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SPOMENKA BOGDANIĆ Lecturer
ENGLESKI JEZIK U NOVINARSTVU1 ENGLISH FOR JOURNALISTS
Activities, Tasks and Exercises
Study of Communicology Year 2, Semester 3
Nastavni tekst vježbi za kolegij Engleski jezik u novinarstvu (English for Journalists) autorice Spomenke Bogdanić, predavača, pozitivno je ocijenilo stručno povjerenstvo u sastavu dr. sc. Jelena Jurišić, docent, mr. sc. Smiljana Narančić Kovač, profesor visoke škole i Marija Andraka, viši predavač.
Introduction to General Vocabulary Connected with Journalism (Reading techniques: skimming and scanning) Express your opinion: a) What quality is the most important in the make-up of a future journalist? b) How should a journalist write? c) What kind of life does a journalist usually lead?
Read the article “What makes a good Journalist“ and see if your ideas match the author's.
Task 3 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Reread the text and answer the following questions. What kind of people should a journalist be interested in? ________________________________________________________________. What other qualities are essential for a future journalist? ________________________________________________________________. Why is it necessary for a future journalist to have sympathy for other people? ________________________________________________________________. Why does the author think that a journalist needs humility? ________________________________________________________________. Is it good if a journalist uses very long sentences? Why? ________________________________________________________________. Is it better for a future journalist to be good at several subjects than to be brilliant at just one. Why? ________________________________________________________________. What kind of conclusion does the author come to? ________________________________________________________________. Do you agree with the author's conclusion? Give your reasons. ________________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________.
Develop the ideas from the following sentences by adding one or two sentences logically connected with them Many things make a good journalist. Even journalists can't agree which of them are more important. First of all a journalist must be interested in people of every type. One who has not this interest in will not make a good journalist. Journalists should have the qualities of sympathy, open-mindedness an an inquiring mind. Journalists must be well-educated people. They must be able to write in clear, simple, direct language Nobody can say what the best qualifications for a career in journalism are.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Spomenka Bogdanić: Engleski jezik u novinarstvu – Skripta za studente 2. g. komunikologije, Hrvatski studiji, Sveučilište u Zagrebu
Task 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10 11. 12. 13.
Match the meaning with the correct word: basic famous genuine successful humble open-minded ill-informed inquiring plain brilliant hasty clever paramount having a mind open to new ideas having or showing a modest opinon of oneself said, made or done too quickly very bright; splendid; causing admiration quick in learning and understanding things, skilful above all others; the most important true; really what it is said to be known widely; having fame; celebrated having success fundamental in the habit of asking for information simple; ordinary based on poor information
The difference between CLEAR and PLAIN. REMEMBER: Clear and plain mean ‘easy to see, hear or understand’, but they are used differently. For example, we can say: a clear sky, a clear day, clear air (without clouds, mist or fog),or figuratively speaking, clear thinking, a clear mind. Plain English is English without any long or literary words. Clear English is English in which thought is expressed clearly. If the water in the river is clear, you can see things at the bottom. Plain water is water without anything in it, like tap-water. Task 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. Task 7 Insert either plain or clear in the following sentences and then try to think of situations in which these sentences might be used The road is __________________. He has a __________________ vision of reality. She wore a _______________ blue dress. His explanation was _____________. His ______________ remarks sometimes offended people. The food was ____________ but good. It was a ____________ case of murder. She was a very ___________ girl. Her meaning was perfectly ________________. Explain the meaning of the saying: „Clear thinkers always have a clear style“.
___________________________________________________________________________. Task 8 Fill in the missing prepositions to be interested ___ to listen ___ to write ___ the language ___ plain Croatian to be famous ___ to be good ___
Spomenka Bogdanić: Engleski jezik u novinarstvu – Skripta za studente 2. g. komunikologije, Hrvatski studiji, Sveučilište u Zagrebu
AN EXTRA ACTIVITY Translate the following word combinations into Croatian. Learn the English variants and use them in sentences of your own: basic arguments facts principles issues industry research problems humble person home occupation smile request genuine manuscript signature Rubens diamond wool breed sorrow plain famous journalist painter writer scientist producer editor reporter
speech woman writing food articulation meaning statement fact answer face
ESSENTIAL VOCABULARY Genuine; humble: issue humility, to inquire, qualification, paramount, ill-informed, hasty, sympathy Homework: Create a pamphlet explaining how to begin a career in journalism. What type of schooling is necessary? Where can a person gain experience? What options are there within the field of journalism? Who are some famous journalists in each field? Why are they notable?
Spomenka Bogdanić: Engleski jezik u novinarstvu – Skripta za studente 2. g. komunikologije, Hrvatski studiji, Sveučilište u Zagrebu
UNIT 2 Task 1
INTERVIEWS (reported speech; reported questions) Think of six common interview questions 1._______________________________ 2._______________________________ 3._______________________________ 4._______________________________ 5._______________________________ 6.________________________________
PAIR WORK Imagine that you are an editor-in-chief interviewing an applicant for a job on your newspaper. whether s/he has had any experience in journalism what newspapers s/he has worked for what his/her mark in English was at school why s/he has decided to take up journalism as a career what his/her favourite subject was at school whether s/he can speak any foreign languages what speciality s/he would prefer to work at what newspapers s/he finds most interesting whether s/he is a keen reader of newspapers whether s/he has ever had any experience in conducting interviews
Ask him/her -
Transform these sentences into direct questions; in pairs ask each other these questions. Add two more questions of your own. Make short notes about your partner and report to the class. __________________________________________? __________________________________________? __________________________________________? __________________________________________? __________________________________________? __________________________________________? __________________________________________? __________________________________________?
__________________________________________? __________________________________________? __________________________________________? __________________________________________?
GROUP WORK In groups of five, choose one of the following alternatives and give reasons for your choice. Then choose a representative who will report the ideas of your group to the whole class. 1. Why do you think a journalist should be interested in people? a) to be able to understand their lives better b) to be able to make their articles more understandable c) to be able to make their articles more interesting d) to be able to get more information from people e) to be able to do their work more professionally
2. Who do you think may be considered a well-educated person? A person who a) has graduated from university b) is brilliant at many subjects c) is a keen reader of books and newspapers d) has a wide knowledge of international events e) has a good educational background f) can behave appropriately under different circumstances 3. Who do you think may be considered the best qualified person to take up journalism as a career? A person who a) has graduated from the school of journalism b) can write in simple, clear language c) is good at many subjects rather than brilliant at just one d) has worked on a newspaper for a long time e) is experienced as a journalist OR a person who is good at a) gathering important and interesting information b) speaking foreign languages c) taking interviews d) reporting events e) selecting and presenting news 4. Why do you think journalists must have an inquiring mind? a) to get as much information as possible b) to find out all the details about the event they are reporting c) to be able to understand people and their qualities better d) to be able to see the background of the event they are analysing e) not to make a hasty ill-informed judgement
CLASS DISCUSSION Use expressions of agreement or disagreement while discussing your viewpoints from the previous task. Some expressions might include: Agreement: I think so; I believe so; Right; I agree with you, etc. Disagreement: I dont' think so; I'm afraid not; I'm afraid you're wrong; Nothing of the kind; I totally disagree, etc.
Explain the meaning of the English phrases and translate them into Croatian. E.g., a high-minded writer is someone who has high ideals and moral principles. a politically-minded person a socially-minded scientist a practically-minded woman a scientifically-minded student an internationally-minded writer a broad-minded teacher a narrow-minded specialist an absent-minded scientist a fair minded writer a feeble-minded person
_____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ Translate: _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________
AN EXTRA ACTIVITY 1.
When are you going to do your assignment? She asked him ___________________________________________________. Why are you late? He wanted to know _______________________________________________. Where did you buy your new computer? He asked _______________________________________________________. Can you come to my party? She asked me ___________________________________________________. How much did you pay for it? He wanted to find out ___________________________________________. What time will you be at home? My mother asked ______________________________________________. .Do you need any money? He asked her __________________________________________________ How long have you been feeling sick? She asked him _________________________________________________.
HOMEWORK Write a report on your partner based on the questions in task 1.
Collocations The text A Mystery!
