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ACKNOWLEDGEMENT

This project was very innovative and exciting for me. I could bring it out successfully and so I am thankful to a couple of people. First of all I am highly obliged to my Chemistry teacher, Mr. Chanchal Singh who approved me for this topic and guided me through out.I am also great full to my school library for providing me with the necessary books that I required for the project. I am thankful to Montfort school laboratory and lab assistant who helped me to successfully carry out titrations and taught me how to handle the chemicals carefully.I would also like to thank my friends and family, for supporting me morally. Last but not the least, I would like to thank my institution for allowing me to do this project and for providing me with all the necessary chemicals that were required. It is all due to the support and concern of the above people and institution that I could complete my investigator project satisfactorily, without which things would have never gone well.

Prashant Pandey

CERTIFICATE
This is to certify that Prashant Pandey,XII of Allahabad Public School and Colleage,session 2013-14 has satisfactorily completed his chemistry project on Study of presence of Oxalate ion in guava fruit at different stages of ripening as per the syllabus under my guidance.

Chemistry Teacher Mr. Chanchal Singh (PGT-Chemistry)

External Examiners Signature

CONTENTS

Introduction Oxalate ions Objective of the Project Requirements Theory Chemical Equations Procedure Observations Calculations Conclusion Precautions Bibliography

INTRODUCTION

Guava is sweet, juicy and light or dark green coloured fruit. It is cultivated in all parts of India. When ripe it acquires yellow colour and has penetrating strong scent. The fruit is rich in vitamin C and minerals. It is a rich source of oxalate and its content in the fruit varies during different stages of ripening. Guava fruit, usually 4 to 12 cm long, are round or oval depending on the species. The outer skin may be rough, often with a bitter taste, or soft and sweet. Varying between species, the skin can be any thickness, is usually green before maturity, but becomes yellow, maroon, or green when ripe. Guava fruit generally have a pronounced and typical fragrance, similar to lemon rind but less sharp. Guava pulp may be sweet or sour, off-white ("white" guavas) to deep pink ("red" guavas), with the seeds in the central pulp of variable number and hardness, again depending on species. Health benefits of guava fruit

Guavas are low in calories and fats but contain several vital vitamins, minerals, and antioxidant poly-phenolic and flavonoid compounds that play a pivotal role in prevention of cancers, anti-aging, immune-booster, etc. The fruit is very rich source of soluble dietary fiber (5.4 g per 100 g of fruit, about 14% of DRA), which makes it a good bulk laxative. The fiber content helps protect the colon mucous

membrane by decreasing exposure time to toxins as well as binding to cancer-causing chemicals in the colon.

Guava-fruit is an excellent source of antioxidant vitamin-C. 100 g fresh fruit provides 228 mg of this vitamin, more than three times the DRI (daily-recommended intake). Outer thick rind contains exceptionally higher levels of vitamin C than central pulp. The fruit is a very good source of Vitamin-A, and flavonoids like beta-carotene, lycopene, lutein and cryptoxanthin. The compounds are known to have antioxidant properties and are essential for optimum health. Further, vitamin-A is also required for maintaining healthy mucus membranes and skin. Consumption of natural fruits rich in carotene is known to protect from lung and oral cavity cancers. 100 g of pink guava fruit provides 5204 g of lycopene, nearly twice the amount that in tomatoes. (100 g tomato contains 2573 g of lycopene). Studies suggest that lycopene in pink guavas prevents skin damage from UV rays and offers protection from prostate cancer.

OXALATE IONS

Oxalates are salts or esters of oxalic acid. Many oxalates formed with metal ions are insoluble, for example calcium oxalate the primary constituent of common kidney stones. It is a colourless, crystalline, toxic organic compound found in many plants, especially rhubarb, wood sorrel, and spinach, usually as calcium or potassium oxalates. Many other edible plants that contain significant concentrations of oxalate, including star fruit (carambola), black pepper, parsley, poppy seed, amaranth, spinach, chard, beets, cocoa, chocolate, most nuts, most berries, fishtail palms, New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides) and beans. The gritty mouth feel one experiences when drinking milk with a rhubarb dessert is caused by precipitation of calcium oxalate. The calcium is abstracted from the casein in dairy products. Leaves of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) contain among the greatest measured concentrations of oxalic acid. However the infusion beverage typically contains only low to moderate amounts of oxalic acid per serving, due to the small mass of leaves used for brewing. Because it forms soluble chelates with iron, some of the iron in these plants is not available nutritionally. However, this property makes it useful because it converts most insoluble iron compounds into a soluble complex ion. Oxalates are used for removing blood and rust stains, cleaning metals other than iron, and removing scale from automobile radiators. Unlike other carboxylic acids (except formic acid), oxalic acid is readily oxidized; this makes it useful as a reducing agent for photography, bleaching, and ink removal. Purities include 99%, 99.9%, 99.99%, 99.999% and 99.9999% which are sometimes referred to as 2N, 3N, 4N, 5N and 6N.

