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Attribution Non-Commercial (BY-NC)

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This guide has been developed by comparing the scientific documentation for the new and old oil spill models (being DHI_OilSpill_Model.pdf and MIKE321PASA.pdf, respectively). NOTES: Values in black text are oil specific values used for the supplied test runs Values in green text are environmental parameters which have been randomly chosen/set for the supplied test runs Values in blue text are constants or assumed constants which should not change regardless of oil type or environmental conditions Values in red text are parameters which can be varied in the new model to provide a fit to the old model results

Type 2: Middle Oil, Low Aromatics Process Class Constants Unit Parameter Type 4: Medium Crude Oil Comments Old Model Equivalent

General

Schmidt number Average molecular weight of volatile fraction Vapour pressure of volatile fraction Oil specific constant (App A) Oil specific constant (App A) Distillation percentage at 180C Terminal thickness Decay rate, volatile fraction Decay rate, heavy fraction Maximum water content Kao constant Kaw constant

[] g/mol

Sc MW

2.7 123

2.7 121

All items in this section are found under ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Classes > Oil > Constants CONSTANT VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED

Pvp evapA evapB evap180 Hterm kbiodv kbiodh MaxWater_Fract Kao Kaw

Assume CONSTANT CONSTANT but oil specific only used for simple evaporation which is only found in new model. These arent used if complex evaporation is chosen which is comparable to evaporation in the old model. Assume CONSTANT Assume CONSTANT Assume CONSTANT VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED CONSTANT CONSTANT

Simple Evaporation

Specified internally as 2.7 Specified internally for each oil fraction (values given in Table 11.2 of M321PASA.pdf) use average of Fractions 1, 3 and 5 Specified internally for each oil fraction (values given in Table 11.2 of M321PASA.pdf) Process not included

Spreading Biodegradation

Emulsification

Oil Spill Parameters > Emulsification: Maximum water content Emulsification is parameterised differently in the new model. These two parameters replace Oil Spill Parameters > Emulsification: Constant (k2) due to water release which is no

Type 2: Middle Oil, Low Aromatics Emulsion rate s/m2 kem 2e-6 Type 4: Medium Crude Oil Comments Old Model Equivalent

2e-6

Assume CONSTANT

Buoyancy (dissolution)

Density of volatile fraction at 20C Density of heavy fraction at 20C Water solubility, volatile fraction Water solubility, heavy fraction Volatile fraction Heavy fraction

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED Assume CONSTANT Assume CONSTANT Assume CONSTANT Assume CONSTANT

longer required This parameter replaces Oil Spill Parameters > Emulsification: Constant (k1) due to water uptake which is no longer required Specified internally for each oil fraction (values given in Table 11.2 of M321PASA.pdf)

Dissolution

Decay rate, volatile fraction Decay rate, heavy fraction Light extinction coefficient Dissolution rate, volatile fraction Dissolution rate, heavy fraction Wind speed for wave breaking Wave energy dispersion rate Max distance below surface for surface amount Max distance above bed for bottom amount Mooney constant

0 0 1 0.4 0.4

0 0 1 0.4 0.4

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED Assume CONSTANT Assume CONSTANT Assume CONSTANT

Vertical Dispersion

m/s J/m3/s

wspdi E

5 1000

5 1000

Vertical Limits

minSurfDist

0.05

0.05

Assume CONSTANT

Dissolution is parameterised differently in the new model. These two parameters replace Oil Spill Parameters > Dissolution and Entrainment: Mass transfer coefficient (ks) which is no longer required Vertical dispersion is parameterised differently in the new model. These two parameters replace Oil Spill Parameters > Dissolution and Entrainment: Oil in Water Interfacial tension which is no longer required Parameter not used

m []

minBotDist Mooney_K

0.05 0.654

0.05 0.654

Assume CONSTANT VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED Typically 0.7 for crude oils to 0.25 for home heating oil VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED

Viscosity

cP

ViscosityT0

1.76

54.894

Type 2: Middle Oil, Low Aromatics Type 4: Medium Crude Oil Comments Old Model Equivalent

Reference temperature for dynamic oil viscosity Coefficient of exponential temperature dependency

C []

Viscosity_temp Viscosity_coef

40 -0.136

54.4 -0.136

Oil Area

/s

AreaGrowth

30

30

Process Switches Simple Evaporation Type Vertical Dispersion Evaporation Biodegradation Photooxidation Surface dissolution Water column dissolution Water uptake Water release Droplet diameter change Area change Constants

Parameter

Logarithmic (0)/ Quadratic (1) Off (0) / On (1) Off (0) / On (1) Off (0) / On (1) Off (0) / On (1) Off (0) / On (1) Off (0) / On (1) Off (0) / On (1) Off (0) / On (1) Off (0) / On (1)

Evap_Type

Assume CONSTANT (default is 150) Can be modified to fit post-discharge slick thickness to old results. All items in this section are found under ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Classes > Oil > Constants SWITCH TO BE SPECIFIED