The Skyjacker who commandeered the Northwest Airlines Boeing 727 flight from Portland, Oregon to Seattle, Washington was cold, calculating and ruthless. He terrified the cabin staff when he opened the canvas bag he was carrying in his lap and showed them a home-made bomb – tightly wrapped sticks of dynamite packed round a detonator. As the jet cruised at 6,000m above the Cascade mountains, he threatened to blow apart the aircraft, killing himself and the 35 other passengers on board. But the man who cruelly bargained with the lives of the passengers and the crew pulled off something so daring and lucrative that he is now fondly remembered as a folk hero, a pirate of the jet age. Songs have been written in his honour, fan clubs have been formed to cherish his memory and thousands of admirers wear T-shirts with his name on. The souvenir industry and the posters in praise of D. B. Cooper would undoubtedly carry his photograph and glowing testimonials about his personal history – if anyone knew what he looked like or who he really was. But the true identity of the man who vanished into thin air with his $200 000 booty still remains a mystery. No one knows who he was, where he came from or where he went. D.B. Cooper may be a frozen corpse, a broken body lying in a heap of bank notes in an impenetrable forest in the mountains of the north-western United States. Or he may be sunning himself on a beach in Mexico and gloating over his perfect crime. The search which followed involved FBI agents, the army, helicopter pilots, And frogmen, and yet no trace of Cooper or his parachute was found among the densely wooded, inhospitable mountains in the American West. His chances of survival seemed pretty slim – he hadn't been wearing protective clothing and in this high altitude the parachute would only have slowed him to a bonecrushing 18 metres per second before he hit the mountain peaks. Only a superfit expert could have hoped to escape alive and professional experts agreed that Cooper's leap from a speeding jet in the rain storm was suicidal. Three weeks after the hijack came the first enigmatic clue; a typewritten note, posted in Seattle and signed by D.B. Cooper, was sent to a Los Angeles newspaper. „I'm no modern day Robin Hood. Unfortunately I have only 14 months to live. The hijacking was the fastest and most profitable way to gain a few last grains of peace of mind. I don't blame people for hating me for what I've done nor do I blame anybody for wanting me caught or punished – though this can never happen. I've come and gone on several airline flights since and I'm not holed up in some obscure backwoods town. Neither am I psychopath. I've never even received a parking ticket. FBI agents were confident that even if Cooper had survived the jump, he would be nailed as soon as he tried to spend a penny of the ransom money – all US banks and money clearing houses abroad had been alerted to raise the alarm as soon as they began to trickle into circulation. And as the widely publicised search began to lose steam the first groups of amateur explorers began searching the woods for the ransom treasure. Not one single dollar of the money turned up, but the mystery hijacker began to gather a cult following from a fascinated public. Treasure- hunters started again when an eight-year-old boy playing along the Columbia River near Vancouver found $3,000 of Cooper's cash. 8
If he is still alive, Cooper can now identify himself. After five years the file is officially closed and he can never be prosecuted for the crime. However, he could face a jail sentence for failing to pay tax on his money!
Read the text and choose 15-20 collocations which are connected with key words in the story. E.g. ruthless ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ ________ skyjacker __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ slim ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ chances ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________
IN TWO GROUPS Paraphrase a collocation while the other group is guessing it (e.g. a person who serves passengers during flight: FLIGHT ATTENDANT. Take it in turns until you run out of all the collocations.
Categorize these collocations and discuss them: a) N+N (cabin staff) ________________________ ________________________ ________________________ ________________________
________________________ ________________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________ _______________________
ADVB+ADJ (densely wooded)
V + ADVB
Create a new collocation starting with the last word. E.g. fan/club...................club/member home-made bomb.................................................... cabin/staff................................................................ dwindling/ number................................................... protective /clothing.................................................. departure/lounge...................................................... personal/history........................................................ true/identity.............................................................. flimsy/shoes............................................................. canvas/bag............................................................... money-clearing/house.............................................
Think of an opposite adjective or adverb e.g. ruthless skyjacker frozen corpse tightly wrapped penetrable forest slim chances dwindling number perfect crime inhospitable mountains
considerate skyjacker .................................. .................................. .................................. .................................. .................................. .................................. ..................................
AN EXTRA ACTIVITY (for challenged students only) Try to think of some other expressions to go with a particular word. e.g.: FLIGHT a flight of birds ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ CABIN __________________ __________________ __________________ FLIMSY __________________ __________________ __________________ PARKING __________________ __________________ __________________ Homework: ATTENDANT shop attendant ___________________ ___________________ ___________________ STAFF __________________ __________________ __________________ SHOES __________________ __________________ __________________ TICKET __________________ __________________ __________________
Use the collocations you have been working on and add some of yours to create an interesting story.
Vocabulary – Genres in the Media
Media partners1 Make combinations with the word “media“ below and use them to complete the extracts.
correspondent analyst tycoon pundit MEDIA magnate guru mogul
1. 2. 3. 4.
Find one expression meaning an expert on using the media. ................................................... Find one expression for an expert on the media as a business. .................................................... Find one expression for someone who gives their opinions using the media .................................................... Find one expression for someone who reports on the media in the media ................................................... Estimates by Bronwen Maddox, media ______________ at Kleinwort Benson Securities are that the company will lose more than $330 million this year. But it is not the economists and media _____________ who matter. The people who have been driven to fury by the finance minister are those who have lost their livelihoods. Another satellite network, Sky Television, is owned by the media ______________ Mr Rupert Murdoch. The Palace has claimed that Fergie had hired top media _______________ Sir Tim Bell to handle publicity on her behalf. For the past three years he had been chairman of Thames Television and had been due to retire shortly because of his ill-health. Our media ________________, Torin Douglas, looks back at his career.
Media partners 2 empire coverage circus exposure MEDIA campaign hype attention
Find expressions for: 1. 2. Disapproval describing an event dominated by the presence of the media. ..................................................................... A period of coverage in different media organised to change people’s opinions about something or someone. ……………………………………………. Excitement generated by the media not justified by reality. ……………………………………………. A very big media organisation, perhaps one containing newspapers and TV stations. ……………………………………………. Three expressions referring to what the media give or show if they talk about something. …………………………………………….
Insert the following TV-related expressions into the sentences below. audience / network / advertising / commercial / commercial break /spot slot / peak-time / prime- time / ratings battle / ratings war 1. There is a lot of competition between broadcasting organisations. Most TV and radio ______________want to increase the size of their ___________, at the expense of other networks. Good ratings are especially important during ________-_________ or ___________ -__________, the time of the day or _______, when most people watch TV. __________ also means any short period in broadcasting reserved for a specific purpose. High audience figures attract more___________ or_____________ to be Shown in ___________ __________ between programmes. They are also known as ______________. The media often talk about __________ ___________ or ___________ _____________ between networks when discussing competition in the industry.
Fill in the missing words. host broadcast hosting show anchor news gatherers newsreaders fronted correspondent TV crew reporters newscasters
No lawyer representing the tobacco companies would be interviewed for this __________________. Groucho flourished in situations with no script at all. One enormous success was his ___________ of a ___________ called “You Bet Your Life” which began in 1947and ran for four years on radio and eleven on television. To me, ______________ are just people who read the news. I’ve never believed in the TV personality cult. An obsessed fan who sent poison-pen letters to TV presenter Michaela Strachan was yesterday found guilty of threatening to kill her. Clifford Jones, 42, sent 2,000 letters over a two-year period to the children’s programme ____________, a Liverpool court was told. On the BBC World Service the news people present the news as it is, and not the _______________’ view of it. In an unsportsmanlike and provocative move, they have chosen to __________ on the same frequency that we have been using for the past five years. Sissons, a solid performer, would make an excellent “Newsnight” ___________. Though he has ____________ live television studio debates for Channel 4 in the past, he seems lost at the BBC. We have just had this report from our _____________ in Athens. Television ____________ would put on their gas masks on screen to point live at missile streaks in the sky. The BBC has produced two hard-hitting videos in a bid to cut down the growing number of __________________ killed or injured while on duty. His temper finally cracked when he turned on a ___________and shouted, “Leave me alone.”
Find synonyms for: anchor to host newsreader zapper television mayhem ……………………………………………….. ……………………………………………….. ……………………………………………….. ……………………………………………….. ……………………………………………….. ………………………………………………..
Task 6 1. 2. 3.
Match the types of programmes to their definitions. chat show or talk show game show God slot a contest of skill, intelligence and knowledge b series about the lives of a group of people c short for situation comedy.Comedy series based around a character or group o characters, often an “ordinary” family d a well-known host invites guests to talk, often about something they are trying to sell or promote, like their latest book e a host invites people to phone in and put questions to studio guest, or just give their opinions about something f religious programme g contest involving answering questions
sitcom soap opera or soap
AN EXTRA ACTIVITY Make your own sentences using the following words. Footage; media empire; bugged; freedom of the press; vox pops; political correctness; broadcast; magnate; sitcom; commercials; God slot; reporters; scoop; photogenic; watchdog; toothless; intrusive; correspondent; media coverage; telegenic; ratings war; gory; editorial leader writers; tube; couch potato; tabloid; gutter press; banner headline; suing for libel; media attention: game-show; zapper; mayhem; readership; carry an article Homework: 1. a
Find the origins of the following words. pundit, tycoon, magnate, mogul, guru, soap opera, paparazzo, tabloid Explain in your own words the terms: docudrama; infotainment; sitcom; couch potato. Read the article „Broadcasters have promised to clean up their act. Critics say don't believe the hype”., CollinsCobuild Key words in the media, p.15 . Write a short comment on the violence on children's programmes
UNIT 5 TASK 1
Newspaper Headlines: Stylistic Features In pairs, discuss the following questions. 1. 2. 3. 4. Which newspapers do you read? Why? What’s the biggest story in your country at the moment? Why are headlines important? Do you find it difficult to read headlines in English? Explain why / why not.