Physical properties may include nanopowder, nano particle, submicron, - 325 mesh, rod, foil, and high surface area carbonate with particle distribution and particle size controlled and

As a ligand
Oxalate, the conjugate base of oxalic acid, is an excellent ligand for metal ions. It usually binds as a bidentate ligand forming a 5membered MO2C2 ring. An illustrative complex is potassium ferrioxalate, K3[Fe(C2O4)3]. The drug oxaliplatin exhibits improved water solubility relative to older platinum-based drugs, avoiding the dose-limiting side-effect of nephrotoxicity. Oxalic acid and oxalates can be oxidized by permanganate in an autocatalytic reaction. One of the main applications of oxalic acid is a rust-removal, which arises because oxalate forms water soluble derivatives with the ferric ion.

Occurrence in nature
Oxalate occurs in many plants, where it is synthesized via the incomplete oxidation of carbohydrates.

Oxalate-rich plants include fat hen ("lamb's quarters"), sorrel, and several Oxalis species. The root and/or leaves of rhubarb and buckwheat are high in oxalic acid.Other edible plants that contain significant concentrations of oxalate include-in decreasing order-star fruit (carambola), black pepper, parsley, poppy seed, amaranth, spinach, chard, beets, cocoa, chocolate, most nuts, most berries, fishtail palms, New Zealand spinach (Tetragonia tetragonioides) and beans.Leaves of the tea plant (Camellia sinensis) contain among the greatest measured concentrations of oxalic acid relative to other plants. However the beverage derived by infusion in hot water typically contains only low to moderate amounts of oxalic acid per serving due to the small mass of leaves used for brewing.

OBJECTIVE OF PROJECT

In this project, we will learn to test for the presence of oxalate ions in the guava fruit and how its amount varies during different stages of ripening.

REQUIREMENTS
(A)Apparatus
100 ml measuring flask Pestle Mortar Beaker Titration flask Funnel Burette Weight box Filter paper

(B)Chemicals Required
Dilute H2SO4 N/20 KMnO4 solution Guava fruits at different stages of ripening.

THEORY

Oxalate ions are extracted from the fruit by boiling pulp with dil.H2SO4.Then oxalate ions are estimated volumetrically by titrating the solution with standard KMnO4 solution.Titration is a common laboratory method of quantitative chemical analysis that is used to determine the unknown concentration of a known reactant. Because volume measurements play a key role in titration, it is also known as volumetric analysis. A reagent, called the titrant or titrator, of a known concentration (a standard solution) and volume is used to react with a solution of the analyte or titrand, whose concentration is not known. Using a calibrated burette or chemistry pipetting syringe to add the titrant, it is possible to determine the exact amount that has been consumed when the endpoint is reached. The endpoint is the point at which the titration is complete, as determined by an indicator. This is ideally the same volume as the equivalence point-the volume of added titrant at which the number of moles of titrant is equal to the number of moles of analyte.In the classic strong acid-strong base titration,the endpoint of a titration is the point at which the pH of the reactant is just about equal to 7, and often when the solution takes on a persisting solid colour as in the pink of phenolphthalein indicator.

ACID BASE TITRATION

When an acid base reaction is used, the process is called acid-base titration. When a redox reaction is used, the process is called a redox titration. Titration is also called volumetric analysis, which is type of quantitative chemical analysis. Titration is a laboratory technique by which we can determine the concentration of an unknown reagent using a standard concentration of another reagent that chemically reacts with the unknown. This standard solution is referred to as the titrant. We have to have some way to determine when the reaction is complete that we are using. This is referred to as the end point or more technically the equivalence point. At that point, the entire unknown has been reacted with the standard titrant and some kind of chemical indicator must let us know when that point has been arrived at. Generally, we know the Normality of the titrant since it is a standard solution. We also pre-measure the volume of the unknown. We then titrate with the standard from a burette into the container with the measured unknown and the chemical indicator until the indicator either turns color or a precipitate indicates that the end point or the equivalence point has been reached. Having the initial and final readings of the titrant burette gives us the volume of the titrant used. The only unknown in the above equation is the Normality of the unknown. Molarities of acidic and basic solutions are often used to convert back and forth between moles of solutes and volumes of their solutions, but how were the molarities of these solutions determined? This section describes a procedure called titration, which can be used to find the molarity of a solution of an acid or a base.

