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Preparation Course

For Physics EGD-UFPE








Classical
Electrodynamics
first edition

Christopher S. Baird




"#$%&$%'


()*+&,&$%-+ .#%&'////////////////////////// 001
2&3%)4& .#%&'///////////////////////////// 056
7#,&8#49 :$'8&4'/////////////////;//////// <=1
>?-, (#+)%@#$'//////////////////////////// =AB
C-39'#$ (#+)%@#$' "D-*%&4 1///////////////////// 6=6
C-39'#$ (#+)%@#$' "D-*%&4 <///////////////////// 6AB
C-39'#$ (#+)%@#$' "D-*%&4 =///////////////////// B66
C-39'#$ (#+)%@#$' "D-*%&4 6///////////////////// BEE
C-39'#$ (#+)%@#$' "D-*%&4 B///////////////////// 5=F
C-39'#$ (#+)%@#$' "D-*%&4 5///////////////////// 5E6
C-39'#$ (#+)%@#$' "D-*%&4 A///////////////////// A0E





"#$%&'&()*%
+,)&-
001
Alternate Potentials, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Maxwell's Equations with General Potentials
- When we looked at putting Mawell!s e"uations in ter#s of potentials in the standard way$ we
found the #agnetic field B was the curl of a vector field. But in #agnetostatics$ we discovered
that we could define the B field in ter#s of the gradient of a scalar potential as well if there
were no sources present. Can we use the sa#e alternate approach in electrodyna#ics%
- &he point is that the potentials are non-physical so we can define the# however we want and
we will still end up with the sa#e answers for the fields. &his is known as gauge freedo#.
- &he standard potential definitions #ay 'e the #ost useful #athe#atically$ 'ut they are not
uni"ue and they are not the #ost general.
- Let us write down Mawell!s e"uations with very general potential definitions and then see
how they reduce to the standard for# as a special case.
- Define(
E=
E

A
M
t
+A
E
and B=
)
c
*

M
+
)
c
*
A
E
t
+A
M
- +ote that even though these definitions are #uch #ore general than the standard definitions$
they are not uni"uely general. &here is no physical uni"ueness to the potentials in classical
electrodyna#ics ,"uantu# theory has #ore to say$ though-. &o get uni"ueness #athe#atically$
we #ust artificially i#pose additional constrains on the potentials ,gauge conditions-.
- .ere

E
is the fa#iliar electrostatic scalar potential in the electrostatic li#it$ A
M
is the fa#iliar
#agnetostatic vector potential in the static li#it$

M
is the fa#iliar #agnetostatic scalar
potential in the static li#it in regions with no current$ and A
E
is an electrostatic vector potential
added to #ake the e"uations sy##etric.
- /lug these trial solutions into the Mawell!s e"uations to find ,after several ter#s drop out
'ecause we always have A=0 and ( )=0 -(

E
=

t
A
M

total

M
=

t
A
E

(A
E
)
*
A
E
+
)
c
*

*
A
E
t
*
=
)
c
*

t

M
(A
M
)
*
A
M
+
)
c
*

*
A
M
t
*
=
)
c
*

t

E
+
0

total
Maxwell Equations
with general potentials
002
- Because we defined the potentials sy##etrically$ Mawell!s e"uations in potentials for# end
up partially sy##etric. 1f #agnetic charges and currents eisted$ the sy##etry would 'e
perfect.
- We now get a uni"ue solution 'y i#posing additional constraints on the potentials ,choosing a
gauge-. 2or illustration purposes$ let us choose the following gauges(
A
M
=
)
c
*

E
t
and
A
E
=0$
M
=0
Lorenz Gauge
A
E
=
)
c
*

M
t
and
A
M
=0$
E
=0
Alternate Lorenz Gauge
A
M
=0
and
A
E
=0$
M
=0
Coulomb Gauge
A
E
=0
and
A
M
=0$
E
=0
Alternate Coulomb Gauge
- 3ach set of constraints leads to a particular for# of Mawell!s e"uations$ as shown in the net
page.
- &he sy##etry 'etween the E and B field is preserved even in the potentials representations.
&hey 'eco#e perfectly sy##etric in regions with no sources.
- +ote that the 4lternate Loren5 6auge and the 4lternate Coulo#' 6auge is only possi'le in
regions without electric charges or electric currents. 2or this reason$ they are rarely used in
practice.
- By sy##etry$ the traditional Loren5 gauge is only possi'le in regions where there is no
#agnetic charges or #agnetic currents ,which happens to 'e the entire known universe-.
- +ow we see that the static #agnetic scalar potential we were using in certain cases in
#agnetostatics is a special case of the 4lternate Coulo#' 6auge.
003
[

)
c
*

*
t
*
]

E
=

total

0

[

)
c
*

*
t
*
]
A
M
=
0

total
where E=
E

A
M
t
and
B=A
M

[

)
c
*

*
t
*
]

M
=0

[

)
c
*

*
t
*
]
A
E
=0

total
=0
and

total
=0
where
E=A
E
and B=
)
c
*

M
+
)
c
*
A
E
t

E
=

total

0
[

)
c
*

*
t
*
]
A
M
=
)
c
*

t

E

total
where E=
E

A
M
t
and
B=A
M


*

M
=0

[

)
c
*

*
t
*
]
A
E
=
)
c
*


M
t

total
=0
and

total
=0
where
E=A
E
and B=
)
c
*

M
+
)
c
*
A
E
t
Lorenz Gauge
Alternate Lorenz Gauge
Coulomb Gauge
Alternate Coulomb Gauge
004
O
r
d
e
r
N
a
m
e
S
a
m
p
l
e
P
o
i
n
t

F
o
r
m
P
o
t
e
n
t
i
a
l
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c

f
i
e
l
d
S
p
h
e
r
i
c
a
l

M
o
m
e
n
t
s
C
a
r
t
e
s
i
a
n

M
o
m
e
n
t
s
l

=

0
m
o
n
o
p
o
l
e
q
0
0
q
l

=

1
d
i
p
o
l
e
q
1
-
1
,


q
1
0
,


q
1
1
p
x
,


p
y
,


p
z
l

=

2
q
u
a
d
r
u
p
o
l
e
q
2
-
2
,


q
2
-
1
,


q
2
0
,


q
2
1
,


q
2
2
Q
x
x
,


Q
x
y
,


Q
x
z
Q
y
x
,


Q
y
y
,


Q
y
z
Q
z
x
,


Q
z
y
,


Q
z
z
l

=

3
o
c
t
u
p
o
l
e
q
3
-
3
,

q
3
-
2
,

q
3
-
1
,

q
3
0
,

q
3
1
,

q
3
2
,


q
3
3
Q
i
j
k
i
,

j
,

a
n
d

k

=

x
,

y
,

o
r

z
.
.
.
l
l
-
p
o
l
e
-
q
l
,
-
l
,

q
l
,
-
l
+
1
,

,

q
l
,
l
-
1
,


q
l
,
l
Q
i
j
k
.
.
.
l
i
,

j
,

k
.
.
.
l

=

x
,

y
,

o
r

z
++
-
+
-
+
-
+
-
+
-
-+
-
+
E
l
e
c
t
r
i
c

M
u
l
t
i
p
o
l
e

P
l
o
t
s
D
r
.

C
h
r
i
s
t
o
p
h
e
r

S
.

B
a
i
r
d
U
n
i
v
e
r
s
i
t
y

o
f

M
a
s
s
a
c
h
u
s
e
t
t
s

L
o
w
e
l
l
E

1
r
2
E

1
r

1
r
!
E

1
r
"
E

1
r
l
+
2

1r

1
r
2

1
r

1
r
!

1
r
l
+
1
005
006
007
008
009
010
011
012
013
014
015
016
017
018
019
020
021
022
023
024
025
026
027
Step-by-Step Green Function Method, Dirichlet
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
There are many places in this method where it is easy to make mistakes if you are not very careful with the notation.
For this reason it is recommended that you use the notation and steps defined here.
The sample pro!lem shown !elow is for a real point char"e Q centered over a rectan"ular plate at V in a "rounded plane.
Steps Sample Problem Showing Proper Notation
#. $rite down mathematically the char"e distri!ution of
the real problem in terms of primed coordinates
p( x' )=Q6 ( x' )6( y' )6( z' z
%
)
&. $rite down mathematically the !oundary surface's
shape and location on which the !oundary condition
e(ists
surface S is the plane at z=%
). $rite down mathematically the !oundary condition of
the real problem in terms of primed coordinates
4(x' )=

V if x 'a and y'b


% if x '>a or y '>b

on S
*. Create the simpler problem's char"e distri!ution !y
placin" a point char"e at an arbitrary location defined in
terms of primed coordinates...
q is at ( x' , y ' , z ' )
+. Create the simpler problem's !oundary surface as the
e(act same as the real problem's
surface S is the plane at z=%
,. Create the simpler problem's !oundary condition as a
"rounded conductor
4(x)=% on S
-. Solve the simpler problem !y placin" an ima"e point
char"e.s/ at a lo"ical location.s/ on the other side of the
!oundary surface from the ori"inal point char"e and
removin" the !oundary surface
q' is at ( x ' , y' ,z' )
0. $rite down the simple problem's solution as the
potential due to the point char"e and its ima"es char"e.s/
4(x)=
#
*c
%
q
.( xx' )
&
+( yy' )
&
+( zz' )
&
+
#
*c
%
q'
.( xx' )
&
+( yy' )
&
+( z+z ' )
&
1. 2pply the simpler problem's !oundary condition of a
"rounded conductor to determine the ima"e char"e.s/
ma"nitude and location
q' =q
#%. $rite out the final solution to the simpler problem
where the unprimed coordinates "ive the location of
space where the potential is measured and the primed
coordinates "ive the location of the ar!itrarily placed
point char"e
4(x)=
q
*c
%

#
.( xx ' )
&
+( yy ' )
&
+( zz ' )
&

#
.( xx ' )
&
+( yy ' )
&
+( z+z ' )
&
|
##. Convert the solution of the simpler problem to the
3reen function of the real problem4
!ecomes G
q !ecomes *%
Make sure the 3reen function is symmetric !etween x
and x'. 5f not you have made a mistake that must !e
fi(ed.
G( x , x' )=
#
.( xx' )
&
+( yy' )
&
+( zz' )
&

#
.( xx' )
&
+( yy ' )
&
+( z+z ' )
&
028
#&. For later use find the partial derivative of the 3reen
function at the surface in the direction normal to the
surface and away from the volume of the real problem
where we want to know the potential.