Understanding headlines in a foreign language can be difficult. Newspapers use several language devices in order to create eye-catching headlines. Here are some of them: Alliteration - repetition of the same initial sound in a group of words / Wives’ war of waiting and writing/ Assonance - repetition of one particular vowel sound in a group of words /Wotto lotto bosh on lotto dosh/ Cliché - used in a pejorative sense to refer to a word or expression that is considered to be over-used, or used indiscriminately. Clichés come in several different forms, including alliterative phrases, over-dramatic adjectives, metaphors and single words. /Skiers safe and sound/ Euphemism - use of particular word or expression which is considered more acceptable or pleasant, or less controversial than certain other words or expressions. It can be used as a way of being vague and unclear, or to cover up the truth or reality of a situation. /Minister threatens air support (i.e. bombing)/ Irony - can be used for news events in which a person seems mocked by fate or events. Although frequently tragic, there is often an element of black humour to be found in such headlines. /Bike crash kills flying phobia man/ Metaphor - when a phrase or expression usually used to describe one thing is used to describe something else. /New hospital put on ice/ Pun - a play on words which has several meanings or which sounds like another word. It is a feature frequently used in tabloid newspapers for humorous effect /Fisherman nets lotto jackpot/
Repetition - for emphasis and a very strong dramatic effect. /Why, Oh Why, Oh Why/ Shared knowledge - Many headlines assume shared cultural knowledge and shared general knowledge between the headline writer and the reader. This includes the use of only first names or surnames of people who are considered so well-known that stating their full name, position or title or reason for prominence is considered unnecessary. /Kiss for Harry as he meets pop idols/ (reference to Prince Harry, the son of the Prince of Wales) Simile - describing one thing by likening it to another. /Crash scene like a battlefield/ Task 2 Here are some typical newspaper headlines. Each is explained in everyday language, with some words missing. Fill the gaps. 1. Quake toll rises The number of ................... of the ...................... has risen Premier backs peace moves in docks The ..................... says that (s)he........................ the .............................. to reconcile both sides in the port worker's dispute Police name Mr Big The police have revealed the ……………… of the …………….. of the robberies Key MP held on bribes charge A prominent …………….. has been …………… because he is alleged to have ……………… bribes. Fish talks in Brussels ………………. Between EC ……………. ministers are to be …………….. in Brussels “Tories set to win poll” Someone says that the ……………….. party is ……………. to win the forthcoming by-election Jobless total tops 3m – PM to face critics in Commons ………… 3 million people are now ………………. The Opposition will be asking the ……………… some difficult questions in ……………………. . Washington ups arms spending The …………… government have ………………. their defence budget.
$ 3m drugs haul at J.F. Kennedy Customs officers at Kennedy Airport have ………………… drugs …………………. $ 3 million. Heads up in arms over cuts – teachers to be axed …………………. teachers are …………….. because spending on schools is to be …………… . Some teachers are going to lose …………… jobs. Look ad the headlines in Task 2 again. Decide which of the following questions can easily be answered by reading them. • What happened? • Where did it happen? • Who did what? • When did it happen? • Why did it happen? Shock horror headlines. Some papers, especially tabloids, are famous for their headlines. Match these headline words with their meanings and then use them to complete the headlines below. BID BOOST DASH ORDEAL PLEA PLEDGE PROBE QUIZ ROW VIGIL a b c d e f g h i j an unpleasant experience, usually lasting some time argument attempt inquiry questioning by the police or at an enquiry fast journey, often with an uncertain outcome emotional request a period of waiting, perhaps by an ill person's bedside promise increase in numbers or in confidence, morale or prospects
GLENDA KEEPS ________________ AT INJURED SON'S BED Actress Glenda Jackson left hospital last night after spending the day at her son's bedside, and spoke of her relief that he was still alive. LIVERPOOL’S EURO_____________. Liverpool last night received a European lift when UEFA confirmed that Welsh international Ian Rush will no longer be classified as a foreign player. MAN FACES ______________ ON WIFE DEATH. Detectives were waiting by the hospital bedside of a man to question him about the death of his wife.
NIGEL’S ____________ . World champion Nigel Mansell took a lingering look across the Portuguese Grand Prix track which has caused him both heartache and joy yesterday before declaring: “I will never come back here again – I’m finished forever with Formula One.”
OLYMPIC BOSS IN BRIBE _____________ . The head of the Olympics is threatening legal action over a TV documentary alleging his officials are corrupt. PILOT IN BRITISH PLANE ___________ . A British airliner has made an emergency landing in southern England after a cockpit window shattered and the pilot was almost sucked out. __________ TO “DIVORCE” BID GIRL. The mother of a teenager who has taken court action to “divorce” her parents pleaded last night for her to come home. PRIVATE HEALTH PRICE FIXERS FACING ____________ . Fees charged for private medical treatment are to be investigated by monopoly watchdogs. SRI LANKA PEACE ____________ . A Sri Lankan government negotiator is expected to try to reopen talks with the Tamil Tigers today in an attempt to end the outbreak of fighting between Tigers and the Army. TEENAGE PAIR KILLED IN ___________ ACROSS M-WAY. A teenage judo champion and a girl pal were killed in front of friends as they took a short cut across a motorway. In pairs, discuss the following questions.
Task 5 1. 2. 3. 4.
Which of the headlines in Task 3 got your interest? Why? Which headlines would you put on the front page of a newspaper? Explain your choice(s) If you were the editor of a popular daily, which would be your lead story (the most important story of the day)? Explain your choice. How do you think the stories continue?
AN EXTRA ACTIVITY
Headline humour . What business activities do these headlines refer to? a) Match the headlines and the activities b) Turn the headlines into sentences a b c d e f radio dry cleaning textiles beds healthcare beer
BASS GOES DOWN SMOOTHLY SKETCHLEY CLEAN-OUT BRINGS BACK PROFITS CAPITAL SOUNDS A QUIETER $5 MILLION BODYSHOP IN GOOD SHAPE SILENTNIGHT BOUNCES IN WITH $11.5 million TOOTAL SEWS UP CHINESE LINK
Choose a daily newspaper and sort out at least ten headlines according to style.
Political Correctness Contrasting and comparing politically (in)correct vocabulary (in foreign and national press) Few descriptive words in any language are completely fair or neutral. Most have either pleasant or unpleasant meanings. Some groups of people in every country of the world have words used about them which show that the speaker – the person using the words – thinks poorly about them. Here are some examples of the general kinds of groups of people of whom unpleasant words are used. Can you think of any such words which may be slang or may be correct everyday English? Write the words down by the name of the group. Skin colour or race .......................................................................................... Job ................................................................................................................... Sex (male, female) .......................................................................................... Religion .......................................................................................................... Education......................................................................................................... Sexual orientation (heterosexual, homosexual, bisexual)............................... Physical type or shape..................................................................................... Intelligence...................................................................................................... Physical condition or ability............................................................................ Age................................................................................................................... Financial position............................................................................................ Marital status...................................................................................................
Individually, think of one fact about yourself which could be the subject of an unpleasant description. (Few of us are so perfect that nothing is wrong!) Write down one way in English of stating this fact which is negative, another more positive. Discuss In all the English speaking countries there is a powerful movement to change the way we think, speak and write about some of these groups. This attempt is called the movement to political correctness or PC. The movement itself arouses feelings as powerful as some of the language it tries to change. Is anything similar to this happening in your country? Read some of the definitions from The Officially Politically Correct Dictionary and Handbook, by Henry Beard and Christopher Cerf, published in 1992. Many of them sound almost incredible, but the authors found them all in published texts. You will realize that many English speakers think that some of these definitions are exaggerated and absurd, while others have become standard, everyday English. Put a check ( ) by those which you expect to find in the English you know, read and hear. Those you think are funny, indicate by drawing a smiley (☺) beside them. Comment and discuss.
PC words African-American Alternative dentation Alternatively schooled Animal companion Asian American Aurally inconvenienced Chair Chemically inconvenienced Chicana/Chicano Chronologically gifted Cosmetically different Differently abled Differently advantaged Differently interesting Hair disadvantaged Herstory Incomplete success Indefinitely idled Larger than average citizen Least best Mentally challenged Morally different Motivationally deficient Person of Colour Person of gender Person of noncolour Sex worker Significant other Uniquely coordinated Waitron Womyn U.S. citizens of African descent false teeth uneducated; illiterate pet U.S. citizens of Asian descent deaf; heard of hearing; aurally challenged substitute for chairman, chairwoman under the influence of alcohol or drugs; sobriety deprived of Mexican-American descent old; longer living; mature; senior; seasoned ugly physically or mentally disabled poor; economically exploited or marginalized boring; charm-free bald; follicularly challenged history failure (originally coined by President J. Carter unemployed; between career changes fat; person of size; person of substance worst mentally retarded; cerebrally challenged dishonest; immoral; evil lazy a nonwhite person a woman a white person, especially a white Anglo-Saxon Protestant prostitute; sex care provider husband; lover; spouse; wife; girlfriend; boyfriend; sex partner clumsy waitperson; dining-room attendant women
Comment these two headlines and try to write them politically correctly (if necessary) A MANIAC KILLS NEIGHBOUR AND WIFE ____________________________________________________ PLANE CRASH: 30 SURVIVORS INCLUDING 10 WOMEN ____________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________
Task 6 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. Task7
How would you convert the following sentences into gender neutral sentences? Man will never conquer space. Man's origins are still not fully understood. Someone is at the door. Shall I let him in? Each student must have his own book. My neighbour and his wife are on holiday. Englishmen are very reserved. The user can use his mouse to move the cursor. The anchorman announced a very politically incorrect topic. Gender-related PC vocabulary Many words have tended to retain their connotations of power and independence, whereas female ones have become associated with triviality, dependence and sex. Compare: bachelor governor master spinster governess mistress
Explain the original meaning of these words and how their meaning changed over the centuries. Task 8 Job related PC vocabulary In groups, write as many words as you can think of related to jobs and put them in gender neutral words e.g. postman, postwoman letter carrier
AN EXTRA ACTIVITY
Politically incorrect jokes
Read this joke about a blind person. Is it funny? A blind man and his guide dog went into a department store to do some Christmas shopping. All of a sudden, the man picked up his dog by the tail and started to swing it around in a circle. A sales assistant shouted, “Sir! Can I help you?” “No, thanks,” the man replied, “I’m just looking.” Have you ever laughed at something that other people thought was not funny or told a joke which upset people? Describe the situation. Is it OK to tell jokes about anything and everything? Would any or all of the following offend you? Why? Why not? • a joke about a physically disabled person • a joke that makes fun of women • a joke that makes fun of men
• • •
a joke that makes fun of the elderly a joke that ridicules a particular religion a joke involving a particular country or nationality
Is there a particular group of people in our country who are often the object of jokes? Homework: 1. Read several articles from a British or American daily newspaper; compare and contrast the usage of politically (in)correct words with one of the national daily newspaper and write a report. (don’t’ forget connectives for contrast and comparison.) 2. Think about a joke that you know and try to translate it into English.
