “Al-‘Adl” (the All Just) as manifested by His Creation. Let us now speak about His Name “Al-‘Adl” (the All Just) as manifested by His Divine Command. Allah, the All Just, commands you to fast for thirty days, i.e. the whole month of Ramadan, every year. If He commanded you to fast for six months, it would be unbearable. This is because the last days of the month of Ramadan seem so long and hard, as if each day were a whole month. The fast in Islam is only for thirty days, which is right and just. Allah, the All Just, commands you to perform prayer only five times a day. If prayers were fifty, and each one were made up of fifty Rak’as, it would also be unbearable. In this context, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Allah burdens not a self (person) beyond its scope.” [II; 286] Therefore, the fast is right and just and so is the Zakat (almsgiving), which is only 2.5% of man’s wealth. The Hajj (Pilgrimage to Mecca) is also imposed on Muslims only one time in man’s lifetime. Hence, Islamic Religion is all right and just. Consider, in this context, laws legislated by human beings. Some man-legislated taxes are 80-93% of a person’s wealth, which makes him feel defrauded, wile Islamic Zakat (almsgiving) is only 2.5%, which is fair and just. In other words, Islamic rituals, such as Salat (prayer), Zakat (almsgiving), Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca), …etc, are all right and just. Not only Islamic rituals but also Islamic commandments and teachings are all right and just. Consider Allah’s Command: “Tell the believing men to lower some of their gaze (from looking at forbidden things).” [XXIV; 30] If Allah, the All Just, commanded us to lower all of our gaze, altogether, it would be unbearable, as sometimes we are unintentionally taken by sudden surprise at seeing something indecent or unlawful, which makes us lower our gaze after 1/10th of a second. This is most fair and just. Allah’s Divine Command as regards lowering our gaze is fair and just, and so is Allah’s Command of Zakat (almsgiving) or the fast. If you are

traveling, it is permissible for you to break the fast. To this effect, Allah, the All Just, says, “(Observing the Fast is) for a fixed number of days; but if any of you is ill or on a journey, the same number (should be made up) from other days.” [II; 184] Similarly, if you are traveling, you can shorten the Four-Rak’a prayers into only two-Rak’a ones. According to some Islamic doctrines, such as the Hanifites, this shortening of prayer is not only permissible but also obligatory in order to guarantee safety and comfort of travelers. While traveling, you have to deal with cars, airplanes, trains, airports, schedules, timetables…etc, which makes you so confused. Therefore, it is permissible for you to perform prayers both shortened and coupled (the Noon with the Afternoon Prayers, and the Evening and Late-Evening Prayers). In other words, Allah, All Mighty, is All Just in both His Divine Creation and Commands. Before we go on, we would like to ask: what should man’s attitude be towards this Divine Name? In our study of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names we have two main purposes: to get to know Allah, which is the most sublime and paramount of all human issues. It is most sublime for mankind to know their Lord, Allah, All Mighty, All Just, Who is the Perfect One with Whom you can be forever. The second purpose is to obey Allah and be happy by being intimate to Him and by attaining His Divine Love and Paradise. If someone desires to get married, he spends quite a long time looking for a good wife with whom he can live happily all the rest of his life. Someone said that his wife was born when his mother first began to look for a suitable wife for him to marry. People also say that the wife is man’s life-long friend and companion, and has therefore to be chosen very carefully. However, you live with Allah and in His Divine Company and Mercy forever. Does any one in the whole existence deserve that you should know him better than Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious?! Is there any issue that is more serious than to know Allah, the All Just?! To Him, Alone, do belong the Most Beautiful Names, so call Him thereby. When you invoke: [“O Allah, the Most Merciful!”, “O Allah, the All-Rich!”, “O Allah, The All Mighty!], should you not know the meanings of such Divine Names of Allah, with which you invoke Him?! A great many people are inflicted with some diseases, and if doctors address one of them: “There is no hope for recovery!” he collapses, simply because

he does not know that Allah is Able to cure him no matter how incurable his disease might be, and no matter how definitive doctors’ opinions might be. It is Allah Who creates strength from weakness, ease from difficulty, and hope from despair. When man invokes: “O Allah, the All-Powerful!” but feels desperate, this means that he does not know what Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “the All-Powerful” means. What I would like to reiterate in this context is that if you firmly believe that Allah, All Mighty, is Able to cure you, even without any substantial means, of the most serious diseases or illnesses, this means that you are a true believer, as true faith knows no despair. Knowledgeable religious scholars invoke: “O Lord! There can be no distress so long as you are the Lord!” In other words, man should never suffer so long as Allah is there, he should never fear anything so long as Allah is there to help him and provide him with power and good health. Consider what the holy Prophet, Abraham, (PBUH), said to his people: “He (Abraham) said: ‘Do you see that which you have been worshipping – you and your ancient fathers? Verily, they are enemies to me, save the Lord of all worlds, Who has created me, Who guides me, Who provides me with food and drink, Who – when I am ill – cures me, Who will cause me to die and then will bring me to life (again), and Who, I hope, will forgive me my faults on the Day of Recompense. My Lord! Grant me good judgment and join me with the righteous! Grant me an honorable mention in later generations! And make me one of the inheritors of the Garden of Bliss (Paradise)!” [XXVI; 75-85] Yes, indeed! It is He, Allah, and none but Allah, Who creates, guides, provides, cures, brings to life, causes to die, and forgives. Such is the Lord of all worlds! And therefore: “O Lord! There can be no distress so long as you are the Lord!” Once again, I reiterate that a true believer in Allah should never be distressed, simply because the Almighty Lord, Allah, is always with him. He should think well of Him and put all his trust in Him. In this context, the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, says, “And Allah said: ‘I am with you if you perform prayer, give alms, believe in My Messengers, honor and assist them, and lend a good loan to Allah, verily, I will expiate your sins and admit you into Gardens, underneath which rivers flow (in Paradise). But if any of you, after this, disbelieves, he has indeed gone astray from the Straight Path.” [V; 12] It happens sometimes that a powerful and influential person promises another: “I am with you! Don’t be afraid! I’ll help you! Here is my phone number!” Such a promise provides the latter with a feeling of confidence

and security although the former may, for some reason or another, fail to help him. But with the Almighty Lord, Allah, Glory to Him, things are different and His Divine Promise of Help and Security will certainly come true. Once again, I repeat Allah’s Words, “Indeed, Allah took the covenant from the children of Israel, and We appointed twelve leaders among them. And Allah said: ‘I am with you if you perform prayer, give alms, believe in My Messengers, honor and assist them, and lend a good loan to Allah, verily, I will expiate your sins and admit you into Gardens, underneath which rivers flow (in Paradise). But if any of you, after this, disbelieves, he has indeed gone astray from the Straight Path.” [V; 12] Now, why should you study Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes? The answer is simply: in order to attain happiness by them, in order to know that Allah is Most Merciful, in order to know that Allah is All-Knowing and watch your steps with Him, in order to know that Allah is Powerful over all things, in order know that Allah is the Rich, …etc. Therefore, when you get to know that Allah, All Mighty, is Able to cure you of your disease, you are never desperate or hopeless. Why is the rate of suicide so high in some western countries? The answer is: simply because people of those countries do not know Allah through His Divine Names and Attributes. However, in most Islamic countries, where life is not so comfortable or luxurious, the rate of suicide is remarkably low!! The reason is, of course, belief in Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious! At the university, our professor of psychology, who had attended a conference in Europe about psychological disorders, told us: “During the conference, I delivered a speech in which I mentioned that the rate of psychological disorders in our countries is very low, simply because we believe in Allah and are contented with His Divine Decree and Foreordainment.” In fact, a true Muslim is someone who surrenders himself to his Lord, Allah, Most Gracious, Most Merciful, saying, “This is what Allah wills. This is Allah’s Will. Whatever Allah wills is, and whatever He does not will is not.” This protects him from all kinds of psychological stresses or disorders. The most beautiful Prophetic Hadith in this context is that narrated by the venerable Companion, Ussamah, may Allah be pleased with him, who said: I was with the Prophet, (PBUH), together with Sa’ad and Ubai Bin Ka’ab, when a messenger from one of his daughters came to inform him that her son was dying. Therefore, the Prophet, (PBUH), sent her, “To Allah does belong whatever He (Allah) takes, and to Allah does

belong whatever He (Allah) gives. Every one has an end appointed (by the Lord). Therefore, she should be patient and seek Allah’s Good Recompense (in the Hereafter for her son’s death).” [A true Hadith that is agreed upon] Yes indeed! All things belong to Allah. Whatever He takes away is definitely His, and whatever He gives, out of His Grace, is also definitely His. If you firmly believe in this fact, you have no problems in the life of this present world. The death of a young child in a family whose faith in Allah is weak and inadequate causes unbearable pains and sorrows, while a venerable Companion whose son was seriously ill came back home worriedly to ask about him. He asked his wife anxiously, “How is the child?” She answered calmly, “He is very quiet and peaceful. Don’t worry.” The father’s anxieties subsided, and he understood from her words that the child was very well. She prepared food for him and, as some narrations go, adorned herself well enough to please him and allow no fear or worry to creep onto him that night. Next morning, she told him, “If our neighbors lend us something and then get it back, do you get angry with them?” “No! Of course not!” He replied. “This is exactly what Allah did with our child.” Of course she meant to tell him that the child was dead, but she did so with utmost care, wisdom and faith in the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious. The man, of course, received the news with true faith and contentment. He went to Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), and told him what happened and what his wife did. Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said, “May Allah make your night (which you spent with your wife) a blessed one.” And it is related that after that he had another son, whose ten children were all reciters of the Holy Quran. Such is the death of a child in a Muslim family, while the death of a child in an unbelieving family may quite often drive the mother crazy or mad. Therefore, knowledge of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes is meant to provide us with happiness. Moreover, you are actually with the Lord, Allah, and will be forever and, therefore, it is most wise to know Him before it is too late, it is most wise to know him while you are still healthy and wealthy in this present world, and before the Resurrection Day is come. Another thing: What should your attitude be towards this Divine Name? You are a believer, so what benefit should you get from Allah’s Divine Names?

In fact, your share of this Divine Name is to be moderate, just and right, i.e. to beware of going to extremes as regards affairs and enjoyments of the life of this present world. In other words, as a true believer, you should have a balanced stance between exaggeration and negligence. We might quite often find someone who is a Don Juan, or a so-called philanderer, who is involved up to his ears in illegal sexual relations, who is extremely aggressive against other people’s honor and dignity, and who is completely irreligious and immoral. On the other hand, we might, also quite often, find someone like the man whose wife came to complain about him to the venerable Companion and Caliph, Omar Bin Al-Khattab, may Allah be pleased with him, saying: “O Commander of the Faithful! My husband is constantly fasting and standing up the night in prayer.” Unnoticing that the woman was actually not praising her husband but rather complaining about him, Omar Bin Al-Khattab said, “May Allah bless your husband!” But someone drew Omar’s attention saying, “O Commander of the Faithful! She is not praising her husband but rather complaining about him.” Therefore, Omar summoned the man and advised him, “Verily, your wife has a right on you.” Books of history also relate another story about a woman who entered upon the Prophet’s venerable wife, ‘A’isha, may Allah be pleased with her. The woman was so miserably and carelessly dressed that ‘A’ishah asked what was wrong with her. The woman said that her husband was so religiously devoted that he forgot about her altogether and never thought of or cared for her. In the day, he would be fasting and in the night standing up for prayer. Also, the Prophet, (PBUH), summoned the woman’s husband and asked him, “Do you not take me for your good model? You should give your wife her due rights.” The next day, the woman came to “A’ishah with a good apparel and nice smell; and when “A’ishah asked her what had happened between her husband and her the night before, she answered happily, “Well, We did what all other married people should usually do.” Therefore, when we get to know Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-“Adl” (the All Just), we know how to color ourselves with such good qualities and manners that please our Lord, Allah, in the light of this Divine Name of Allah’s. That is why religious scholars say that we should beware of extremes of both exaggeration and negligence. We should always be moderate. We should always be right and just. In this context, Allah, the AllJust, praises those who are moderate and just, saying, “And those who

guard their private parts (i.e. chastity from illegal sexual acts), except for their wives or (the slaves) that their right hands possess – for then, they are free from blame; but whosoever seeks beyond that, then those are the transgressors.” [XXIII; 5-7] Such is the right, moderate and just attitude as regards your relationship with your wife. As for your relationship with your children, beware of giving them things that spoil them or deprive them of things in such a way as to make them hate you. Give each and every one of them their due financial, social and emotional rights. In this context, Hind Bint ‘Utbah told Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), “Verily, Abu Soufian is a niggardly man, and he does not give me enough money for me or for my son to spend, but I take some of his money without his knowing that. Am I sinful about that?” Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), answered, “Take only what suffices you and your son with justice.” In times of anger, you should be careful of both reckless courage and weak cowardice, as they are both illaudable extremes. You should stand somewhere in between recklessness and cowardice. You should also be careful not only of being cunning, malicious, tricky, or sly, but also of being naïve, stupid, or idiotic. You should be confined by Omar’s saying, “I am not an imposter, but an imposter can never deceive me.” You should not be stupid enough to be deceived nor malicious enough to deceive others. In this context, Allah, All Mighty, says, “And thus, We have made you a moderate nation”, i.e. in a right and just position between illaudable extremes of exaggeration or negligence. As regards bringing up your children, it is easy to be too authoritarian and dictatorial or too lenient and tolerant. The right and just thing to do is stand in between both extremes. In this context, Abu Hurairah, may Allah be please with him, quoted Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), as saying, “Teach, but do not reproach. Verily, someone who teaches is far better than someone who reproaches.” Also, you should not give your children free reign or allow them to go beyond proper bounds. The right and just thing is to keep your children in a balanced state of fear and hope with you. This is very accurate as it stands between two illaudable extremes. In other words, you should not be too lenient, lest you should be squeezed, nor too hard, lest you should be broken. The right and just thing is to leave the rope between you and other people

loose and flexible. You should be lenient or hard when it is both necessary and proper to be as such. People around you should have adequate fear and hope towards you. In this context, Allah, Most Gracious, addresses Muslims, saying, “And thus, We have made you a moderate nation, that you may be witnesses over mankind, and that the Messenger (Muhammad) be a witness over you.” [II; 143] Now, after having spoken about Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-‘Adl” (the All Just) as manifested in His Divine Creation and Commandment, we have to consider this Name as manifested in His Divine Acts. In this context, you should know for sure that Allah’s Absolute Divine Justice dominates the whole universe. However, you might be asked: someone is honest, trustworthy and straightforward in his business. His prices are right and just and so is quality of his goods. But suddenly, he might be unjustly fined, his goods might be confiscated and he might be even taken to jail. Is not this apparently both unjust and unfair?! The answer to this question is: This particular incident is, on the face of it, unjust and unfair. But if you go deeper into the man’s life with his family, children, neighbors, those who are inferior or superior to him, if you take all things into consideration, you will certainly find absolute justice in that which has happened to him. A seemingly strange incident took place about ten years ago. Two men had a row in one of the markets of Damascus city. One of them shot the other with a gun, but the bullet missed him and hit another innocent man, who had just looked out his shop to see what the matter was, in his backbone and caused him immediate paralysis. A man stopped me saying, “O master! You teach us about Allah’s Justice, but what wrong has such innocent person done? He is a righteous man who has opened his shop in order to earn a living. He has done nothing wrong. He heard people quarrel and stretched his head out only to see what was wrong when suddenly the bullet penetrated his backbone and caused him immediate paralysis. Where is Allah’s Justice?” I answered: “I swear by Allah that I firmly believe that Allah is All Just, but you have told me only one part of the man’s story. Neither you nor I know the whole story. There must be something that neither you nor I know about the man. I surrender to Allah’s Infinite Divine Justice.”

I swear by Allah All Mighty! I was later to know the whole story about the man, for a friend of mine told me the following story: We once had a neighbor who was the custodian over the wealth of his dead brother’s orphan children. When they grew up, he refused to pay them a big amount that had been under his custody: twenty thousand Pounds, which was at that time enough money to buy a big house. The children went to a religious scholar, whose name was Sheikh Houssain Khattab, to complain about what their uncle had done. The Sheikh summoned the uncle to ask him about his dead brother’s children’s complaint. The latter denied the whole story and refused to give them back their due rights. However, the Sheikh advised the children not to call their uncle to court, as it would not be fitting for them to do so. He said, “My children! He is your uncle, and it does not befit you to call him to court. Just invoke Allah against him.” It was eight o’clock in the evening when the Sheikh told the orphan children to invoke Allah, All Mighty, against their uncle; and it was the very next morning when the uncle put his head out of his shop to see what was going on and when he was shot and paralyzed. Another symbolic story goes: A kite once requested the holy Prophet, Solomon, (PBUH), “Ask your Lord, Allah, whether He is Slow or Hasty (in punishment). We want to move and act.” Solomon asked the Lord, and the Lord said, “Tell the kite that I am Slow, not Hasty.” Some time later, the kite saw some people grilling some meat on a fire. It seized a piece of meat and flew with it back to its nest. But a piece of live coal stuck to the meat and set the kite’s nest on fire. The kite went to Solomon, complaining, “O wise Solomon! Did you not tell me that Allah is Slow (in punishment). This is not true. He is Hasty.” Solomon told Allah about what the kite said, but Allah said, “Tell her that this was an old account!” A man told me: “Is it reasonable that Allah should punish me for a sin that I have not so far committed?” I answered: “Such punishment might be for an old sin. You must believe in Allah’s Infinite Divine Justice!” In the same context, Qatadah quoted Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), as saying, “A person is not afflicted with a prick, a slip of foot, or tremor of vein, except for a (certain) sin (that they have committed); and that which Allah forgives is much more (than that for which He punishes).” I was once with a friend of mine in his car. While he was driving he had an accident in which he caused a lot of damage to another car. I expected the owner of the damaged car to be furious and quarrelsome, but all he did was

that he got out of the car, examined it, and then said quietly, “It is alright. I don’t want anything of you.” I was greatly surprised, as I had not expected the man to be so calm and polite, because the accident caused a lot of damage to his car. When my friend came back to his car, he had some teardrops on his cheeks, as he was apparently touched by the other man’s gentle attitude. I asked, “What’s the matter? Why are you so touched?” He said affectedly, “About a year ago, I had a car accident with someone who did a lot of damage to my car. When I got out of my car to see what had happened, I noticed that some respectable veiled women were in the car, and because I did not desire to put the man and the women with him into any trouble, I said quietly and politely, ‘It’s alright. I don’t want anything of you.’ In other words, our Lord, Allah, made this man treat me as kindly and politely as I treated the other man a year ago. Allah dealt with me in the same way as I dealt with others.” In this context, I would like to reiterate that we should believe in the saying: “Do as you like, because as you do so shall you be rewarded.” Righteous work is never made to waste, a sin is never forgotten, and the Judge, Allah, never passes away. Do whatever you like, and you will be duly rewarded. If you are obedient and dutiful to your parents, Allah, Most Gracious, inspires your children to be obedient and dutiful to you. If you serve other fellow humans, they will also serve you. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), bade the venerable Companion, Bilal, may Allah be pleased with him, “O Bilal! Spend (of your wealth) and do not fear straitening of the Owner of the Throne (Allah).” He, (PBUH), also said, “Spend (of your wealth), and Allah will spend on you (i.e. provide you more).” By the way, I am sure that my dear readers know lots of stories, similar to those mentioned above, which confirm the fact that whatever you do will be duly recompensed by the Lord, All Mighty, and that do whatever you like, as you will be duly rewarded for it. Here is another story that I always like to relate: A man and his woman were deeply in love with each other. One day, while they were eating chicken, they heard a knock on their door. When the woman opened the door, she found a beggar standing at the door begging for some food. She was about to give him some of the chicken she and her husband were eating but her husband reproached her violently and prevented her from giving the poor man anything, saying, “Send him away!” The woman did as her husband bade her to do. Years passed, and things went wrong between the rich man and his wife, and they got divorced. Some years later, the woman married

another man and lived happily with him. While she was with her second husband eating chicken one day, the same thing happened again: there was a knock on their door. When the woman opened the door, she was greatly shocked. Her new husband asked her, “What’s the matter?” “It is a beggar!” She answered. The husband asked, “What’s wrong with that?” “Nothing! But do you know who it is? It is my ex-husband!” The woman replied. “Do you know who I am?” The second husband said, “I am the beggar who came to ask you for food long ago!” Of course, the foregoing stories are meant to teach us lessons; and I am sure that nothing could ever happen in the world except by Allah’s Divine Will and according to His Infinite Divine Wisdom and Justice. If you sometimes listen to a story or an incident that may seemingly include any injustice, it is advisable to think, “Well, I know only one chapter of the story; there still remain other chapters that I do not know. If I knew the whole story, I would find out Absolute Divine Wisdom and Justice lurking behind it. In other words, you should know all the details of incidents and not be too hasty in making judgments. You should always say, “Allah knows best. Allah is Fully Aware of the affairs of His slaves. Allah is the One Who sees all things. Allah is the One Who knows, but we do not.” You have to know for sure that Allah is All Just in His Creation, Commands, and Acts. All His Divine Acts are Right and Just. I reiterate: “A person is not afflicted with a prick, a slip of foot, or tremor of vein, except for a (certain) sin (that they have committed); and that which Allah forgives is much more (than that for which He punishes).” Another thing: “And whatever of misfortune befalls you, it is because of what your hands have earned; and He (Allah) pardons a lot.” [XLII; 30] “And those towns: We destroyed them when they did wrong; and We appointed a fixed time for their destruction.” [XVIII; 59] Sometimes, you hear about an earthquake that hits a certain place. Such earthquake could be materialistically understood as a kind of disturbance in the crust of the earth. The Richter scale can measure its strength. Aghadeer, a city in North Africa, for example, used to be one of the most beautiful places on the Atlantic Ocean in North Africa. But it was a place for indecent and immoral practices: nude clubs, nightclubs, prostitution and fornication, among lots of other sinful things and activities. In only a few seconds, a big earthquake turned the whole city into mere ruins. In this context, I firmly believe that earthquakes are all subject to Allah’s Divine Wisdom. To this

effect, Allah All Mighty, All Wise, says, “And Allah puts forward the example of a township that dwelt secure and well-content: its provision coming to it in abundance from everywhere; but it denied the Favors of Allah, so Allah made it taste extreme hunger and fear because of that which they (its people) used to do.” [XVI; 112] To wrap up, Allah is All Just in His Creation, Commands, and Acts; and we, as true believers, should stand in the middle between two illaudable extremes, exaggeration and negligence, in all of our attitudes and deeds.