G
n'
|
on S
=

G
z '
|
z ' =%

G
n'
|
on S
=
& z
(( xx ' )
&
+( yy ' )
&
+z
&
)
)/ &
#). $rite down the "eneral form of the 3reen function
solution to the real problem makin" sure that inte"ration
is over primed varia!les and the real char"e distri!ution
and real !oundary condition are "iven in terms of primed
varia!les.
4=
#
*c
%

p(x ' ) Gd
)
x'
#
*

4(x' )
G
n'
da'
#*. 6(pand the inte"rals in the solution into the
coordinates system that you are usin"
=
#
*
%

(x' ) Gd x ' d y ' d z '

#
*

(x' )
G
n'
d x ' d y'
#+. 7lu" the followin" into the inte"rals in the solution4
8 the real char"e distri!ution as defined in step #
8 the 3reen function G as found in step ##
8 the real !oundary condition as defined in step )
8 the partial of the 3reen function as found in step #&
#,. 6valuate the Dirac deltas and inte"rals as much as
possi!le.
4=
Q
*c
%

#
.
x
&
+y
&
+( zz
%
)
&

#
.
x
&
+y
&
+( z+z
%
)
&
|
+
V z
&

b
b

a
a
#
(( xx' )
&
+( yy' )
&
+z
&
)
)/ &
d x' d y '
029
Helmholtz Decomposition of Vector Fields
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Introduction
The Helmholtz Decomposition Theorem or the fundamental theorem of vector calculus states that any
well!"ehaved vector field can "e decomposed into the sum of a lon#itudinal $diver#in# non!curlin#
irrotational% vector field and a transverse $solenoidal curlin# rotational diver#in#% vector field. Here
the terms &lon#itudinal' and &transverse' refer to the nature of the operators and not the vector fields. (
purely &transverse' vector field does not necessarily have all of its vectors perpendicular to some
reference vector. )n one sense the diver#ence and curl operators can "e thou#ht of as ortho#onal
operators as their product is zero and they e*tract independent parts of a #eneral vector field. This is
demonstrated in the mathematical identities+
=, and (A)=,
There is also a third part to a #eneral vector field. -ven if the curl and diver#ence of a vector field is
zero the vector field can still "e non!zero and non!trivial. This third part is .nown as the Laplacian part
or the rela*ed part and is contained in the other parts.
2. Proof
Start with a #eneral vector field F$x% where x is the three!dimensional o"servation point vector.
-*pand F into an inte#ral includin# a Dirac delta+
F( x)=

V
F(x/ )(xx /) d x /
Here we leave the inte#ration volume V ar"itrary for the sa.e of #enerality0 it does not have to "e all
space "ut it does have to include the point x. 1ow use the identity+
( xx/ )=
2
3

4
(
2
xx/
)
to find+
F( x)=
2
3

4

V
F( x/ )
xx/
d x /
1ow use the identity
4
A=(A)( A) to find+
F(x)=
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
xx/
d x /
)
+
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
xx/
d x/
)
)dentify the first term as the lon#itudinal part F
l
and the second term as the transverse part F
t
+
030
F=F
l
+F
t
where F
l
=
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
xx/
d x/
)
and F
t
=
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
xx/
d x /
)
Ta.in# the curl of F
l
shows that it is indeed non!curlin# $lon#itudinal% and ta.in# the diver#ence of F
t
shows that it is indeed non!diver#in# $transverse% as follows+
F
l
=
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
xx/
d x/
)
F
l
=,
"ecause the curl of the #radient is always zero
F
t
=
2
3

(

V
F(x/)
xx/
d x/
)
F
t
=,
"ecause the diver#ence of the curl is always zero
This means that the one term is purely solenoidal and the other is purely diver#in# and their sum #ives
a #eneral vector field. This is the Helmholtz Decomposition Theorem. Summarized mathematically we
have+
F=F
l
+F
t
where
F=F
l
and
F=F
t
3. Field ources
Let us investi#ate further. The field that results when we ta.e the diver#ence of F we will call the
source of F/s diver#ence. )t is apparently a scalar field 5. Similarly the field that results when we ta.e
the curl of F we will call the source of F/s curlin# nature. )t is a vector field !.
=F
!=F
Both 5 and ! are source fields0 they are not the vector field components of F "ut are related to them.
(ccordin# to the Helmholtz Decomposition Theorem this immediately tells us+
=F
l
!=F
t
Let us #o "ac. to the e*pansion of F and see if we can #et them to appear.
F(x)=
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
xx/
d x /
)
+
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
xx/
d x/
)
Use (A)=A +Aon the first term realizin# that F is a function of primed varia"les only
so the diver#ence of F with respect to unprimed varia"les is zero. Similarly use
(A)=A+()A on the second term realizin# that the curl of F with respect to
031
unprimed varia"les is zero for the same reason. (fter applyin# "oth of these e*pansions we find+
F(x)=
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
(
2
xx /
)
d x/
)

2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
(
2
xx /
)
d x/
)
Use

(
2
xx /
)
=/
(
2
xx /
)
where the prime on the #radient operator denotes differentiation with
respect to the primed varia"les.
F(x)=
2
3

(

V
F(x /)/
(
2
xx /
)
d x/
)
+
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )/
(
2
xx/
)
d x /
)
Use (A)=A +Aand (A)=A+( )A a#ain "ut now with respect to
primed varia"les such that+
F(x/ )/
(
2
xx/
)
=/
(
F(x/ )
xx/
)

/F(x /)
xx/
and
F(x/ )/
(
2
xx /
)
=/
(
F(x/ )
xx /
)
+
/ F(x/ )
xx/
Usin# these two e*pansions the total e*pression for F "ecomes+
F(x)=
2
3

(

V
/
(
F(x/ )
xx/
)
d x/

V
/F(x/)
xx/
d x/
)
+
2
3

(
[

V
/
(
F(x/ )
xx/
)
d x /+

V
/ F(x/ )
xx /
d x / ]
)
6e can use the diver#ence theorem on the first term to turn it into a surface inte#ral over the surface S
"oundin# volume V. )f we let V "e all space then S is the surface at infinity. )f F is well!"ehaved it will
die off to zero at infinity and this surface inte#ral vanishes. Similarly we can use a version of Sto.es
theorem on the third term to reduce it down to a surface inte#ral over S. This term will also #o away if
the volume is all space and F is well!"ehaved. 6ith these two terms #one we have+
F(x)=
2
3
( /F(x/ ))
(
2
xx/
)
d x /
2
3
(/ F(x/ ))
(
2
xx/
)
d x /
1ow use

(
2
xx /
)
=
xx/
xx/
7
to find+
F(x)=
2
3

( /F(x /))
(xx/ )
xx/
7
d x/ +
2
3

( / F(x/ ))
(xx/ )
xx/
7
d x/
1ow identity the sources =F and !=F inside the inte#rals+
032
F(x)=
2
3

(x/ )(xx /)
xx/
7
d x/ +
2
3

!(x/ )(xx/ )
xx/
7
d x/
where =F and !=F
This is a #eneral mathematical result descri"in# the properties of vector fields in #eneral. This
e*pansion can "e used to derive Coulom"/s law and the Biot!Savart law.
". #aplacian Fields
)f a vector field is non!curlin# and non!diver#in# it can still "e non!zero. ( field that has a zero curl
and zero diver#ence is said to "e a Laplacian or rela*ed field. 1ote that
F
t
=,
does not imply that
F
t
8 , 9ust that its curl is zero. Consider a vector field F that is non!curlin# and non!diver#in#+
$2% F=, and $4% F=,
Comparin# the first e:uation to the mathematical statement =, we see that this field can "e
defined as the #radient of some scalar field+ F= . ;lu##in# this into the second e:uation we
find+

4
=,
(lternatively comparin# -:. 4 to the mathematical statement (A)=, we see that F can "e
defined as the curl of some vector field+ F=A . ;lu##in# this into the second e:uation we have
(A)=, . Usin# a vector identity and remem"erin# that the diver#ence of F is zero we end up
with+

4
A
i
=,
)n "oth approaches we end up at the same result+ Laplace/s e:uation. The solutions to Laplace/s
e:uations are typically non!zero and non!trivial and depend only on the "oundary conditions. The
solution to Laplace/s e:uation is a minimal ener#y or surface!rela*ation state that meets the "oundary
conditions. ( non!curlin# non!diver#in# vector field therefore still has a Laplacian nature. Because
Laplacian fields are rela*ed fields they o"ey the mean value theorem $the value of the scalar field at a
point e:uals the avera#e of the field over any sphere centered at that point% and have no local ma*ima
or minima. (ll that is needed to find a uni:ue solution to Laplace/s e:uation is to apply a complete set
of "oundary conditions $this is the Uni:ueness Theorem%.
033
$. %xamples
Let us illustrate the difference "etween curlin# diver#in# and Laplacian fields. )n all of the followin#
plots only the vector field/s directionality is shown and not its ma#nitude.
$a% The field F=y

i +x

& is plotted on the ri#ht.


Simple calculations reveal+
Curling Nature: F=4

'
Diverging Nature: F=,
Laplacian Nature: =undefined
This is a transverse $curlin#% field.
$"% The field F=x

i +y

& is plotted on the ri#ht.


Simple calculations reveal+
Curling Nature: F=,
Diverging Nature: F=4
Laplacian Nature: =undefined
This is a lon#itudinal $diver#in#% field.
$c% The field F=x

i y

& is plotted on the ri#ht.


Simple calculations reveal+
Curling Nature: F=,
Diverging Nature: F=,
Laplacian Nature:
=
2
4
(x
4
y
4
)
This is a purely Laplacian field.
1ote that in #eneral curlin# field lines tend to loop around and connect to themselves diver#in# field
lines tend to emanate out from source points and Laplacian field lines tend to start and end on the
"oundaries.
034
$d% The field F=( xy)

i +( x+y)

& is plotted on the ri#ht.


Simple calculations reveal+
Curling Nature: F=4

'
Diverging Nature: F=4
Laplacian Nature: =undefined
This is a transverse and lon#itudinal field.
$e% The field F=3

i +4

& is plotted on the ri#ht.


Simple calculations reveal+
Curling Nature: F=,
Diverging Nature: F=,
Laplacian Nature: =3 x4 y
This is special .ind of Laplacian field .nown as a
uniform field.
$f% The field F=( x+y)

i +( x+y)

& is plotted on the ri#ht.