UNIT 7 Task 1 1. 2. 3.
Vocabulary - Politics In General Discuss in groups. How much are you involved in politics? What is the role of the media in political everyday life? How much should ordinary people be exposed to politics?
Here are some famous quotations about politics. Which of them do you agree/disagree with? Which do you agree with up to a certain point? Give your reasons.
“All men are created equal.”
Thomas Jefferson (1743-1826)
“The ballot is stronger than the bullet.”
Abraham Lincoln (1809-1903)
“No one can be perfectly free till all are free; no one can be perfectly happy till all are happy.”
Herbert Spencer (1820-1903)
“Nationalism is an infantile disease. It is the measles of mankind.”
Albert Einstein (1879-1955)
“Unhappy the land that is in need of heroes.”
Bertolt Brecht (1898-1956)
“Politics is too serious a matter to be left to the politicians.”
General de Gaulle (1890-1970)
“Political power grows out of the barrel of gun.” Mao Tse-tung (1893-1976)
“Ask not what your country can do for you; ask what you can do for your country.”
In pairs, find combinations that correspond to the definitions 1-8. Then use the combinations to complete extracts a-h.
1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
Things that candidates say to get elected but that they don’t really mean _________________________ Trips that candidates go on _______________________ Something that a candidate says they will do if elected __________________ Unoriginal things that candidates say and do ___________________ An attack made by a candidate on others ______________________ Methods, honest and dishonest, that are used by candidates to gain electoral advantage ________________________ A government’s financial plan that is designed to win votes_______________ Violence that is encouraged by candidates _________________ assault budget promise clichés thuggery rhetoric tactics tours
a b c e f g h
He did everything in the book of electioneering_____________ short of kissing babies. He followed this up with an electioneering ____________ on Labour, claiming businessmen had no enthusiasm for a Labour government. Mr Reagan’s great achievement of his second term – tax reform – was first aired as an electioneering ____________ . Voters complain about electioneering ___________ that verge on the dishonest. The prospect of an electioneering ___________ and a cut in interest rates as an additional sweetener gave shares a welcome boost yesterday. What the Russians at first took to be electioneering __________ they discovered to be theological convictions. “Evil empire” meant what it said. Shaven-headed youths combine football violence with electioneering __________ .
Read this report from The Times about the witch doctors to prevent, or check electoral fraud. Fill the gaps using six of the words listed. Two words are not used. a booths b electoral c voting d poll e gerrymandering f vote-rigging g constituency h irregularities
Thais cast spells to check poll fraud As the election campaign that has seen the most strenuous efforts ever in Thailand to stop vote-buying and other _________________ came to an end, the government-appointed ______________ - watch committee hired witch doctors to invoke benign spirits to stop ______________ fraud. The committee said: ”Superstition is needed to fight satanic influences.” The witch-doctors had their biggest ceremony in the ______________ of General Chatichai Choonavan, a former prime minister, who with other ministers was accused of corruption while in office. The army cited their corruption as justification for the coup last year. Reciting magic words, the witch doctors cast spells on pieces of animal hide and iron nails that were later scattered around the houses of suspects. The committee said the items would creep into the bodies of corrupt politicians. More than 60,000 volunteers have been on the lookout for attempts to manipulate the election. Tomorrow they will man polling ____________ to stop fraudulent ____________ .
Two main methods of electing candidates are: - proportional representation or PR, where winning candidates are elected from a list in proportion to the number of votes cast for each candidate; - first past the post, where the candidate with the most votes in the constituency wins, even if she or he has fewer votes than the other candidates combined. Some countries use a combination of both electoral systems In groups, discuss the electoral system in our country.
Task 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10.
Match these legislative chambers to their countries House of Commons Sejm Bundestag Riksdag Great Hural Cortes Dáil Lok Sabha Knesset Folketing a b c d e f g h i j Germany United Kingdom Ireland Mongolia Poland Sweden Spain India Denmark Israel
Explain the following. - presidential bid or bid for the presidency____________________________ ____________________________________________________________ . - opinion polls and surveys ________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ . - front runner __________________________________________________ . - level pegging or running neck and neck _____________________________ ____________________________________________________________ . - majority (absolute or overall) _____________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ . - coalition government ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ . - rainbow coalition ______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ . - honeymoon period _____________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ . - incumbent parties or politicians ___________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ . - cabinet reshuffle _______________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ .
Task 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12.
Complete the words which are described in the definitions below. Not temporary Self-imposed Vote-catching activity Where British politicians stand, Americans do this Concealment of wrongdoing leading to a gate A low turnout means a high rate of this Candidates stand on this box and speak from it What a rioter does when stealing something This group may form its own party Rival groups within a party Political dirt made to stick What demonstrations may degenerate into p-------v-------e------------r-c---- -a--------s--l---s------f------s----r-----26
AN EXTRA ACTIVITY Put a, the, or ø in the gaps What …….. scandal! After ……... long trial, Jorge Blanco, 65, …….. former President of ……. Dominican Republic, …….. Central American country, was sentenced to 20 years in …….. for embezzling $ 5 million from ……. government in ……. Santo Domingo. Evidence at ……. two-year trial showed that Blanco skimmed …… money by inflating ……. price of equipment bought by …… military and national police in his administration’s final years. He was ordered to make restitution to ……. government.
How is the President or Prime Minister of your country chosen? How important is it for a country to have a charismatic leader? Write a report using these questions as guidelines
Expressing Moral Values in Journalism (Example: The Watergate Affair)
“Morality is the custom of one’s country and the current feeling of one’s peers. Cannibalism is moral in a cannibal country.” (Samuel Butler 1835-1902) Task 1 Comment Butler’s quotation and discuss in groups the following points regarding moral values. 1. 2. 3. Is it important to have certain values and principles? What are your values? Have people’s values changed over the generations? (e.g. What things do our parents and did our grandparents value?) If so, how? Do your values conflict with those of people around you? Do you put your principles into action? Look at the ten situations below and evaluate them in terms of how right or wrong you think they are. Make priorities - from perfectly acceptable to totally unacceptable. Discuss. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Not voting in a national election. Politicians, to get money for themselves, using their influence to get a law passed which they know to be against the public’s interest. Buying stolen goods. Newspapers treating crime as news so as to make a known criminal appear heroic. Driving while well over the legal limit of alcohol. Kidnapping and holding a child for ransom. Smoking in lifts. Tax evasion by withholding important information. Cheating on your partner Keeping $10 of extra change given by a clerk by mistake.
Task 3 Sometimes candidates in an election campaign or the media search for damaging information about a politician’s personal life, or business or secret political activities. Damaging information of this kind can be then used to attack their opponents of using unfair or even criminal methods against them, such as paying people to make false accusations, stealing documents, bugging phone conversations, and so on. Digging for dirt has become a major part of journalism, especially related to politics. Discuss whether you agree with this statement. Explain why / why not. Look at some expressions the journalists use to refer to political campaigns and politicians and try to explain them in your own words (use your general knowledge or a dictionary if necessary). sleaze; digging for dirt; smear campaign; muckraking or mudslinging; Teflon coating; dirty tricks; disinformation; cover up; leaking information; conspiracy; to do someone in; electoral fraud; irregularities; vote-rigging; gerrymandering; lame duck; political wilderness
In groups, write a short article about the political situation in your country at the moment. Use all the expressions from above. Task 4 1. 2. 3. Discuss in groups What was Watergate all about? Why is this affair used as an example of the beginnings of investigative journalism? Which of the expressions from Task 3 do you expect to find in the following text about Watergate?