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(The Most Forbearing)

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ow, we go ahead to the twenty-first of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, “Al-Haleem” (the Most Forbearing). It is well known that some of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names cannot be attributed to any of His human slaves, such as “Al-Khaliq” (The Creator), while others, such as “Ar-Raheem” (the Merciful), “Al-Haleem” (the Forbearing) and “Al-“’Afou” (the Pardoner), can be attributed to them. It is remarkable that Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), confirms that: “Forbearance is the best of all manners.” And it has also been said: “A forbearing person is almost a Prophet.” But what is such quality that makes a person almost a Prophet? It is undoubtedly forbearance, which is the best of all manners. And Allah, All Mighty, is also “Haleem” (i.e. Most Forbearing). To this effect, the Quranic

Verse goes, “And if Allah were to punish people for that which they earned, He would not leave a moving living creature on its (the earth’s) surface; but He gives them respite to an appointed term; and when their term is come, then verily, Allah is Ever All-Seer of His slaves.” [XXXV; 45] This Quranic Verse shows clearly that Allah, All Mighty, is “Haleem” (i.e. Most Forbearing). The words “And if Allah were to punish people for that which they earned” means that people are wrong doers and that they should be punished, so how can this Divine Name be defined? There is a wrong doer, and there is a punishment for such wrongdoing, but how is Allah’s Forbearance manifested? There is a wrong doer or a disobedient, and there is a certain punishment for such wrongdoing or disobedience. But Allah is Most Forbearing in the sense that He delays punishment. But why does Allah, All Mighty, delay punishment? This is a very good question! If Allah were to hasten punishment for every sinner or wrongdoer, there would be no forbearance. Also, if Allah, All Mighty, delays punishment for wrongdoers in order to punish them later on, that would be a kind of rancor, which does not befit Allah, Most Gracious, because someone who harbors feelings of hatred or rancor may delay punishment for some reason or another. He might be weak, and his weakness might fill his heart with rancor or hatred. He might be strong and powerful, but he would like to delay punishment in order to allow the wrongdoer to do more wrongdoing and hence to deserve the severest punishment. In other words, when someone delays punishment for wrongdoers because he is weak and unable to punish them for the time being, this means that he is rancorous; and when he delays punishment in order to make the wrongdoer fall in more grievous wrongdoing and in order to increase punishment for him, this is also rancorous. This means that there are two types of rancorous people: weak and strong ones. But delay of punishment on Allah’s part has nothing to do with rancor at all. When Allah cancels punishment altogether, He does so because He is Forgiving and Pardoning. When He delays punishment in order to give the wrongdoer a respite to reform and repent, He does so because He is Forbearing. In order to make things clear, let us have the following example: Schools are usually meant to be establishments for education and teaching good manners and values. They have certain regulations that maintain discipline and good order. But an intolerant authoritarian principal will probably lose a lot of his

students. In other words, since the purpose of establishing schools is noble and sublime, principals have to be understanding, tolerant and forbearing; otherwise schools will be a great failure. A principal should by no means be authoritarian, hasty or conformist if he really desires his school to be successful. That is why Allah, All Mighty, Most Forbearing, says, “And had it not been for a Word that went forth, before, from your Lord, and a term appointed, (their punishment) must necessarily have come (in this present world).” [XX; 129] But what is such Word, without which Allah must necessarily have hastened punishment for wrongdoers and destroyed them? What is the Word for which Allah delays punishment and destruction for sinners and wrongdoers? What is it? It is Allah’s Divine Mercy! Allah desires to mercy them! To this effect, in a Divine Hadith, Allah, Most Forbearing, says, “My Mercy overrides My Anger! My Mercy embraces all things!” In His Holy Quran, Allah, Most Gracious, also says, “And My Mercy embraces all things, but I shall ordain it for the pious who give the alms and those who believe in Our Signs.” [VII; 156] “Except him on whom your Lord has bestowed His Mercy; and for that did He (Allah) create them (mankind). And the Word of your Lord has been fulfilled: ‘Surely, I shall fill Hell with jinn and mankind all together.” [XI; 119] “Say (O Muhammad): ‘My Lord pays attention to you only because of your invocation (to Him). But now, you have indeed denied (Him), so the torment will be yours for ever.” [XXV; 77] Unless there is hope that you may know your Lord, Allah, and invoke Him, unless there is hope that you may repent and reform, and unless there is hope that you may evade punishment, your Lord, Allah, would never care for you but, rather, He would punish you and cause you to perish. Therefore, one of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names is that He is “Al-Haleem” (the Most Forbearing). It is well known to all Muslims that Al-Hudaibiyah peace treaty seems, on the face of it, a kind of humiliation to Muslims, as it included a lot of concessions on the part of Muslims despite their strong position. Some of the Prophet’s venerable Companions considered such concessions as a kind of humiliation and surrender, and they were greatly amazed at the Prophet’s attitude of accepting the treaty. When he noticed his Companions’ rejection of the treaty, the Prophet, (BPUH), said, “I do what my Lord commands me to do: to accept this peace treaty.” Soon Later, Divine Revelation came down from the Lord, All Mighty: “And were it not for believing men and women, whom you did not know, that you may

kill them and hence, because of (killing) them unknowingly, may commit a (horrible) sin.” [XLVIII; 25] In Mecca, there were men and women who believed in Islam but kept their belief secret as they were living among pagans of Mecca and, therefore, could not announce their conversion to Islam, lest they should be persecuted or even killed. It was Allah, Alone, Who knew about such secret Muslims in Mecca, so He, Most Gracious, desired to delay the conquest of Mecca by Muslims and bade His Messenger, (PBUH), to accept the peace treaty offered by pagans of Mecca, although such treaty seemed to be humiliating to Muslims. Allah did so in order to give those Muslims who concealed their Islam in Mecca the chance to announce their conversion to Islam. Hence, Allah is Most Forbearing. In this context, in a Divine Hadith, Allah, Most Forbearing, says, “O My slave! You have an obligation to fulfill for Me, and I have provision to provide for you. Even if you fail to fulfill your obligation for Me, I never fail to provide provision for you.” He, Most Gracious, also says, “If they (My slaves) repent, I am their Lover, but if they do not repent, I am their Physician: I afflict them with disasters in order to purify them from sins and defects.” Some of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names have t do with His Divine Self, some with His Divine Attributes, and some with His Divine Acts. Which type does Allah’s Name “Al-Haleem” (the Most Forbearing) belong to? Since Allah delays punishment for wrongdoers, his Name “Al-Haleem” (the Most Forbearing) has to do with His Divine Acts. This is because Allah, Most Gracious, loves all of His slaves. To this effect, a Divine Hadith goes, “If those who turn away from Me knew how earnestly I wait for them and look forward to their repentance of their sins, they would turn to pieces in Love for Me, and they would die of eagerness to (meet) Me.” To the same effect, Jesus addresses his Lord, Allah, saying, “You know what is in my inner-self, but I do not know what is in Your inner-Self. Verily, You are the All-Knower of all that is hidden (and unseen).” [V; 116] Sometimes a person does not punish a wrongdoer, but he burns with anger from inside, saying “I wish I could tear him up into pieces!” This is by no means forbearance. Forbearance is manifested clearly when one’s heart is

filled with peace and tranquility and has no rancor or hatred against his enemies or wish to destroy them. An ordinary believer who is forbearing has a heart that is pure, peaceful and free from rancor or hatred. So how would it be with Allah, Lord of all worlds?! Therefore, when you hear or read in Prophetic Hadith or the Holy Quran that Allah is Angry with or curses someone, you should know that Allah does not actually hates His slave but only his sins and misdeeds, and curses only His slave’s sins and misdeeds. Allah loves His slaves just like a mother loves her son when he returns to the right way. I once told the story of a knowledgeable scholar, called Thun-Noon Al-Masri, who felt depressed, confused and lost. He asked, “Where is my heart gone? Where is my heart lost?” While he was wandering in his hometown, he suddenly saw a door open and a mother beating her son severely, throwing him out of the house, and closing the door behind him. The boy sat crying, as he felt desperate and helpless. When his mother sent him away, he did not know where to go, who to ask for food or shelter, or where to sleep. All he could do was sit at his mother’s door crying and beseeching her to open the door for him. The boy’s compassionate mother, who was watching him from a hole in the door, suddenly opened the door and took her boy in her arms saying, “My love! My love! It was you who forced me to do this to you! Had you obeyed me, I would have never done you any harm!” When the scholar saw the compassionate mother embrace her son and kiss him lovingly, he said, “I’ve found my heart! I’ve found my heart!” Hence, “Al-Haleem” (the Most Forbearing) is one of Allah’s Names that have to do with His Divine Acts. It means that He delays punishment for the sinners and wrongdoers. It can also be used to refer to Allah’s Divine Self or Attributes in the sense that He, Most Forbearing, does not have any initial rancor or hatred against any of His slaves. In the same context, in a Divine Hadith, Allah says, “O My slaves! I have forbidden injustice for Myself, and I have made it forbidden among you. O My slaves! If the first and last and the jinn and humans from among you had the heart of the most pious and dutiful one of you, this would increase nothing in My Kingdom. O My slaves! If the first and last and the jinn and humans from among you had the heart of the most profligate one of you, this would decreases nothing from My Kingdom. O My slaves! If the first and last and the jinn and humans from among you stood in one line to ask Me and I gave each and every one what they

ask for, this would not decrease a thing of that which I have except as a needle would take from the ocean if it were dipped therein.” [Narrated by Muslim on authority of Abu Thar] In His Holy Quran, Allah says, “And Moses said: ‘If you disbelieve, you and all those on earth together, then verily, Allah is Self-Sufficient (Free from all needs), Owner of all Praise.” [XIV; 8] He, All Mighty, also says, “He (Allah) likes not disbelief for His slaves; and if you are grateful (by being believers), He is pleased therewith for you.” [XXXXIX; 7] Allah, Most Forbearing, desires to make Himself known to us, so He has made the family system that overtly consists of father, mother, children, and bringing up, but is covertly meant to know Allah by way of similitude. Let’s have another more general example: How does Allah make the food that we eat, i.e. meat? Due to His Divine Wisdom, He makes the animal’s stature similar to that of a human being. Not every one of us is a physician, and not every one of us can see what is inside a human being: stomach, liver, intestines, lungs, heart, veins, arteries, muscles, nerves, glands, kidneys, brain, eye, bladder, ureter, …etc. But we see all of these parts of body every day at a butcher’s shop, where we can see and buy all of these things. At a butcher’s, we can see the different parts of the body. We buy a brain in order to eat it, but we should remember that it is the factory where the red blood corpuscles are made. It is due to Allah’s Infinite Divine Wisdom that He has made animals’ bodies like the human body. Those who do not go to a faculty of medicine can see the human body at a butcher’s. Let’s go back to the parental system of the family. The father sometimes neglects himself for the sake of his children and in order to satisfy their needs, and so does the mother. Although the children are, quite often, impolite, rude, and disobedient to their parents, the parents’ hearts are so strongly attached to their children. Whenever a disobedient child returns to his father or mother with repentance, he/she is most warmly accepted and welcomed. I think that the parental system in the family has another purpose than only bringing up of children. It is meant to help us know Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, by way of similitude. A father or mother does not have any rancor or hatred towards their children. On the contrary, parents are ready to sacrifice everything for their children and their happiness. In this context, someone was asking Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), “How is it possible for Allah, the Most Merciful and Most Gracious, to cast a human being into

Hell-Fire?” At that moment, a woman was standing aside with her beloved baby, kissing it tenderly. Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), asked the man, “Is it possible for that woman to cast her baby into the fire?” “Of course not!” The man replied. Allah’s Messenger said, “I swear by the One Who has Muhammad’s soul in His Hand! Allah is more Merciful to His slave than that woman is to her baby!” A loving father does not forsake his child, nor does a loving mother whose heart is full of love and compassion. But who has imbedded such amazingly great mercy and tenderness in the heart of the mother, who gets up several times in the night for the sake of her little baby, who cries earnestly if anything goes wrong with it, and who desires to give it her food, health and life? Hence, the family system has two goals, to bring up children and, more importantly, to know something about Allah’s Infinite Divine Mercy. Sometimes, you see a horrible accident in which Allah’s Infinite Divine Mercy and Care are manifested clearly, for everybody is safe and well. Quite often, Allah’s Infinite Divine Mercy and Care make difficult things easy and turn distress into happiness and despair into hope. To this effect, the verses go: Many a catastrophe a fellow may fail to bear, With Allah is the way out thereof. It had befallen, but after its rings had been so tightly wrought, It was so easily, though so unexpectedly, unwrought. Al-Khandaq Battle (the Ditch Battle) is not unknown to you, dear reader. In this battle, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, desired to test truthfulness, perseverance, endurance and sincerity of true believers. To this effect, the Quranic Verses go, “O you who believe! Remember Allah’s Favor to you: when there came against you hosts, and We sent against them a wind and forces that you saw not. And Allah is Ever All-Seer of what you do. When they came upon you from above you and from below you, and when the eyes grew wild and the hearts reached the throats, and you were harboring doubts about Allah. There, the believers were tried and shaken with a mighty shaking. And when the hypocrites and those in whose hearts is an ailment (of doubts) said: ‘Allah and His Messenger promised us nothing but delusion.” [XXXIII; 9-12] But afterwards, Allah, Most Forbearing, was Most Merciful to true believers, as He, All Mighty, honored them and granted them His Divine Help and Victory, although it seemed to believers that Islam was about to be eradicated from the surface of

the earth, because that battle was not a matter of victory or defeat but of existence, i.e. to be or not to be, as is the case with all decisive battles. I reiterate that Allah, All Mighty, is Most Forbearing; and it is well known that He loves perfection, that He is Good and accepts only good things, that He loves laudable things. In this context, dear readers should not understand from my words that Allah likes to be praised. Nay! He only loves perfection. He loves work that makes man praiseworthy. He loves forbearance He loves mercy. He loves equity. And He loves justice. It is also well known that Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), is the best human being and the most beloved to the Lord, Allah, All Mighty. During his lifetime, a woman committed adultery and, therefore, had to be punished by stoning. Her people came to the most beloved man to Allah’s Messenger, Usamah Bin Zaid, may Allah be please with him, asking him to intercede with him for her. Usamah came shyly to Allah’s Messenger asking him to have mercy on the woman. Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), turned red with anger and said, “O Usamah! Do you intercede in one of Allah’s Divine Punishments?!” Another story goes: Narrated ‘A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, that the tribe of Quraish were concerned about the woman, from Makhzoom, who had stolen, and wondered who would talk to Allah’s Messenger for her. They said, “Who dare do so except Usamah Bin Zaid, whom he loves so much?” They went to Usamah, who, in turn, went to Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), and talked to him for the woman. Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said angrily, “O Usamah! Do you intercede in one of Allah’s Divine Punishments?!” Then, he (PBUH), stood up among his Companions saying, “Verily, those who were before you were destroyed because when an eminent person from among them stole, they would leave him go (unpunished); but if an insignificant one stole, they would punish him. I swear by Allah! Even if Fatimah, daughter of Muhammad, were to steal, I would cut her hand off!” [Sahih Al-Bukhari] Allah does love work that entails praise to its doer. He loves good noble manners. “Verily, Allah is Most Generous; and He loves generosity. He loves Sublime issues and abhors lowly ones.” [Narrated by Al-Khara’iti on authority of Talhah Bin ‘Ubaidillah Bin Kuraiz] In fact, Allah loves you to be noble and highly respected by people.

Allah, All Mighty, loves those who are forbearing, because He is Most Forbearing, i.e. the Forbearing loves those who are as such. That is why our relationship with this Divine Name, “Al-Haleem” (the Most Forbearing), is that we should always be forbearing. But how can we be forbearing? This is a very important question. Since Allah, All Mighty, loves all good qualities, one of which is forbearance, how can I be forbearing? In fact, contemplation on this Divine Name, “Al-Haleem” (the Most Forbearing), enables us to be forbearing. Another way is to feign forbearance, i.e. to simulate being forbearing. Each and every one of us has got a certain status with Allah. Suppose a lowstatus person had to face a provocative situation: for example, after a long day of hunger, toil and trouble, he entered his home to find that his wife had gone to visit her family without his permission and had made no food for him. An ordinary person may reproach his wife severely, call her bad names and even beat her. But what does a true believer do? Allah, Most Gracious, says, “…and those who repress anger and pardon (other) people; and verily, Allah loves the good-doers.” [III; 134] In this Verse, Allah, the Most Forbearing, praises repression of anger and encourages His slaves to it. Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), also encourages Muslims to simulate forbearance even though they might not really be forbearing. He invites them to control themselves at times of anger and to simulate forbearance even though they might be burning from inside like a volcano. They should feign being forbearing and show adequate patience. This is simulated forbearance. But if you ask yourself, “Why did I suppress my anger?” you answer yourself, “For the sake of Allah and because I love Him and seek His Divine Love, because I would like to be intimate to Him, because I would like to obey His Messenger. One time after another, you feel that Allah, Most Gracious, loves you and is pleased with you if you covenant Him to be forbearing. Moreover, once you get connected with Allah, All Mighty, you realize that good manners are only His and that once He loves a slave of His, He grants him good manners. In fact, there are two kinds of forbearance, one that is real and another that is simulated. The latter kind of forbearance is attainable by suppressing one’s anger and controlling oneself, despite the great anger and resentment burning inside.

In this context, the venerable Companion, Abuddarda’, may Allah be pleased with him, was quoted as saying, “knowledge is acquired by learning, and forbearance (is also acquired) by simulation of being forbearing. Goodness is given to those who seek it, and protection is also given to those who seek it.” The above saying means that real forbearance is attainable by simulation of forbearance. In other words, after affecting forbearance one time after another, you become really forbearing. In this context, it has been rightly said, “A hero is not someone who commits highway robberies but someone who is pious and dutiful to the Lord, Allah, All Mighty. To this effect, Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, quoted Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), as saying, “A strong person is not someone who fights others; a strong person is someone who controls himself in anger.” Anas Bin Malik, may Allah be pleased with him, also narrated that Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), passed by a woman crying at a grave. He, (PBUH), addressed her, “Fear Allah and be patient.” The woman, not knowing who the speaker was, said, “Leave me alone! You don’t have a disaster as mischievous as mine!” When she was told that the speaker was Allah’s Messenger, she went to him and found no gatekeepers. She apologized, “I’m sorry! I did not know it was you!” He, (PBUH), said, “Patience is but at the first shock.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari] A few days ago, a man passed away, and one of his relatives uttered some angry words that do not befit Allah, All Mighty. After some time, he came round from his shock and sorrowfully regretted uttering such bad words. In other words, he failed the test. Yes, indeed! He failed the test, even if he had apologized a thousand times to the Lord. This is simply because patience is at the first shock. Upon receiving the painful news of his relative’s death, he should have said contentedly, “O Lord! Praise belongs to You. We are content with Your Divine Decree.” Such words reflect real Faith in Allah and contentment with His Infinite Wisdom and Divine Decree. Such good words reflect knowledge that Allah is All Wise and that all His Divine Acts bespeak His Absolute Divine Perfection, Justice and Mercy. Therefore, forbearance is attained by constant simulation of being forbearing under all circumstances. Simulated forbearance, which is that of beginners, leads in the end to real forbearance. In other words, long sincere honest faithful strife to be forbearing is inevitably conducive to real forbearance. If

you were to open the heart of a true believer, you would find it filled with peace and forbearance. When once a man addressed one of the Prophet’s venerable Companions with severe provocative words, the latter said calmly, “If what you say about me is true, I beseech Allah to forgive me. But if what you say about me is not true, I beseech Allah to forgive you.” A lot of people destroy their future with their severe irrational reactions when they are enraged. Someone divorced his wife, from whom he had three children, and, thus, committed a terrible crime. A businessman had a row with one of his employees, so he sacked him. In the employer’s warehouses, there were some smuggled goods. Therefore, the employee informed the authorities, who confiscated the goods and fined the employer 600,000 in the year 1970, i.e. more than six million pounds these days. The employer, who got furious with what the employee did to him, shot the employee with his gun and had to spend 30 years in prison. That was all because of anger and irrationality. Such irrational actions that lack forbearance are really too serious. A great many families, companies, and businesses have been destroyed due to lack of forbearance, which protects people from foolish irrational deeds and fill their hearts with peace and tolerance. I reiterate: if you were to open the heart of a true believer, you would find it filled with peace, tolerance and forbearance. I have heard of a man whose wife was ignorant of the regulations of Islamic religion, particularly those concerned with the way women should speak to foreigner men in public places. While she was buying some things at a shop, ad while she was speaking to the shopkeeper, she unintentionally used certain words from which the shopkeeper misunderstood that she intended to invite him to her house for an indecent relationship. So, he waited until her husband was out, went to the woman and rang the doorbell. When the woman came to open the door, he tried to force himself into the house. The woman was greatly surprised and tried to stop him, but he rudely pushed her in and began to seduce her to indecent work. The woman shouted to her little son, who was in the house, and told him to go to his father for help. The boy went to his father and told him, “O Dad! There is a man in our house, trying to attack my mother!” The father furiously rushed to the house, and when he saw the man with his wife, he locked the door and called the police, who arrested both his wife and the shopkeeper and took them to the police station. Then, the man unjustly accused his wife publicly and even divorced her. Later on, he found out that she was innocent and pure although she was