Simple calculations reveal+
Curling Nature: F=,
Diverging Nature: F=4
Laplacian Nature: =undefined
This is a lon#itudinal field emanatin# from a linearly
symmetric source rather than a radially symmetric source.
1ote that anytime a vector field has zero curl a potential can "e defined accordin# to F= which
is the solution to the ;oisson e:uation
4
=f . Strictly spea.in# < is defined "ut it only "ecomes
Laplacian when f 8 ,. This is the reason for the appearance of & =undefined ' a"ove.
035
Magnetic Mirrors, the Ionosphere, and the Magnetosphere
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Introduction
The force F exerted by an external manetic field B on a manetic dipole m is iven by!
F=[ (mB)]
x=x
m
There is also a net tor"ue that the dipole experiences from the applied manetic field that tends to alin the two. #nce alined$ this e"uation
becomes!
F=[ mB]
x=x
m
The radient always points downhill$ i.e. away from reions where its operand is the hihest. %s a result$ the manetic dipole experiences a
force away from reions of hih manetic field strenth$ independent of whether it is a positive field or a neative field and independent of
the particle&s chare. %dditionally$ at locations in space where the manetic field strenth chanes the most rapidly$ the radient is the
hihest$ and therefore the force is the hihest. #n a diaram$ reions that have the manetic field becomin stroner are represented by
converin field lines. The more the field lines convere$ the stroner the repellin force. The effect is summari'ed as!
Magnetic dipoles are repelled from areas with converging magnetic field lines
% sinle$ free$ chared particle in an external manetic field feels a total force F=q vB . Coupled with (ewton&s law$ this interaction leads
to chared particles followin spiralin paths around manetic field lines. )f one loop of the spiral is small compared to the spatial variations
in the manetic field$ the particle acts li*e a little loop of current and therefore acts li*e a manetic dipole. Their motion can thus be
summari'ed!
Free charged particles spiral along magnetic field lines and are repelled from areas with converging magnetic field lines
036
% reion of hih manetic field strenth$ such as at the tip of an manet$ therefore acts li*e a manetic mirror. Two or more manetic mirrors
can be used to trap chared particles and are very useful in plasma confinement$ as shown below.
N
S
v
par
F
F
v
par
v
par
B
037
t t k gt gt t gt tt t' gt g t t gt Nt
t A t, g t t t t V A t t t t' gt
t g t zt t, tt t t tt t zt t t Nt tt t
t gt gtt t t gt tt t t
t t V A t t A, t gt t V gt, t g t t
t t t




038
Magnetostatic Equations Summary
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2012
University of Massachusetts Loell
1. Definitions

0
H: The applied magnetic field plus interactions.

0
M: The material response magnetic field.
B: The total magnetic field.
J! "he applied current density.
J
M
! "he material current density
J
total
! "he total current density
2. Fundamental Equations to Understand and Memorize
B=
0
H
0
M
#total field $ applied field % &aterial response field'
J
total
=J+J
M
#total current density $ applied current density % &aterial current density'
B=
0
J
total
#total current (ives rise to curlin( total field'
H=J #applied current (ives rise to curlin( applied field'
M=J
M
#&aterial current (ives rise to curlin( &aterial response field'
=0 #&ath identity! if a vector field has no curl, it is the (radient of a scalar potential'
B=0 #total &a(netic field lines are not created or destroyed'
H=
M
#positive effective &a(netic char(e creates H field lines, ne(ative destroys'
M=
M
#ne(ative effective &a(netic char(e creates H field lines, positive destroys'
()=0 #&ath identity! if a vector field has )ero diver(ence, it is the curl of a vector field'
B= H #linear &a(netic &aterial have the applied and total fields lin*ed +y a constant'
039
!. Deri"ed Equations# $otentials
%. Deri"ed Equations# Boundary &onditions
H=
M
H=
M
H=J J=0 =0
B=
M

M
=
M
B=
0
J
total
J
total
=0
=0
B=0

M
=0
B=0 ()=0
B= B=
0
J
total

2
=
0
J
total
B=0
(B
2
B
1
)n=0
H=
M
(H
2
H
1
)n=
M
M=
M
(M
2
M
1
)n=
M
B=
0
J
total
n(H
2
H
1
)=' n(B
2
B
1
)=
0
'
total
H=J M=J
M
n(M
2
M
1
)='
M

2
=
0
J
total
J=0

2
=
0
J
M
J
M
=0

2
=0
#alays true'
#true in re(ions ith
no applied current'
#true in re(ions ith
no total current'
#true in re(ions ith
no total current'
#usin( ,aussian
pill+o- surface'
#usin( .&perian
loop'
040
(. Deri"ed Equations# )inear Materials
/n re(ions of linear uniform &aterial and J $ 0, e can sho J
M
$ 0, and therefore J
total
$ 0.
/n free space #no &a(netic &aterials', M $ 0, J
M
$ 0, and therefore B $
0
H and J
total
$ J.
B= H B=
0
H+
0
M
B=
(

0

0
)
M H=
(

0

0
)
M
B= H

2
= J

2
=
0
J
total
(B
2
B
1
)n=0 B= H
(
2
H
2

1
H
1
)n=0
B= H n(H
2
H
1
)='
n
(
1

2
B
2

1
B
1
)
='
041
Magnetostatics Methods
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
I. Are there permanent magnets with nown M !
Because the magnet is permanent" the fields it creates will #e independent and additive to the rest of
the pro#lem. Solve for the fields due to the permanent magnets with the rest of the pro#lem $free
currents" materials" #oundaries" etc.% a#sent. Depending on the geometry choose one method&
Option A:
'. Calculate the magnet(s volume and surface magnetic charge density&

M
=M
). Calculate the magnetic scalar potential due to the magnet&
M
=
'
*


M
x(
xx (
d x(
+. Calculate the fields&
H=
M
"
B=
,
H
,
M
$M inside is nown" M outside is -ero%
Option B:
'. Calculate the magnet(s volume and surface #ound current density&
J
M
=M
). Calculate the magnetic vector potential due to the magnet& A=

,
*

J
M
x(
xx(
d x (
+. Calculate the fields& B=A "
H=
'

,
BM
$M inside is nown" M outside is -ero%
II. Are there regions in the pro#lem with no currents" J
total
. ," and linear uniform material!
'. /or each region solve
)

M
=, using orthogonal functions 0ust lie in electrostatics.
). Apply any trivial #oundary conditions $finite at origin" finite at infinity" etc.%. 1ther #oundary
conditions will have to wait until later.
+. Calculate the fields&
B=
M
" H=
'

B " M=

'


B
III. Are there free currents J
free
in a region of linear uniform material !
'. Calculate the magnetic vector potential due to the free currents& A=

*

J
free
x(
xx(
d x(
). Calculate the fields& B=A " H=
'

B " M=

'


B
I2. In each region" add up the fields found a#ove.
'. In each region" add up the fields as found a#ove due to permanent magnets" free currents" and
#ound surface currents $this may re3uire the method of images to find the fields due to surface
currents%.
). Apply #oundary conditions to find the final solutions
B
)
B
'
n=,
"
n H
)
H
'
=K
free
042
Material Responses in Electrostatics and Magnetostatics
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
Dielectric
Ferroelectric
Parallel-
electric
Diamagnetic
Paramagnetic
Ferromagnetic
Conductor
Direction of
material response
field compared to
inducing field
opposite parallel opposite parallel
perfectly
opposite
Material's effect
on internally
applied
E or B field
E weakened E strengthened B weakened B strengthened E !" B !
Characteri#ation $
!
%
!
%
!
$
!
& '
Material
component
interacting
polari#ed (ound
charge regions
polari#ed (ound
charge regions
magneti#ed
(ound currents
magneti#ed
(ound currents

free charges and
currents
)ffect on e*ternal
fields lines near
surface
partially
sucks in E field
lines
partially
pushes out E
field lines
partially
pushes out B
field lines
partially
sucks in B field
lines
E is normal
B is tangential
+orce on e*ternal
charges or
magnets
attracts charges repels charges repels magnets attracts magnets
attracts charges"
repels magnets
)*ample
materials
glass
plastic
water
diamond
none
in electrostatics
diamond
graphite
(ismuth
copper
iron
steel
co(alt
nickel
silver
copper
gold
aluminum
Note: +erroelectricity and +erromagnetism are nonlinear" history,dependent effects" in contrast to all the other responses. -owever"
for the purposes of general conceptuali#ation" they can (e classed with dielectricity and paramagnetism respectively.
.arallel,electric materials /distinct from paraelectrics0 do not e*ist in electrostatics. 1n electrodynamics" however" the permittivity
can (ecome negative. 2his is (ecause the charges get out of phase from the driving fields" (ut this is a time,dependent effect.
Most materials simultaneously e*hi(it electric" magnetic" and conductive effects" even if only in small amounts.
, 3
, 3
, 3
, 3
, 3
, 3
043
Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. RECTANGULAR COORDINATE
(x, y, z) where x1 x, x! y, x" z, x# x, etc
1.1 Differential O!erators
= "

x
+ y

y
+ #

z
or =

i=1
"
"
i

x
i
A=
A
x
x
+
A
y
y
+
A
z
z
or A=

i =1
"
A
i
x
i
A= "
(
A
z
y

A
y
z
)
+ y
(
A
x
z

A
z
x
)
+ #
(
A
y
x

A
x
y
)
or A=

i=1
"
"
i
(
A
i+!
x
i+1

A
i+1
x
i+!
)
or
A=

i j k
"
i

i j k
A
k
x
j
where

i j k
=$1 for even per%utations , &1 for odd, and ' otherwise

!
=

x
!
+

y
!
+

z
!
or

!
=

i=1
"

x
i
!
$. C%LINDRICAL COORDINATE
(, , z) (radius, a(i%uth, hei)ht)
$.1 Relation to Rectan&'lar Coordinates(
x=cos
y=sin
z =z
=x
!
+y
!
sin=
y
x
!
+y
!
,
cos =
x
x
!
+y
!
,
tan =
y
x
z =z
$.$ Unit )ectors( $.* Inte&ral Elements
=cos "+sin y

=sin "+cos y
#= #
=
x
x
!
+y
!
"+
y
x
!
+y
!
y

=
y
x
!
+y
!
"+
x
x
!
+y
!
y
#= #
d l =d +d

+dz #
d a

=d d z
d a

=d d z

d a
z
=d d #
d V =d d d z
"=cos sin

y=sin +cos

#= #
"=
x
x
!
+y
!

y
x
!
+y
!

y=
y
x
!
+y
!
+
x
x
!
+y
!

#= #
$.+ Differential O!erators
=

+ #

z
, A=
1

( A

)+
1

+
A
z
z
A=
[
1

A
z

z
]
+

[
A

z

A
z

]
+ #
1

( A

)
A

]
,
!
=
1

)
+
1

!

!