Read this extract from an American National Radio Broadcast made on the 20th anniversary of the Watergate break-in, and answer the questions. The botched break-in at Watergate, which gave the era its name, was only a minute part of what it was all about. Bugging the Democrats and rifling their files, apparently to learn what they might have on Nixon, was only one manifestation of presidential paranoia fanned by anti-war protests. Once critics and opponents were perceived as “enemies”, a word until then unfamiliar to American politics, then the law and the Constitution could be flouted in the name of national security, and so taps could be put on the phones of White House aides and the journalists to whom they might be leaking, and so explicitly illegal plans could be drawn up for widespread FBI and CIA surveillance on American dissenters. All this was only the first instalment of the conspiracy. Re-elected by a landslide, Nixon had more ominous plans for his second term which were aborted by the unravelling of Watergate. He planned a clean sweep of officials unresponsive to his designs and the stationing of White House commissars and departments and agencies to bring them under tighter control. He had told counsel John Dean to” keep notes on all of those who try to do us in” and said he would use against them the full powers of government that he had not used in the first four years. He planned to expand the plumbers, the White House Intelligence unit, into a largescale intelligence surveillance operation. So when you are asked, “Grandpa, what was Watergate all about? Was it about dirty tricks and politics as usual?” Then you should answer, “No, it was about a paranoid politician who saw enemies all around him and who tried to hijack the whole government in order to punish them.” 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. If a plan is botched, is it carried out successfully? _____. The files were rifled , or stolen, to see what d - - -, or damaging information, the Democrats had on Nixon. If you flout the law, do you obey it? ______. If you put a tap on someone’s phone, you - - g it. If an official leaks information to the press, do they wish their identity to be known? ______ . In a surveillance operation, do organisations such as the police spy on people? _____ . Someone in a conspiracy conspires or p - - - - with other people to do something illegal. If you do someone in, do you a) help them, b) attack them? What do plumbers usually work on? a) electricity, b) pipes, taps and leaks or c) woodwork A paranoid person suffers from - - - - - - - - .
Task 5 NOTE The suffix -gate is used when referring not only to dirty tricks campaigns, but to any case of political or business corruption and its associated cover-up; the associated attempts to hide the truth.
In groups, decide on one of the “-gates” you are most familiar with and report to the class. Include as many words and expression as possible from Task 4.
The Greek philosophers (especially Plato and Aristotle) chose not to ask ‘What is the right thing to do?’ Instead, they asked, ‘What traits of character make one a good person?’ They called these traits “virtues” and defined them as action that, if practiced habitually, would ultimately result in a good character. In other words, virtues are needed for human beings to conduct their lives well. Virtues can be acquired, learned, and cultivated by the diligent person. Here is one list of virtues taken from the book by James Rachels, Moral Philosophy, p.163. benevolence conscientiousness dependability generosity justice reasonableness self-discipline thoughtfulness civility courage fairness honesty loyalty self-confidence self-reliance tolerance compassion courteousness friendliness industriousness moderation self-control tactfulness
Put these virtues in the order you believe they should go for working journalists. human being ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ Discuss your priorities. citizen ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ ___________ professional ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________
AN EXTRA ACTIVITY Transform the nouns from the list in Task 6 into adjectives. An example is given. NOUNS tolerance ADJECTIVES tolerant
Homework Make up a five-point code of ethics for your own newspaper, ad, agency, or PR firm and write a detailed explanation.
Giving Opinions on Different Political Regimes
Opinions are like belly buttons: everybody has got one, but do other people want to hear you talk about yours? Writing opinions only becomes interesting if you have something to say. Your opinion will not be interesting or worth expressing until you have thought about the subject. So the first stage in writing your opinion happens in your head, while you get your ideas straight. Many of the best writers find it useful to make notes of all their ideas before they start writing. The way your ideas are connected is very important; this is achieved by the use of connecting words, by the way the ideas are connected into paragraphs and by the way the paragraphs themselves are ordered.
Divide the following expressions into groups under the following three headings: giving an opinion, agreeing and disagreeing. I’m afraid I can’t go along with that. I’m totally in agreement with……… In my opinion…….. If you ask me……. You’re quite right. I’m afraid I can’t agree with…… I think she is mistaken. That’s absolutely right. I feel quite/rather strongly that… I firmly believe that… I share your opinion on ….. Contrary to popular belief…… We are poles apart …. It’s a matter of opinion….. Try to add one or more phrases to each section.
In pairs, give your opinion, agree or disagree with these statements. • • • The news media should cooperate with law enforcement authorities. Limitations should be put on the media during a national crisis /times of war. Journalists and their sources should be protected from prosecution.
Discuss your responses in groups and connect your ideas in a more formal way by using connecting words.
I would say it depends on___________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Some journalists __________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ Others, however, __________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________ All in all, ________________________________________________________ ________________________________________________________________
There are many reasons why__________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ One reason is ______________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Another__________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ What is more, _____________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Above all, ________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________
On the one hand, ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ On the other hand, __________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Not only that, but ___________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________ Ultimately, ________________________________________________________ _________________________________________________________________
Task 4. a b c Individually, make a list of all political regimes that you know ; sort out the undemocratic regimes Write as many words and expressions as you can think of connected with political regimes. Compare in groups and add to your list. In groups, choose an undemocratic regime, write your group’s opinion about it and report to the class using the elements from Task 1 and Task 3.
Find synonyms for: military takeover dictator overthrown (government) clampdown demonstration _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________ _______________________________
Match the expressions on the left to their descriptions on the right. curfew rioting clash martial law state of emergency a violent demonstration violent confrontations with the security forces when normal laws are suspended a period at night when people must stay indoors and keep off the streets. when military control is imposed on the country
Read the collocations connected with war and peace and write an example for each. E.g.-When war broke out, my father joined the army. WAR to break out to declare war an all-out war within firing range fierce fighting decisive battle fight the war the horrors of war peacekeeping forces to avert war PEACE bring about peace negotiate a peace agreement call a truce /ceasefire sign a peace treaty lasting peace peace activist keep the peace restore order
War Expressions in everyday language The police fought a running battle with football hooligans in the town centre. The people of the village put up a heroic fight against the construction of the new motorway, but finally lost battle. The bank robbers didn’t offer any resistance when the police surrounded them. The President is fighting for his life tonight in the City hospital after a major operation. NOTE Some collocations connected with war and military action are also used in a business or political context, e.g. a price war, to fight crime, a war on crime.
AN EXTRA ACTIVITY 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Correct the collocation errors in these sentences:
The police fought a walking battle with a group of violent demonstrators. I feel we are missing the battle to persuade the management to increase our Salaries. The students made up a heroic fight against the plan to increase course fees. I was surprised that the Management Committee sent no resistance to our demands. A tiny baby with a rare heart condition is fighting his life in the General Hospital tonight.
Homework Imagine you are a war correspondent reporting from a battlefield in a foreign country for the evening news. Use all the elements from this unit that you think might help you to write the report. (Don’t forget to mention the country you are reporting from.)
Basic Business Terminology
Headlines and articles about a company often use language relating to the type of business the company is in. Pirelli en route to puncture rival Turning rags into riches Kick-off for Spur shares Airtours flies highest in a turbulent year Westland prepares for take-off Task 1 competition in the tyre industry clothes hire shops Tottenham Hotspur football club holiday company helicopter manufacturer
Complete each headline with one of the words below. a Airbus c Defence e computer b Spurs d Airfares f Car makers 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8.
g Private medicine h Ford’s
Post-boom virus hits _________________ services Takeoff for _______________ operating profits ________________ £1.6 billion blowout ________________ firms fight to survive by beating swords into tube trains ________________ fire on all cylinders in fight against taxes ________________ dogfight ________________ shareholders ruled offside ________________ runs a temperature Answer the following questions and discuss in groups.
Task 2 1. 2. 3. Task 3
Have you ever worked in a company? If you have, what did you do? If not, what would you like to do? Have you ever invested in any funds? Do you think your country is facing recession ? Look at the list of key words used to talk about rising and falling market prices which are all mixed up. In pairs, sort them out in two columns.
advance, drop, fall, increase, retreat ,rise, slide, decline, edge higher, climb, rocket, edge down, slip, drift, leap, skyrocket, dip, surge, dive, plummet, soar, crash, jump, collapse, slump, shoot up. prices going up _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ prices going down _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________ _______________
Task 4 1.
Choose the correct alternative for each sentence. Although best levels were not held, shares _____________________. declined plummeted advanced The pound ______________ against the dollar, to close up 15 cents at $1.68. dived fell edged higher Sainsbury’s share price has __________________ relative to its sector, underlining its position as the ultimate defensive stock in times of trouble. shot up fallen declined The FT-SE share index _____________ below 2,100 points yesterday but an afternoon rally left it just above 2,100, at 2,100.4, down 1.8. drifted rose rocketed In London the dollar ____________ by a tiny margin at the outset. edged up rocketed shot up The US dollar fell and Japanese shares _______________ to their lowest level in three months in Tokyo trading today. leapt dropped rose Pre-tax profits have collapsed from £4.57 million in 2004 to just £250,000 in the last financial year. Not surprisingly, shares have______________. risen dived edged higher Shares in Henlys ___________ 22p to 55p after the coach-builder warned it would report a loss for the half-year ending this month. crashed dipped edged lower
In groups, find at least two more expressions for the following words. (Use your dictionaries, if necessary) shares stock market broker blue chip shares ………………., …………………. ………………., …………………. ………………., …………………. ………………., …………….........