not careful enough with her words to the immoral shopkeeper, who tried to force her to an indecent relation. He felt regretful and came to me in order to help him reclaim his wife. Undoubtedly, the wife committed a foolish naïve mistake by not being careful enough with her words to the shopkeeper, but the husband committed an even more foolish and serious mistake when he defamed his wife by accusing her publicly and even divorcing her. He was completely ignorant of the teachings of Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), when a similar thing happened to him, when his innocent holy wife, ‘A’ishah, may Allah be pleased with her, was unjustly and unfairly accused of indecency. When Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), heard the evil painful slander against his chaste wife, ‘A’ishah, he remained for a whole month in a state of utmost forbearance and self-control, until Allah, All Mighty, revealed the truth and put an end to such false accusation. In short, without forbearance, anger may turn people into erupting volcanoes that devastate everything in their way. In this context, it has been rightly said, “Forbearance is acquired by simulation of being forbearing, generosity is acquired by simulation of being generous, and knowledge is acquired by learning.” You simulate forbearance, you suppress your anger, you endure patiently, and you strive until you establish a kind of real connection with the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious. You fight against your own desires and caprices, and you remember Allah’s Messenger’s words that he said after he returned from one of his holy battles: “We have returned from the minor strife to the major strife, namely that against our own desires and caprices.” You turn to Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, in order to color yourself with His Divine Name “Al-Haleem” (the Most Forbearing). Then, you really become forbearing, i.e. Allah, Most Gracious, makes you forbearing. What does Allah say in this context? He, Glory to Him, says, “And seek help in patience and prayer; and truly it is extremely heavy and hard except for those who obey Allah with full submission.” [II; 45] By virtue of the above Verses, Allah, Most Gracious, bids you first to be patient and then to perform prayer, which brings you a lot of good: forbearance, mercy and equity. In the battle of Al-Khandaq (the Ditch), the holy Prophet, (PBUH), was accompanied by three thousand venerable Companions. It was very cold, and there was hunger and fear. The pagan army was more than 10,000

fighters who came in order to eradicate Muslims from the face of the earth. The holy Prophet was with his venerable Companions in the ditch, digging and fortifying their places, although they were stricken by starvation. One of the Prophet’s Companions, who could not stand the situation any more, stood up and asked permission to go back home in order to make some food for the Prophet. By the way, due to their great love for the holy Prophet, his venerable Companions would never feel like eating without him. However, after some time, the man came back with a slaughtered sheep and some bread of ground barley, but the food was not enough for all of the Companions to eat. Could the holy Prophet eat alone or with a small group of his Companions, leaving the others to starve? Of course not! So what did he do? He called out: “Your brother so and so invites you all to have food with him.” The man was so embarrassed, because he had made food that was enough only for the Prophet and three or four other men, but there were thousands of hungry warriors. The holy Prophet, who was most compassionate and merciful to everyone, did not eat one single piece of food alone, but invited everyone to take part in the meal. He was, as Allah described him, “He (Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad) is full of pity, kind, and merciful to believers.” [IX; 128] In our modern times of hypocrisy, you find a great many people cunningly feign to be merciful and forbearing. When the electric current was cut off in one of the American cities for only one hour one night, more than two hundred thousand robberies were committed despite all of the stern security measures taken. This shows clearly that greatness of religion lies in the fact that it creates in man an inner moral self-deterrence rather than a fake external compulsory deterrence imposed by laws or authorities. Laws are meant to deter people by force. For example, so long as roads are under radar control, no one exceeds the speed limit, but when roads are not under control, people usually exceed the speed limit, unless they have an inner self-deterrence. In other words, without such moral and value-based selfdeterrence that religion creates in people, no one would obey man-made laws and restrictions. In fact, moral and religious values make people as pure and holy as angels. Two days ago, I attended a party celebrating the Prophet’s birthday, and I delivered a speech that I began like this: Abdullah Bin Omar, may Allah be pleased with them, desired to test a shepherd, so he asked him, “Give me that sheep and I’ll give you some money for it.” The shepherd said, “It does not belong to me.” Abdullah said, “Tell its owner that it died or was

eaten by a wolf.” The shepherd said, “By Allah! I am in bad need of the money that you shall give me for the sheep! And if I said to its owner that it died or was eaten by a wolf, he would believe me, because he trusts me and thinks I am honest and trustworthy. But man! Where is Allah?!” Such shepherd knew the essence of religion. I think it is hard these days to find believers who say, “Where is Allah?” when they buy or sell, when they speak to others, when they describe, or when they praise. Very often these days, merchants praise and over-estimate badly selling goods in order to persuade customers to buy them. But what does Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), say in this respect? Narrated Al-Asbahani on authority of Mou’ath Bin Jabal: Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), said: “Verily, the best earning is that of merchants who do not tell lies when they speak, who do not fail to keep their promises when they make promises, who do not betray when they are trusted, who do not dispraise things when they (desire to) buy them, who do not praise things when they (desire to) sell them, who do not delay discharging their debts when they are in debt, and who do not put pressure on their debtors when they are creditors.” It was related that when Abraham, (PBUH), once saw someone who was involved in a sinful deed, he invoked, “O Allah! Cause him to perish!” But Allah, Most Gracious, revealed to Abraham, “If We (Allah) were to destroy all sinful slaves, there would remain only a few. Nay! if the one of them commits a sinful deed, We give him a respite (to reform and repent). If he repents, We accept him. But if he insists (on committing sinful deeds), We delay punishment for him, as We know that he cannot get away from our Dominion.” After one of the Prophet’s Companions had converted to Islam and persuaded his parents and wife to do, he went to his people and found them indulged in adultery. He went back to the holy Prophet, (PBUH), saying, “O Allah’s Messenger! Beseech Allah to destroy them!” The compassionate holy Prophet, (PBUH), said, “No my brother! I shall beseech Allah to forgive them and have mercy on them. A Prophet is not meant to be a curser.” Of course, if things were left up to people, they would destroy one another. But Allah is Most Merciful.

It is related that a young man committed a lot of sins, but he did not insist on them, as every now and them, he would repent and regret. When Satan noticed this, he whispered to him, “How long will you be still doing this: committing sins and then repenting, repenting and then committing sins?” In fact, Satan desired to make the young man despair of Allah’s Mercy. But when the night came, the young man performed ablution and stood up to perform prayer. Then, he looked up, invoking the Lord, Most Gracious, “O You, Who have safeguarded those who are safeguarded, Who have protected those who are protected, Who have reformed those who are reformed! If You safeguard me, You shall find me safeguarded! If You neglect me, You shall find me desperate! My forelock is in Your Hand! My debts are in Your Hand! O You, Who cause the hearts to fluctuate (between belief and disbelief)! Let my heart cling firmly to Your Religion!” Allah, Glory to Him, addressed His angels, “O My angels! Don’t you hear what he is saying? Bear witness that I have forgiven him all of his foregoing sins!” To the same effect, in His Divine Book, the Holy Quran, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Say (O Muhammad) (to) My slaves who have transgressed against themselves: ‘Despair not of Allah’s Mercy. Verily, Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.’” [XXXIX; 53] Joseph, the holy Prophet, (PBUH), set an amazing example of truthful modesty and sincere servitude to the Lord, Allah, All Mighty. He, (PBUH), said, “O my Lord! Prison is more desired for me than that to which they (the women) invite me. And unless You turn away their plot from me, I will feel inclined to them and be one of the (sinful) ignorant.” [XII; 33] A dear brother, whom I knew was an enthusiastic repentant believer, once came to me crying sorrowfully. “What’s the matter?” I asked. “I can’t lower my gaze! I can’t help looking at indecent women!” He said regretfully. “Why don’t you repent to Allah?” I asked. “I’ve done, many times!” He replied, “But I keep breaking my promise over and over again! I can’t help it!” While the man was complaining to me, it suddenly occurred to me that when he repented to the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, for the first time, which was long ago, he felt so proud of himself and looked upon sinners and wrongdoers disdainfully and accused them of profligacy and infidelity. Therefore, Allah, All Mighty, desired to punish him and made him weak towards women and unable to lower his gaze. This soon drove him to turn to Allah with repentance most weakly and humbly. That man might have

forgotten that none could ever safeguard man from sins except Allah’s Divine Might and that nothing could ever help him obey Allah except His Divine Power. He might have forgotten the basic and most important Verse of the first Surah of the Holy Quran: “You, (Alone), (O Allah) we worship, and You, (Alone), we ask for help.” [I; 5] He seems to have remembered “You, (Alone), (O Allah) we worship” but forgotten “and You, (Alone), we ask for help.” Undoubtedly, the feeling of being in bad need of Allah, All Mighty, is very helpful. Abu Hanifah, the knowledgeable venerable religious scholar, had a noisy troublesome drunkard neighbor, a singer whose loud songs used to disturb the whole neighborhood. His most favorite song was: They have ruined me , and what a great man they have ruined! To a day of mischief and a secret plague! One night, Abu Hanifah didn’t hear any noise coming from the neighbor’s house, so he asked about him, and soon learnt that for some reason or another the governor had imprisoned him. Being highly respected by the governor, Abu Hanifah helped his neighbor, the young profligate singer, to get out of prison, although the governor did not expect that Abu Hanifah, the venerable religious scholar, would himself come to intercede for such profligate man. However, Abu Hanifah took the young man by the hand and asked him, “O man! You say ‘they have ruined me, and what a great man they have ruined!’ Did we really ruin you?!” Such noble compassionate attitude on the part of Abu Hanifah towards his irreligious neighbor made him repent and reform. This means that if you are forbearing with a deviant irreligious person, that may be the cause of his repentance and reform, but if you reproach him and consider him as a profligate irreligious person, and if you curse him, you may make him even worse than he is. In this context, we should follow the good example of our Prophet, Muhammad, (PBUH), who never cursed anyone. We should never curse anyone. We are not judges, and we are not meant to judge people or call them for accounting. We are only preachers and callers for the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious. Undoubtedly, forbearance safeguards us from committing a great many foolish irrational destructive deeds. Forbearance is also very helpful in guiding people and calling them to Allah, Most Forbearing, and His Religion. Forbearance is something desirable, as it makes one almost a holy Prophet. That is why it is rightly said: “Forbearance is the best policy.”

By forbearance you are greatly admired and highly respected by people. That is why Malik Bin Dinar, a well-known religious scholar and Imam, said: One of our neighbors was a profligate irreligious man who did a lot of trouble and mischief to his neighbors, who detested him and were so desirous to get rid of him. One day, the neighbors came to me, complaining about him. I summoned him and told him either to repent and reform or to go away. When he refused to comply with our wishes, we threatened to complain to the Sultan, but he said, “The Sultan knows about me.” We said, “We shall invoke Allah against you.” He replied, “Allah is more Merciful to me than you are.” His stubborn rude rejection made me very angry; and when it was the night, I stood up to perform prayer and invoke Allah against the man. Suddenly, a secret voice came from inside me, “Do not invoke Allah against him! Invoke Allah to help him repent and reform!” However, the man repented and reformed and turned to Allah with true faith and sincere devotion. Later, when it was time for the Hajj (pilgrimage to Mecca), Imam Malik saw the man going round the Ka’bah wailing sincerely. Imam Malik Bin Dinar also related another similar story in which he said that while he was walking down town, he saw a drunkard lying unconsciously on the ground with foam on his lips, saying “Allah, Allah”. The great holy religious scholar, Imam Malik, was shocked to hear Allah’s Name on the defiled mouth of a drunkard. So, he came to him gently and began to wipe his mouth for him tenderly. The Imam was very kind to the man although he was in a miserable repulsive state. When the man came round later, he was told that the venerable Imam Malik Bin Dinar took care of him while he was lying unconsciously on the ground. The man was so impressed by the Imam’s compassionate attitude that he began to cry both thankfully and regretfully. By the way, most sinners and wrongdoers have delicacy of feeling that, very often, makes them cry. However, the Imam went to bed that night; and in his sleep he dreamed of a voice coming from the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious: “O Malik! You purified the man’s mouth for Us, so We purified his heart for you.” And when the Imam went out to perform Salat Al-Fajr (the Dawn Prayer) in the mosque, he saw a man standing alone praying and wailing. The Imam asked the man, “Who are you, may Allah have mercy on you?” The man answered, “The One Who rightly guided me (i.e. Allah) told you about me.” You cannot imagine how great is a true believer’s feeling when he guides to Allah a deviant profligate person who wrongly believes that Allah is not Just

or Merciful. If you can convince someone who is far astray and gradually help him obey Allah and stick to His Right Path, you are a real hero. A knowledgeable religious scholar once told his disciple, “O son! A good righteous person is not in need of your preaching, but a deviant profligate is.” You are a hero when you can admonish and help not the righteous and virtuous but the disobedient and deviant. And the prostitute who saw a dog that was dying of thirst and hastened to offer it water to drink and whose sins were, therefore, forgiven by the Lord, Allah, the Most Forbearing, is a good example of sincere repentance and faithful righteous work, even if it were to a brute animal. In Allah’s Book, the Glorious Quran, the holy Prophet, Abraham, (PBUH), invoked the Lord, “My Lord! Grant me good judgment and join me with the righteous.” [XXVI; 83] And Allah, Most Forbearing, answered Abraham’s invocation by granting him a forbearing son. Religious scholars say, “The Forbearing One is He Who forgives all sins and covers all faults.” It is also said: “The Forbearing One is He Who forgives after He covers. The Forbearing One is He Who maintains love, keeps promises, and fulfills covenants. The Forbearing One is He Who forgives the disobedient and rebellious. And the Forbearing One is He Who is not angered by disobedience of the disobedient or transgression of transgressors.” Whenever a true believer meets a sinful deviant person, he treats him gently and tenderly and is never arrogant or haughty to him. Whenever a true believer sees a sinful person, he thinks to himself, “Such a sinful person may, one day, turn to the Lord, All Mighty, Most Forbearing, with sincere repentance and truthful devotion, and, thus, become better and dearer to Allah than I am.” I reiterate: Never belittle or disparage a sinful person, but beseech Allah to rightly guide him and help him repent and reform. Be kind and merciful to sinners and wrongdoers. Remember what the venerable Companion, Habashi, did before he embraced Islam. He killed the venerable Companion, Hamzah. But when he returned to Allah with sincere repentance and truthful devotion, Allah accepted his repentance and joined him with the righteous.

Also, remember Souhail Bin ‘Amr, whose head the venerable Companion, Omar Bin Al-Khattab, wished to chop off with his sword, because when Allah’s Messenger asked Souhail to write: “This is what Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, has agreed upon,” the latter refused to write down or acknowledge that Muhammad, (PBUH), was Allah’s Messenger, but rudely said, “Had we believed in you, we would never have rejected your call. I shall write down ‘Muhammad son of Abdullah.’” In fact, Souhail was so rude and impolite to Allah’s Messenger that Omar Bin Al-Khattab was on the point of killing Souhail with his sword. But Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), stopped Omar, saying, “O Omar! You may, one day, hear from him (i.e. Souhail) words for which you praise him.” In fact, upon Allah’s Messenger’s death, Souhail said excellent praiseworthy words. Also, ‘Umair Bin Wahab was more detested to Omar than a pig when ‘Umair entered upon Allah’s Messenger in order to kill him and rid pagans of Mecca of him. But when ‘Umair got out of Allah’s Messenger’s place after having embraced Islam and become a truthful devoted Muslim, he became dearer to Omar than some of his own children. To wrap up, we do beseech Allah to grant us forbearance, as it is a most laudable attribute, and since we are studying Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes in order to color ourselves with them.

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(The Most Thankful)

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n His Divine Book, the Holy Quran, Allah, All Mighty, says, “If you give thanks, I will give you more; but if you are thankless, verily My Torment is indeed severe.” [XIV; 7] This Quranic Verse takes us to the twenty-first of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, “Ash-Shakour” (The Most Thankful). In fact, it is not enough to know that Allah is the Creator of the heavens and the earth, simply because such knowledge is common among all people. To this effect, Allah, All Mighty, says, “And if you (O Muhammad) ask them: ‘Who has created the heavens and the earth?’ They will certainly say: ‘Allah.’ Say: ‘All Praise belongs to Allah!’ But most of them know not.” [XXXI; 25] Even those who worship idols: “And those who take deities besides Him (say): ‘We worship them only that they may bring us near to Allah.’ Verily Allah will judge between them concerning that wherein they differ. Truly, Allah guides not him who is a liar disbeliever.” [XXXIX; 3] If you acknowledge the existence of Allah, All Mighty, you are still a common person, because knowledge of Allah and His Existence necessitates knowledge of His Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. Such knowledge is closely linked to your life in the present world and the world to come. The more you know Allah, All Mighty, the more loving to Him you become, the more committed to His Divine Commandments you become, the more righteous your work becomes, and the more happy in the Hereafter you will be. Therefore, it is most important to know Allah through His Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes. One of Allah’s Beautiful Names is “Ash-Shakour” (the Most Thankful), which is found in several places in the Holy Quran. For example, in Surat Fatir, Allah Glory to Him says, “And they will say: ‘All Praise is to Allah, Who has removed from us (all) grief. Verily, our Lord is indeed Oft-Forgiving, Most Thankful.’” [XXXV; 34] And in Surat AlIsra’, He also says, “And whosoever desires the Hereafter and strives for it with its due strife while he is a believer, then such are the ones whose strife shall be thanked (and rewarded).” [XVII; 19] And in Surat AnNisa’, He, Glory to Him, also says, “And Allah is Most Thankful, AllKnowing.” [IV; 147] In Arabic, the word “Shakour” (Most Thankful) is an emphatic name that is derived from the word “Shakara” (to thank); and whenever emphatic names

are attributed to Allah, Glory to Him, they emphasize either quantity or quality, which means that, from the viewpoint of quality, Allah is Most Thankful in the sense that He grants His righteous slaves infinite happiness, in the Hereafter, in return for a limited number of years of devotion and dutifulness on their part in this present world. By the way, you have to remember that any number, no matter how great it might be, is nothing if compared to infinity. In other words, if you live for a limited number of years during which you obey Allah, Most Gracious, suppress you lusty desires and caprices, perform righteous good deeds, earn an honest living, attend religious lectures, read and understand Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran, call for Allah and His Religion, spend your money for the Cause of Allah and His Religion, all of this is nothing compared to Allah’s Infinite Recompense and Reward. This means that He gives too much in return for too little. Is it reasonable or possible, for example, that you buy a shop, village, town, city or country for only a quarter of a Syrian pound?! But I reiterate that all of man’s righteous good work is less than that compared to Allah’s Infinite Divine Recompense and Reward. I swear by Allah! It is far less than a quarter of a Syrian pound as in the above example! Consider great companies in the world. I have heard that one of these companies has a surplus of profits that amounts up to more than a billion Dollars and that the administration does not know what to do with that surplus. The budgets of some companies exceed those of the total budgets of a number of countries. Is it possible that you can buy any one, or all of, such great companies for one Syrian Pound? I still reiterate that what Allah has prepared for true believers in reward for their righteous good work and dutiful obedience to Him is exactly like buying any of such fabulously great companies for only one Syrian Pound. This is the meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Ash-Shakour”: He, Glory to Him, gives that which is infinite in reward for man’s limited good righteous work that he does in his short-termed human life. In this context, I have learned that in a certain country some judges do not have any definite salaries, i.e. they can get whatever amounts of money they desire, provided that they do their job properly. Allah, All Mighty, is “Shakour” (Most Thankful) in the sense that He, Glory to Him, gives infinitely for people’s good work. To this effect, Abu Hurairah, may Allah be

pleased with him, quoted Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), as saying, “Allah, All Mighty, says, ‘I have prepared for My righteous slaves good things that no human eye has ever seen, no human ear has ever heard of, and no human mind has ever thought of.’” [Sahih Al-Bukhari] In fact, we always hear and repeat such Divine Words, but we do not deliberate their real meaning. In his life, each one of us has seen a number of things. For example, if someone asks you, “Where have you been?” you answer, “I’ve been only to Lebanon, Jordan, Mecca, Egypt, and Cyprus.” Another person might say that he/she has been to America, a third to Japan, a fourth to Russia, a fifth to Australia, a sixth to the Moon, …etc. The circle of the things that you see is much smaller than that of those that you hear of. For example, you have heard of a lot of things or places that you have never been to, such as Mars, Jupiter, The Polar Star, Alaska, Siberia, the North Pole, …etc. The circle of the things that you hear of is far greater than that of those that you see. However, the things that you think of are far more numerous than those that you hear of. You might think of or imagine a mountain as high as the sun or a man that is 3000 km’s tall. Thoughts and imaginations are almost infinite. When Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), quotes his Lord, Allah, All Mighty, as saying, “I have prepared for My righteous slaves that which no human eye has ever seen, no human ear has ever heard of, and no human mind has ever thought of,” he, (PBUH), clarifies to us Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Ash-Shakour” (the Most Thankful). In return for a period of sixty years, or perhaps a little more or less than that, of good righteous work you deserve Allah’s Infinite Divine Generous Recompense. To this effect, Allah, Most Thankful, says, “And when you look there (in Paradise), you see bliss and a great kingdom.” [LXXVI; 20] Allah, the Most Thankful, calls that which He has prepared in Paradise for His righteous slaves “a great kingdom”. This is the meaning of “Ash-Shakour” (the Most Thankful): Allah, Most Generous, Most Thankful, grants you something priceless for something little you offer to Him. The quantitative meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Ash-Shakour” (the Most Thankful) is that whatever good and righteous things you do for the sake of Allah, He thanks you and rewards you for them.