!
+

z
!
044
Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics Dr. ,aird- UMass Lo.ell
*. /0ERICAL COORDINATE
(r , , ) (radius, polar an)le, a(i%uthal an)le)
*.1 Relation to Rectan&'lar Coordinates(
x=r sin cos
y=rsin sin
z =r cos
r= x
!
+y
!
+z
!
sin=

x
!
+y
!
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
,
cos=
z
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
, tan =
x
!
+y
!
z
sin=
y
x
!
+y
!
,
cos =
x
x
!
+y
!
,
tan =
y
x
*.$ Unit )ectors(
r=sin cos "+sin sin y+cos #

=coscos "+cossin ysin #

=sin "+cos y
r=
1
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
[ x "+y y+z #]

=
1
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
[
z x
x
!
+y
!
"+
z y
x
!
+y
!
y x
!
+y
!
#
]

=
1
x
!
+y
!
[y "+x y]
"=sin cos r+coscos

sin

y=sin sin r+cossin

+cos

#=cos rsin

"=
x
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
r+
x z
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
1
x
!
+y
!

y
x
!
+y
!

y=
y
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
r+
y z
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
1
x
!
+y
!

+
x
x
!
+y
!

#=
z
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
r

x
!
+y
!
x
!
+y
!
+z
!

*.* Inte&ral Elements


d l =dr r+r d

+r sin d

d a
r
=r
!
sind d r , d a

=r sin dr d

, d a

=r dr d

d V =r
!
sin dr d d
*.+ Differential O!erators
= r

r
+

1
r

1
r sin

A=
1
r
!

r
(r
!
A
r
)+
1
r sin

(sin A

)+
1
r sin
A


A= r
1
r sin
[

(sin A

)
A

]
+

[
1
r sin
A
r


1
r

r
(r A

)
]
+

1
r
[

r
(r A

)
A
r

!
=
1
r

!
r
!
(r )+
1
r
!
sin

(
sin

)
+
1
r
!
sin
!

!
045
Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics Dr. ,aird- UMass Lo.ell
+. )ECTOR IDENTITIE
A,=A,sin n A,=A,cos
A,= "( A
y
B
z
A
z
B
y
)+ y( A
z
B
x
A
x
B
z
)+ #( A
x
B
y
A
y
B
x
) A,=A
x
B
x
+A
y
B
y
+A
z
B
z
A,=

i=1
"
"
i
(
A
i+1
B
i+!
A
i+!
B
i+1
)
A,=

i=1
"
A
i
B
i
A,=

i j k
"
i

i j k
A
j
B
k
A,=

i=1
"
( "
i
A)( "
i
,)
A(,C)=,(CA)=C(A,) A(,C)=,(AC)C(A,)

(
1
""*
)
=
""*
""*
"

(
1
"" *
)
=*
(
1
"" *
)

!
(
1
"" *
)
=#(""* )
!
(
1
"" *
)
=*
!
(
1
""*
)
=' (A)='
(A,)=(A),+(,)A+A( ,)+,(A) ()= +
(A,)=,( A)A(,) (A)=A +A
(A,)=A(,),(A)+(,)A(A),
(A)=(A)
!
A

V
A d
"
x=

S
Ad a

S
(A)d a=

C
Ad l

V
(
!

!
) d
"
x=

S
( )d a
1. ORT0OGONAL 2UNCTION 3 m - n - and l are inte&ers4
1.1 Ortho&onality tatements

'
a
cos
(
! mx
a
)
cos
(
!n x
a
)
dx=
a
!

mn

'
!
cos(m x)cos(n x)dx=
mn

'
a
sin
(
!m x
a
)
sin
(
!n x
a
)
dx=
a
!

mn

'
!
sin(mx)sin(n x)dx=
mn

'
a
e
i !(mn)x / a
dx=a
mn

'
!
e
i(mn)x
dx=!
mn

e
i(k k *) x
dx=!(kk * )

e
i( xx *)k
d k=!( xx * )

1
1
P
l *
(x)P
l
(x)dx=
!
!l +1

l l *

'

P
l *
(cos) P
l
(cos)sin d =
!
!l +1

l l *

1
1
P
l *
m
( x)P
l
m
( x)dx=
!
!l +1
(l +m)!
(l m)!

l l *

'
!

'

Y
l * m*
+
( ,)Y
lm
( , )sin d d =
l l *

m m*

'
a
J

(
x
n*

a
)
J

(
x
n

a
)
d =
a
!
!
[ J
+1
(x
n
)]
!

n* n

'

x J
m
(k x) J
m
(k * x)dx=
1
k
(k *k)
046
Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics Dr. ,aird- UMass Lo.ell
1.$ Le&endre /olynomials
P
'
(x)=1
,
P
1
(x)=x
,
P
!
(x)=
"
!
x
!

1
!
,
P
"
(x)=
,
!
x
"

"
!
x
,
P
#
( x)=
",
-
x
#

"'
-
x
!
+
"
-
P
l
(x)=(1)
l
P
l
( x) ,
P
l
(1)=1
(l +1) P
l +1
( x)(!l +1) x P
l
(x)+l P
l1
( x)='
,
P
l
( x)=
1
!l +1
d
dx
[
P
l +1
( x)P
l1
( x)
]
1.* Associated Le&endre 2'nctions
P
l
'
(x)=P
l
( x) , P
1
1
=1x
!
, P
!
1
(x)=" x 1x
!
, P
!
!
="" x
!
,
P
"
1
(x)=
"
!
(, x
!
1)1x
!
P
l
m
( x)=(1)
m
(l m)!
(l +m)!
P
l
m
( x)
1.+ !herical 0armonics
Y
l ,m
=(1)
m
Y +
l m
Y
lm
( , )=

!l +1
#
(l m)!
(l +m)!
P
l
m
(cos)e
i m
Y
''
=
1
#
Y
1'
=

"
#
cos Y
!'
=

,
1.
( "cos
!
1) Y
"'
=

/
1.
(,cos
"
"cos)
Y
11
=

"
-
sine
i
Y
!1
=

1,
-
sincos e
i
Y
"1
=

!1
.#
sin ( ,cos
!
1)e
i
Y
!!
=

1,
"!
sin
!
e
i !
Y
"!
=

1',
"!
sin
!
cose
i !
Y
""
=

",
.#
sin
"
e
i "
1.1 ,essel 2'nctions
J
'
(')=1
,
J
n
(')=' for n'
,
N
m
(')=
,
J
'
* ( x)=J
1
( x)
, J
m
(x)=(1)
m
J
m
(x)
J
n+1
=
!n
x
J
n
(x)J
n1
(x) J
n
* (x)=
1
!
J
n1
( x)+
1
!
J
n+1
(x)

x J
'
(x)dx=x J
1
( x)

J
1
(x)dx=J
'
( x)

'

e
a x
J
'
(b x)dx=
1
a
!
+b
!

'

cos(a x) J
'
(b x)dx=
1
a
!
b
!
if a 0 b

'

J
n
(b x)d x=
1
b
for n>1
J
n
(z)=
1
!i
n

'
!
e
i( z cos +n)
d
N
m
( x)=
J
m
( x) cos(m)J
m
(x)
sin( m)
N
m
( x)=(1)
m
N
m
(x)
H
m
(1)
( x)=J
m
( x)+i N
m
( x) H
m
(!)
( x)=J
m
(x)i N
m
( x)
I
m
( x)=i
m
J
m
(i x) K
m
(x)=

!
i
m+1
H
m
(1)
(i x)
047
Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics Dr. ,aird- UMass Lo.ell
5. COM/LE6 NUM,ER
1ll e2pressions with 1r)(z) have an i%plicit additive factor !3m where m ',1,!...
e
i m
=(1)
m
where m=',1,!. .. e
i m/!
=i
m
where m=',1,!... e
i
=cos +i sin
z =( z)+i !(z)
z =ze
i Arg (z )
z +=(z)i !(z)
z +=ze
i Arg( z)
( z)=
z+z +
!
( z)=zcos( Arg( z))
!( z)=
zz+
!i
!(z)=zsin( Arg( z))
z=z z + z=((z))
!
+(!( z))
!
Arg (z)=sin
1
(
!(z)
z
)
Arg (z)=cos
1
(
(z)
z
)
Arg ( z)=tan
1
(
!( z)
( z)
)
sin=
e
i
e
i
!i
cos=
e
i
+e
i
!
tan=i
e
i
e
i
e
i
+e
i
sinh x=
e
x
e
x
!
cosh x=
e
x
+e
x
!
tanh x=
e
x
e
x
e
x
+e
x
sinh
1
z=ln(z+z
!
+1) cosh
1
z=ln (z+z
!
1)
tanh
1
z=
1
!
ln
(
1+z
1z
)
sin
1
z=i ln(i z+1z
!
) cos
1
z="i ln (z+z
!
1)
tan
1
z=
i
!
ln
(
i z
i +z
)
sin(i z)=i sinh(z) cos(i z)=cosh(z ) tan (i z)=i tanh (z)
sin
1
(i z)=i sinh
1
( z) cos
1
( z)="i cosh
1
( z) tan
1
(i z)=i tanh
1
(z)
z
n
=z
n
[ cos(n Arg(z))+i sin(n Arg( z))]
z=
1
!
[
z+(z)+sgn(!(z))i

z( z)]
ln( z)=ln(z)+i Arg(z)
tan
1
(z)=
[
1
!
tan
1
(
!(z)
1z
!
)]
+i
[
1
#
ln
(
1+! !(z)+z
!
1! !(z)+z
!
)]
!(z
1
)!(z
!
)=
1
!