Bull markets and bear markets When market prices are rising or making gains or gaining ground, journalists, traders and investors talk about a bull market When prices are falling or losing ground, traders talk about a bear market. Match the two parts of these extracts. 1. 2. The bulls were stampeding. by the end of trading, The bear market which followed the crash of October 1987 was the shortest on record Fisons continued to lose ground, Since the property collapse, By late afternoon yesterday, bonds were little changed, Precious metals regained lost ground At the 9a.m. opening in London, the pound traded at $1.925,2.15 cents up on Wednesday’s close, before ending at $1.9245. a With London gold $2.25 higher at $377.25 an ounce and silver 4 cents up at $3.85 an ounce. b David Fuller believes we may now have had the opposite: the shortest bull market on record. c records lay broken from Austria to New Zealand. d imminent recovery has been sighted as many times as the Loch Ness monster, and with as much effect. e although a rally on the stock market helped the Dow Jones industrial average close up 42.33 points at 2,930.2. f It regained some ground in New York, where it ended at $1.933. g finishing 32p down at 423p as brokers continued to take a bearish view of the group’s prospects.
3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
AN EXTRA ACTIVITY
Fill in the missing words
A boom on the ………. market, with share prices reaching ……….. levels, …… or may not reflect what ……. happening …….. the economy. ….. economic boom with high economic growth is inevitably followed ……. a slowdown …….. a downturn when ……economy weakens. A slowdown may be the first …….. of a recession: a …….. .. with little growth, no growth or even negative growth. ……… a recession, everyone waits ……. the economy to start expanding quickly again, impatiently ……… for signs …. a recovery or an upturn. When a recession is ……….. severe and prolonged, commentators talk ……… Depression. The Depression, with a ………. D, usually refers ………. the years following the Wall street ……… of 1929.
Write a composition about The Depression Read a financial magazine or newspaper and write a report about the market movements in your country.
UNIT 11 Task 1
Writing about People in Business
Business leaders, who head and run companies, are usually rich and successful people with power and influence. They may be referred to as tycoons, magnates or moguls. Which of these expressions would you use in combination with: property media publishing …………………………. …………………………. ………………………….
Match these people in business to their definitions. entrepreneurs high-rollers whiz-kids yuppies bean-counters nerds receivers experts who run the computers on which the numbers are crunched people who start up new businesses rich successful people not necessarily at the top of an organisation accountants and other numerate specialists people with talent to move up in an organisation quickly specialised accountants who are appointed to try to rescue companies in trouble young urban professionals from the 1980s.
Complete each extract with one of the most appropriate expressions. a entrepreneurs b magnate c tycoon d yuppie e high rollers f whiz-kids g number crunchers h bean-counter
1. The absence of a fast-track for ________________explains why Japanese companies find it hard to keep the growing minority of 25-year-olds who have MBAs from western business schools. 2. The myth of the _______________ - the Young Urban Professional – was born in the United States in the 1980s. 3. “He’s not an advertising man. He’s a ________________ who counted the beans wrong.” 4. Caesars traditionally attracts a gold-chained clientele, the kind of wealthy
_________________ who lay $100,000 on the turn of one card. 5. Even if the recovery is under way, it may be some time before the ___________________ confirm it. 6. Even when smoking one of his favourite Havana cigars, Benedetti seems a most untycoonish ______________. 7. Now they are an endangered species. For the bold _________________ of the Thatcher era are the biggest losers of the Nineties recession. 8. Silvio Berlusconi, the Italian television and publishing_____________ is the owner of AC Milan as well.
Read the article from the Times about companies in difficulty on the next page and complete these tasks: 1. Find: a two words or expressions relating to illness b two words or expressions relating to death and c one word relating to blood
Find: a a word meaning the period when receivers are trying to help a company get out of difficulty b a two-word expression meaning a business that can be run normally and profitably c a noun that can be used to mean a period when prices go up after they have been going down and here means an improved state for a previously failing company d a two-word expression meaning a firm of accountants specialising in helping companies in difficulty. What, paradoxically, do they try to help companies avoid? e what happens to companies that do not continue in some form. They ___________ ___________ _____________.
The chairmen of failing companies referred to in the last paragraph are overbearingly, or excessively, co-operative with the receivers, often because they have been “up to no good”. Does this mean: a they have been honest, but have not been good managers of their company b they have been dishonest, perhaps doing some of the creative accounting?
No sector can feel secure They used to say the tell-tale signs were personalised car number plates for the chairman and a fountain in the reception area. But these days receivers no longer joke about terminally ill corporations. “Recession sickness’ is afflicting even well-run companies. Britain’s receivers have never had it so good. After their busiest year in living memory, business undertakers predict a further rise in corporate mortalities. Keith Goodman, a partner at Leonard Curtis, the oldest independent insolvency practice in Britain, sees the business landscape as “a bloodbath”. He says:”It’s unprecedented. Every phone call I get is a problem call. This year is going to be horrendous, far worse than 1990 in terms of number and size.” It’s a lucrative business for accountants. The early days of a receivership can involve about 100 people, who will pass on the paperwork to a team of maybe three to six working full-time on the project. They will try to sell the business, or parts of it, as a going concern within a month. If this fails, the business goes into liquidation, which can continue for years. The team at Touche Ross has been working on Laker Airways since 1982. To cope with the demand for receivers, accountants are transferring staff from their inactive merger and acquisition departments and even recruiting from outside. Corporate-recovery specialists, who invade head offices at a moment’s notice, have a glamorous image within large practices. But, says Morris, their colleagues don’t think about the human tragedies they have to deal with. “It’s not very pleasant standing in front of 200 people and telling them they are out of a job,” he says, “Regrettably, the workforce always seems to be the last to know when things are going wrong.” Tim Hayward, head of corporate recovery at KPMG Peat Marwick McLintock, says his staff has doubled to 500 in the past two years. His largest project in the Levitt Group, but he expects bigger fish will float to the top as the year proceeds. “Much of our work is with companies where we hope to avoid insolvency,” says Hayward. By the end of last year, 24 percent of the receiverships were in manufacturing. Christopher Morris says company chairmen are usually relieved to see him arrive at their gates. “Sometimes they are shocked and depressed,” he says. “But don’t forget we arrive at the end of a period of enormous pressure. The chairmen to watch are the ones who are overbearingly co-operative. They become obsequious. And you often find they’ve been up to no good.”
Explain in your own words the underlined expressions from the text in Task 4. to go into liquidation ___________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________. insolvency ___________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________.
Successful business people attract media attention, especially when they are colourful entrepreneurs with unusual lifestyles. But failure is fascinating too, particularly when it is associated with scandal and wrongdoing: committing crimes, especially financial ones. Here is a list of some types of wrongdoing. Choose one type and write it next to its definition. /creative accounting/ /bribery/ /embezzlement/ /forgery/ /fraud, racket or scam/ /insider dealing/ /market rigging/ /money laundering/ a making or faking false documents, banknotes or artworks ………………………. b illegally giving someone money so that they act in your favour…………………. c accounting that is only just legal or may be illegal……………………………….. d any illegal money-making activity………………………………………………... e fixing the price of something illegally …………………………………………… f illegally taking money from the organisation you work for ……………………… g disguising the criminal origin of money such as drug money ……………………. h using knowledge gained illegally to buy and sell shares profitably……………….
AN EXTRA ACTIVITY Business bestiary People and organisations in trouble are sometimes compared to animals, such as lame ducks, dinosaurs and vultures. Which is the most appropriate in each of the examples?
Tokyo financiers now brand Mitsubishi Bank a ____________ for its failure to explore some of the more risky business projects. The _____________ are not yet circling the British Aerospace, the wounded giant of British manufacturing excellence. In less than two years he has transformed United from _______________ to predator. Do some research on people in business who head companies in trouble in your country. Use all types of media in order to find out about the wrongdoing, bankruptcy, number of people losing jobs, etc. Try to use as many expressions as possible from units 10 and 11.
Style and Register – Quality Paper vs. Tabloids In matters of grave importance, style, not sincerity, is the vital thing. Oscar Wilde (1854-1900)
Task 1. Task 2.
In groups, discuss the meaning of this quotation and report to the class. Do you ever think about the following questions before you start a piece of writing. Prepare a more detailed discussion in groups and report to the class. Have you written in the appropriate style – should this task be written in a cold, precise style, or should your writing be entertaining? Does your writing have the right degree of formality or informality? Are you too personal, or not personal enough?
When you start a piece of writing, you should always have in mind what effect it would have on the person who is going to read it. Your command of register depends on the ability to choose the appropriate style and vocabulary for a specific situation. One of the most important areas to master in terms of register is the difference between formal and informal English. There are many degrees of formality, and most written English (including newspapers and magazines) is somewhere between the two extremes. Here is a list of some of the most characteristic features that differentiate formal and informal English. Formal Words of Latin/French origin Single-word verbs Formal connecting words Impersonal constructions it is said that the price has been increased one never knows Abstract nouns Is happiness possible during Unemployment? Not ending with a preposition; use of whom To whom were you speaking? Complex sentences Use of inversion for conditionals and emphasis Should you require further information, please contact…. No contractions in writing I will, we would Informal Words of Anglo-Saxon origin Phrasal verbs, idioms with get Informal connecting words Active constructions they say that they’ve put the price up you never know Modal verbs, adjectives, clauses, etc. Can people be happy when they haven’t got a job? Ending with preposition Who were you speaking to? Simple sentences Inversion sometimes used for emphasis Only then did I realize…. Contractions in writing I’ll, we’d
In pairs, supply the missing words in the table below. Formal Verbs to depart to retain to cease to function to demonstrate to reside ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ ____________ Adverbials subsequently principally ____________ ____________ ____________ Informal Formal Nouns carnivore deficiency vision residence respiration comprehension perspiration Adjectives incorrect amiable vacant insane inexpensive __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ __________ Informal
to go _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ to seem to shorten to end to help to begin to want to get to free
meat-eater _________ _________ _________ _________ _________ _________
next / later __________ so at first in the end
wrong _________ _________ _________ _________ lively better childish enough whole older
In groups, think and discuss about the origins of the English words, why are some words considered to be more polite or refined, whereas others which mean the same are thought rude and vulgar?