Right after Prophet Muhammad’s mission, Abu Jahl came to the Prophet’s house and knocked on the door. When the Prophet’s daughter, Fatimah AzZahra’, who was a little girl at that time, opened the door, Abu Jahl asked her where her father, Muhammad, was. When she answered that her father was not there, Abu Jahl, without any reason, smacked her on the face. However, when Abu Sufian heard that Abu Jahl had smacked Fatimah on the face only because she told him that her father was not in the house, Abu Sufian went to the Prophet’s house, carried Fatimah and took her to Abu Jahl’s house. He knocked on Abu Jahl’s door, and when the latter opened the door, Abu Sufian bade Fatimah: “Smack him on the face, just as he did to you!” In fact, Abu Sufian wanted to retaliate for Fatima’s dignity and honor although he was a disbeliever at that time. However, when the Prophet, (PBUH), heard of what Abu Sufian had done, he, (PBUH), raised his hands up towards the heaven, invoking, “O Allah! Do not forget this for him (Abu Sufian)!’ And Allah indeed did not forget that good deed on the part of Abu Sufian, for although Abu Sufian fought against the Prophet for twenty years; he converted to Islam in the end. When Abu Sufian converted to Islam, the Prophet was so kind and generous to him that Abu Sufian addressed the Prophet, “O my good nephew! How forbearing you are! How wise you are! How duly you maintain kinship ties! And how merciful you are!” In some books of history, it is narrated that when Abu Lahab knew of the Prophet’s birth, he set free one of his female slaves in honor of that happy occasion. Since it was Monday when Abu Lahab did such a good thing as setting a slave free, it is said that punishment is decreased for him in Hell every Monday. Everything is kept and preserved with Allah, Glory to Him, even if you rescue an ant. To this effect, Allah, Most Thankful, says, “Why should Allah punish you if you have thanked (Him) and believed (in Him)? And Allah is Ever Most Thankful, All-Knowing.” [IV; 147] You might do someone a favor for which he cannot thank you unless he knows it. For example, you may buy a present and go to visit a sick person at home, but instead of giving the present to the patient himself, you give it to his son at the door before you get in. Does the patient thank you for the present even though he does not know about it? The answer is: of course, not. If he does not know about the present, how can he thank you for it? That is why Allah, the Most Thankful, says, “Why should Allah punish you if you have thanked (Him) and believed (in Him)? And Allah is Ever Most Thankful, All-Knowing.” He, All Knowing, knows all the good things that you do. If you rescue a butterfly, if you have mercy on someone, if you

secure someone frightened, if you calm down the feelings of someone anxious, if you reassure someone worried, or if you feed someone hungry, it will be kept preserved with Allah, Most Thankful, for you, no matter how numerous the good things that you do are. This is the quantitative connotation of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Ash-Shakour” (the Most Thankful). Linguistically, the word “Shakour” is derived from the Arabic word “AshShukr”, which means “increase”. In Arabic, someone is said to be “Shakeer” if he has young children; a tree is said to be “Shakeerah” if it has originally grown from small stalks; a female camel is said to be “Shakeerah” and “Shakra” if she has a full udder; a piece of land is said to be “Shakeerah” if it has a lot of plants; an animal is said to be “Shakour” if it grows more than the fodder it is given; and a plant is said to be “Shakour” if it needs only little water. As for “Ash-Shukr” (thankfulness) of a human being, is of two kinds, verbal and virtual, neither of which can be achieved except by knowledge, which is the essence of thankfulness. In other words, you know and then you become thankful, i.e. you cannot be thankful unless you know. Virtual thankfulness, which is manifested by practical work, can be made clear by the following example: Someone grants you a house or does you a great favor. When you see his little son in the street, you offer him some sweats to eat. This is a kind of thankfulness to the father. In other words, you desire to express your gratitude to the man who did you a favor by offering his child something. Therefore, when a true believer does favors to other fellow humans: when he has mercy on them, when he honors them, when he secures them, when he provides them with food and drink, when he provides them with clothes, when he is compassionate to them, or when he does a favor to any creature, whatever it might be, a cat or a small dog for example, this means that he is thankful to Allah. In other words, you express your gratitude to Allah by doing good to His creatures. If you desire to know the secret behind good righteous work in this present world and why a true believer does righteous good things, you should know that it is only an expression of thankfulness and gratitude to the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, by doing favors to His creatures. If you are honest with your customers, this means that you are thankful to Allah, All Mighty. If you have mercy on other fellow

humans, if you are compassionate to them, if you are fair to them, if you relieve them of their sorrows, if you heal their wounds, if you make them secure, if you make them happy, if you lend them your hand, or if you do anything good to them, this means that you are thankful to the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious. It is common sense to honor a father by honoring his son. If you see someone you love accompanied by his son or daughter, you try to express your love for the father by showing love to his child, by offering him/her a candy, a pen, or any other good thing that you have and by speaking to him/her gently and kindly: what’s your name? How are you? How are you doing? What grade are you in? …Etc. This is commonly very practical and normal. In other words, you desire to comfort your heart and to express your gratitude and thankfulness to someone who has done you a favor; therefore, you honor his child. Allah, Glory to Him, is Self-Sufficient and is in need of no one: He feeds and does not need to be fed; therefore, it is impossible to offer a direct gift or present to Him; but you can express your gratitude to Him by doing good to His creatures. You have Allah’s creatures to do well to; you have your fellow humans, even disbelievers or atheists, to do well to. If you do well to all your fellow humans, who are Allah’s creatures, it is a good thing that Allah will keep preserved for you. If you are a doctor, you should strive to help all people, even those whom you know are irreligious or disbelievers. You should take into consideration that all people are Allah’s slaves and that you should offer them all your help. Another example as regards animals: if you provide a hungry animal with food – as some people enjoy feeding birds and buying seeds for them – because you know that animals are Allah’s creatures, this means that you are thankful to Allah, All Mighty. A true believer is very careful not to run over an animal with his car or do harm to any animal because it is one of Allah’s creatures. If he unintentionally runs over a dog or a cat, he hastens to offer charities so that Allah may pardon him. Such is real thankfulness: to be thankful to Allah by performing good righteous deeds and by being kind to all of Allah’s creatures, both human and non-human. I reiterate that it is better and more favored by the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, that you do favors to all of His slaves, and not only to Muslims or those who belong to the same mosque or Islamic group.

Someone told me that while a rich man was driving his car, he met a young man trying to fix his old bike. He stopped the car and got out to help the young man fix his bike. Such good helpful deed on the part of the rich man was the cause behind the young man’s repentance and reform. Such is real thankfulness! The religion of Islam is meant for all mankind, and not for a certain tribe, race or nation. In Islam, there are no such narrowminded notions as: “Such one is a Muslim, but such one is not”, “Such one is a believer but such one is not” or “Such one belongs to our group but such one does not”. According to the teachings of Islam, all human beings are Allah’s slaves, and the best ones from among them are those who are the most pious and dutiful to Allah. I swear by Allah, the One and Only God! Allah, the Most Thankful, will certainly thank you for each and every good thing that you do to any of His creatures, human or non-human. It is related that a prostitute once saw a dog that was dying of thirst, so she hurriedly fetched some water for it to drink and, thus, saved its life. In recompense for such good deed on the part of the prostitute, Allah, the Most Thankful, forgave all her sins for her. In the same context, Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, quotes Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), as saying, “While walking, a man felt very thirsty, so he went down a well, drank from it and came out. He suddenly saw a dog panting and eating the earth because of thirst. He thought, ‘Such dog is suffering from what I have suffered from!’ He went down the well, filled his boot (with water), held it with his mouth, came up the well, and offered the dog the water to drink. Therefore, Allah thanked him and forgave his sins for him.” They asked, “O Messenger of Allah! Are we rewarded for doing good to animals?” He, (PBUH), answered, “There is a reward for (each good deed to) every living thing.” [Sahih Al-Bukhari] Once, in a farm near Ya’four village (a village near Damascus), I saw some people catching fish. They did not wait until the fish they caught were dead and motionless, but began to deal with them the moment they caught them. I said, “Why don’t wait for some time until they are dead and motionless?! You are tormenting the fish!” I also saw some chicken sellers slaughter the chickens and throw them immediately into boiling water to strip them off their feathers before they are dead. That is something for which Allah punishes you! Be careful! Allah, All Mighty, says, “And the Budn (cows, oxen, or camels driven to be offered as sacrifices by the pilgrims at the

sanctuary of Mecca): We have made them for you as among Allah’s symbols, wherein you have much good. So mention the Name of Allah over them when they are drawn up in lines (for sacrifice). Then, when they are down on their sides (after slaughter), eat thereof and feed the poor who does not ask (for money or food) and the beggar who asks (for money and food). Thus have We subjugated them to you that you may be thankful.” [XXII; 36] Why is religion necessary? That creature gives you its body to eat, so in return to this favor, you cast it alive in boiling water! This is unfair and inhuman! In this context, Shaddad Bin Aous quoted Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), as saying, “Allah has ordained good doing to all things. So if you desire to kill (an animal), you should carry out the killing properly; and if you desire to slaughter (an animal) you should carry out the slaughtering properly. And let the one of you sharpen his knife and comfort his animal.” [Sahih Muslim] Such is real thankfulness! If you know Allah, All Mighty, and recognize His Divine Grace to you, you know how to deal with His creatures. For example, consider this Verse: “And Ever Great is the Grace of Allah unto you.” [IV; 113] Allah brought you into existence from non-existence; you are now thirty; open a book that was printed in the year 1958, when it was printed, where were you? Did you have any existence? Did you have any name? Did you have any size? Did you have any body? Did you have any importance or prominence? At that time, you did not have any existence. Allah, All Mighty, says, “Has there not been over man a period of time when he was not a thing worth mentioning?” [LXXVI; 1] Allah, All Mighty, brought you into existence and gave you a shape. He, Glory to Him, says, “Allah: it is He Who has made for you the earth as a stable dwelling place and the sky as a canopy, and has given you shape and made your shapes good looking and has provided you with good things. Such is Allah, your Lord. So Blessed is Allah, Lord of all worlds.” [XL; 64] He, Praised and Exalted, also says, “Have We not made for him a pair of eyes, a tongue and a pair of lips, and shown him the two Ways (of good and evil)?” [XC; 8-10]

If man obeys his Lord and the Lord rewards him for such obedience, this means that the Lord thanks him. So how would it be with Allah’s Due Reward to His slaves on the Day of Judgment? Undoubtedly, Allah is Most Thankful! Divine Thankfulness as manifested by reward means that if you do righteous good deeds, yours will be Paradise: You spend of your wealth, and, therefore, yours will be the Garden of Paradise, whose breadth is as great as the heavens and the earth. You spend of your time, experience, or knowledge, you help other fellow humans, you are sincere and honest, you do your work properly, and you deal with other people honestly and faithfully: this means that you do the minimum, just like when you have a certain job and you do it properly, getting a reasonable wage in return. In other words, the minimum thing to do is to do good to other people, one way or another. Hence, the minimum thing to do is to do your job properly and to receive a reasonable wage in return; but the maximum is unlimited: you may give food to the poor and needy, you may help the weak and helpless, …etc. In a Divine Hadith, Allah, All Mighty, says, “Not all those who perform prayer really do (perform prayer). Nay! I accept prayer (only) from those who are humble towards My Greatness, suppress their desires for the things I forbid, do not insist on disobeying Me, those who feed the hungry, clothe the deprived, have mercy on the wrecked, and give refuge to strangers: all for My sake.” A friend told me a story that happened during the civil war in Lebanon some 20 years ago. He said: I was driving from a village called Al-Hamah, a village near Damascus, one cold winter evening, when I saw a man standing with his wife in the suburb of Doummar. The man was holding a little boy, whom he had wrapped in his own coat to protect him from the cold. I thought, “I’ll give them a lift to their home.” But I noticed that the boy was feverish and his temperature was 41 degrees Celsius. I also noticed that they were Lebanese, running away from the war there, and that they rented a flat in Doummar but did not know anyone in Damascus. I drove them to a hospital where a boarding practitioner took good care of the boy. Then, we went to a pharmacy and bought some medicine for the boy. After that, we went to another hospital in order to give the boy an injection. When we the whole thing was over, it was 4 a.m. During the next two or three weeks, I

was overwhelmed with incredible ecstasy for helping such people out of their trouble. I tell those people who claim seeking happiness, “Happiness is at your hands: if you desire to be happy strive to make other fellow humans happy.” All of us enjoy the pleasure of taking. For example, we rejoice at receiving money or gifts. But only a few of us enjoy the pleasure of giving, which is far greater and more enjoyable than that of receiving. While giving, you feel that you are doing something very important: helping other fellow humans, healing the wounds of a wrecked family, helping someone get married, providing a home for someone homeless, helping an ill person to receive adequate medical treatment, or helping someone in trouble find a good honest lawyer. I reiterate: You shall never know the taste of real happiness unless you strive to help people. Once, I heard someone invoking the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, during the night, “O Lord! The night is not enjoyable without talking to you; and the day is not enjoyable without serving your slaves (other fellow humans).” A true Muslim should always visit patients or offers help to other fellow humans. To this effect, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Walking with a brother in order to fulfill his needs is better for me than fasting and remaining in devotional seclusion in my mosque for a whole month.” This Prophetic Hadith constitutes one of the fundamental aspects of Islamic religion. The second kind of thankfulness, i.e. verbal thankfulness, is to extol praises and glorifications of the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, saying: “O Lord! You are the Most Kind! You are the Most Merciful! You are the Most Powerful! You are the All Mighty! You are the Self-Sufficient! You are the Most Compassionate! You are the Most Gracious in the present world, and the Most Merciful in the Hereafter! You are the One Who forgives all sins and covers all faults! You are the One Who grants but does not ask! You are the Most Forbearing, Who is never hasty (in punishment)!” When your tongue goes: “There is no god but You, Praised and Glorified! I have been one of the wrongdoers! Praise belongs to Allah! Gratitude is

all to Allah! There is no god but Allah!” this means that you are extolling praises of Allah, which is also a kind of thankfulness. Thankfulness, in this sense, means that your tongue should always go: “O Lord! It is You Who have created me; and I am Your slave, and I shall remain committed to Your Covenant and Promise as much as I can. I take refuge with You from the evil of that which I have done! I confess Your Grace unto me and I confess my sins! Forgive me, for no one forgives sins but You! O Allah! You are the One Who pardons generously and Who loves to pardon, so pardon me! O Allah! I ask You things that deserve Your Mercy!” Thankfulness, in this sense, means that your tongue should always extol praises of Allah, All Mighty. You should supplicate: “O Allah, the Most Gracious in both the present world and the world to come! I take refuge with the Light of Your Face, whereby the heavens and the earth have been enlightened and matters of the present world and the Hereafter have been set aright! I take refuge with You, lest you should afflict me with Your Divine Wrath or visit me with Your Anger! And I will remain standing at your gate supplicating and seeking your Good Pleasure until You are pleased with me! However, Your providing me with pardon and good heath makes things easier and more comfortable for me!” If you do not love all righteous pious believers, even if they belonged to other mosques or Islamic groups, you are not a true believer, but rather a mere narrow-minded sectarian. You should love all people, since the Call for Allah is public and not restricted. Abdurrahman Bin ‘Amr As-Soulami narrated that he heard Al-‘Irbad Bin Sariah say: Allah’s Messenger admonished us an admonition that caused our eyes to shed tears and filled our hearts with fear. We said, “O Messenger of Allah! This admonition is that of someone bidding farewell (i.e. leaving). So, what would you command us?” He, (PBUH), said, “I have left you White clear evidence, whose night is (as bright) as its day; none deviate from it except those who will be made to perish…” Islam is meant for all mankind. Therefore, you should work in the sun and not in the dark. There are no obscurities in Islam. Everything is very clear. Allah, All Mighty, is the Creator of the universe, and this is the Holy Quran, His Divine Book, this is His Religion, and this is His Prophet’s Sunna and

Tradition. I reiterate that your good righteous work should not be directed only to those who belong to you or whom you know. Nay! Your good work should be directed towards all people; and you do not know when faith shines in the heart of the person to whom you do a favor. Allah may rightly guide someone through your good efforts while you are not aware. For example, Abu Hanifah, the knowledgeable venerable religious scholar, had a noisy troublesome drunkard neighbor, a singer whose loud songs used to disturb the whole neighborhood. His most favorite song was: They have ruined me, and what a great man they have ruined! To a day of mischief and a secret plague! One night, Abu Hanifah didn’t hear any noise coming from the neighbor’s house, so he asked about him, and soon learnt that for some reason or another the governor had imprisoned him. Being highly respected by the governor, Abu Hanifah helped his neighbor, the young profligate singer, to get out of prison, although the governor did not expect that Abu Hanifah, the venerable religious scholar, would himself come to intercede for such profligate man. However, Abu Hanifah took the young man by the hand and asked him, “O man! You say ‘they have ruined me, and what a great man they have ruined!’ Did we really ruin you?!” Such noble compassionate attitude on the part of Abu Hanifah towards his irreligious neighbor made him repent and reform. Your efforts and heroism should not be in doing favors to believers, because they are believers like you are, and they are, therefore, in no need of your help. Your good efforts and heroism should be exerted in order to rightly guide those who are astray and to persuade them to repent and reform. Your heroism is manifested when you add someone new to the community of believers, and when you convince someone who has suspicions about Allah, All Mighty, or persuade someone to perform prayer. You are a hero when you sit with someone who is inimical to religion due to certain dubieties, who does not have any respect for religious scholars or religion, and convince him of the validity of religion by being forbearing towards him, providing him with adequate evidence, showing good manners towards him, and spending months until Allah opens his breast for Islam, until he repents and reforms, and until he performs prayer and gets used to attending religious lectures in mosques. Such is real heroism! It is by no means heroic to seed dissension between religious scholars and their disciples. Your job is to introduce new ones to

the community of believers. In short, heroism is in positive proportion with labor and good positive work. I once told my companions what a preacher said to one of his disciples. He advised him, “O my son! Those who are healthy are not in need of you, but the patients are. It is meaningless to speak to those who are intelligent, excellent, superior, pious, Allah-fearing, righteous, and pure, or make them cry. Such people already have good truthful feelings, so they are easily touched by the words you say about Allah, Most Gracious. If you sit with those who are far astray from Allah and His religion, or those who are suspicious about Him, if you give them your knowledge and provide them with authentic evidence, if you remove all dubieties and help them step by step, and stage by stage, if you stand by them and be generous to them, if you help them and be kind to them until they love you, if you strive to cure those who are ill and make them happy and contented, this is good laudable work.” In short, verbal thankfulness is expressed by praise; and when the Lord, Glory to Him, praises His slave, this means that He, Most Gracious, thanks him. When you extol praises of Allah in your councils, Allah makes people love you and praise you in your absence. This is how Allah, the Most Thankful, thanks you. If you do well to other fellow humans, He does well to you. In this context, Allah, the Most Thankful, says, “Is there any reward for good other than good?” [LV; 60] In this context, Imam Al-Ghazali, the Well-known Muslim scholar, says, “If the one who takes and then thanks is called ‘thankful’, but the one who gives and thanks is more properly called ‘thankful’.” Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, Who bestows His Divine Favors upon you, and after He has bestowed His Divine Favors upon you, He hears your praises of Him and thanks you for that. Who deserves more to be described as being thankful? The answer is: the one who gives and then thanks. The One Who gives is Allah, All Mighty, and, therefore, He is most deservedly called “Ash-Shakour” (the Most Thankful). Also, someone who receives Allah’s Divine Favors and then praises Allah for them is thankful, but the One Who gives and praises twice is Allah, the Most Thankful. In other words, Allah bestows His Divine Favors upon His slaves, and then He makes those who praise Him and are thankful to Him praised by their other fellow humans.

Therefore, in a Divine Hadith, Allah, All Mighty, Most Thankful, says, “He who remembers me to a host, I remember him to a better host.” [Sahih Al-Boukhari] You may remember Allah and praise Him to five or six students of yours, and, in return, Allah, the Most Thankful, makes your name remembered and spoken well of among hundreds of people, who praise you and speak well of you. Yes, indeed! Allah is Most Thankful! You praise Allah among five common people, but He, in return, praises you among prominent people. In another Divine Hadith, Allah, the Most Thankful, says, “If My slave remembers Me to himself, I remember him to Myself; and if My slave remembers Me to a host of My slaves, I remember him to a better host.” Therefore, Allah is Most Thankful in the sense that if you do well, He, Glory to Him, most generously rewards you; and if you praise Him and speak well of Him, He makes people praise you and speak well of you. Yes, indeed! Allah is Most Thankful! Now the question is: When you are thankful, who are you thankful to? The answer is: You are thankful either to the Creator, Allah, All Mighty, or to His creatures, your fellow humans. However, it is impossible for you to be thankful enough to Allah, because in order to thank Allah for each and every Divine Favor of His, you have to know all of His Divine Favors that He bestows upon you; and since it is impossible for you to know all of Allah’s Divine Favors upon you, your being fully thankful to Him is also impossible. To this effect, Allah, All Mighty, says, “And if you would count Allah’s Favors, never could you be able to count them. Truly! Allah is Oft-Forgiving, Most Merciful.” [XVI; 18] Contemplate Allah’s Divine Favors that He bestows upon you! If you desire to count them, that would be impossible. Consider Allah’s Favors in your own parts of human body: the liver, kidneys, spleen, supra-renal gland, balance center, liquid-balance center, …etc. In short, if you would count Allah’s Favors to you, you could never be able to count them. Since it is impossible for you to know Allah’s Favors to you as they really are, it is impossible for you to be thankful enough to Him. That is why Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), used to invoke, “Glory to You (O Allah)! We

could never praise you enough! You are just as You have praised Yourself.” The first thing I would like to reiterate is that it is impossible for you to be thankful enough to Allah. It is just impossible! Another thing is that thankfulness is, in itself, a Divine Favor, since Allah, enables you to be thankful. In other words, you thank Allah for a certain Divine Favor that He bestows upon you; and thankfulness is, in itself, a Divine Favor of His. This means that you are constantly overwhelmed with the Lord’s Divine Favors. You should always invoke the Lord, All Mighty, “O Lord! How can I be thankful enough, and thankfulness to You cannot be offered except with another Favor from You.” Yes, indeed! You are in bad constant need of being thankful to the Almighty Lord, Allah, Glory to Him. There is a very delicate point that I would like to make clear to you: recognizing any of Allah’s Divine Favors is, in itself, a Favor. Allah, Most Generous, bestows His Divine Favors upon you although He is in no need of you; but you thank Him while you are in bad need of Him; and the difference between both cases is too great. In fact, there are innumerable proofs and evidences that you can never be thankful enough to Allah. However, it is wiser and more profitable for you to be thankful than to be unthankful. And since it is impossible for you to be thankful enough to Allah, as you should be, you should invoke Him, “O Lord! Glory to You! I could never praise You enough! You are just as You have praised Yourself! O Lord! It is impossible for me to thank you enough, but I thank you as much as I know and as best as I can.” One last thing I would like to call my dear reader’s attention to is this question: When a fellow human being does you a favor, whom should you thank? The answer is: You should thank Allah, Alone. This is because the fellow human being who does you a favor is but one of Allah’s creatures. It is Allah Who has given him life and power and then inspired and enabled him to do you such favor. And what kind of favor does a fellow human being offer you? He offers you food, for example. But who has created food? It is Allah, All Mighty. Allah has given such fellow human money to buy such food and then inspired and enabled him to offer it to you. Who creates all favors? It is Allah, All Mighty! Someone may offer you some food, but how can you eat it? You need a digestive apparatus that has been created for you

by Allah, All Mighty. In other words, the Creator and Benefactor is Allah, All Mighty. He creates Favors and bestows them upon you, either directly or by means of another fellow human, whom He gives such Favors, inspires and enables to offer to you. In other words, the One Who creates Favors is Allah, All Mighty; and the One Who enables you to benefit from such Favors is also Allah, All Mighty. Therefore, thanks should be given to Allah! Nevertheless, such fellow human being, who offers you any of Allah’s Divine Favors, chooses, out of his own free will, to do so. Therefore, he also deserves your thanks. But you should not say, “Thanks to both Allah and such fellow human”. You should say, “Thanks to Allah and, then, to such fellow human”. This word “then” is very important, because all thanks should be given to Allah for His Divine Favor that He has bestowed upon you, and, then, you should thank such fellow human through whom you have received Allah’s Favor. That is why Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), sys, “He who does not thank people does not thank Allah” If, as it were, you receive a Favor from an object, a balcony, for example, which protects you from a falling stone that was coming to hit you on your head and cause you injury or even kill you, would you thank such balcony, which is but a dead solid body that understands nothing? If anything good comes to you from non-living things or from animals, you should thank Allah, Alone; but if anything good comes to you from a fellow human, who is free to make his own choices, it would be most impolite and ungrateful to say, “I owe him nothing! It is Allah who inspired him to do such Favor to me.” If you receive anything good from a fellow human, you should first thank Allah for creating, inspiring, allowing and enabling him to do you such Favor, which He has bestowed on him. But since such fellow human has chosen, all willingly, to do you such Favor, you should thank him but only after having thanked Allah, All Mighty. One final delicate thing in this context is the question: what is the difference between a favor that Allah does to you and a favor that another fellow human does to you? You may need something and ask someone to offer such thing to you, but he may be in need of it and, therefore, cannot give you such thing. But Allah, All Mighty, is Self-Sufficient and Free from all needs. Therefore, when you ask Him for anything, He gives it to you most easily. This is the first point of difference.