[
z
1
z
!
+z
1
+ z
!
]
048
Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics Dr. ,aird- UMass Lo.ell
7. TRIGONOMETR% IDENTITIE
sin( A"B)=sin Acos B"cos Asin B cos(A"B)=cos Acos B#sin Asin B
sin A+sin B=!sin
(
A+B
!
)
cos
(
AB
!
)
cos A+cos B=!cos
(
A+B
!
)
cos
(
AB
!
)
sin Asin B=!cos
(
A+B
!
)
sin
(
AB
!
)
cos Acos B=!sin
(
A+B
!
)
sin
(
AB
!
)
sin Asin B=
1
!
[ cos( AB)cos( A+B)] cos Acos B=
1
!
[cos( AB)+cos( A+B)]
sin(! A)=!sin Acos A
cos(! A)=cos
!
Asin
!
A
sin(! A)=!sin A1sin
!
A cos(! A)=!cos
!
A1
sin(! A)=!cos A1cos
!
A cos(! A)=1!sin
!
A
$ if A4! in 5uad. 6 or 66
& if A4! in 5uad. 666 or 67
$ if A4! in 5uad. 6 or 67
& if A4! in 5uad. 66 or 666
sin()=sin cos()=cos
sin
(

!
"
)
=cos cos
(

!
"
)
=#sin
sin(")=sin cos( ")=cos
sinh()=sinh cosh()=cosh
cos
!
A+sin
!
A=1 cosh
!
Asinh
!
A=1
cos
1
x+sin
1
x=/ ! cosh
1
(1/ x)=1/ cosh
1
x
tan (A"B)=
tan A"tan B
1#tan Atan B
tan
1
a"tan
1
b=tan
1
(
a"b
1#a b
)
tan
(
A
!
)
=
1cos A
sin A
tan
(
A
!
)
=
sin A
1+cos A
tan (! A)=
! tan A
1tan
!
A
tan (! A)=
cos A1cos
!
A
cos
!
A1/ !
tan A=
sin A
cos A
tanh A=
sinh A
cosh A
sin
(
A
!
)
="

1cos A
!
cos
(
A
!
)
="

1+cos A
!
049
Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics Dr. ,aird- UMass Lo.ell
8. OT0ER /ECIAL 2UNCTION
8.1 Lo&arithm and E"!onentiation
ln(ab)=ln a+ln b ln(a/ b)=ln aln b
ln(a
b
)=bln a e
ln a
=a
(a

)(a
!
)=a
+!
(a

)/( a
!
)=a
!
a

=1/ a

(a

)
!
=a
!
8.$ Gamma 2'nction and 2actorials
$( ')= , $( 1/ !)= , $(1)=1 , $( !)=1 , $(n+1)=n$(n)
$(n)=(n1)! if n is a positive inte)er
n!=1!"... n where '!=1
n! !=n(n!)(n#)... where '! ! =(1)! ! =1
8.* Dirac Delta
( xa)=' if xa

" (x)(xa)dx= " (a)


(x)=( x)
( xa)=
1
!

e
i( xa) k
d k
(a x)=
1
a
( x)
( x
!
a
!
)=
1
!a
(( x+a)+( xa))
( " ( x))=

i
( xx
i
)
(
d"
dx
)
x=x
i

where x
i
are the points where "(x) '
(coscos* )=(* )/ sin for ' 8 9 8 3

(")
(""*)=(##* )($$* ) (%%* )& V ' where the len)th ele%ents are (d#4&, d$4V, d%4')

rect
("" *)=(xx *)( yy * )(zz* )

sphere
("" *)=((rr * ))
(
(* )
r
)(
(*)
r sin
)

cyl
( "" *)=( (*))
(
( *)

)
( ( zz * ))
050
Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics Dr. ,aird- UMass Lo.ell
9. E6/ANION
9.1 Taylor eries General 2orm
" (x)= " (a)+( xa)
[
d "
d x
]
x=a
+
1
!
( xa)
!
[

!
"
x
!
]
x=a
+...
" (")=" (a)+

i
(x
i
a
i
)
[
"
x
i
]
"=a
+
1
!

i , j
( x
i
a
i
)(x
j
a
j
)
[

x
i

x
j
"
]
"=a
+...
9.$ !ecial Taylor eries
sin x=

n='

(1)
n x
!n+1
(!n+1)!
cos x=

n='

(1)
n x
!n
(!n)!
tan x=x+
1
"
x
"
+
!
1,
x
,
+...
sin
1
x=

n='

(!n1)!! x
!n+1
(! n)! !(!n+1)
cos
1
x=

n='

(!n1)! ! x
!n+1
(!n)! !(! n+1)
tan
1
( x)=

n='

(1)
n
x
!n+1
!n+1
sinh x=

n='

x
!n+1
(!n+1) !
cosh x=

n='

x
!n
(!n)!
tanh x=x
1
"
x
"
+
!
1,
x
,
+...
sinh
1
x=

n='

(1)
n (! n1)! ! x
!n+1
(!n)! ! (! n+1)
cosh
1
x=ln( ! x)

n=1

(!n1)! !
(! n) ! ! ! n x
!n
tanh
1
(x)=

n='

x
!n+1
!n+1
e
x
=

n='

x
n
n!
ln(1+x)=

n=1

(1)
n+1 x
n
n
ln(1x)=

n=1

x
n
n
1
1x
=

n='

x
n x
x1
=

n='

x
n
1
!
ln
(
1+x
1x
)
=

n='

x
!n+1
! n+1
1
1+x
=(1)
n

n='

x
n
1+x=1+
1
!
x
1
-
x
!
+... 1/ 1+x=1
1
!
x+
"
-
x
!
+...
9.* Unit /oint /otential E"!ansions
1
""*
=
1
( xx * )
!
+( yy* )
!
+(zz *)
!
(Cartesian coordinates)
1
""*
=
1
r
!
+r *
!
! r r * (cos cos* +sin sin* cos(*))
(Spherical coordinates)
1
""*
=
1

!
+*
!
!* cos(* )+( zz * )
!
(Cylindrical coordinates)
1
""*
=#

l='

m=l
l
1
!l +1
r
8
l
r
0
l +1
Y
l m
+
(* ,* )Y
l m
( , ) (Spherical coordinates series)
1
""*
=
!


m=

'

dk e
i m(* )
cos[ k (zz *)] I
m
(k
8
) K
m
(k
0
)
(Cylindrical coordinates series)
051
Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics Dr. ,aird- UMass Lo.ell
1:. INTEGRAL

x
n
dx=
x
n+1
n+1

1
x
dx=ln x

1
a
!
+x
!
dx=
1
a
tan
1
(
x
a
)

1
a
!
x
!
dx=
1
a
tanh
1
(
x
a
)

1
a
!
x
!
dx=sin
1
(
x
a
)

1
a
!
+x
!
dx=sinh
1
(
x
a
)

1
a
!
x
!
dx=cos
1
(
x
a
)

1
x
!
a
!
dx=cosh
1
(
x
a
)
a
!
x
!
dx=
1
!
x a
!
x
!
+
a
!
!
sin
1
(
x
a
)
a
!
+x
!
dx=
1
!
x x
!
+a
!
+
a
!
!
sinh
1
(
x
a
)

e
a x
dx=
e
a x
a

x e
a x
dx=
e
a x
a
(
x
1
a
)

sin( a x)dx=
cos( a x)
a

cos(a x)dx=
sin(a x)
a

x sin(a x)dx=
sin(a x)
a
!

xcos(a x)
a

x cos(a x)dx=
cos(a x)
a
!

x sin(a x)
a

sinh(a x)dx=
1
a
cosh(a x)

cosh(a x)dx=
1
a
sinh(a x)

1
sin
!
(a x)
dx=
1
atan (a x)

1
cos
!
(a x)
dx=
1
a
tan(a x)

1
sinh
!
(a x)
dx=
1
a tanh(a x)

1
cosh
!
(a x)
dx=
1
a
tanh(a x)

tan(a x)dx=
1
a
ln(cos(a x))

tanh(a x)dx=
1
a
ln(cosh(a x))

'

x
n
e
a x
dx=
$( n+1)
a
n+1
'

e
a x
!
=


# a

11. DERI)ATI)E
d
dx
(#
n
)=n#
n1 d#
dx
d
dx
ln #=
1
#
d#
dx
d
dx
e
#
=e
# d#
dx
d
dx
sin #=cos #
d#
dx
d
dx
cos #=sin #
d#
dx
d
dx
tan #=
1
cos
!
#
d#
dx
d
dx
sinh #=cosh #
d#
dx
d
dx
cosh #=sinh #
d#
dx
d
dx
tanh #=
1
cosh
!
#
d#
dx
d
dx
sin
1
#=
1
1#
!
d#
dx
d
dx
cos
1
#=
1
1#
!
d#
dx
d
dx
tan
1
#=
1
1+#
!
d#
dx
d
dx
sinh
1
#=
1
1+#
!
d#
dx
d
dx
cosh
1
#=
1
#
!
1
d#
dx
d
dx
tanh
1
#=
1
1#
!
d#
dx
052
The Uniqueness of Maxwell's Equations
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Introduction
The question is often asked, !hy do Ma"well#s equations contain ei$ht scalar equations if there are
only si" unknowns% &ren#t so'e of the equations redundant, and if not, isn#t the pro(le' over)
specified%* This paper atte'pts to answer this question. The short answer is that Ma"well#s equations
are neither redundant nor over)specified (ecause only si" of Ma"well#s equations are dyna'ical. The
other two can (e thou$ht of as initial conditions. +ote that althou$h not typically written down
e"plicitly as part of Ma"well#s equations, (oundary conditions are also considered part of the syste'.
Ma"well#s equations in their co'plete for' involve si" linear partial differential equations, si"
unknowns, initial conditions and (oundary conditions and therefore they have a unique solution
accordin$ to traditional theore's of linear al$e(ra.
2. Definitions
Let us first 'ake so'e definitions and dispel co''on 'isconceptions. The followin$ analysis focuses
on Ma"well#s equations in vacuu'. ,ncludin$ the effects of 'aterials would co'plicate the analysis
without chan$in$ the core ar$u'ents. ,n 'odern vector notation and in S, units, Ma"well#s equations in
vacuu' are-
E=

.
B=.
Maxwell's equations in vacuum in SI units
E=
B
t
B=
.
J+
.

.
E
t
/ere, E is the total electric field, B is the total 'a$netic field, is the electric char$e density, J is the
electric current density,

.
is the per'ittivity in free space,

.
is the per'ea(ility of free space, () is
the diver$ence operator, and () is the curl operator. !e o'it hypothetical 'a$netic char$es and
'a$netic currents as they have little (earin$ on the known universe and only unnecessarily co'plicate
the analysis without chan$in$ the core ar$u'ents.
The si" unknowns to (e found are the co'ponents of the electro'a$netic field-
E
x
, E
y
, E
z
, B
x
, B
y
, B
z
The six unknowns (dependent vaia!les" o# Maxwell's equations
They are not nu'(ers to (e found as in linear al$e(ra, rather they are functions of x, y, z, and t that need
to (e deter'ined. ,n the lan$ua$e of differential calculus, these si" unknowns are dependent varia(les
which depend on the four independent varia(les-
x, y, z, t The independent vaia!les o# Maxwell's equations
!hen solvin$ differential equations, we consider a solution to (e unique when there is one and only
one functional for' that we can write down for each dependent varia(le and this functional for'
053
includes only known constants and independent varia(les, (ut no dependent varia(les or derivatives.
The char$e density and current density are not unknowns in this 'odern condensed for'. ,f they were,
then everythin$ would (e unknown and there would (e nothin$ to solve. Char$es and currents create
fields0 the char$es and currents are the sources. 1/istorically, Ma"well#s ori$inal work treated the
char$es and currents as unknowns, (ut he also included e"tra equations which effectively turned the'
into knowns.2
The (e$inner student 'ay look at Ma"well#s equations and think there are only #ou equations and si"
unknowns, and therefore the pro(le' is underspecified. 3ro' a physical standpoint, Ma"well#s
equations are four equations constitutin$ four separate laws- Coulo'(#s law, the Ma"well)&'pere law,
3araday#s law, and the no)'a$netic)char$e law. But fro' a 'athe'atical standpoint, there are ei$ht
equations (ecause two of the physical laws are vector equations with 'ultiple co'ponents. ,n
co'ponent for' in rectan$ular coordinates, the full ei$ht equations are-
E
x
x
+
E
y
y
+
E
z
z
=

.