Underline formal (F) or informal (I) collocations in these sentences and put F or I in the brackets at the end. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Cyclists should dismount before crossing the footbridge. ( ) Never dispose of batteries and similar items by throwing them onto fire. ( ) The students were all bored stiff by the lecture. The grass badly needs cutting. building. () () () Passengers must alight from the bus through the rear door. ( ) Please place all used tickets in the receptacle provided as you leave the
Register transfer In pairs, read the informal letter and write it in a more formal way by using some distinctive features in Task 2.
Dear Mark, Sounds like your gambling activities got you into hot water this time. The old man’s gonna flip out when he hears. Wish I could help you but I’m broke. Why don’t you put the arm on Mom? She’s an easy touch. Take care, Bob _________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ______________________________________________________________ ________________________ ________________________
Complete the verb with a suitable preposition so that it has the same meaning as the verb in brackets. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. Let’s GO _________ the next lesson again. A problem has COME _________. I am LOOKING ___________ to seeing you again. The bomb WENT ___________ at 8 o’clock. You will be criticized if you don’t TURN ________. She TURNED _________ his marriage proposal. He can’t GET _________ his cold. After the concert they WENT _________ his house. They GET _________ twice a week. (REVIEW) (ARISE) (HAPPY) (EXPLODE) (APPEAR) (REJECT) (RECOVER FROM) (VISIT) (MEET)
They CARRIED _________ the experiment successfully. (COMPLETE)
In groups of four, two within the group write a short article for a tabloid about an event using the phrasal verbs from above, adding some of your own. The other pair writes for a broadsheet publication about the same event using single-word verbs.
AN EXTRA ACTIVITY Making a mistake with register can have unintentionally comic results. With a partner, write a dialogue containing register errors. Some suggested situations: • A politician speaking to a close friend or family as if s/he was addressing a political meeting or giving a press conference. • A TV game show host conducting a job interview. • A primary school teacher or a football coach advising the President of the USA on foreign policy. When you have finished, swap your dialogue with another pair. Underline the register errors in their dialogue. Can you suggest a more appropriate word or phrase?
Write a piece of informal, spoken English in which you describe a job advertisement to a friend. Then use the information and write an appropriate job advertisement for a newspaper.
UNIT13 Task 1
Openings and Closings of Magazine Articles Which do you think is more important when writing an article, the opening or the closing ? Why? The opening of a newspaper or magazine article has one or more purposes. In groups, write your own order of importance and explain. • • • • to tell readers what the article is going to say (the content) to tell readers how the article is going to be organized (the structure) to catch readers’ attention and make them want to read the rest to tell readers what the article is going to be about (the topic) There are at least fifteen ways of opening an article. Here are some of them. A surprising fact, perhaps including statistics. A surprising, shocking or bizarre statement. The reader keeps reading out of curiosity – how are you going to continue? Do you really believe that? What on earth are you thinking about. A question. This helps to define the subject of a piece of writing. It also starts readers thinking about the subject , making them want to read what you have to say. A quotation. A story that illustrates what you are going to say. It may be a story about the subject itself; it may be a story about another topic that has something in common with the subject of your article. A statement of the topic (sometimes a dictionary definition). This opening may be appropriate, but is one of the least interesting. A description or image that evokes a suitable atmosphere or symbolizes the whole question. A reference to a well-known phrase from literature, a song, a proverb, etc.; an allusion or “rewritten” quotation.
Which category would you choose to begin an article and why? Task 3 Look at the five openings, all of them introducing an article on the same subject. What subject? Match these openings to the categories above. 1. 2. In theory women are free, yet everywhere they are still in domestic chains. Forty years ago, 75% of wives in Britain were “housewives” whose husbands were working: today only 20% of British families fit this model. What factors have led to this change, and what effect has it had on society, in particular the upbringing of children? As Mark Twain might have put it, reports of the death of the family have been greatly exaggerated. 47
Jane smith is a junkie because both her parents are in the police force. She had Problems at school, but when she got home she found no one to talk to. The day she broke up with her boyfriend, both her parents were working late. Jane’s parents were never there when she wanted them. If they had been, would she have needed to turn to drugs? It’s 6.00 in the evening and Jason has just cooked dinner for two. He’s sitting in the kitchen, waiting. He’s had a long day. He’s got up at 7.30, ate breakfast alone, did the washing-up and made his bed. He still hadn’t seen or spoken to anybody when he left home at 8.30. Jason is 12 years old. He’s waiting for his dad to come home from work.
You are invited to write a 250-word article for your university magazine on the subject of exams. Are they useful? Are they necessary? Do exams help students to study, or do they obstruct a student’s wider education? In pairs, write two openings for your article of no more than two sentences each: a very bad one, so that no one will read beyond the opening ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________. a very good one, so that everyone will want to read the rest of your article ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________
Task 5 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
Six ways of closing an article. Study them. Return to the beginning: a conclusion paraphrasing the opening, or a return to the imagery or words of the opening. A summary or conclusion. A question. A quotation. An image / picture, symbolizing the end or a new beginning. A short sentence to signal a break with what went before, or to indicate the intention to finish.
Here is an opening of an article. In pairs, write two different closings; choose from the categories above. You will have to imagine the paragraphs that haven’t been written.
“The best things in life are free,” they used to say, but for most of us having fun usually means spending money. And yet, even in a city, there are at least five ways you can enjoy yourself without putting your hand in your pocket. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________. _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________.
AN EXTRA ACTIVITY You have been invited to write a 250-word article for an English-language magazine in your country. The subject of the article is Television in my country today. The editor has asked you to • give your article an interesting title. • briefly summarize the TV channels available and the kind of programmes they show. • comment on the positive and negative effects of TV, whether on society or on the individual or both. • suggest ways in which TV programming could be improved in the future. DO NOT WRITE THE ARTICLE 1. In groups of three, write three different opening paragraphs for the article, all of them good. Each first paragraph should use a different kind of opening from the list in Task 2. 2. Write three different titles for the article, to match the three openings. The title, like the opening, should do two things: indicate the content of the article, and make people want to read it.
Write an article for publication in the magazine of your university. Choose between attacking or defending the education in your country. Your articles should have four to five paragraphs, and be about 250 words long. Pay extra attention to openings and closings.
Writing Articles in Good English But what is the difference between literature and journalism? Journalism is unreadable and literature is not read. Oscar Wilde
How much do you agree with this quotation? What is meant by unreadable? Why is this idea of journalism being unreadable going on for centuries? Discuss in groups and report to the class. How would you explain the following expressions: journalese _______________________________________________ headlinese _______________________________________________ officialise _______________________________________________ tabloidese_______________________________________________
English is a battlefield between purists, who fight off words of foreign origin; grammarians, who are shocked by sentences concluding with prepositions; vulgarians, who trust the people because “ the people speak real good”; officials, who observe that there does not appear to have been a resolution of the issue, and journalists, who race to the colourful scene to report the dramatic new moves.
No professor of linguistics has as much influence on the language as the text editor of a daily newspaper. Readers don’t have the time and newspapers the space, so the text editor must insist on the language that is specific, emphatic and concise. Every word must be understandable by the ordinary reader, every sentence clear. There must be no abstractions. Here are some skills and principles of using words and sentences for clear expressions when used in news stories. Of course, there is no rule for original expression. 1. Sentences – Limit the Ideas A sentence is more likely to be clear if it is a short sentence communicating one thought, or a closely connected range of ideas. There are roughly four kinds of sentences: The simple sentence (one subject and one predicate or statement) (Eight bandits robbed a train yesterday). The compound sentence (two simple sentences joined by a conjunction) (Eight bandits robbed a train yesterday and stole $80,000). The complex sentence ( one principal statement and one or more subordinate
statements or clauses which modify the main statement) (Eight train bandits, who were foiled by a railway worker, were still being sought last night). The compound-complex sentence (all the statements have one or more modifying statements) (Eight bandits with coshes who tried to rob a train yesterday were foiled by a worker who threw stones at them and forced them to drop $80,000).
The real trouble with so many compound-complex sentences is that they have to carry too many ideas. In the example below, one sentence is trying to do the work of three. You are the text editor. In pairs, revise the text and make a clearer version by splitting one sentence into three. The French government is expected to begin bilateral talks to replace the integrated military structures in the immediate future and will be willing to exchange, say, some infrastructure facilities enjoyed by the US and the United Kingdom for continued sharing in the long range early warning system, for France’s force de frappe could be destroyed by a sudden missile attack on her airfields. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________.
A long confusing sentence is often produced by creating a subsidiary clause to carry one or more ideas in advance of the main idea. In pairs, revise the following text so that you take the sentence carrying the most important thought and give it an immediate identity of its own. Another sentence should deal with the other thought At the end of a rousing speech on Labour Government policies which she said were designed to remould the economic life of the country irrespective of the many difficulties involved and the grumbles of those who disliked change, the Minister of Transport, speaking at Aberystwyth yesterday, expressed her bitter disappointment that the Stratford strike had not been settled. _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________________.