NOTE: this viscosity is kinematic viscosity in cS so should be multiplied by the oil density / 1000 to get the dynamic viscosity in cP Oil Spill Parameters > Oil Properties: Reference Temperature Viscosity variation is parameterised differently in the new model. This parameter replaces an internally specified constant of 3.98 which is no longer required Specified internally (although no value is given in documentation)

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

1 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 0

SWITCH TO BE SPECIFIED SWITCH TO BE SPECIFIED SWITCH TO BE SPECIFIED SWITCH TO BE SPECIFIED SWITCH TO BE SPECIFIED SWITCH TO BE SPECIFIED SWITCH TO BE SPECIFIED SWITCH TO BE SPECIFIED SWITCH TO BE SPECIFIED

Oil Spill Parameters > Dissolution and Entrainment: [Tick box] Include entrainment Oil Spill Parameters > Heat Transport: [Tick box] Include Evaporation Process not included Process not included Oil Spill Parameters > Dissolution and Entrainment: [Tick box] Include dissolution Process not included Oil Spill Parameters > Emulsification: [Tick box] Include emulsification Process not included

8.206e-5

8.206e-5

SWITCH TO BE SPECIFIED All items in this section are found under ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Constants CONSTANT

1.002 (0-1000)

1.2

1.2

Parameter not specified (Basic Parameters > Water Properties: Salinity can be used to

Type 2: Middle Oil, Low Aromatics Type 4: Medium Crude Oil Comments Old Model Equivalent

Forcings

Switch for simple or complex evaporation Parameter Horizontal drift speed Horizontal drift direction Vertical drift speed Wind speed

calculated using: http://www.ifh.unikarlsruhe.de/science/envflu/research/brinedis /density&viscosity_calculator.xls SWITCH TO BE SPECIFIED All items in this section are found under ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Forcings Calculated from hydrodynamics Calculated from hydrodynamics Calculated from hydrodynamics VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED

calculate value in conjunction with Basic Parameters > Water Properties: Temperature)

Water temperature

Water density

kg/m3

Can be given as Constant, Time Series (.dfs0) or 2D map (.dfs2 or .dfsu) Can be given as Constant, Time Series (.dfs0) or 2D map (.dfs2 or .dfsu) Can be given as Constant, Time Series (.dfs0) or 2D map (.dfs2 or .dfsu)

Calculated internally Calculated internally Calculated internally Basic Parameters > Wind Conditions: Wind speed

15

15

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED

1022.12

1022.12

Solar radiation

W/m2

100

100

0-1

Can be given as Constant, Time Series (.dfs0) or 2D map (.dfs2 or .dfsu) Can be given as Constant, Time Series (.dfs0) or 2D map (.dfs2 or .dfsu) Can be given as Constant, Time Series

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED Varies with salinity and temperature can be calculated using: http://www.ifh.unikarlsruhe.de/science/envflu/research/brinedis /density&viscosity_calculator.xls VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED Can be calculated using equations in Section 11.6.3 of MIKE321PASA.pdf. Set to constant value here as only used in photo-oxidation process which is turned off for the comparison as process not available in old model. VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED

Parameter not specified (Basic Parameters > Water Properties: Salinity can be used to calculate value in conjunction with Temperature as above)

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED

Type 2: Middle Oil, Low Aromatics beached Probability of particle not moving 0-1 (.dfs0) or 2D map (.dfs2 or .dfsu) Can be given as Constant, Time Series (.dfs0) or 2D map (.dfs2 or .dfsu) Can be given as Constant, Time Series (.dfs0) or 2D map (.dfs2 or .dfsu) Options No dispersion Dispersion coefficient Type 4: Medium Crude Oil Comments Old Model Equivalent

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED

[]

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED

All items in this section are found under ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Dispersion 3 3 VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED Option not available Basic Parameters > Dispersion: [Radio Button] Independent of the current longitudinal / transversal with the same value Option not available (scaled with current is not comparable) Option not available Basic Parameters > Dispersion: [Radio Button] Independent of the current vertical value Option not available (scaled with current is not comparable)

Scaled eddy viscosity Vertical > OIl Formulation {drop-down list} No dispersion Dispersion coefficient Scaled eddy viscosity Particle Sources State Variables Unit Parameter

0.01 -

0.01 -

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED All items in this section are found under ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Particles Sources > Particles Source N > Oil VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED1

kg

Volatile_Mass

kg

Heavy_Mass

30% of total discharge: 528.342 kg/s 68.99% of total discharge: 1215.011 kg/s

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED1

Wax

kg

Wax_Mass

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED1

Can be assumed to be equivalent to the sum of Oil Fractions 1, 3 and 5 multiplied by total discharged mass Can be assumed to be 100% minus the sum of Oil Fractions 1, 3 and 5 minus Oil Spill Parameters > Emulsification: Wax content minus Oil Spill Parameters > Emulsification: Asphaltens content multiplied by total discharged mass Oil Spill Parameters > Emulsification: Wax content (%) multiplied by total discharged mass