B
x
x
+
B
y
y
+
B
z
z
=.
E
z
y

E
y
z
=
B
x
t
B
z
y

B
y
z
=
.
$
x
+
.

.
E
x
t

E
x
z

E
z
x
=
B
y
t
B
x
z

B
z
x
=
.
$
y
+
.

.
E
y
t

E
y
x

E
x
y
=
B
z
t
B
y
x

B
x
y
=
.
$
z
+
.

.
E
z
t
!e therefore see' to have ei$ht independent equations in si" unknowns and the pro(le' see's to (e
over)specified 1or redundant2 accordin$ to linear al$e(ra. The ea$er student 'ay quickly reply that
perhaps Ma"well#s equations are non)linear. But a perusal of the a(ove equations reveals that each ter'
involves a sin$le dependent varia(le raised to the power of one, and therefore the syste' is linear. ,n
theory, (ecause the syste' is linear, we can decouple all of the equations and end up with each equation
containin$ only one dependent varia(le. This is in fact what happens when Ma"well#s equations are put
in wave)equation for', as is done later.
,n differential calculus, two distinct layers of infor'ation 'ust (e present in order to have a co'pletely
unique solution- 142 sufficient differential equations to deter'ine the dependent varia(les, and 152
sufficient (oundary conditions to deter'ine the inte$ration constants. The ter' (oundary conditions*
used here includes initial conditions, as initial conditions can (e thou$ht of as conditions on the
(oundary of ti'e. ,f the syste' is linear, as is true for Ma"well#s equations, the differential equations
are sufficient for a unique solution if the nu'(er of equations equals the nu'(er of unknowns, and if
all the equations are linearly dependent. The (oundary conditions are sufficient for a unique solution if
the nu'(er of known (oundary conditions equals the nu'(er of dependent varia(les ti'es the nu'(er
of independent varia(les ti'es the order of the differential equations, and if the (oundary conditions
are not ill)posed 'athe'atically. This nu'(er can (e understood fro' the fact that every ti'e we
inte$rate away a derivative operator, we introduce an inte$ration constant that 'ust (e deter'ined
usin$ (oundary conditions.
,n Ma"well#s equations, we have first)order differential equations, si" dependent varia(les, and four
independent varia(les. !e therefore need 56 (oundary conditions for a unique solution. +ote that in
Maxwell's equations
in component #om
054
'ost physics pro(le's, it does not see' like we have 56 (oundary conditions (ecause of the presence
of sy''etries or trivial (oundary conditions. 3or instance, if we are doin$ an electrostatic pro(le', 45
of the (oundary conditions are trivially 7ero (ecause there are no 'a$netic fields present.
The issue of sufficient (oundary conditions is a concern only durin$ the application of Ma"well#s
equations to a specific situation, (ut does not concern the Ma"well#s equations the'selves. 3or the
purposes of our analysis, we assu'e that the student knows how to properly construct and apply
(oundary conditions to arrive at a unique solution. !e can therefore safely i$nore (oundary condition
considerations fro' here on and focus on the other layer- the presence of a sufficient nu'(er of
differential equations to deter'ine the dependent varia(les. ,f Ma"well#s equations are sufficient for a
unique solution (ut not over)specified, we would e"pect si" equations in si" unknowns, plus
appropriate (oundary8initial conditions.
3. The Uniqueness of Maxwell's Equations in tandard !or"
&ccordin$ to the /el'holt7 deco'position theore' 1the funda'ental theore' of vector calculus2
every well)(ehaved vector field # can (e deco'posed into a su' of a transverse vector field and a
lon$itudinal vector field-
#=#
t
+#
l
where
#=#
t
1so that
#
l
=.
2 and
#=#
l
1so that
#
t
=.
2
The transverse part #
t
is a curlin$ 1i.e. solenoidal, rotational, non)diver$in$2 vector field. The
lon$itudinal part is #
l
is a diver$in$ 1i.e. irrotational, non)curlin$2 vector field. The /el'holt7
deco'position theore' arises fro' the fact that the diver$ence operator and the curl operator can (e
thou$ht of as ortho$onal operators. This is (ecause the curl of the $radient is always 7ero, =.
and the diver$ence of the curl is always 7ero, (D)=. . +ote that the ter's lon$itudinal* and
transverse* refer to the directionality of the operators, and not necessarily the directionality of the
vectors. ,n other words, #
t
is the co'ponent that results when the transverse differential 1the curl2 is
taken, it is not the co'ponent that is always transverse to so'e reference vector.
+ote that there is another part to the vector field that is (oth non)curlin$ and non)diver$in$. ,f a vector
field has 7ero diver$ence and 7ero curl, it can still have so'ethin$ else left called the rela"ed part 1or
the Laplacian part2. ,t is called the rela"ed part (ecause char$es and currents are what create diver$in$
and curlin$ fields, so in their a(sence the fields rela" to a state that 'ini'i7es potential ener$y while
still 'eetin$ all (oundary conditions. The rela"ation 'ethod is a co''on nu'erical 'ethod for
findin$ the rela"ed state of any vector field. !e can show the rela"ed nature 'athe'atically. ,f any
vector field # is non)curlin$, #=. , then (ecause of the 'athe'atical identity =. we
'ust have #=. ,f the vector field is also non)diver$in$, #=. , then upon insertin$ the
ne$ative $radient of the scalar field, we find
5
=. . This is the Laplace equation and the solutions to
this equation are the rela"ed part of #. ,'a$ine stretchin$ a ru((er sheet and fi"in$ it to an irre$ularly
shaped ri'. ,t#s final shape is a 'ini'al surface analo$ous to the rela"ed state of a vector field. Thus
we see that even if a vector field is non)curlin$ and non)diver$in$, it can still have a non)7ero and non)
trivial functionality. The rela"ed part of a vector field is contained in #
t
and #
l
as should (e o(vious
fro' the a(ove analysis. The rela"ed part is deter'ined solely (y (oundary conditions. 3or this reason,
we can assu'e (oundary conditions are properly applied so that the rela"ed parts are uniquely
deter'ined without $oin$ into any 'ore detail.
!e can e"pand the electric and 'a$netic fields in Ma"well#s equations into their lon$itudinal and
transverse co'ponents in order to atte'pt to (etter analy7e the role of each equation and whether there
055
is redundancy. !e e"pand the fields accordin$ to-
E=E
t
+E
l
and
B=B
t
+B
l
,nsertin$ these e"pansions into Ma"well#s equations and droppin$ ter's that are identically 7ero 1such
as
E
t
=.
2, they (eco'e-
142
E
l
=

.
152
B
l
=.
192 E
t
=
B
t
t

B
l
t
162 B
t
=
.
J+
4
c
5
E
t
t
+
4
c
5
E
l
t
Takin$ the diver$ence of equations 192 and 162 and usin$ the continuity equation, J=

t
,we arrive
at the 'odified for's of these equations-
19#2

t
(
B
l
)
=.
16#2

t
(
E
l
)
=

t (

.
)
Upon co'parin$ equations 19#2 and 16#2 to equations 152 and 142 respectively, they 'ay see' to (e
identical. ,n other words, equations 142 and 152 of Ma"well#s equations see' to (e redundant (ecause
they are already contained in equations 192 and 162 as 'ade clear in their 'odified for' shown in
equations 19#2 and 16#2. :quations 192 and 162, which are 3araday#s law and the Ma"well)&'pere law,
constitute si" equations in si" unknowns, so it 'akes sense that equations 142 and 152 ) Coulo'(#s law
and the no)'a$netic)char$e law ) could (e redundant. So why are Coulo'(#s law and the no)'a$netic)
char$e law always included as part of Ma"well#s equations%
The answer is that they are not redundant, and the reason why is (ecause equation 19#2 does not e"actly
'atch equation 152 and equation 16#2 does not e"actly 'atch equation 142. The presence of the ti'e
derivative 'akes all the difference. :quations 19#2 and 16#2 do not tell us the lon$itudinal co'ponents of
the electric and 'a$netic fields, they only tell as the time%evolution of the lon$itudinal co'ponents of
the fields. !e still need equations 142 and 152 in order to find the initial lon$itudinal co'ponents. So
Coulo'(#s law and the no)'a$netic)char$e law are not redundant.
The su(tle effect of the ti'e)derivatives contained in equations 19#2 and 16#2 can (e 'ade clearer (y
inte$ratin$ the' away. !e have to (e careful (ecause when we inte$rate, we have to re'e'(er to
include the inte$ration constant. But (ecause it is a partial derivative, the inte$ration constant is not a
pure constant, it is only constant with respect to ti'e. ,t could still (e a function of the other dependent
varia(les. Upon inte$ratin$ equations 19#2 and 16#2, we find that 3araday#s law and the &'pere)Ma"well
law only contain the infor'ation-
19##2
B
l
= # ( x & y & z)
16##2
E
l
=

.
+'(x & y & z)
where # and ' are unknown functions. Co'parin$ equations 19##2 and 16##2 to equations 142 and 152 we
see that there is no redundancy after all. !e need Coulo'(#s law and the no)'a$netic)char$e law in
order to deter'ine the functions # and $ 1even thou$h they end up (ein$ 7ero2. The fact that $eneral
056
conceptual ar$u'ents can tell us that # and ' a(ove are 7ero, or the fact that the #ist two of Ma"well#s
equations tell us that # and ' are 7ero 'ay confuse so'e people into thinkin$ that the other Ma"well
equations, 192 and 162, tell us that # and ' are 7ero. This would i'ply redundancy. But fro' a
'athe'atical perspective, 3araday#s law and the &'pere)Ma"well law do not uniquely specify the
diver$ence of the fields, and thus there is no redundancy.
,f Ma"well#s equations are not redundant, then they see' to (e over)specified (ecause we still have
ei$ht equations in si" unknowns. But Ma"well#s equations are not over)specified and the reason is
(ecause equations 142 and 152 do not really count as part of the syste' of linear equations ; they count
only as initial conditions. They ae needed to uniquely deter'ine a solution, (ut they are needed only
as initial conditions and not as part of the syste' of linear independent differential equations. <nce 142
and 152 are used to find the initial state of the lon$itudinal co'ponents of the fields, then equations 192
and 162 dictate the ti'e evolution of the lon$itudinal co'ponents at all future ti'es, as 'ade e"plicit in
equations 19#2 and 16#2.
The ti'e evolution of the lon$itudinal co'ponents turns out (ein$ statically linked. 1That is, the
diver$ence of the lon$itudinal electric field is linked to the char$e density at all ti'es in the same way
it was initially linked. The relationship is static, (ut E
l
itself is not static. The quantity
E
l