More importantly, a fellow human may be able to give you something, but he may not be available when you need him. He may be somewhere else and, therefore, cannot offer you such thing. But Allah is always with you wherever you are. This is the second point of difference. A third point of difference is that if you are not thankful enough to a fellow human, he may immediately withhold such thing from you. But Allah, All Mighty, says, “O My slave! You have an obligation to fulfill to Me; and I have provision to provide you. If you fail to fulfill the obligation (you have to fulfill) to Me, I do not fail to provide you with your provision.” Moreover, if a human gives you or lends something, he may very often remind you, either privately or publicly, of such thing. In other words, a human being may fail to do you a favor because he is unable to do so or he is not available and, therefore, cannot be reached. Also, if you fail to be thankful enough to a human being who does you a favor, he may withhold such favor from you or boastfully remind you, whether privately or publicly, of such favor. This is by no means the case with Allah, the Most Generous and Most Thankful. To wrap up, the Thankful is He, Allah, Who gives most generously. When He is obeyed, even though inadequately, He accepts. He accepts that which is little and gives much in return. He accepts good deeds of obedience, even though only a few, and repays most generously. That is why it has been rightly said: Reality of thankfulness is to see the Benefactor through His Benefactions. People in irreligious communities see only Allah’s Divine Favors and live with them, but unfortunately, they fail to see the Benefactor. In such communities, everything is only materialistically valued. True believers, however, see Allah, the Benefactor, through His Infinite Divine Favors. In short, if you are able to go beyond Favors to see the Benefactor, you are really thankful. When we hear the weather forecast, we should be thankful to the Lord, Allah, the Benefactor, for the rain and good weather. We should always extol praises of the Lord, Most Gracious, for His Infinite Divine Favors.

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(The All Laudable)

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ow, we go ahead to the twenty-third of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, “Al-Kareem” (the All Laudable). This Name embraces great meanings, and, therefore, people should adopt it for themselves, as it is one of the Names that can be assumed by everyone who desires to occupy a laudable position with the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious. You know that Allah’s Divine Names are of two kinds: those that are attributed only to Allah, All Mighty – such as “Al-Khaliq” (the Creator) and “Al-Qadeem” (the Infinitely Pre-Existent) – and those that can be, and should be, attributed also to human beings, one of which is “Al-Kareem”, which has a lot of meanings: “the Generous”, “the Holy”, “the Noble”, “the Glorious” …etc, as will be made clear in this lecture. The Name “Al-Kareem” is mentioned in Allah’s Book, “Al-Qur’an AlKareem”, which also means (the Holy, Noble, Glorious Quran) as will be made clear in this lecture. However, this Divine Name “Al-Kareem” is confirmed by Allah’s Words: “O man! What has made you careless about your Lord, Al-Kareem (the All Laudable), Who created you, fashioned you perfectly and gave you due proportion? In whatever shape He willed, He put you together.” [LXXXII; 5-8] This Quranic Verse addresses both man’s mind and heart at the same time. Allah’s Divine Name, “Al-Kareem”, is also used in the emphatic form “AlAkram” (the Ever Most Generous) in the Holy Quran. To this effect, the Quranic Verse goes, “Read in the Name of your Lord, Who has created

(all that exists), Who has created man from a clot! Read! And your Lord is Al-Akram (the Ever All Laudable), Who has taught (the writing) by the pen, Who has taught man that which he knew not.” [XCVI; 1-5] Before we explain the various meanings of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Kareem”, let us talk about the different meanings of this word, “Kareem”, in everyday language, as it is very often used. Linguists say: “Each and every laudable thing is described as being ‘Kareem’.” This adds a lot more meanings to the word “Kareem” than that commonly understood as “generous” (giving, or ready to give, freely). In fact, the Arabic word “Kareem” embraces a great many meanings, including such laudable qualities as: forbearing, generous, kind, gentle, patient, self-possessed, manly, noble, pure…etc. In other words, the Arabic word “Kareem” includes all laudable and admirable human qualities, contrary to “La’eem”, which embraces all illaudable qualities, such as: miserly, mean, arrogant, tyrannical, ungrateful, selfish…etc. In short, the word “Kareem” includes all laudable qualities and attributes; just as the word “La’eem” includes all lowly illaudable ones. In this context, the verses go: If you are noble to a noble, you own him. If you are noble to a vile, he is ever ungrateful. Other verses also go: I taught him shooting every day. But when he became a good shooter, he shot me. And I taught him how to write poems. But when he learnt how to write poems, he defamed me. Reality proves that people are of two kinds: pious laudable ones and impious illaudable ones. This is what Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says. Therefore, the word “Kareem” does not only mean “generous” but also “forbearing”, “kind”, “merciful”, “compassionate”, “pure”, “honest”, “friendly”, “fair”, …etc. Precious stones, such as diamonds, rubies, and pearls are described in Aabic as “Kareem” (i.e. precious). A poet once praised Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), saying: Muhammad is a human but not like any human. He is a ruby, while other humans are stones.

Rubies are stones, but they are precious stones; and diamonds are also stones, but they are precious stones. Another meaning of the word “Kareem” is “of noble birth”. But who was the noble son of the noble father of the noble grandfather? It was the holy Prophet, Joseph, (PBUH). To this effect, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Joseph is the noblest of all mankind.” Some people are also described as being “noble from both sides”, i.e. from both his father and mother’s sides. The word “Kareem” also means, “good looking”. To this effect, the Quranic Verse goes: “Then, when they (the women) saw him (Joseph), they so admired him that they cut their hands, saying, ‘May Allah save us! This is no mortal! This is but a Kareem (i.e. most beautiful) angel!’” [XII; 31] As mentioned above, the word “Kareem” is used to mean “of noble birth”, but according to the teachings of Islam nobility of birth or kinship is not spoken of aloof from piety and righteousness, without which it is mere vainglory. For example, Abu Lahab Bin Abdul Muttalib was one of the Prophet’s uncles, but all of us know how evil Abu Lahab was. Allah, All Mighty, sent down Quranic Verses reproaching him: “Perish the two hands of Abu Lahab; and perish he! His wealth and children will not benefit him!” [CXI; 1,2] Therefore, kinship is of no merit unless accompanied by true faith, righteousness and nobility of character. If both nobility of kinship and true faith combine together, they make a wonderful combination. To this effect, the verse goes: A beautiful face with a vicious character Are like a lantern at a Magian’s grave. This verse means that it is not good enough for a person to be good-looking. He needs to have a good character and an authentic religion in order to be really beautiful. As for the expression “Al-Maqam Al-Kareem” (the Laudable Station), it means Paradise, where there is no fatigue, fear, worry, sadness, envy, hatred or any other troublesome thing whatsoever. Those who attain the Laudable Station on the Judgment Day are really prosperous.

Another meaning of the word “Kareem” is “something that is very scarce, badly needed and cannot be done without. The word “Kareem” also means, “dear, most beloved, and most honorable”. Allah, All Mighty, says, “O mankind! We have created you from a male and a female, and made you into nations and tribes, that you may know one another. Verily, Akramakum (i.e. the dearest and most honorable of you) with Allah, are the most pious and dutiful. Verily, Allah is AllKnowing, All-Aware.” [XLIX; 13] Also, the word “Kareem” means “full of benefits and uses”. To this effect, the Quraic Verse goes: “She (the Queen of Sheba) said: ‘O chiefs! Verily, here is delivered to me Kitabon Kareem (a letter full of benefits).” [XXVII; 29] Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran, is “Kareem” in the sense that it is full of benefits, facts, and guidance, it is full of good things and blessings, no falsehood could ever creep into it, it includes no mistakes or errors, it includes no contradictions or controversies, it conforms to reality, its style is perfect and most coherent, it does not tackle issues hastily or off-handedly, it is perfect in every sense of the word, and it is free from any defect or imperfection. It is “Kareem”, i.e. “perfect and free from any defect or imperfection”. A female camel is said to be “Kareemah” if she produces a lot of milk. Also, when Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), sent the venerable Companion, Mou’ath, may Allah be pleased with him, to Yemen, he addressed him, “You shall come upon a people who have a Book (Revealed Scripture). Therefore, once you have got to them, invite them to bear witness that there is no god but Allah and that Muhammad is Allah’s Messenger. If they obey you in that, tell them that Allah has enjoined on them five prayers every day and night. If they obey you in this, tell them that Allah has enjoined on them a charity that is taken from the rich ones among and given to the poor ones among them. If they obey you in this, be careful not to take any of Kara’imu Amwalihim (i.e. the dearest and most beloved things to them from among their possessions). And beware of the invocation of a wronged person, as there is no barrier between him and Allah.” [Narrated by Al-Boukhari, Muslim, Abu Dawood, An-Nasa’i, Ibn Majah, and Ahmad]

The expression “Kara’imu Amwalihim” in the above Prophetic Hadith means: if someone has a cow that he loves so much, do not take it from him as charity. Leave it to him and take another one that he chooses for you to take. Taking from a rich person his dearest and most beloved things as charities clashes with Prophetic Sunna and Tradition, which confirm the Prophet’s words: “be careful not to take any of Kara’imu Amwalihim (i.e. the dearest and most beloved things to them from among their possessions) Grapes are also called “Karmah” because they are full of benefits: They provide people with shade and delicious nutritive wholesome fruits. Also, the expression “Makarim Al-Akhlaq” means “the very best, purest and most noble manners and characters”. Hence, there are “Makarim Al-Akhlaq” (the best and most noble manners), “Al-Karm” (i.e. grapes), “Naqatun Kareemah” (i.e. a camel that gives a lot of milk), “Al-Kitab Al-Kareem” (i.e. a book that is full of interests and benefits), “Al-Ahjar Al-Kareemah” (i.e. precious stones), “Al-Kareem” (i.e. something that is very rare and badly needed, “Al-Maqam Al-Kareem” (i.e. the laudable station in Paradise), and “Malakun Kareem” (i.e. a most beautiful angel): “So when she heard of their accusation, she sent for them, prepared a banquet for them, gave each one of them a knife, and then she said to Joseph: ‘Come out before them.’ Then, when they saw him (Joseph), they so admired him that they cut their hands, saying, ‘May Allah save us! This is no mortal! This is but a Malakun Kareem (i.e. a most beautiful angel)!’” [XII; 31] When we say “Qur’anon Kareem”, we mean, “Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran”; and since Allah, All Mighty, is Perfect and Absolute, His Words are perfect and faultless. In other words, Allah’s Words, i.e. the Holy Quran, are far exalted above, and incomparably superior to, words of humans, just as Allah is Far Exalted and Incomparably Superior to His creatures. In this context, the verse goes: It is impolite to carry one’s food If one is coming unto the Generous! Now, when we describe Allah, All Mighty, as being “Kareem”, this means that He is All Laudable, as He, Glory to Him, described Himself: “O man! What has deceived you as to your Lord, the All Laudable?” LXXXII; 6]

Notice the words “What has deceived you” in the above Verse. What is deception? And how can man be deceived? In fact, deception happens when you see a box, for example, and think that it is valuable. You hurry to pick it up, but suddenly you find out that it is empty. When you hastened to pick it up, you imagined that something precious could be found in it. But then, you suddenly discovered that it was empty. This is deception. In other words, you were deceived as regards the box. However, this meaning does not apply to the above Verse: “O man! What has deceived you as to your Lord, the All Laudable?” The meaning that befits this Verse is the following: If you think that a certain judge can be bribed and can be on your side, even if you are on the wrong side, provided that you give him some money. But then you find out that such a judge is honest and trustworthy and, therefore, can never be bribed. In other words, the judge is really honest and trustworthy although you wrongly imagined that he is not. In this sense, the Verse “O man! What has deceived you as to your Lord, the All Laudable?” means that as a human being, you may think of Allah improperly or in a way that does not befit His Divine Perfection. You may be deceived as regards your Lord, Allah, Glory to Him. You may wrongly think that He is not All Just, Most Merciful, or Omnipotent, for example, i.e. you deny Him such Divine Names and Attributes: you deny that He is Omnipotent, Most Merciful, All Just, Most Kind, you deny that He never forgets His believing slaves and generously rewards them, that He shall never let down those who spend all their lives obeying Him, or you wrongly think that He will reward with Paradise those who are inimical to Him or deny His Existence altogether. In other words, if you think of Allah unrealistically and unduly, this means that you have been deceived as regards Him, because He is All Laudable, and you should never be deceived as to Him. The accurate definition of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name, “Al-Kareem” is: “His Existence is definitive. He, Glory to Him, is Free from any defect or imperfection. He is the All Mighty. And no one but Him deserves to be worshipped.” This can be summed up in three notions with regards to Allah: His Existence, Oneness, and Perfection. In this sense Allah is “Kareem”, i.e. He exists, He is One, and He is Perfect. These three accurate Divine Attributes that have to do with Allah’s Name “Kareem” can be explained as follows: Allah is “Kareem” in the sense that He initiates His Divine Favors to His slaves, even though they do not deserve such Favors. Out of His Divine Grace, He brings us into existence even though He is not obliged to do so. In

other words, we do not have any right to oblige Allah, All Mighty, to bring us into existence; but He bestows His Divine Favor upon us by bringing us into existence. To make this point clear, let us have the following example: You may have an employee who is both honest and hardworking. So you reward him for his honesty and hard work. Such a reward does not come before you make sure that he is a good employee who should be deservedly rewarded. This does not mean that you are really “Kareem” (i.e. generous). Real absolute generosity is clearly manifested when it comes before one should be deservedly rewarded. It comes out of the donor’s good will and generous free choice, without being requested or required to be generous. When we invokeAllah, “Ya Kareem Al-‘Afou” (O All Pardoning!), what does this mean? To make this point clear, let us have the following example: Someone may pardon you, but every now and then, he reminds you, “Don’t forget! You have done so and so, and I have pardoned you.” And you say, “Yes, may Allah recompense you well for that. You really did pardon me!” But when you invoke the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, All Pardoning, “Ya Kareem Al-‘Afou” (O All Pardoning!), this means that Allah’s Divine Pardon does not mean only canceling His Punishment for you but also making people forget your sin and making you, yourself, forget it. This is a very delicate meaning: Due to Allah’s Infinite Pardon, He, All Pardoning, makes you forget the sin you have committed: “If a believer returns to Allah with true sincere repentance, Allah makes him, the angels and the whole world, forget his sins and misdeeds.” Due to Allah’s Infinite Divine Grace, if a believer commits a certain sin and then, for some reason or another, forgets it, Allah deals with him generously and makes him live happily and comfortably. This is what “Kareem Al-‘Afou” (the One Who pardons most generously) means. Another meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al Kareem” is that He, Praised and Exalted, covers His slave’s sins, and faults. Human beings never do. You may do millions of favors to someone, nevertheless, at the very first mistake than you make, he forgets all such favors, which you have done him, and speaks badly of you. That is why Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “O Allah! I seek refuge with You from an evil neighbor: if he sees anything good (of me), he conceals it; but if he sees anything evil, he reveals it. O Allah! I seek refuge with You from an evil Imam (master): if I do well, he does not accept; but if I do badly, he does not forgive.”

Allah, All Mighty, is “Al-Kareem” (the All Laudable) in the sense that He veils sins and faults. In this context, a knowledgeable holy modest religious scholar said, “By Allah! If people knew my evil secrecy, they would not greet me, but they would shun me and become bored of my company.” Therefore, Allah, the All Laudable, unveils His slave’s good deeds and qualities and veils his evil ones. When you invoke, “O Coverer of sins and faults!” your skin and your heart should soften with the words of this invocation, because when Allah, Most Gracious, covers one’s sins and faults, He really does, not like human beings, who never keep secret a mistake one commits. Yes, indeed, it is Allah, Who covers sins and keeps them secret! One of the beautiful meanings of Allah’s Name “Al-Kareem” is that He, Most Gracious, overlooks His slave’s sins and misdeeds although the latter is never unaware of them. To this effect, He, Glory to Him, says, “Think you not that Allah is unaware of that which the wrong-doers do. It is only that He gives them a respite up to a Day when the eyes will stare in horror.” [XIV; 42] I have heard of someone who was a Mufti and a judge in this good city some forty or fifty years ago. While a woman was coming upstairs to him, she made an unpleasant noise and, therefore, was greatly embarrassed when she saw him. When she came nearer to him, he pretended to be deaf or his hearing was weak, saying, “What’s your name, dear sister?” When she gave him her name, he said, “Speak louder! I can’t hear you! My hearing is weak.” And she had to repeat her name several times. She turned to her sister saying, “He did not hear us!” A generous noble person is someone who overlooks mistakes and errors but a mean lowly person is someone who tries hard to unveil each and every mistake other people make. Allah, the Most Generous and All Laudable, forgives and pardons when His guilty slaves beseech Him to do. He, Most Gracious, forgives all their sins and misdeeds; He veils their mistakes and never reminds them of them. I was once standing somewhere that overlooks Damascus: a great many houses and buildings inhabited by more than five million people. I remembered Allah’s Words: “And Sufficient is your Lord as an AllKnower and All-Beholder of the sins of His slaves.” [XVII; 17]

No one knows the great many things, whether good or evil, committed inside all those great many homes, except Allah, All Mighty. Nevertheless, He provides them all with sustenance and maintains their health for them. To this effect, in a Divine Hadith, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “My slave! You have an obligation to fulfill to Me, and I have provision to provide you. Even if you fail to fulfill the obligation you have to fulfill to Me, I do not fail to provide you with your provision.” Also, Allah is “Al-Kareem” in the sense that if His slaves turn to Him with little sincere acts of devotion, He rewards them generously. If a person offers someone just a little piece of food, this piece of food will be as big as the mount of Uhud on the Day of Judgment. I don’t think that it is reasonable in this present world that someone offers only a Syrian Pound and receives in return 5,000,000,000 Pounds. In the Hereafter, you are recompensed far more than that. In your present life, you offer to Allah only a limited number of good righteous deeds: you help the poor and needy, you offer some prayers and acts of devotion, you spend of your wealth for the Cause of Allah, you suppress your lusty desires and caprices, you commit yourself to the truth, but in the Hereafter, Allah rewards you with the Garden of Paradise. To this effect, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “And make haste to (attain) forgiveness of your Lord, and to (attain) a Garden (of Paradise), as wide as the heavens and the earth, prepared for the pious and dutiful.” [III; 133] Quite often, the All Laudable Lord, Allah, makes a weak lowly person powerful and respectable. Yes, indeed! He grants him power and dignity! In this respect, Allah Most Gracious, says, “And fulfill your covenant with Me, I fulfill My Covenant with you, and fear none but Me.” [II; 40] But do we really have a covenant with Allah, as if we were equal to Him? The answer is: Of course not. But Out of His Infinite Divine Generosity, He speaks to us; when He speaks to us, He justifies His Commands to us; and when He justifies His Divine Commands to us, He honors us most generously. In this context, Allah, Most Gracious, says, “Recite (O Muhammad) what has been revealed to you of the Book (the Quran), and perform prayer. Verily, prayer prevents from sinfulness and evil deeds; and remembering Allah is greater; and Allah knows what you do.” [XXIX; 45]

Very often, a strong powerful person gives unjustified and non-vindicated orders to another weak one. But this is not the case with Allah, Most Gracious. Out of His Infinite Divine Generosity, whenever Allah gives us any command or order, He justifies and vindicates such command or order to us. For example, He, Glory to Him, says, “O you who believe! Observing the fast is enjoined on you as it was enjoined on those before you that you may attain self-protection.” [II; 183] “Take (O Muhammad) from their wealth alms whereby you purify and sanctify them, and invoke Allah for them. Verily, your invocation is a source of security for them; and Allah is All-Hearer, All-Knower.” [IX; 103] Moreover, it is He Who makes us worthy of making covenants with Him: “And fulfill your covenant with Me, I fulfill My Covenant with you, and fear none but Me.” [II; 0] Also, out of His Infinite Divine Generosity, Allah, All Mighty, All Laudable, makes us worthy of His Divine Love: “He (Allah) loves them and they love Him (Allah).” [V; 54] “Verily, those who believe and work deeds of righteousness: the Most Gracious (Allah) shall bestow love upon them.” [XIX; 96] Out of His Infinite Divine Generosity, Allah, All Laudable, gives us the whole world. To this effect, He says, “It is He (Allah) Who created for you all that is in the earth. Then, He directed His Divine Power to the heavens and made them seven heavens; and He is the All-Knower of all things.” [II; 29] The air: Do you consider the air as included in the list of Divine Favors to you? Yes, indeed you should! It is a gratis Divine Favor: you breathe the air everywhere. The same thing applies to water. Also the price you pay for food is not its real value. Who of you believes that the price they pay for an apple is its real value? What they pay is only for the services that farmers and sellers offer. Apples are priceless, but those who cultivate farmland, water it, provide it with the necessary fertilizers, and then pluck ripe apples, put them in boxes and carry them to markets, where you buy them, receive money only for the efforts they make; but apples are priceless, as they are granted gratis to mankind from the Lord Allah, Most Gracious. The Hereafter: On the Judgment Day, Allah will make believers own the Hereafter, just as He, Glory to Him, has made all that is in the heavens and the earth subjugated to mankind by way of both honor and guidance.