Type 2: Middle Oil, Low Aromatics 0.01%of total discharge: 0.176 kg/s 0 0.001 6 Type 4: Medium Crude Oil 11.5% of total discharge: 229.196 0 0.001 6 Comments Old Model Equivalent

Asphaltene

kg

Asph_Mass

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED1

Oil Spill Parameters > Emulsification: Asphaltens content (%) multiplied by total discharged mass Parameter not used Parameter not used Parameter not used

kg/kg m m2

Immersed state switch Options Use raw data from hydrodynamics Use bed shear profile Use surface wind acceleration

[0/1]

Immersed Parameters -

Assume 0% Assume CONSTANT VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED2 Calculated as area of initial oil spill divided by number of particles initially released. Can be modified to fit initial slick thickness to old results. If oil spill discharge is at sea, assume 1 All items in this section are found under ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Drift profile Activates ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Bed Roughness Activates ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Bed Roughness and ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Wind forcing VARIABLE TO BE TUNED VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED Varies with salinity & temperature can be calculated using: http://www.ifh.unikarlsruhe.de/science/envflu/research/brinedis /density&viscosity_calculator.xls Activates ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Bed Roughness and ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Wind forcing VARIABLE TO BE TUNED VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED

Option not available Single process not available (other processes cannot be excluded) Single process not available (other processes cannot be excluded) Parameter not used Basic Parameters > Wind Conditions: Friction Deflection angle Parameter not used

Use bed shear profile and wind induced profile Wind drift Depth of influence Offshore limit Use bed shear profile, wind induced profile and surface wind acceleration

Process pairing not available (other processes cannot be excluded) Parameter not used Basic Parameters > Wind Conditions: Friction Depth of wind Basic Parameters > Wind Conditions: Friction Shore current zone All three processes are included by default

Type 2: Middle Oil, Low Aromatics 0.01 Type 4: Medium Crude Oil 0.01 Comments Old Model Equivalent

Wind drift

Depth of influence Offshore limit Wind weight Wind angle Kinematic viscosity (of water)

5 5 0.02 15 1.17e-006

5 5 0.02 15 1.17e-006

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED Controls the speed at which the slick moves in response to the wind and should be modified to give results that agree with old run. Typical value otherwise is 0.01 to 0.04 from reading DHI_OilSpill_Model.pdf VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED Varies with salinity & temperature can be calculated using: http://www.ifh.unikarlsruhe.de/science/envflu/research/brinedis /density&viscosity_calculator.xls Activates ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Bed Roughness and ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Wind forcing Assume CONSTANT VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED Varies with salinity & temperature can be calculated using: http://www.ifh.unikarlsruhe.de/science/envflu/research/brinedis /density&viscosity_calculator.xls All additional pages result from options chosen on page ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Drift profile -

Basic Parameters > Wind Conditions: Friction Depth of wind Basic Parameters > Wind Conditions: Friction Shore current zone Assume equivalent to Basic Parameters > Wind Conditions: Friction constant Basic Parameters > Wind Conditions: Friction Deflection angle Parameter not used

Use bed shear profile and surface wind acceleration Wind weight Wind angle Kinematic viscosity (of water)

Process pairing not available (other processes cannot be excluded) Parameter not used Basic Parameters > Wind Conditions: Friction Deflection angle Parameter not used

Additional Pages ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Bed Roughness: Type {dropdown list}

Options

Parameters

Type 2: Middle Oil, Low Aromatics User specified bed roughness Bed Roughness (either constant or varying) ECO Lab / Oil Spill Module > Wind forcing: Type {dropdown list} User specified wind, speed and direction 0.1 0.1 VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED (logarithmic profile assumed internally) Basic Parameters > Eddy and Logarithmic Velocity Profile: Bottom roughness Type 4: Medium Crude Oil Comments Old Model Equivalent

Wind Speed (either constant or varying) Wind Direction (either constant or varying) User specified wind, velocity components

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED

Basic Parameters > Wind Conditions: Wind Speed Basic Parameters > Wind Conditions: Wind Direction Option not available

330

330

VARIABLE TO BE SPECIFIED

Oil mass discharge rates calculated as follows: With a discharge rate of 2m /s for 30 minutes in the old model, this is a total volume of 3600m The densities for each of the oil fractions are given in Table 11.2 of M321PASA.pdf and these, together with the %age distributions for the oil between the fractions (old model) were used to calculate a total discharged mass (3170052kg for Type 2, 3587418kg for Type 4 in this case) Assuming the various %age distributions as listed in the table for the new model, these were used to calculate total mass discharged for each of the volatile, heavy, wax and asphaltene fractions and this was then divided by 1800s to derive a discharge rate in kg/s for each fraction

3 3

Initial guess for Oil_Area calculated as follows: Initial discharge volume for old model is 2 m /s * 60s (timestep) =120m 2 Initial thickness of slick is 0.1m (see p88 of M321PASA.pdf) so initial area of slick is 1200m 2 2 In new model, 200 particles are discharged per timestep to represent this 1200m area so each particle represents 1200/200 = 6m this value is used for the first guess at Oil-Area but could be varied to get a better fit to old results

3 3

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