instantaneously tracks the char$e density. So'e (ooks calls this pseudo)static.2 But the static (ehavior
does not chan$e the 'athe'atical ar$u'ents that equations 192 and 162 are a co'plete description of
the dependent varia(les, includin$ the dyna'ical evolution of the lon$itudinal co'ponents, and
equations 142 and 152 are 'erely initial conditions. Because the dyna'ical (ehavior of the lon$itudinal
co'ponents is static, the initial values for the lon$itudinal co'ponents end up (ein$ the same values
throu$h all ti'e. &s a result, Coulo'(#s law 142 and the no)'a$netic)char$e law 152 end up (ein$ valid
for all ti'e and not =ust at an initial ti'e. But this is =ust a quirk of the physics (ecause their dyna'ical
evolution is static, and is not a 'athe'atical parado". >erhaps for this reason, Coulo'(#s law and the
no)'a$netic)char$e law are often incorrectly elevated to (e considered part of the syste' of
differential equations in a linear)al$e(ra sense, when they should only (e re$arded as (oundary
conditions in ti'e.
,n su''ary, Ma"well#s equations are neither over)specified 1si" equations in si" unknowns2, nor are
they redundant 1the diver$ence equations are needed for a unique solution2 when we reco$ni7e
Coulo'(#s law and the no)'a$netic)char$e law as (oundary conditions in ti'e.
Strictly speakin$, equation 152 does not fully specify B
l
, it only specifies the diver$in$ part. There is
still a rela"ed part that is deter'ined (y (oundary conditions. This 'eans that equations 19#2 and 152 do
not doo' B
l
to (e initially and forever'ore 7ero. They only doo' the
B
l
to (e once and
forever'ore 7ero. The rela"ed part of B
l
can still (e non)7ero and can even chan$e in ti'e. 3or
instance, the 'a$netic field inside an ideal, infinite solenoid is non)curlin$ and non)diver$in$, (ut is
still real and non)7ero, and can even chan$e in ti'e as we chan$e the current in the solenoid. This
su(tlety is partly what keeps causality fro' (ein$ violated.
Consider if at so'e ti'e t
.
we turn on* a point electric char$e q that was not there (efore and leave it
on. Static point char$es create the pseudo)static 1i.e. instantaneous2 diver$ence of the lon$itudinal
electric field E
l
accordin$ to 142 and 16#2. , 'i$ht therefore conclude that at the e"act 'o'ent , turn on
q, a 'an on the 'oon can detect its lon$itudinal field. This would clearly violate causality. The error in
our reasonin$ is that we assu'ed E
l
is instantaneous, when clearly equation 16#2 only specifies that
E
l
is statically and therefore instantaneously linked to the char$e density. The quantity
E
l
is not
057
an independent physical quantity we can 'easure. !e can only 'easure and $ive physical reality to the
total field E. Therefore causality is not violated. ,f we worked out the 'athe'atics of a point char$e
turnin$ on, we would find that there are ter's in the dyna'ical equations that cancel the see'in$
instantaneous fields (eyond the causality shell. 3or a $ood e"position of how causality is not violated
despite Coulo'(#s law see'in$ to (e instantaneous, see ?. D. ?ackson, :ur. ?. >hys. 94 L@A 15.4.2.
$. Uniqueness of the %a&e !or" of Maxwell's Equations
!e can cast Ma"well#s equations into a wave for'. Take &'pere#s law and take the partial derivative
with respect to ti'e on (oth sides-

(
B
t
)
=
.
J
t
+
.

.

5
E
t
5
3araday#s Law specifies the partial of B with respect to t, so we can insert it into this equation to find-
(E)=
.
J
t

.

5
E
t
5
Usin$ the vector identity (#)=(#)
5
# , this (eco'es-
(E)
5
E=
.
J
t

.

5
E
t
5
The diver$ence of E is specified (y Coulo'(#s law, so we can insert it in to find-

5
E
4
c
5

5
E
t
5
=
4

.
+
.
J
t
This is a differential equation involvin$ only E and known sources. The electric field has (een
'athe'atically decoupled fro' the 'a$netic field. Because we inserted Coulo'(#s law, we 'ay (e
te'pted to say that this equation contains Coulo'(#s law and therefore Coulo'(#s law (y itself has
(eco'e redundant. ,n fact, (ased on the way we inserted it, this equation only contains the 'adient of
Coulo'(#s law. !e therefore still need Coulo'(#s law for a co'plete solution.
!e can do the sa'e thin$ for the 'a$netic field. Start with 3araday#s law and take the partial derivative
with respect to ti'e on (oth sides-
E=
B
t

(
E
t
)
=

5
B
t
5
The partial of E is found in the &'pere)Ma"well law, so we can insert it into this equation to find-
058
B=
.
J
4
c
5

5
B
t
5
&$ain, usin$ the vector identity ( #)=(#)
5
# , this (eco'es-
(B)
5
B=
.
J
4
c
5

5
B
t
5
The diver$ence of B is specified to (e 7ero (y the no)'a$netic)char$e law, so that we end up with-

5
B
4
c
5

5
B
t
5
=
.
J
This is a differential equation involvin$ only B and known sources. The 'a$netic field has (een
'athe'atically decoupled fro' the electric field. Because we inserted the no)'a$netic)char$e law, we
'ay (e te'pted to say that this equation contains that law and therefore the no)'a$netic)char$e law
has (eco'e redundant. ,n fact, (ased on the way we inserted it, this equation only contains the 'adient
of the no)'a$netic)char$e law. !e therefore still need the no)'a$netic)char$e law for a co'plete
solution.
,n su''ary, Ma"well#s equations in wave)equation for' are-
E=

.
B=.

5
E
4
c
5

5
E
t
5
=
4

.
+
.
J
t

5
B
4
c
5

5
B
t
5
=
.
J
!e have to include the first two equations to $et a unique solution for the sa'e reason as in the ori$inal
for'. &$ain, the first two equations serve as initial conditions and the second two represent si" linear
differential equations in si" unknowns. This for' is fully equivalent to the ori$inal for'. Chan$in$
Ma"well#s equations to this for' does not reduce the nu'(er of unknowns and does not reduce the
nu'(er of physically relevant equations. !hat it does acco'plish is it co'pletely decouples all of the
dependent varia(les. :ach of the si" dyna'ical differential equations now contains one and only one
dependent varia(le 1a field co'ponent2. The decouplin' is what 'akes the wave)equation for' of
Ma"well#s equations so desira(le, not the fact that we have reduced the nu'(er of unknowns or the
nu'(er of equations.
:"pandin$ the fields in Ma"well#s equations into lon$itudinal and transverse co'ponents e"actly as we
did previously, we find-
Maxwell's equations in
wave%equation #om
059
1B2
E
l
=

.
1C2
B
l
=.

1@2 (E
l
)( E
t
)
4
c
5

5
E
l
t
5

4
c
5

5
E
t
t
5
=
4

.
+
.
J
t
1D2 (B
l
)( B
t
)
4
c
5

5
B
l
t
5

4
c
5

5
B
t
t
5
=
.
J
Take the diver$ence of the last two equations and, usin$ the continuity equation, J=

t
, we find
'odified for's of these equations-
1@#2 (
5

4
c
5

5
t
5
)(E
l

.
)=. 1D#2 (
5

4
c
5

5
t
5
)(B
l
)=.
Co'parin$ equations 1@#2 and 1D#2 to equations 1B2 and 1C2, we a$ain see that the dyna'ical equations
1@2 and 1D2 see' to contain the diver$ence equations, (ut they in fact only contain derivatives of the
diver$ence equations. :ven thou$h equations 1B2 and 1C2 are only initial conditions, we still need the'
in order to find a unique solution. !e can see this (y inte$ratin$ away the wave)operator-
1@##2
E
l
=

.
+

((')e
i 'xi c k t
d
9
'
1D##2 B
l
=

)(')e
i 'xi ck t
d
9
'
Co'parin$ equations 1@##2 and 1D##2 to equations 1B2 and 1C2, we see that we need equations 1B2 and 1C2,
the initial conditions, to deter'ine that there are no e"tra ter's in 1@##2 and 1D##2
(. Uniqueness of the )otentials !or" of Maxwell's Equations
&nother for' of Ma"well#s equations can (e found (y definin$ potentials. ,nstead of usin$ so'e prior
knowled$e of Ma"well#s equation to take shortcuts as is traditionally done, let us start as $eneral as
possi(le and let the facts fall out alon$ the way so that we can keep track of the nu'(er of unknowns
and the nu'(er of independent dyna'ical differential equations. The 'a$netic field and electric field
have curlin$ parts and diver$in$ parts. !e can also e"plicitly write out a ti'e)derivative part in order to
'atch traditional potential definitions even thou$h /el'holt7#s theore' does not require it. The ti'e)
derivative ter' 'ay also have a curlin$ or diver$in$ nature. These parts are defined in ter's of
potentials-
B=#
B

##
B
t
and E=#
E

##
E
t
&t this point the potentials #
B
, #
E
, ##
B
, ##
E
, E
B
, and E
E
are all independent and unknown. !e therefore
have 46 unknowns and need 46 independent linear dyna'ical differential equations to find a unique
solution. But Ma"well#s equations only contain si" dyna'ical equations in si" unknowns. By
introducin$ 'ore unknowns throu$h our definition, we 'ust also introduce 'ore equations to ensure
uniqueness. !e are free to choose any new equations we want (ecause they will have no i'pact on the
physics as e"pressed in the electric and 'a$netic fields.
,nsertin$ these e"pansions into Ma"well#s equations in vacuu', we find-
060

E
+

t
##
E
=

B
+

t
##
B
=.
(#
E
)
5
#
E


t
##
E
=

t
#
B
+

t

B
+

5
##
B
t
5
(#
B
)
5
#
B


t
##
B
=
.
J+
4
c
5

t
#
E

4
c
5

t

E

4
c
5

5
##
E
t
5
!e now have ei$ht equations and 46 unknowns. The first two equations can no lon$er (e considered
initial conditions (ecause of the presence of the ti'e derivative. !e added the e"tra unknowns
e"ternally throu$h our definition, so we are free 1and required2 to add any e"tra equations we want to in
order to $et a unique solution. <ur choice of additional equations will have no effect on the end for' of
the E and B fields or on the physics, (ecause e"tra unknowns are purely an artifact of the way we
defined the potentials. 3or a unique solution, we need 'ore initial8(oundary condition equations, and C
'ore dyna'ical equations 146 total 'inus the D already present2 to add to the syste' of linear
equations. There is no ri$ht* set of equations to add, as they all lead to the sa'e physical results. +ote
that so'e of the equations (eco'e trivially satisfied, so that one is te'pted to discard the'. But in the
interest of havin$ n equations in n unknowns, let us track all of the'. !e first need initial conditions
specifyin$ the diver$ence of the vector potentials as well as the other usual (oundary conditions . <ne
co''on choice 1known as the Coulo'( $au$e2 is the set of trivial conditions
#
B
=.
,
#
E
=.
,
##
B
=.
,
##
E
=.
,