Allah is “Al-Kareem” (the All Laudable) in the sense that He grants without a reminder, which human beings never do. When human beings do favors to one another, they usually remind them of such favors. They quite often address those to whom they do favors, “The flesh of your body is of my benefaction! I have bestowed my favor upon you! I have rescued you from danger! I made you from nothing! You were nothing before I helped you! … Etc.” A reminder never follows Allah’s Divine Favor, however. Also, Allah, Most Gracious, is “Al-Kareem” in the sense that He does not make you need any means to get His Divine Favors. Sometimes, people do not give each other anything until they have exhausted all their efforts and powers. They require them, for example, to apply for a donation, to submit their identification card, wait until last week, come back after two days, wait until investigation is carried on, …etc. They make them hate the donation because of the great many investigations, delays, complications, documentation, …etc. But Allah, Most Gracious, does not make you need any means, nor does He make the disobedient despair of repentance. To this effect, He, Most Merciful, says, “Say (O Muhammad) to My slaves who have transgressed against themselves: ‘Despair not of Allah’s Mercy! Verily, Allah forgives all sins. Truly, He is the Oft-Forgiving, the Most Merciful.” [XXXIX; 53] Also, Allah, All Mighty, is “Kareem” in the sense that whenever He gives, He gives most generously; and when He is disobeyed, He forgives most forbearingly. In this sense, He is Most Forbearing. Allah, Most Gracious, is also “Kareem” in the sense that He never lets down His slaves or fails to fulfill their hopes. Sometimes, someone offers you something humbly and beseeches you to accept it. But if you reject his offer, he becomes disappointed with you and forgets all about you, simply because you let him down. But Allah never lets down anyone who asks Him for anything. It is impossible that you beseech Him for anything and He fails to fulfill it for you. In other words, Allah is “Kareem” in the sense that He never fails to fulfill hopes of His slaves. He bestows His Divine Favors upon His slaves and never reminds them of such Favors. When a human being lends you his suit, for instance, he may tell you before people, “It’s alright. You can use it.” In other words, he makes you embarrassed before other people. This is commonly seen among people who lend or give away things

to other fellow humans: they boastfully remind them of such things and quite often make them greatly embarrassed. Another meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Kareem” is that His Infinite Divine Favors never end and His Benefactions are innumerable. Also, He is All Mighty and Most Munificent; His Hands are always stretched, i.e. He is Most Generous, and He spends as He pleases. Such Divine Attributes are all mentioned in the Holy Quran. Allah, Most Gracious, is also Shy and Most Generous. Out of His Shyness and Generosity, He is ashamed to let His slave down when he beseeches Him for something. In this context, Allah addresses His old slaves, “O son of Adam! You have become old, your back has become bent down, and your hair has turned gray, so you should be shy towards Me, for I am shy towards you.” In another Divine Hadith, Allah, All High, says, “My slave is unfair to Me: I am ashamed to punish him, but he is unashamed to disobey Me.” In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “If a slave invokes, ‘O Lord!’ three times, Allah will respond: ‘Here I am, My slave!’” Allah, Most Generous, is also “Kareem” in the sense that He gets angry with those who do not ask Him or pray to Him. In this regard, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “Allah, All Mighty, is “Kareem” (All Laudable); and He loves noble manners and hate lowly ones.” Allah hates to see His slave a lowly person, i.e. a silly person whose interests are trivial and who is mean, selfish, niggardly, or self-centered. He loves those whose interests are sublime and noble. Allah, All Mighty, does not look at people’s outer appearances but rather deep into their hearts. To this effect, Abu Hurairah, may Allah be pleased with him, quotes Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), as saying, “Verily, Allah does not look at your forms and properties, but He looks at your hearts and deeds.” [Sahih AlBoukhari] In other words, the heart is the place where Allah looks. They also say: “Al-Kareem” is someone who does not care how much he gives nor to whom he gives; and “Al-Kareem” gets angry if people ask anyone other than Him. Sometimes, you seek the help of a generous person who says, “Don’t ask anyone else other than me. The thing you need is guaranteed with me.” This

is the highest rank of generosity: “I’ll get angry if you ask anyone else but me.” Now, imagine someone who is in need of something but does not know that the whole matter is totally in Allah’s Hand. He goes to another fellow human, weak and helpless as he is, and beseeches him humbly, but, quite often, the latter sends him away disparagingly. You should always go to the Most Generous, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, “Al-Kareem”, Who gets angry if you ask anyone but Him. They also say: “Al-Kareem” is someone who, if people treat him badly or turn away from him, blames but does not investigate. For example, if someone promises to pay you a visit, but he fails to keep his promise. You blame him, and he says, “My daughter was sick.” Then, you ask his neighbor to make sure whether his daughter really was sick or not. This investigation is not generous of you at all. It is generous to accept his apology with no further investigation, because such a thing might make him embarrassed. Whenever someone apologizes to you and puts forward an excuse, you should accept his excuse, thinking to yourself, “Well, he is a nice person as he has apologized.” And you should accept his excuse whether it is true or not. There are some inquisitive people who seek to investigate all things, which is not generous at all. Once again, “AlKareem”, i.e. a generous person is someone who accepts excuses with no further investigation. Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), once confided something to some of his wives; but when one of them spoke it out, and Allah revealed that to him, He, (PBUH), disclosed only some of it and kept some as secret. This means that you shall never be “Kareem”, i.e. generous, unless you overlook nine, out of ten mistakes, and disclose only one. In other words, you should overlook the mistakes committed by other people, because too much reproach breeds hatred. Being generous, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), mentioned only one part of that which Allah revealed to him concerning the mistake committed by his wife but kept the other part secret. “Al-Kareem” is also someone who does not let down those who seek his help or seek refuge with him. However, the foregoing definitions and explanations of the Arabic word “AlKareem” are very accurate. They all lead one simple fact, namely that if you

really desire to be happy and prosperous in this present world and the world to come, you should rely on Allah and put all your trust in Him. You should seek help from Him, Alone; and you should seek refuge with Him, Alone. You should put all your trust in Him, Alone, and be hopeful to none but Him. If you put your trust in, or rely on, other fellow humans, they will inevitably let you down. A man was in need of something, so he went to a friend of his who had recently assumed a prominent position in the government. When he came to his friend’s office, the latter received him coldly, as if he had never seen him or known him, and refused to offer him any help. That act on the part of the friend was by no means generous. “Al-Kareem” does not make you in need of any means or intercessors; and you should know that generosity necessitates that you should help others out of your own free will and generosity, without any reminder or obstacles that you put forward before them. Also, “Al-Kareem” is someone who does not forsake you even if you do forsake him. Sometimes, you find someone who becomes so weak, confused and poor that he loses all hope and shuns religion altogether: he no longer offers prayers or attends religious lectures. But Allah, the Most Generous, does not let him down. He soon consoles him by solving his problems for him and brings him back to the right way. In other words, when he is in trouble, man may turn away from Allah, but Allah, “Al-Kareem” never does. “Al-Kareem” is someone who maintains ties with you even if you forsake him, who consoles you when you are ill, who visits you when you are back from travel, and who helps you when you are broke. Among the most accurate meanings of the word “Kareem” as to human beings is that someone who is “Kareem” blames himself if you ask him for a certain favor, because he has not hastened to offer it to you before you have to ask it of him. This is a very accurate meaning. Sometimes, a brother or a dear friend may suddenly get broke. Due to his self-consciousness and self-respect, he may hesitate to ask you for help, although he suffers miserably but secretly. In the end, he may ask you for help. Then, you should know for sure that you have not been kind or fair enough to him because you have failed to find out about his trouble and

hasten, out of your own initiative, to offer help. If you are “Kareem” i.e. generous enough, you should inquire about conditions and circumstances of your relatives, neighbors and friends, and hasten to lend them a hand before they ask you to do so. Therefore, “Al-Kareem” is someone who blames himself if a dear friend or relative asks him for help, simply because he did not inquire about their problem, take the initiative or hasten to offer them help before they asked him to do so. Now, what is man’s share of this Beautiful Divine Name? Religious scholars say: A person may be described as being “Kareem”, i.e. generous and noble, but if someone keeps asking him for something or visits him and stays more than reasonable, say for three hours, for example, he may mutter in complaint, feel displeased but keep silent for some time. But then he might say, “Sorry! I have an appointment.” If the visitor does not leave but keeps asking him for things, he may get fed up and address him with angry words, and sometimes severely. In other words, a human being cannot be infinitely “Kareem”; he can be relatively “Kareem”. But the One Who is Infinitely “Kareem” is Allah, Alone, because He loves those who are earnest and insistent in prayer and supplication. Just get me one human being who loves others to be insistent to him. Nay! After only a short time of patience, man will say, “O brother! You have made me bored! I am fed up with you! Leave me alone! Go away!” Such is human generosity, but Allah, Most Generous, “loves those who are insistent in their supplication to Him”. He is angry with those who abstain from invoking Him. If a human desires to be “Kareem”, he should overlook mistakes of other fellow humans, and he should do favors to them all. Very often, developed countries provide a decent comfortable living for their people: different kinds of enjoyments, entertainments, foods, drinks, houses, …etc. But they do this only at the expense of other peoples. Therefore, those - so-called - developed countries are by no means “Kourama’”, i.e. generous or noble. They are selfish, simply because they establish their glories, civilizations and prosperity of their peoples on destruction of other nations and extortion of their resources. I reiterate: such countries are by no means “Kourama’”! You shall never be a “Kareem”, i.e. a noble and generous person, unless your good work reaches all creatures, human and non-human. In Europe, if poultry men have more chickens than they need, they burn them. Yes, they burn them! Do Muslims do such an unfair thing: burn chickens that extol Praise of their Creator, Allah, Most Gracious? Let

chickens grow, and then slaughter and eat them. Make use of them instead of burning them, and Allah will reward you for this. It is unfair to burn them! Once again, I reiterate: You shall never be “Kareem”, i.e. noble and generous, unless your good work engulfs all mankind. I would like to tell you something: By Allah! If you do evil even to a Magian, an idolater, or an atheist, you will be punished a thousand times more than if you evil to a Muslim, because a non-Muslim understands from your bad work that Islam means evil work and aggression. In other words, when you transgress against a non-Muslim, you distort the image of Islam to him. A human being is “Kareem” if he overlooks other people’s mistakes and covers their faults, if he does not retaliate for himself, and if he overwhelms other fellow humans with his favors. I have recently heard the following story: While he was putting a rubbish sack in the rubbish bin, a man found something moving in a sack. He opened the sack to find a newborn baby in it. He took it home, and then to hospital, where they took good care of it. He looked after the baby; and when it grew up he took him to school. However, the story ends here. Now, suppose the man helped the foundling to complete his education until he became a specialist medical doctor, opened a clinic for him, gave him his own daughter to marry, and gave him money to spend. What would the foundling’s attitude be towards such a philanthropist? This story reminds me of the venerable Companion, Abdullah Bin Rawahah. When he noticed that his two other Muslim brothers, who were fighting along with him in the battle of Mu’tah, had been martyred in battlefield and that he would soon be, he hesitated a bit, addressing himself: O soul! If thou are killed, thou shalt die. Such is the fate of death thou shalt meet. If thou do like them both, thou shalt be blissful. But if thou flee, thou shalt be disgraceful. I would like to relate the event as Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), did: “Your brother Ja’far took the flag and fought for it until he was killed (martyred); and I can see his station in Paradise. Then, your brother Zaid took the flag and fought for it until he was killed (martyred); and I can see his station in Paradise.” Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), kept silent for some time, which made the venerable Companions ask, “O Messenger of

Allah! What did Abdullah do?” He, (PBUH), answered, “After that, Abdullah took it (the flag) and fought for it until he was killed (martyred); but I see some difference between his station and that of his two brothers (Ja’far and Zaid) (i.e. his station in the Garden of Paradise is lower that that of his two brothers, just because he hesitated).” Now, we go back to the foundling, whom the philanthropist found in a garbage bin. Let’s imagine him, after having become a rich specialist physician, driving his own car, when he suddenly sees the philanthropist, who picked him up from the garbage bin, in the street, and the latter asks him to give him a lift or to drive him home. If the foundling hesitates for one single moment to offer immediate help to the philanthropist, it would be a terrible crime. It is most ungrateful to fail to repay the one who does you such a great favor or to hesitate for one single moment to answer him. This is the case among human beings, but how would it be with the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Creator and Lord of all worlds?! Undoubtedly, Allah’s Right upon His slaves is infinitely Great. That is why Allah says of hypocrites, “And never pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (hypocrites) who dies, nor stand at his grave. Certainly, they disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger, and they died while they were disobedient.” [IX; 84] When Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), was on the verge of death, he confided secretly names of seventeen hypocrites to Huthaifah, and bade him, “Do not pray for any of them when they die, for Allah, has forbidden us to pray for them.” That was in compliance with Allah’s Words, “And never pray (funeral prayer) for any of them (hypocrites) who dies, nor stand at his grave. Certainly, they disbelieved in Allah and His Messenger, and they died while they were disobedient.” In fact, Huthaifah was Allah’s Messenger’s secret-keeper. After Allah’s Messenger’s death, Abu Bakr became Caliph, and after Abu Bakr, Omar Bin Al-Khattab, the rightly guided Caliph and giant of Islam. Omar came to Huthaifah and asked him earnestly, “I implore you by Allah! Is my name mentioned among them (i.e. hypocrites)?” I am one hundred per cent sure that Omar was most honest and earnest in his question. In other words, he really desired to know if his name was among those of hypocrites, i.e. he was afraid that perhaps he had unwittingly committed some mistake or a sinful deed. He was conscious of Allah’s Great Right upon him, and due to

his great piety and sincere devotion, he thought, “I might have neglected something. I might be a hypocrite. If a mule trips in Iraq, I fear that Allah will question me about it.” Once, a messenger from Atherbaijan came to him. Because it was late night, the messenger did not go to Omar’s house. He went to the mosque for the night. In the mosque, he found someone offering prayer in great veneration and lamentation, invoking, “O Lord! Did you accept my repentance so that I may congratulate myself, or did you reject it so that I may console myself?” The messenger came nearer to see who the man was, and asked him, “Who are you?” The man answered, “I am Omar Bin Al-Khattab.” The messenger asked in great amazement, “Don’t you sleep in the night?” Omar replied, “O Brother! If I spend my night sleeping, I ruin myself as regards my Lord; and if I spend my day sleeping, I ruin my people.” The next morning, Omar asked the messenger, “Would you like to eat with poor Muslims, for they eat meat, or with me?” The messenger answered, “I would like to eat with you, for you are the Caliph.” Omar took the man to his house, where he found only bread and salt. Then, Omar asked the messenger, “Why did you come to us?” “I came to deliver this gift from Atherbaijan.” It was a box of delicious sweats of the best quality. Omar asked, “Do common Muslims eat such sweats in your country?” The messenger answered, “No. These are only for the elite.” Omar addressed the messenger angrily: “Give these sweats to the poor Muslims of Medina. I do not eat things that poor Muslims do not eat.” Then, he sent a message to his ruler over Atherbaijan reproaching: “Eat of what common Muslims eat!” One day, Omar saw fat camels on the road. He asked, “Whose camels are those?” “They are your son Abdullah’s camels.” Was the answer. Omar said, “send him to me!” When Abdullah came to Omar, the latter asked him scornfully, “Whose are those camels?” Abdullah answered, “They are mine. I bought them with my own money, and I sent them to graze and grow. What’s wrong with that? I bought them with my own money; and I graze them to make them grow and then to sell them and get some money for them. Did I commit a sin in doing such a thing?” Omar said scornfully, “You want people to say, “Graze those camels, for they belong to the son of the Commander of the Faithful. Water those camels, for they belong to the son of the Commander of the Faithful.’ Is this the way you grow your camels, O son of the Commander of the Faithful! Go and sell them! And take back only your capital, and return the rest of the money to the Muslim treasury!”

Once, while Omar was sitting with his companions, one of them said, “By Allah! We have not seen anyone better than you after Allah’s Messenger.” The man desired to praise Omar with his nice words; and Omar could have thanked the man for his kind flattery, but he looked round most angrily at the men until one of them said, “No! By Allah! We have seen someone who is better than you are.” “Who is it?” Omar asked. “Abu Bakr!” The man said. Omar looked around and said scornfully, “All of you lied, but he, alone, spoke the truth.” In other words, he considered their keeping silent as lying. Then, he said, “By Allah! I was more astray than my camel when Abu Bakr was sweeter than the smell of musk.” Yes, indeed! It was Omar, who asked one of his vicegerents, “What will you do if people bring you someone who is a thief or robber?” “I will chop off his hand.” The man replied. Omar said, “Then, if any of your subjects comes to me hungry or unemployed, I will chop off your hand! Verily, Allah has given us power over His creatures in order to allay their hunger, cover their bodies and provide them with good jobs (i.e. provide them with adequate food and clothing and help them make a decent living). If we fulfill that for them, we deservedly receive their gratitude and obedience. These hands have been created in order to work. If they do not find something good to do, they will seek a lot of evil things to do. Therefore, you should keep them busy with good things before they keep you busy with evil things.” Such was Omar, the venerable Companion and Caliph, who came to Huthaifah imploring him earnestly, “I implore you by Allah! Is my name mentioned among them?” However, Huthaifah’s answer was, “No! By Allah! You are the most noble and generous of us all, and you are the most merciful of us all.” In fact, Huthaifah, may Allah be pleased with him, was not only greatly surprised but also really embarrassed at Omar’s question, as he knew how venerable and devoted the latter was. Such is “AlKaram”, i.e. nobility and generosity! Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), bade us to adopt Allah’s Beautiful Names and Attributes and to color ourselves with them; and Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Kareem” necessitates that we should maintain ties and relationships with those who sever them, forgive those who wrong us, and give those who deprive us. It also necessitates that our silence should be contemplation, our speech a reminder, and our sight an admonition.

Now, I would like to tell you a couple of stories: When Moses spoke to His Lord, he said, “O Lord! Sometimes, I need something, but I feel ashamed to ask You (for it). Shall I ask someone other than You?” Soon, Allah, Most Gracious, revealed to Moses, “O Moses! Do not ask anyone but Me. Ask Me as to the salt of your dough and fodder of your ewe.” Our Lord, Allah, Most Generous, loves those who are insistent, so why don’t you beseech Him when prostrating in prayer in the early morning? Why don’t you ask Him for all your needs? Whenever a man would come to Ali Bin Abi Talib, the venerable Companion and Caliph, may Allah be pleased with him, for something, Ali would put out his lantern and then ask the man to tell him what he needed. When Ali was asked why he did this, he answered, “In order not to see humility of beseeching on the man’s face, and in order that he may not be embarrassed and refrain from asking me his need. Such was Ali’s “Karam”, i.e. nobility and generosity! A venerable religious scholar never used to give money to a poor person by the hand. He would put the money on a table and then ask him to take it. He used to do this because he did not like to see his hand over that of the poor man. Abban Bin ‘Ayash, one of the Prophet’s venerable Companions, said: “I went out of Anas Bin Malik’s place, one day, to find a funeral escorted only by four Negroes who were carrying the dead man’s body. I thought to myself, ‘Glory to Allah! This is the marketplace of Al-Basra, yet no one escorts a Muslim’s funeral! I’ll join them!’” By the way, if someone sees a funeral, it is wise and well rewarded if one escorts it, even though one might not know who the dead person is, because when they open the bier, one sees what happened to the dead person, how they put him into his grave and how they pour soil onto his dead body; and one may hopefully be is deterred and admonished. However, Abban’s story goes on: “I went along with the funeral; and when they reached a prayer place, they laid the body down and asked me to step forward to lead prayer for the dead man. I said, ‘You are more entitled to do this.’ They said, ‘We are all alike. We do not know the man!’ However, after I had lead prayer for the dead man’s soul and the men had buried him, I asked in amazement, ‘What’s the matter?’ ‘Ask that woman, over there.’ They said. I went to a woman who was standing aside watching, and asked her what the matter was. She answered, ‘that was my

son, a big sinner, who had committed a lot of sins. Before his death, he asked me, ‘O Mum! When I die, do not tell any of our neighbors of my death, lest they should gloat over that. But inscribe on my ring: ‘there is no god but Allah, Muhammad is the Messenger of Allah’ and put it in my shroud so that Allah may have mercy on me; and put your foot onto my cheek and say, ‘such is the recompense of those who disobey Allah!’ And after you have buried me, raise up your hands to Allah and say, ‘O Lord! I am pleased with my son!’ The son told his mother exactly what to do: not to tell anyone of his death, and to put her foot on his cheek, saying: “Such is the recompense of those who disobey Allah!” However, the mother said, “When I raised my hands up and began invoking, I heard a voice coming from the sky, “It is alright Mum! I have come unto the Most Generous Lord!” This is the lesson we get from the whole story! It is a great virtue to fear Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, and feel ashamed towards Him; but it is more adequate and more virtuous to be obedient and dutiful to the Lord in all times, for the Gate to Allah’s Infinite Divine Mercy is always widely open. I beseech the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, to enshroud us with His Divine Mercy and to inspire us to be laudable, for He is the All Laudable! To wrap up, the word “Kareem” in Arabic has a lot of laudable meanings, including: “being free from all kinds of defects”. That is why we say, “Kitabun Kareem”, Maqamun Kareem”, “Rabbun Kareem”, “Insanun Kareem”, and “Mu’minun Kareem”, as above-mentioned. Opposite to this laudable word, do stand such illaudable things as lie, falsehood, slander, and calumny, …etc, which render man lowly and disgraceful.