Be Active Vigorous, economical writing requires preference for sentences in the active voice, if possible.
Task 4 1.
Transform the following sentences into the active voice. Jones was arrested by the police. ____________________________ A meeting will be held by directors next week. ______________________________________. There were riots in several cities last night in which several shops were burned. _________________________________________________________.
In pairs, revise the following newspaper example in active voice. A petition requesting a reduced speed limit in Clay Road, between Jefferson and Calkin Road, was presented to the Henrietta Town Board last night. The board immediately turned the petition – signed by 32 home-owners – over to its public safety committee for study and possible referral to the State Traffic Commission. Homeowners are asking that the speed limit be reduced from 50 miles per hour to 35 mph. __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________ __________________________________________________________________.
Be positive News readers above all do not want to be told what is not. They should be told what is. As a general rule, even a negative information should be expressed in a positive form. Look at some examples below. The project was not successful. The company says it will not now proceed with the plan. They did not pay attention to complaint. The project failed. The company says it has abandoned the plan. They ignored the complaint.
Here is a sentence which attempts to be positive but has a negative thought. In pairs, try to express the thought positively. From a military no more than from a political point of view can the successful Vietcong attacks against United States bases in South Vietnam, which killed or wounded 134 Americans, be brushed away in cursory fashion.
Avoid Monotony To prefer sentences which actively and positively express a single thought may sound like a perfect recipe for monotony. That’s why it is important to establish a variation in pacing . Sentences may vary in form function style (simple and complex-compound) (statements, commands, questions, exclamations) (loose, periodic and balanced) run on with fact after fact in natural conversational sequence. There is no climax. It rolls on.
(There were the translators in their booths and, the secretaries at their tables ,and the policemen at the door). Periodic sentences retain the climax to the end. The grammatical structure in a true periodic sentence is not complete until the full stop.
(At 60 miles an hour the loudest noise in this new Rolls-Royce comes from the electric clock). Balanced sentences are works of deliberate symmetry. (The crisis in Wall Street is a crisis of confidence).
In pairs, try to transform the following monotonous text into a more interesting one by using various types of sentences. The firemen climbed their ladders and they rescued all the women. The doctors came by ambulance and treated all the injured. The ground floor was saved but the top floor collapsed. Firemen warned the crowds while police moved them back. The hotel owner arrived and said he could say nothing. ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________ ____________________________________________________________________.
AN EXTRA ACTIVITY Read the following confusing text and in pairs try to write a clearer version by using skills and principles from this unit. Saying that while he accepted medical evidence that asbestosis was associated with the cause of death of a Washington chemical worker, John George Watson, aged 40, of 52 Pattison Town, the Coroner, Mr A. Henderson, indicated at the inquest at Chester-le-Street last night that the final decision whether the disease caused or contribute to death would rest with the Pneumoconiosis Medical panel. Homework: Take an English or American daily newspaper or magazine, choose any news story and analyze it in detail following the principles in this unit.
If you are reading a reference book, you’ll come across abbreviations like these. Match them to their meanings below. i.e. e.g. intro. fig. pp. q.v. cont’d cf. ch. ed. para. N.B.
important note; pages; see another entry; edited by; that is; for example; introduction; chapter; continued; paragraph; figure; compare. Find at least ten abbreviations which you most frequently use and add them to your list. 2. Work out the meanings of these abbreviations, which are used in business situations. a b c d e f 3. Thank you for your letter ref. 4352. encl. CV & photo. ask them to reply asap Salary up to £15 p.a. If you’re filling in a form, put N/A if the question doesn’t apply to you. May I introduce Kay, who is Ms Brown’s PA.
Finish the second sentence so that it has the same meaning as the first one. 1. We caught the plane although we left the house half an hour late. In spite of _______________________________________________. “Where are you from?” He tried to find out ________________________________________. “Have you kept your promise?” She asked _______________________________________________. When I was a child we would play cops and robbers. When I was a child we _____________________________________. They will build a new ring-road around the city. A new ring road __________________________________________. Do you know the girl Tom is talking to? Do you know the girl to ____________________________________. People should send their complaints to the head office. Complaints ______________________________________________. “Where are your newspapers?” He asked ________________________________________________.
Insert the collocations about newspapers into your own sentences. An example is given. The singer was out of the country when the story about his wife broke. collocations a (news) story breaks hit the headlines make headlines front-page headline the latest news item of news news comes in news leaks out run a story flick through the newspaper
Match each of the underlined tabloidese words in the sentences to their meanings. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Guilty pupil vows to return stolen exam papers Husband and wife row keeps neighbours awake Government blunder: 1 million taxpayers’ personal details lost Voters’ fury at election results Police quiz man over Greenwood bank robbery a b c d e a mistake anger to promise to question an argument
Fill the gaps of the expressions with the appropriate preposition. accuse someone ………… shoplifting arrest someone………….. armed robbery charge someone ………… murder take someone …………... custody give false allegations ……someone
Find the mistakes in these sentences and then rewrite them correctly. 1. Can you let us know what are your priorities? _________________________________________________? 2. She wants that we stay late tonight. _________________________________________________. 3. Are you waiting since a long time? _________________________________________________? 4. We’ve never been in a so difficult situation. _________________________________________________. 56
5. The whole class succeeded to pass the exam. _________________________________________________. 6. Jeremy’s never been good in languages. _________________________________________________. 7. Ryan is certainly capable in running 100 min under 11 seconds. __________________________________________________. 8. I was able to see better if I wore glasses. _______________________________________________.
Make nouns out of these adjectives. adjectives decisive categorical convincing devastating spectacular disproportionate electoral wild repressive authoritarian nouns _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________ _____________
Put in the correct forms of get, take, turn or put A B C D E F G D It must be ________ on for eight o’clock now. If you’d like to stay the night, we can _________ you up in the spare room. He doesn’t have much of a social life – his job _________ up all his time. She always __________ to her parents when she’s got a problem. Lately, he’s __________ to phoning us very late at night. I’m simply not going to ________ up with his rudeness any longer. I decided to _________ them up on their offer of al lift. That terrible experience has _________ me off ever going there again.
Choose the correct collocation related to business. 1. Our company sets a high value / price / cost on after-sales service. 2. Competition to earn / win / achieve / the contract was strong / stiff / / hard. 3. You need a wide range of skills in order to work / run / go a successful business. 4. How long have you been doing / making / getting business with China for? 5. The annual takeover / overtake / turnover / overturn of our company is growing rapidly. 6. It’s my job to weigh / balance / add the budget. 7. We’ve put in a very competitive offer / bid / deal so I hope we’ll get the job. 8. We’ve been doing rapid / stiff / brisk / business all morning.
Match the beginning of each sentence on the left with its ending on the right to make typical expressions used in business English. 1. We raised 2. They submitted 3. They went into 4. We started up partnership to develop a new range of products. capital to expand the business. a business to supply sports equipment to schools. a tender for the new stadium.
Replace the conjunctions in these sentences with the words given. 1. I don’t know much about art but I know what I like. Despite __________________________________________________________. 2. Not only does she paint in oils, but she also paints watercolours. Besides __________________________________________________________. 3. You won’t get seats for the show if you don’t go to the box office now. Unless ___________________________________________________________. 4. The performance was cancelled because the tenor and soprano were both ill. Due to ___________________________________________________________. 5. I like all kinds of music but I don’t like jazz. Except for ________________________________________________________. 6. He was missing his wife and he was missing his children too. As well as ________________________________________________________.
7. You didn’t enjoy the film, and neither did I. Like _____________________________________________________________. 8. The soloist gave a wonderful performance, otherwise I wouldn’t have enjoyed the concert. But for ___________________________________________________________.
Choose from words and phrases that are used for connecting sentences. As for a b c d Provided Judging by Seeing as
____________ he had been so badly treated, he had every right to be annoyed. ____________ his accent, I’d say he’s from the south of the USA. ____________ Tom, he was even more furious than I was. ____________ you don’t go too far, I think you should say how annoyed you are.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction to General Vocabulary Connected with Journalism: Reading techniques: skimming and scanning …………………………….. INTERVIEWS (reported speech; reported questions) …………………… Collocations ……………………………….…………………………….…
1 4 8
UNIT 2 UNIT 3 UNIT 4 UNIT 5 UNIT 6
Vocabulary – Genres in the Media ……….………………………….…… 11 Newspaper Headlines: Stylistic Features ….………………………….…… 15 Political Correctness: Contrasting and comparing politically (in)correct vocabulary (in foreign and national press) …………………………………………… Vocabulary - Politics In General …………….…………………………… Expressing Moral Values in Journalism (Example: The Watergate Affair)
19 23 28
UNIT 7 UNIT 8 UNIT 9 UNIT 10 UNIT 11 UNIT 12 UNIT13 UNIT 14 UNIT 15
Giving Opinions on Different Political Regimes ………………..………… 32 Basic Business Terminology ………………….…………………………... 36
Writing about People in Business …………….…………………………… 39 Style and Register – Quality Paper vs. Tabloids ……………….….……… 43 Openings and Closings of Magazine Articles ……………….…….……… 47 Writing Articles in Good English ……………….………………….…..… Revision ……………………………………………………….……..…… 50 55
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