In titration, one solution (solution #1) is added to another solution ( solution # 2) until a chemical reaction between the components in the solutions has run to completion. Solution #1 is called the titrant, and we say that it is used to titrate solution #2. The completion of reaction is usually shown by a change of color caused by a substance called an indicator. A solution of a substance that reacts with the solute in solution #2 is added to a burette. (A burette is a laboratory instrument used to add measured volumes of solutions to other containers). This solution in the burette, which has a known concentration, is the titrant. The burette is set up over the Erlenmeyer flask so the titrant can be added in a controlled manner to the solution to be titrated (figure 1) . For example a 0.115 M NaOH solution might be added to a burette, which is set up over the Erlenmeyer flask containing the nitric acid solution.

CHEMICAL EQUATIONS
Molecular Equations

2KMnO4 + 3H2SO4 K2SO4+ 2MnSO4+ 2H2O +4[O] {HOOC-COOH.2H2O +[O] 2CO2+ 2H2O } x 5 3KMnO4+ 3H2SO4+5HOOCCOOH.2H2O K2SO4+2MnSO4 +18H2O + 10CO2

Ionic Equations
MnO4-+16H++ 5e- Mn2++ 4H2O x 5 2C2O4 2CO2+ 2e- x 5 2MnO4- + 16H++ 5C2O42- 2Mn2++8H2O + 10CO2

PROCEDURE
(1) Weighed 50 g of fresh guava and crushed it to a fine pulp using pestle and mortar.

(2) Transferred the crushed pulp to a beaker and added about 50 ml dilute H2SO4 to it. (3) Boiled the content for about 10 minutes. Cooled and filtered the contents in a 100 ml measuring flask. (4) Made up the volume 100 ml by adding ample amount of distilled water. (5) Took 20 ml of the solution from the flask and added 20 ml of dilute sulphuric acid to it. (6) Heated the mixture to about 600 C and titrated it against (n/10) KMnO4 solution taken in a burette till the end point had an appearance of pink colour. (7) Repeated the above experiment with 50 g of 1day, 2 day and 3 day old guava fruits.

OBSERVATIONS

1. Weight of the guava fruit for each time was 50 g.

2. Volume of guava extract taken for each titration was 20 ml.

3. Normality of KMnO4 solution was (1/10).

4. END POINT: Colour Changes to pink.

Guava Solution

Burette reading Initial 150 150 150

Final Reading

Volume of KMnO4

Concurrent Reading

Raw Semiripened Ripened

18 13

132 137

136.06

10.8

139.2

CALCULATIONS
1.For raw guava
N1V1 = N2V2 N1 x 10 = (1/10) x132 1/10 x Normality of oxalate = (x/100) = strength of oxalate in fresh guava extract = normality x Eq. mass of oxalate ion = 1.32/100 x 44g/litre of diluted extract = 0.581 g L-1

2) For semi ripened guava (1 day old)


Strength of oxalate in one day old guava extract = (1.37 /100) x 44g/litre of diluted extract = 0.603 g L-1

3) For ripened guava


Strength of oxalate in fresh guava extract = ( 1.39/100) x 44g/litre of diluted extract = 0.612 g L-1 (a) The normality of oxalate ions of; (i) Fresh guava solution is = 1.32 ml (ii) Semi-ripen guava solution is = 1.37 ml (iii) Ripened guava solution is = 1.39 ml

(b) The strength of oxalate ions of; (i) Fresh guava solution is = 0.58 ml (ii) Semi-ripened guava is = 0.60 ml (iii) Ripened guava is = 0.61 ml The content of oxalate ions in guava was found to be 59.67 per cent, which is close to the literature value of 60 percent. It was also noticed that the content of oxalic ions grows with ripening of guava.

CONCLUSIONS
The content of oxalate ions in guava was found to be 59.67 per cent, which is close to the literature value of 60 percent. It was also noticed that the content of oxalic ions grows with ripening of guava.

PRECAUTIONS

There should be no parallax while taking measurements. Spillage of chemicals should be checked. Avoid the use of burette having a rubber tap as KMnO4 attacks rubber. In order to get some idea about the temperature of the solution touch the flask with the back side of your hand. When it becomes unbearable to touch, the required temperature is reached. Add about an equal volume of dil. H2SO4 to the guava extract to be titrated (say a full test tube) before adding KMnO4.

Read the upper meniscus while taking burette reading with KMnO4 solution. In case, on addition of KMnO4 a brown ppt. appears, this shows that either H2SO4 has not been added or has been added in insufficient amount. In such a case, throw away the solution and titrate again.

BIBLIOGRAPHY

Chemistry Practical Manual www.scribd.com www.google.com www.wikipedia.com www.google.books.com