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(The All Wise)

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n His Divine Book, the Holy Quran, Allah, the All Wise, says, “And whosoever is granted wisdom is indeed granted abundant good.” [II; 269] This holy Quranic Verse takes us to the twenty-fourth of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names, “Al-Hakeem” (The All Wise). Dear reader! Allah’s Beautiful Divine Names are quite numerous, ninetynine, as mentioned in authentic religious relics. And Allah’s Divine Names are all Beautiful, because Allah, Glory to Him, is Existent, One and Perfect. In fact, All of Allah’s Divine Attributes can be summed up in three main notions, namely that He, Glory to Him, exists, that He is One: in His own Self, Attributes and Acts, and that He is Perfect. However, some of Allah’s Divine Names are nearer than others to human beings; and the nearest of all of Allah’s Divine Names to human beings is “The Lord”, simply because He, All Mighty, is their Lord. To this effect, the Lord, Allah, All Mighty, says, “So wait patiently for your Lord’s Decision, for verily you are under Our Eyes; and glorify the Praises of your Lord when you get up from sleep.” [LII; 48] This Quranic Verse shows clearly that decision of all issues and matters belongs only to Allah, the Lord, Who knows everything, Who is Most Gracious, and Who is All Wise. Also, Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Hakeem” (the All-Wise) is nearest to human beings.

Why did I put forward the foregoing introduction? The answer is: because sometimes, man sees or meets things that he does not like, i.e. unpleasant things, as Allah, All Mighty, sometimes afflicts man with things that seem to be unpleasant to him, i.e. things that he does not like. However, it is most unwise and ignorant of man to get angry or discontented with his Lord; it is wise for man, under all circumstances, to be contented with his Lord, and with His Foreordainment and Divine Decree. It is necessary for man to know that nothing has happened, happens, or will happen, since the beginning of creation of the universe until its end, except by Allah’s Divine Will and Power. In other words, if anything in existence happened against Allah’s Will, He would cease to be the Omnipotent, the Irresistible, the All Powerful, and the Self-Sufficient. If anything in the whole universe happened against Allah’s Divine Will, all His Beautiful Divine Names and Attributes would be rendered void and meaningless. Therefore, nothing in the whole existence, which is Allah’s Dominion, happens except by His Divine Will. Now, I would like my dear readers to excuse me for repeating the foregoing fact over and over again. This is because Allah, the All-Wise, very often repeats Quranic facts; and we repeat Surat Al-Fatihah (the first Chapter of the Holy Quran) in each and every prayer, tens of times everyday, till the end of our lives: “In the Name of Allah, the Most Gracious, the Most Merciful. All the Praises and Thanks belong to Allah, Lord of all worlds.” [I; 1,2] I reiterate: all things in the world happen only by Allah’s Divine Will, i.e. if Allah wills that something should happen, it happens. Moreover, there is no other Dominator of the whole universe except Allah. This is Islamic monotheism: in the whole existence, there is only one Hand that controls everything, namely the Hand of Allah, the Irresistible, the Omnipotent, the All-Wise, the All-Powerful, Who is Free to honor or dishonor, give or withhold, provide or deprive, exalt or disparage. Also, I would like to emphasize the following facts: Everything happens by Allah’s Divine Will; everything that Allah wills happens; and Allah’s Divine Will is associated with His Absolute Divine Wisdom. To make this point clear, let us have the following example: Sometimes, someone says something that he does not really believe in. He does this because of a certain pressure or allurement. His words might be unwise simply because of

pressure or allurement. This is the case with weak people: they fall under either pressure or allurement, i.e. they are sometimes forced and sometimes allured; and in both cases, they lose wisdom. In other words, a person might behave irrationally if he is subjected to pressure or allurement. Also, he might behave unwisely because of ignorance. In other words, irrationality, foolishness, and clumsiness may also come from ignorance. In short, there is no wisdom with pressure, ardent desire, or ignorance. Now, ignorance, compulsion, and allurement are impossibly attributed to Allah, for there is no other god to compel Allah; and Allah is far Exalted above, and Free from, any such imperfection as ignorance or allurement. Once again: all of Allah’s Divine Acts are associated with His Absolute Divine Wisdom, which is, in turn, associated with the Absolute Good. This is the golden motto of human happiness. Everything has its own reality; and no human can ever attain the reality of true faith until he believes that what afflicts him is impossible to miss him, and what misses him is impossible to afflict him. Mistakes and errors are only human qualities; they are by no means possible for the Creator, Allah, the All Wise. The seemingly wrong, unjust or unfair things are not really as such; they are under Allah’s Absolute Divine Wisdom. To make this point clear, let us have the following example: A young woman, who had got the high school grade, applied for a teacher’s job, and was, therefore, required to carry out some medical tests, which, unluckily for her, showed that she had Tuberculosis. She suffered a lot and had to go into medical quarantine and complete isolation. This made her turn to the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious, with sincere devotion and faithful repentance. She began to offer prayers and practice Hijab (Islamic Veil). Some time later, her brother consulted the hospital and was greatly surprised when they apologized to him that the results of the medical analysis, which showed that his sister suffered from Tuberculosis, belonged to someone else. They told him that his sister was perfectly healthy and had no Tuberculosis and that she was given the results of someone else’s analysis. In other words, Allah, Most Gracious, caused the people working in that hospital to commit such seemingly horrible, but unintended, mistake so that the young woman may return to Him.

Another Muslim sister, who attends lectures in this mosque, An Nabulsi mosque, was sent to one of the Arab oil countries in order to teach math there. However, the school headmistress asked her to teach Fiqh (Islamic jurisprudence) and Quranic interpretation instead of math. When she apologized for not being able to teach such subjects, as they were not her specialization, the headmistress threatened to cancel her application and send her back to Syria. In other words, she had no other choice but teach Fiqh and Quranic interpretation. She had to read religious books in order to prepare for the lessons she had to give. By the way, that teacher did not believe in Hijab (Islamic Veil). However, while she was reading the Quranic Verses that had to do with Hijab (Islamic Veil), she suddenly burst into tears because she was greatly touched by them. In other words, that teacher’s repentance came when she was forced to read such Quranic Verses and teach them to her students. Allah, Most Gracious, made the headmistress’ insistence a means to the teacher’s sincere repentance. The foregoing examples show clearly that all things happen by Allah’s Divine Will, that whatever Allah wills will inevitably come to pass, that Allah’s Divine Will is associated with His Absolute Divine Wisdom, and that His Divine Wisdom is associated with Absolute Good. No leaf of a tree could ever fall down except by Allah’s Absolute Divine Will and Wisdom. Too many seemingly evil things turn out good in the end; and in Allah’s Kingdom, there is no injustice, in the real sense of the word. Even unjust tyrannical rulers or leaders are, as it is said, Allah’s Sword in the earth: He retaliates by them and then He retaliates from them. Therefore, whenever we hear of an incident that seems to have any kind of injustice on Allah’s part, we should not give hasty judgments or think that Allah is unjust or unfair, since we do not know the whole story. If we knew the whole story, we would firmly believe that Allah is All Just and All Wise. Hence, the nearest of Allah’s Divine Names to you are “The Lord” and “The All Wise”. You may ask: Then why do some people suffer from diseases? The answer is: You should say: This belongs to Allah’s Absolute Divine Wisdom. This is because if you had enough time and power to trace all the facts as they really are, you would inevitably find out that things are best as they are. In this context, people may ask: Why is such person barren? Why did such person die so early of age? Why did such one live long? Why is such one rich? Why is such one poor? The answer is always: This belongs to Allah’s

Absolute Divine Wisdom. I reiterate: You should attribute all things that you see or hear to Allah’s Absolute Divine Wisdom. It is the same whether such things are seemingly pleasant or unpleasant. That is because it is impossible that Allah, Glory to Him, acts unwisely, for He is The Omniscient, the One, the Existent, the Perfect and, hence, the All Wise. Allah is Infinitely PreExistent; and if you ask, “Where is Allah?” your question means that He does not exist. Nay! Allah, All Mighty is Pre-Existent. To this effect, He, Glory to Him, says, “Think not that Allah is unaware of that which the wrong-doers do. Nay! He only gives them respite up to a Day when the eyes will stare in horror.” [XIV; 42] Once again, Allah is Pre-Existent; and He is One and Only. No existence is like His Infinite Divine Existence. He is Absolute and Perfect, and hence, He is All Wise. The foregoing facts are only an introduction to our main topic, namely Allah’s Divine Name “Al-Hakeem” (The All Wise). Now, the word “Hakeem” (The All Wise) is mentioned thirty-three times in Allah’s Divine Book, the holy Quran. Some examples are: “And if all the trees on the earth were pens and the sea (were ink wherewith to write), with seven seas behind it to add to its (supply), yet Allah’s Words would not be exhausted. Verily, Allah All Mighty, All Wise.” [XXXI; 27] “Allah is Ever All-Sufficient, All Wise.” [IV; 130] “…and abundant spoils that they will capture. And Allah is Ever All Mighty, All Wise.” [XLVIII; 19] “And Allah is Ever All Mighty, All Wise.” “And Allah is All-Knowing, All Wise.” [LX; 10] “Verily, your Lord is All-Knowing, All Wise.” [XII; 6] “Alif Lam Ra: A Book, the Verses thereof are perfected and then elaborated from the Him (Allah), Who is All Wise, Well-Acquainted (with all things).” [XI; 1] “And had it not been for the Grace of Allah and His Mercy on you, and (had it not been that) Allah is All-Pardoning, Most Merciful.” [XXIV; 10] “Falsehood cannot come to it (the Quran) from before it or behind it; (it is) sent down by the All Wise One, the One Worthy of all Praise (Allah).” [XLI; 42]

There is something delicate I would like to call the readers’ attention to: When Allah’s Names come in couples, such as “Verily, Allah is All Mighty, All Wise”, we should be very careful not to understand that Allah is All Wise simply because He is All Knowing. In Islamic theology, it is wrong to consider any of Allah’s Divine Names dependent on another. For example, it is wrong to say that Allah is All Wise because He is All Knowing, or that He is All Mighty because He is Most Merciful, …etc. In other words, Allah’s Names are by no means interdependent. Allah is All Wise just because He is All Wise; and He is Praiseworthy just because He is as such. Also, Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran is described as being “Hakeem” (i.e. a Book full of wisdom”. To this effect, Allah, the All Wise, says, “Alif Lam Ra’: Such are the Verses of the Book, “Al-Hakeem” (i.e. full of wisdom).” [X; 1] “Ya Seen. By the Quran, “Al-Hakeem” (i.e. full of wisdom)!” [XXXVI; 1] “Verily, Allah conferred a great Favor upon believers when He sent to them a Messenger from among themselves, reciting unto them His Verses (the Quran), purifying them, and instructing them (in) the Book (the Quran) and wisdom (Prophetic Sunna), while before that they had been in manifest error.” [III; 164] “Our Lord! Send among them a Messenger from among them who shall recite unto them Your Verses and instruct them in the Book (the Quran) and wisdom (Prophetic Sunna) and purify them. Verily, You are the All Mighty, the All Wise.” [II; 129] In this context, scholars of Quranic interpretation hold that whenever the word “Hikmah” (i.e. wisdom) comes together with the Holy Quran, it means Prophetic Sunna and Tradition, because the Prophet’s Hadith and Tradition are the best interpreters of the Holy Quran. Also, “Al-Hikmah” (wisdom) should be used in the Call for Allah and His Religion. To this effect, Allah All Mighty, says, “Invite to the Way of your Lord with wisdom and fair preaching and argue with them in a way that is better. Verily, your Lord knows best who has gone astray from His Path, and He is the Best Aware of those who are rightly guided.” [XVI; 125] “Al-Hikmah” (wisdom) can also be granted to people. I would like to say here that if Allah, All Mighty, gave you the best woman in the world, but He did not give you wisdom, you would make the worst woman of her. If Allah gave you the wealth of Korah, but He did not give you wisdom, you would soon waste it and make of it a source of sorrow and regret for you on the

Day of Judgment. If He gave you good health, but He did not give you wisdom, you would use your health in trivialities and foolish things. And if He gave you good children, but He did not give you wisdom, your own children would be the cause of your entering Hell-Fire. In other words, if you lack wisdom, everything leads you to endless sorrows and losses on the Day of Resurrection. That is why Allah, Most Gracious, says, “He (Allah) grants wisdom to whomsoever He pleases; and he who is granted wisdom is indeed granted abundant good. But none remember except those possessed of understanding.” [II; 269] With wisdom, you can be the happiest person in the world although your income might be little; and with foolishness, you incur misery with your big income. With wisdom, you are happy with your wife, ordinary and simple as she might be; and with foolishness you are miserable even with the best and most beautiful woman in the world. With wisdom, you help make your children happy and successful; and with foolishness, you make them unhappy and unsuccessful. Yes, indeed! Wisdom is the source of every success and happiness, just as foolishness is the fountain of misery and wretchedness. I reiterate: Allah, All Mighty, may give you the wealth of Korah although He does not like you. To this effect, Allah Most Gracious, says, “Verily, Korah was of Moses’ people, but he behaved arrogantly towards them. And We gave him of the treasures whose keys would have been a burden to a body of strong men. Remember when his people said to him: ‘Do not exult. Verily, Allah likes not those who exult.” [XXVIII; 76] Allah, All Mighty, gave Korah great wealth although He did not like him. Also, Allah might give you power although He does not like you. To this effect, He, Glory to Him, says, “Verily, Pharaoh exalted himself in the land and made its people sects, oppressing a group from among them, killing their sons and sparing the lives of their females. Verily, he was of those who do mischief.” [XXVIII; 4] Therefore, Allah may give you wealth and power although He does not like you. But if He loves you, He gives you both knowledge and wisdom. He, Praise belongs to Him, says, “And when he (Moses) attained his full strength and was perfect in manhood, We bestowed on him wisdom and religious knowledge; and thus do We reward the good-doers.” [XXVIII; 14]

As a true believer, you should consider what Allah has conferred upon you: If He has conferred upon you wisdom and knowledge, you are beloved to Him, just as holy Prophets and righteous people are. If, after that, He endues you with wealth and good health, or increases you in power, you should praise Him and be thankful to Him. The first and foremost thing is that Allah provides you with wisdom and knowledge. In this context, the venerable imam and scholar, Al-Ghazali, says, “He who knows all things but fails to know Allah is not called ‘a wise person’.” Once, I met a person who had two Ph.D. degrees, in both education and physics. I thought he was a great man. Then, I knew that he did not offer prayers to Allah although he was fifty years old. By Allah! He dropped in my estimation! All this knowledge yet, he does not offer prayers to Allah! Doesn’t such Great Creator deserve our worship and gratitude?! Once again, I repeat Al-Ghazali’s words: “He who knows all things but fails to know Allah is not called ‘a wise person’.” I would like to express that as follows: There are two kinds of intelligence: partial and total. Partial intelligence is manifested when one is, for example, a doctor who is well versed in science and has a great experience and understanding. Nevertheless, he disobeys his Lord, Allah, All Mighty, because he does not think of what will be after death, because he does not think of the One Who created him, because he does not heed the Creator’s Religion, because he does not aspire to attain His Lord’s Good Pleasure, and because he does not see the Majestic Greatness of such Lord. Therefore, he is unintelligent, even if he were the most intelligent of all mankind. Hence, there is partial intelligence that has to do with the different disciplines of human knowledge, such as medicine, physics, math, …etc, and there is total intelligence that has to do with totalities and fundamentals of human life in the present world and the world to come. In other words, if you are heedless of your Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Most Gracious, if you deviate from His Religion, and if you get indulged in sins and misdeeds, you are stupid even if you were the best and most experienced in your scientific or professional specialization, and even if you had the highest scientific degrees.

Also, people usually congratulate one another on having bought a house, occupied a prominent social position, having got a high scientific degree, having got a baby, having got married, having bought a new expensive car, having been dispatched for a mission abroad, …etc. But I reiterate that congratulations are deservedly offered only to those who have known the Lord, Allah, Most Gracious, and are in good terms with Him. Some religious scholars used to congratulate their disciples most sincerely if they saw sincere repentance and devotion of them. In His Divine Book, the Holy Quran, Allah, All High, says, “…(Allah) Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion.” [LXXXII; 7] How come that you forget your Lord, Allah, All Mighty, Who created you, fashioned you, and gave you due proportion?! Some knowledgeable religious scholars used to invoke, “O Lord! What does he who finds you miss? And what does he who misses you find?” They also used to invoke, “If Allah is with you, who can ever be against you? But if He is against you, who can ever be with you?” Such invocations undoubtedly bespeak great wisdom! Now, a learner’s honor is determined by the kind of knowledge he acquires. If knowledge is honorable, the learner is. Imagine someone who studies a book about how to rob banks, for example! Even when you see him study such a book hard, would you have any respect for him? Of course not! If someone reads and studies carefully a book that teaches people how to forge money, does he deserve any honor or respect?! Of course not! Such things are not only evil but also criminal! Therefore, honor of the learner is derived from the kind of knowledge he acquires. The more sublime and noble knowledge is, the more honorable and respected the learner is. Some people study such branches of knowledge as physics, chemistry, astronomy, geology, history, psychology, sociology, atomics, …etc, all of which can help man attain sublimity and nobleness. A person can attain more respect so long as the knowledge that he acquires is rare and needed. But what will the case be with those who get to know Allah, All Mighty? This is a very good question. The answer is: Those who acquire knowledge about some of Allah’s creatures attain a noble and

respectable status in the sight of people. For example, those who acquire knowledge about poetry: imagery, metaphors, simile, style, ideas, …etc, are highly respected by a great many people. So how would the case be with those who acquire adequate knowledge about Allah, Lord, of all worlds, and study His Divine Words and analyze them? They are indeed the wisest, while those who do not acquire adequate knowledge about Allah, Glory to Him, are by no means wise. I always reiterate that knowledge is of several kinds: knowledge that is interesting, knowledge that is both interesting and useful, and knowledge that is interesting, useful, and conducive to happiness. A rare specialization is knowledge that is both interesting and useful. Any kind of knowledge is interesting, i.e. any book that you read is usually interesting, because knowledge is interesting; and spread of knowledge is a holy job. Furthermore, the more sublime and noble your knowledge is, the more respected and honored you are. Some religious scholars say, “He who knows Allah’s Words, uses words that differ from those of other humans.” Does a person who knows Allah stay up until 1 a.m. talking about kinds of food, for example? Does he spend five hours of his life playing trick track or chess, or slandering people? That is impossible except for the silly and foolish-minded! Those who get to know Allah, Praised and Exalted, and His Divine Book, the Holy Quran, speak out wisdom and their words are sublime and noble. It is rightly said, “Every pot gushes out the liquid it has.” I have always given the following example: some vessels are filled from the top and have a tap at the bottom. The liquid that comes out of the tap must be the same liquid that exists in the vessel. If you fill the vessel with water, you get water from the tap. If you fill it with milk, you get milk from the tap. If you fill it with lemon, you get lemon from the tap. If you fill it with brackish water, you get brackish water from the tap. In other words, each human being has his own fountain from which he gets his knowledge; and man usually speaks out what is inside his mind, which he fills just like a vessel. A person whose knowledge is derived from indecent magazines, love stories, and low TV series and programs is inclined to speak about trivial silly things. This is what he knows about life. This is what he has filled his mind with.

A person whose mind is filled with knowledge about Allah, Most Gracious, His Messenger, (PBUH), and his venerable Companions, speaks about noble sublime things. He speaks out wisdom and admonition. He speaks about facts and basics of human life. He speaks about noble human behavior and character. This is what he knows about life. This is what he has filled his mind with. The most important thing in this regard is where to get knowledge from. From where should you drink? What should enter your ears and then your heart? What should enter you eyes and then your heart? This is because your ears and eyes are your gates to the world. What you read bespeaks your own personality. What you hear influences your own character. Tell me whom you sit with and whom you accompany, I tell you who you are. Tell me whom you befriend, I tell you who you are. This is because, as it is rightly said, birds of a feather flog together. Tell me who is your preacher, I tell you who you are. Undoubtedly, there are lots of sources of knowledge, some of which are pure and clean, while others are dirty and brackish. A person’s thoughts and words reflect clearly the source from which he received his knowledge and experience. If a person’s speech is indecent, his interests are crude and sexual, his words are biting, and his criticism is hurting, this means that the source of his knowledge is evil and the fountain from which he drinks is stinky. It smells of adultery, treason, treachery, disloyalty, selfishness, arrogance, tyranny, aggression and brutality. That is why it is forbidden in Islam to speak about deviant profligate people, because the speech about them is evil and breeds nothing but discomfort and misery. However, the speech about the righteous and pious people breeds comfort and happiness. Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “The zenith of wisdom is to fear Allah.” This Hadith shows clearly that if you do not fear Allah, you possess no knowledge or wisdom. In other words, a wise person is someone who condemns himself and works for the Afterlife, and a desperate helpless person is someone who follows his own desires and caprices and raises false hopes as to Allah. A helpless desperate person is someone who lives his present moment and indulges in the perishable pleasures and enjoyments of this ephemeral worldly life. A wise person, however, is someone who gets ready for the Hereafter.

To have a few things that suffice one’s needs is better than to have too may a thing that distracts one from one’s main mission in life. I asked someone, “How are you?” He answered, “Very well. Praised be Allah! We have been afflicted with the invocation of him who invoked against us.” I wondered, “May Allah forbid! Who invoked against you?” The man said, “Haven’t you heard that Allah’s Messenger invoked, “O Allah! Make provision for those who love me sufficient only for their living!” I answered, “Yes, I have. Allah’s Messenger invoked his Lord, Allah, All Mighty, to provide those who love him only with that which they need for a decent living, and nothing more.” Yes, indeed! By virtue of the foregoing Prophetic Hadith, Allah’s Messenger invokes Allah, Most Gracious, to provide true believers with money that helps them make a decent living and not distracts them from their Lord. It is sufficient for a believer to be healthy and to earn a decent living in a simple lodge with his entire essential needs fulfilled. This is real richness! Real richness is not to waste your life multiplying your wealth and property. In this context, Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), says, “He who is healthy as to his body, secure with his people, and has his food (that suffices him) for one day, (this means that) the entire world has been granted to him.” He, (PBUH), also says, “Try to be pious if you desire to be the most devoted of all mankind, and try to be contended with what Allah as allotted to you if you desire to be the most thankful.” “It is of a person’s good Islam to leave things that are none of his business.” “Happy are those who get admonished by that which happens to others.” “Silence is wisdom, and too few are those who are silent.” “Contentment is a neverending treasure.” And: “Patience is one half of Faith; and certitude is the entire Faith.” All the foregoing wise Prophetic Sayings are available to everyone; and everyone can buy a book, or books, that contain such wise Sayings. However, there is a great difference between buying and reading a book and adopting the things therein in one’s daily life. You are a real hero not when you buy or read the Prophet’s Sayings, but when you adopt them for yourself and put them into reality and practical behavior. Now, let us go back to Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Hakeem” (The All Wise), which has three essential meanings:

First meaning: The Arabic word “Hakeem” means “someone who is well experienced and whose work is perfect, i.e. faultless”. It also means “someone who calculates and measures things most accurately and properly”. For example, if a carpenter fails to cut a piece of wood accurately, his work is not satisfactory enough. In this case, we could say, “If his calculations were accurate, his work would be perfect and faultless.” And the more accurate calculations are, the better and more faultless work is. Expensive machines are usually perfect and faultless, while bad cheap ones are full of faults and defects. In fact, accuracy and faultlessness are essential elements in good machines. This is what makes them more valuable and more expensive. A friend of mine, who worked in textile, once told me that a whole roll produced by a certain cloth machine that we have imported to our country is sold at the price of only 200 Syrian Pounds, while we buy one meter, only one meter, of the production of the same machine in another foreign country for 700 Syrian Pounds. This is because accuracy and perfection of work makes a big difference. Therefore, the word “Hakeem” means “someone who does his work most accurately and perfectly, because he knows how to calculate, measure and design perfectly well.” And the Lord, Allah, Praise to Him, is “Hakeem” in the sense that He, All Mighty, All Wise, creates all things in perfect faultless measurements. To this effect, He, Glory to Him, says, “Verily, We (i.e. Allah) have created all things with due measurements.” [LIV; 49] Consider your human body: The blood that runs through your veins and arteries contains a very accurate amount of salt, 0,7%/8. If this very accurate amount of salt decreased, blood corpuscles would shrink and cause immediate death. If it increased, the corpuscles would burst and also cause immediate death. Who has made the ratio of salt in the human blood fixed? It is Allah, Most Bounteous, Who makes the kidneys maintain such fixed ratio of salt in the blood! Blood viscosity is determined by special hormones of both coagulation and delusion, which are produced at a most accurate ratio. If the ratio of the hormone of coagulation increased more than that designed by the Lord,

Allah, All Mighty, blood would stagnate in the blood vessels and cause immediate death. And if the ratio of the hormone of delusion increased, man would bleed to death even if slightly wounded. Once, I visited a friend of mine in hospital; and I was greatly surprised to find a big mass of bandage on his mouth, about eight centimeters thick. I asked, “What’s matter?” “I suffer from a deficiency in the number of blood platelets!” He answered. In fact, these blood platelets are exactly like stones of which a wall is made: whenever a hole is made in the wall, they block it. The man suffered from a deficiency in the number of blood platelets in his blood. Usually, there are nearly 700,000 platelets in each cubic millimeter of blood. These special blood cells are there in order to block any opening in the blood vessels. What a Great Divine Wisdom! Our brother specialist doctors know many more amazing things about the human body. It is, indeed, Allah’s Infinite Divine Wisdom! Also, there are 2,5 billion types of tissues in the world. This means that only one human being in the whole world has a type of tissue similar to yours. Also, in the nucleus of the human cell, there are lots of programmed genes, only 800 of which have been so far known. So, what does “Hakeem” mean? It means “someone who does his work most accurately and perfectly, because he knows how to calculate, measure and design perfectly well.” In this context, Allah, All Mighty, All Wise, says, “He (Allah) has created everything and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements.” [XXV; 2] Therefore, “Al-Hakeem” is He Who perfects all the things that He creates. To this effect, the Quranic Verse goes: “It is He (Allah) Who has created seven heavens, one above another; you can see no fault in the creation of the Most Gracious. Then, look again: can you see any rifts?” [LXVII; 3] Consider creation of an ant, a fly, an elephant, a galaxy, an atom, or any other creature! They are all perfect, and they bespeak the Creator’s Absolute Divine Wisdom! This is the first meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Hakeem”. The following Quranic Verses make this meaning clear: “It is He (Allah) Who made everything that He has created perfect, and began the creation of man from clay.” [XXXII; 7]

“Then, a person will know what he has sent forward and left behind. O man! What has made you careless about your Lord, the Most Generous, Who created you, fashioned you perfectly, and gave you due proportion? In whatever shape He willed, He put you together.” [LXXXII; 5-8] “Verily, We created man in the best stature.” [XCV; 4] “He has created everything and has measured it exactly according to its due measurements.” [XXV; 2] “Verily, We have created all things in due measurements.” [LIV; 49] Someone might ask you: Have you tested your eye-pressure? This gives rise to the question: What is eye-pressure? It is really something amazing! In the eye, there is a fluid that has to be constantly renewed. But how is the fluid renewed? The fluid comes into the eye through a special canal that has an opening at its end. If the end is blocked, the eye becomes congested as the pressure of the fluid increases, and, therefore, less blood flows to it. Ophthalmologists measure eye-pressure to make sure the eye is all right. Such things are very accurate. A doctor once told me that they give patients undergoing surgical operations certain accurate amounts of Potassium. Should there be any mistake in the amount of Potassium given, the patient soon dies. In the human body, there are most accurate and most amazing secrets and miracles that go beyond human imagination. This is one meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Name “Al-Hakeem” (The All Wise). Second meaning: “Al-Hikmah” (Wisdom) is to possess the best knowledge; and Allah’s Divine Knowledge is Infinite, while man’s human knowledge is limited. To this effect, Allah, the All-Wise, says, “And over all those endowed with knowledge is the All-Knowing.” [XII; 76] No matter how much knowledge he acquires a true believer always says, “I still know nothing.” And the remarkable thing about real knowledgeable scientists is modesty, i.e. the more knowledge they acquire, the more modest they become. Imam Ash-Shafi’i, may Allah have mercy on him, says, “The more knowledge I acquire, the more I find out how ignorant I am.” But who is the Omniscient? The answer is: Allah, Alone. And the word “AlHakeem” is attributed to the One Who is Omniscient, Allah, Whose Divine Knowledge is Infinite, All-Embracing and Free from all kinds of ignorance,

imperfection or defect. No human being can ever claim to have acquired all knowledge or experience, not even doctors, engineers or scientists. They often make mistakes. But Allah, Alone, is the One Who is the Omniscient. That is why Imam Al-Ghazali says, “No one knows Allah except Allah (Himself).” Third meaning: “Al-Hakeem” (The All Wise) is He Who is far above doing things that should not be done. In other words, He does the proper thing in the proper way in the proper place and the proper time. This is the third meaning of Allah’s Beautiful Divine Name “Al-Hakeem” (The All Wise). As human beings, we sometimes do the proper thing but not in the proper way. Sometimes, we do the proper thing in the proper way but not in the proper place. And sometimes, we do the proper thing in the proper way in the proper place but not in the proper time. A wise person is someone who does the proper thing in the proper way in the proper place and the proper time. Such is a “Hakeem” (a wise person). Now, what is your share of this beautiful Divine Name “Al-Hakeem” (The All Wise)? In fact, this Divine Name “Al-Hakeem” (The All Wise) is one of Allah’s Names that can be adopted by human beings, according to the saying that goes, “Adopt Allah’s Names and Attributes” In other words, a true believer should be wise. But where should his wisdom come from? Where should he derive his wisdom? The answer is: He should derive his wisdom from his knowledge of Allah. Let’s have the following example: If you have a very complicated and sophisticated machine, and you have the operation instructions, it is wise to follow such instructions because they come from the manufacturer. This is very clear and easy. If you read and understand Allah’s Divine Book, the Holy Quran, and Prophetic Sunna and Tradition, and if you commit yourself to Allah and His Messenger’s Commands, then, you are a wise person. For example, lowering one’s gaze at indecent or forbidden things is most wise; and if you lower your gaze at women, Allah will help you have only one woman (i.e. your wife) in your life, and, as wisdom necessitates, you will be more loving and compassionate to her than if you have other women in your life. There is a very delicate point that I would like to make clear: In logic, it is said, “Making use of something is not part of knowing it.” In other words, we may give a most developed and sophisticated car to a Bedouin,

someone from the desert, who knows nothing about cars, and teach him how to drive it until he becomes a perfect driver. He will certainly get full benefit of the car: its speed, air-conditioning, low noise, luxurious furniture, …etc, although he knows nothing about how it was made or who made it. Most people, nowadays, have, and use, lots of sophisticated machines such as TV’s, air-conditioners, washing machines, dishwashers, fridges, hi-fi stereo sets, cars, airplanes, …etc, but it is not necessary for them to know how they were made or the laws that govern their work. It is enough for them to push certain buttons, and they enjoy all the benefits of such machines, very complicated as they are. Once again: “Making use of something is not part of knowing it.” Now, once you carry out Allah’s Divine Commands, no matter whether you know the Infinite Divine Wisdom behind them or not, no matter whether you study them deeply or not, you get all the benefits of such Divine Commands. This is what I would like to make clear to you. Allah commands you to lower your gaze at taboo or indecent things, He commands you to be honest and trustworthy, it is most wise to obey Him; and if you do obey him, you reap all the good fruits of decency and honesty. I would like to retell the story of the handsome young taxi driver who was allured by a beautiful young woman who invited him to have an indecent and forbidden sexual relation with her, offering him a big amount of money. The man disobeyed his Lord, Allah, All Mighty, and slept with her. Before leaving, she gave him the money and an envelope. When he opened the envelope, he was greatly shocked to read: “You are welcome to the AIDS club.” By the way the money was also forged, and when he went to the bank to change it, he was arrested and taken to prison. The woman had the AIDS, and she just wanted to retaliate from other people by transferring it to them. Now, I would like to ask: Could a true believer fall in such a trap? It is impossible! A true believer obeys Allah’s Commands and never commits such an indecent sinful deed! When you obey the Divine Commands of Allah, the All Wise, you are wise. You need no justifications or excuses. You should say: I shall never cheat anyone simply because Allah bids me to be honest. I shall never tell lies because Allah forbids me to tell lies. By the way, some developed countries give loans to poor ones. By such loans, poor countries are caught up in big loans that put them under the mercy of such strong developed countries. This act on the part of rich countries is dishonest, and such economic laws and relationships are unfair. The system of Zakat (Alms Tax) in Islam prevents such unfair and unjust relationships and loans. Rich Muslims have to pay a

certain amount of Zakat (Alms Tax) to the poor and needy. The money they pay enables the poor Muslims to buy the things they need without humiliation incurred by asking the rich ones for help. Also, when the rich Muslims give the Zakat to the poor, they do not strip the poor of their money or make them poorer, but rather enable them to be more powerful; and when the poor are powerful and happy, the rich are. The system of Zakat in Islam makes the entire society prosperous and powerful. A western writer, called Alexy Carlil, wrote a book, “Man: that unknown”, in which, after long study and research, he confirms that human life does not work well unless the sexual relationship between men and women is done under the umbrella of married life. Even if you have not read the book, it is enough for you to obey Allah’s Command of lowering your gaze and abstaining from any sexual relation except with your own wife. In other words, you have to be wise. And how can you be wise? The answer is: It is enough to obey Allah and His Messenger. A doctor may keep telling you for long hours about the danger of bad food habits. Irrespective of the doctor’s long advice about food habits, it suffices a true believer to stick to the Prophet’s Hadith: “We are a people who do not eat unless we are hungry; and when we eat, we are never full.” That is all. This is preventive medicine. I reiterate: You can reap the fruits of all human knowledge when you apply Allah’s Commandments. Hence, the question: who is a wise person? A wise person is someone who applies the Maker’s instructions! Sometimes, however, there is no relevant Quranic or Prophetic text relevant to a certain sudden situation. In this case the Almighty Lord, Allah, Glory to Him, inspires wisdom to you. In other words, Allah, Most Gracious, grants you wisdom either by a certain Quranic or Prophetic text or by Divine Inspiration. Since you seek Allah’s Good Pleasure, He, Praise to Him, helps you be wise in all of your deeds and attitudes, particularly under circumstances for which there are no relevant Quranic or Prophetic texts, by His Divine Inspiration, through His angels. To this effect, Allah, All Mighty, says, “And We inspired Moses’ mother: ‘Suckle him! But when you fear for him, then cast him into the river! And fear not, nor grieve; verily, We shall bring him back to you and we shall make him one of (our) Messengers!” [XXVIII; 7] This Verse refers to a kind of Divine Inspiration that Allah gave to Moses’ mother. It was not Divine Revelation such as that given to Prophets and Messenger but rather mere

Divine Inspiration. While you are unaware, Allah, Most Gracious, drives to you lots of good things and protects you from lots of bad ones. Therefore, wisdom necessitates that you should always be with Allah. Whenever you face a situation for which there is no relevant Quranic or Prophetic text, Allah, All Mighty, inspires you to do the right thing. This is exactly what Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), meant when he invoked the Lord, Allah, Glory to Him, “Help us see the truth as it really is and help us to adopt it. And help us see falsehood as it really is, and help us to shun it.” Hence, you are wise when you follow the Commands of Allah, All Wise, and His Messenger, (PBUH). As a true believer, whenever you feel comfortable, or uncomfortable, towards something, you should know that such a feeling is a kind of inspiration from the Lord, Allah, All Mighty. And the more believing a person is, the wiser he/she is. Moreover, Allah’s Messenger, Muhammad, (PBUH), was the wisest of all mankind because he was the nearest and most devoted to Allah, the Fountain of all Wisdom. A person may sometimes have to walk along a dark rough way that is full of pits, obstacles and harmful insects. But on both sides of the way, there are fruitful trees. If he has a lamp or a torch, does he make mistakes? No! With his lamp or torch, he can see the pits and obstacles and avoid them, he can see the insects and kill them, and he can see the ripe fruits and eat them. Where does foolishness come from? It comes from blindness! Allah, All Mighty, addresses this issue, “Verily, it is not the eyes that grow blind, but it is the hearts, which are in the breasts, that do (grow blind).” [XXII; 46] Sometimes, a man may foolishly and unreasonably divorce his wife. Such is real blindness! In other words, foolishness, which is very dangerous, is the fruit of blindness, while wisdom is the fruit of Divine Inspiration. In this context, Allah, All Mighty, says, “But whosoever turns away from My Reminder: verily, for him is a life of hardship, and We shall raise him up, on the Day of Resurrection, blind. He will say: ‘O my Lord! Why have you raised me up blind, while I had sight (before)?’ He (Allah) will say: ‘Like this: Our Signs did come to you, but you disregarded them, and so, this Day, you shall be disregarded.” [XX; 124-126] Yes, indeed! He was blind to Allah’s Commands, which symbolize Absolute Divine Wisdom, in the life of this present world, and turned away from them. Therefore, he was forgotten and neglected. As true believers, we derive our wisdom from Allah’s Book, the Holy Quran, and Prophetic Sunna and Tradition. The

more devoted and committed we are, the wiser and more rightly guided. O Allah! Grand us wisdom and guide us to the Right Path! Finally, I would like to tell you a story that might be already known to you. The story took place some fifty years ago, and its hero is the imam and orator of Al-Ward mosque in Damascus. One night, this imam dreamt of Allah’s Messenger, (PBUH), telling him, “Tell your neighbor, so and so, that he will be with me in the Garden of Paradise.” Just imagine! The neighbor was a mere grocer, but the imam was a knowledgeable religious scholar and orator! However, The imam went to the grocer’s house and told him, “I have good news for you. But I’m not going to tell it to you unless you first tell me your secret and what you have done in order to be so beloved by Allah and His Messenger.” At first, the man refused to tell the imam his secret, but upon the imam’s great insistence, the man told the following story: “Five months after I had got married to a woman, I suddenly found out that she had been pregnant for nine months and that she had committed adultery before we got married. However, most regretfully and sorrowfully the woman, who had recently become my wife, beseeched me to keep that secret and not to tell it to anyone. At first, I thought that I had all the right to defame her publicly and to destroy her reputation and that I could divorce her. But then, after she had profoundly and sincerely asked for forgiveness, I felt sorry for her and decided to wait and give the whole matter a second thought. I waited until she gave birth to the child, which was a male baby. When it was time for the Dawn Prayer, I wrapped the baby with a blanked, put it under my ‘Aba (woolen wrap) and took it to the mosque. I waited outside until prayer began and everybody stood behind the imam to perform prayer, and then I put the baby behind the door and joined in prayer. When prayer was over, the people noticed a baby crying behind the door. Everybody went over to see what it was, and I went with them, asking, “What’s that?” as if I really knew nothing. “It’s a newborn baby!” They said. “Give it to me! I’ll take care of it!” I said; and I took the baby and told everybody that I would adopt it. I took it back to its real mother, my wife, and took it as my son.” In other words, instead of punishing his wife for a sin that she had ignorantly and naively committed before their marriage, the man was so tolerant and merciful. He did not only forgive the woman and keep her sin secret, but also adopted her baby and took him for a son. This is how he deserved Allah and His Messenger’s love! This is how good righteous people act! This is how wise people behave! Such simple grocer is really a wise man!

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(The Truth)

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ow, we go on to the twenty-fifth of Allah’s Beautiful Names, “AlHaqq” (The Truth), which is very frequently and commonly used by people. This is because Allah, All Mighty, is the Truth; His Divine Words are the truth; His Divine Promise is the truth; His Divine Threat is the truth; and His Divine Acts are the truth. Before we start the talk about this word “Al-Haqq” (The Truth), let us have the following examples: If you have an electrical machine that needs electrical energy in order to work, and if you plug it into a certain socket, but you find out that it does not work, this means that the socket does not have any electrical current. In order to make the electrical machine work, you have to look for another socket where there is an electric current. In this case, we say that the former socket is untrue, or false, while the latter is true. So, what does the word “True” here mean? We say that a certain thing exists only if it really does exist. And in fact, Allah, All Mighty, is “Al-Haqq” (The Truth) in the sense that if you seek another one instead of Him, you shall find only a mirage and nothing else: false promises and void meaningless words. In other words, if you seek Allah, All Mighty, you find everything. Hence, the first meaning of the word

“Al-Haqq” (the truth) is “something or someone that exists”, which is the opposite of “Al-Batil” (falsehood), which means “something or someone that does not exist”. If someone promises you something and keeps his promise, this means that his promise is true, but if he fails to keep his promise, this means that his promise is untrue or false. If you fancy that Jinn can do a certain thing, this is mere illusion, because Allah, All Mighty, did not give Jinn any power. Therefore, your belief that Jinn can do anything good or harmful to people, or that they can exalt someone and debase another, is absolutely wrong, because it simply clashes with the truth. If you say that someone has super powers, you are wrong, simply because he is a mere human being, just like you, and cannot do anything unless Allah, All Mighty, gives him adequate power. In other words, if something really exists and you believe, and confess, that it exists, this is the truth; while if something does not really exist, but you misbelieve that it exists, this is falsehood. If you misbelieve that something exists while it does not really exist, this is a false belief; and if you say that something exists while it does not really exist, this is a false saying. I reiterate: the truth is something that really exists; while falsehood is something that does not really exist. Also, when your belief conforms to reality, it is true; but if it clashes with reality, it is false. When you say something that is in conformity with reality, your saying is true; but when you say something that clashes with reality, your saying is false. The most serious and sorrowful thing in life happens when you seek someone who owns nothing, when you believe in something that falls in contradiction with reality, when you say something that lacks conformity with reality. In fact, falsehood stands behind the loss of the majority of people: They believe in something for lots of years, but then, suddenly, they find out that such thing is false. They believe that a certain principle is good, but then, they suddenly find out that it is no good at all and that it brings only misery and wretchedness to humanity. Therefore, if you are with the truth, you are happy and prosperous. Why? The answer is: because you stand on firm grounds, as you are with things that really exist. This is the whole idea, or perhaps its main outlines. Now, existence is of two kinds: certain and probable. The only certain kind of existence is that of Allah, All Mighty, the Creator, Who is Infinitely PreExistent, and Whose Existence is certain and undisputable, simply because the human mind does not accept that all such accuracy of creation of the

universe can ever be without a Creator, a Maker, or Originator, Who is AllWise, Omnipotent and Omniscient. All other existing things, including mankind, have a probable existence. For example, as human beings, our existence is probable, i.e. we may, or may not, exist. Also, our existence is subject to the Maker’s Divine Will. That is why it is rightly said: whatever Allah, All Mighty, wills is, and whatever He, Glory to Him, does not will is