B
( on S)=.
,
##
B
(t=.)=.
,
##
B
t
(t =.)=.
These equations are only initial8(oundary conditions. !e still need to add C 'ore dyna'ical equations
for a unique solution. Because we are free to choose any equations, the trivial choices lead to the 'ost
co'pact final for's and are therefore the 'ost desira(le and the 'ost traditional. The traditional
choice of si" additional equations to add is-
#
E
=.
#
B
=##
E
Both of these e"pressions are vector e"pressions in three co'ponents, so they count as si" equations.
By addin$ these C equations 1and the appropriate initial8(oundary conditions2 to the Ma"well
equations, we therefore have 46 equations in 46 unknowns. !ith 46 equations and 46 unknowns and
sufficient initial8(oundary conditions, we therefore have a unique solution.
+ote that (ecause the additional equations and initial conditions chosen here are so trivial, Ma"well#s
equations in potential for' see's to quickly collapse to four 'eanin$ful equations in four unknowns.
3or this reason, it 'ay (e te'ptin$ to clai' that there is redundancy in Ma"well#s equations, (ecause
we are a(le to $o fro' si" equations in si" unknowns in the field representation to four equations in
four unknowns in the potentials representation. But the truth is that we $o to 46 equations in 46
unknowns in the potentials representation. !ith a clever choice of additional equations, 'ost of these
equations are trivial and therefore do not need to (e used when solvin$ a physics pro(le'. But fro' a
'athe'atical standpoint, all 46 equations are necessary for a unique solution in the potentials
representation, and this why Ma"well#s equations are not redundant.
061
,n su''ary, for one particular choice of additional equations 1the Coulo'( $au$e2, Ma"well#s
equations in co'plete for' in the potentials representation are-
,nitial conditions-
#
B
=.
,
#
E
=.
,
##
B
=.
,
##
E
=.
,

B
(on S)=.
,
##
B
(t=.)=.
,
##
B
t
(t =.)=.
Syste' of equations-
#
E
=.
#
B
=##
E

E
+

t
##
E
=

B
+

t
##
B
=.
(#
E
)
5
#
E


t
##
E
=

t
#
B
+

t

B
+

5
##
B
t
5
(#
B
)
5
#
B


t
##
B
=
.
J+
4
c
5

t
#
E

4
c
5

t

E

4
c
5

5
##
E
t
5
+ote that- B=#
B

##
B
t
and E=#
E

##
E
t
These equations can (e inserted into each other in the usual away to arrive at 'ostly uncoupled
equations-
,nitial conditions-
#
B
=.
,
#
E
=.
,
##
B
=.
,
##
E
=.
,

B
( on S)=.
,
##
B
(t=.)=.
,
##
B
t
(t =.)=.
Syste' of equations-
#
E
=.
#
B
=##
E

B
=.
##
B
=.

E
=

5
#
B

4
c
5

5
#
B
t
5
=
.
J+
4
c
5

t

E
+ote that-
B=#
B
and E=
E

#
B
t
,t (eco'es o(vious in this 'ostly)uncoupled for', that only the last two equations are useful- the
>oisson equation for the electrostatic potential and the wave equation for the 'a$netic vector potential.
But fro' a 'athe'atical standpoint, there are still 46 equations in 46 unknowns present and needed in
Maxwell Equations in *omplete&
(otentials +om (*oulom! ,au'e"
Mostly%-ncoupled Maxwell
Equations in *omplete& (otentials
+om (*oulom! ,au'e"
062
order to have a unique solution. &ll 46 equations and all (oundary conditions are needed to co'pletely
define the fields in ter's of potentials in the 'ost $eneral way (ut still have a unique solution. ,f all the
(oundary conditions and trivial equations are i$nored, Ma"well#s equations in potential for' in the
Coulo'( $au$e acts like 6 equations in 6 unknowns. This is very useful to solve pro(le's, (ut it does
not i'ply that the Coulo'( $au$e is special or that the ori$inal Ma"well#s equations contained
redundancies.
063




"#$%&'#
()%#*
064

t
t tt

! "#" ! $ % &
'

)
ttt ttt)

*

+
,

&
) -

* -

. )
F T T Qt
)

)
+
)

)
-

*
-

tt
t tt
t
t
t
tt t

At
t

Rtt
t t
t
t

t
qt tt
tt t
qtz
tt

Rtt
t t
t
qt tt
tt t
t qtz
tt

/ +%
- Qt t q t t b t- t
- t t t
- T t t t: t 't
b b t It k t t tt b
k 't
- F tt t t bt t t t t
- T t t bjt tt tt t
065
b xt t b t t xt t bt tt t b

- T t tt tt t
t b t t ' xt x
- T t t tt tt t t
t b t xt t t ' tk
0 ! ! !1
- t:

0
0
0


0

0

- t :
2
2
0

0

3
2
0

0

- T t t t tt t t txt
- Pt : 2

3
22

t t t
- : 2 2
2
- : 22
1
- t b t t:

1


- T tt t t t t t t t t W
b x t t t It t k
qt b b k t t k t t tt tt
t k
- T x t t t t t ) t
t t /! /" /#) b:
22' ' '' ! " #
- F x t $ $ t t t $ $
:
22' ' ' '
1

- I t t t x t t
t ) t t t t t t t
t tbt xt
066
3 )14
- b xt tt t t
t xt t:
-
- 1/t
2
)
- t
- ttt t b
- t t qt: %
1

2
%

2
5

2
5&

1

2

- t t t x t t t b tt :
5&

1

2
2
1
2
2

2

5&

1

2
2
1
2
2

2
2
1
2
2

2
1
2
2

5&

1

2
2
1
2
2

2
1
2
2

3
- t t t t 3 t xt t t T t t
q b t t t t t t
- T tt tt & t t t xt
- F I t
&
1
4
0

- T b:
5
1
4
0

2
2
1
2
2

2
1
2
2

3
'( )$ $
- T b t t t t :
5
1

1
4
0

2
2
1
2
2

2
1
2
2

5
1


2
1
4
0
22
1

22
1

3
'( )$ $
q
1
q
2
x 1 x
2
r = |x
1
-x
2
|
067
- T t t It t t t b
x t t t E t t t
t t t t t t t bt t It t
t t t t t
1
Wt t t k t xt
xt tbt *2) t ? T t
t tt t bt tt k t xt bjt:
5

22
3
2
- W t qt t t jt t t 5 tt t bjt t
tbt *2) x
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081
Lecture 3 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Method of Images
- Use the method of images when one or more point charges are in the presence of boundary
surfaces with constant potentials across them.
- he method of images is very important because it can be used to find the !reen function and
then the !reen function solution can be applied when the potential is not constant across the
boundary.
- "eplace the boundary surfaces with image charges e#ternal to the region of interest in
locations recommended by symmetries.
- Ma$e ad%ustable parameters out of the un$nowns such as the image charge magnitude and
location.
- &ary the ad%ustable parameters until the boundary condition at the surface is met.
- he solution to the original problem is the solution to the real charges and image charges.
2. Point Charge in the Presence of a rounded !"here
- Center the sphere of radius a at the origin' the real charge q at
y and the observation point at #.
- he grounded conducting sphere has (ero potential at the
surface) 4( x=a)=*
- +f we s$etch the field lines of the sphere and point' we see
they loo$ li$e the fields created by two charges and no surfaces.
his gives us motivation that the method of images will wor$.
- ,lace the image charge q- inside the sphere at the point y-.
- he potential due to the two charges using Coulomb-s law is)
4=
.
/c
*
q
#y
+
.
/c
*
q'
#y'
- Split up vectors in terms of magnitude and directions.
Symmetry dictates that y and y- point in the same direction' so that y' =y ' y )
4(#)=
.
/c
*
q
x #y y
+
.
/c
*
q'
x #y ' y
- 0pply the boundary condition)
4( x=a)=*=
.
/c
*
q
a #y y
+
.
/c
*
q'
a #y ' y
for all angles of the vector #

q
a #y y
=
q'
a #y' y
a
q
y
y'
q'
x
082
- his must be true for all directions of the vector #' so we can pic$ out two different directions
to derive two independent e1uations which we can then solve for our two un$nowns.
- Let us first choose the vector # so that it points in the same direction as the vector y$ #= y

q
a yy y
=
q'
a yy ' y

q
ya
=
q'
ay'
- 2ow pic$ the vector # to point perpendicular to the vector y and e#pand the magnitudes
according to

r
.
r
3

=
.
r
.
3
+r
3
3
3r
.
r
3
)

q
.a
3
+y
3
3 a y # y
=
q'
.a
3
+y'
3
3a y' # y

q
.a
3
+y
3
=
q'
.a
3
+y'
3
q
3
a
3
+y
3
=
q'
3
a
3
+y '
3
- 4e now have two independent e1uations 5those in bo#es above6 in two un$nowns q' and y'
and can solve for the un$nowns)
% Solve the first for q-' q' =
q( y ' a)
ya
and substitute in the second)
q
3
a
3
+y
3
=
(
q( y' a)
ya
)
3
a
3
+y'
3
- 0fter much algebra' get this in 1uadratic form and apply the 1uadratic e1uation)
y'
3
+
(
a
3
+y
3
y
)
y ' +a
3
=*
y' =
a
3
y
- Substitute bac$ into the first)
q' =
q
((
a
3
y
)
a
)
ya
083
q' =
a
y
q
- Substituting bac$ in' the solution for the potential becomes)
4(#)=
q
/c
*

.
#y

y
a
#
a
y
y

|
- +f the vector y is placed on the z a#is and the vectors are e#pressed in spherical coordinates)
(r)=
q
/
*

.
r
3
+y
3
3r y cos

y
3
a
3
r
3
+a
3
3r y cos
|
- 4e can use this to find the induced surface charge density on the sphere.
3. !urface Charge &ensity
- Start with the general form found previously)

(E
3
E
.
)n=
.
c
*
u
|
n=n
*
- 7or a conductor' the electric field inside is everywhere (ero' E
.
8 *)

E
3
n=
.
c
*
u
|
n=n
*
- he electric field at the surface of a conductor is always parallel to the normal vector' and the
surface here is %ust the set of points where the radial spherical coordinate r e1uals the radius a.

E
3
=
.
c
*
u
|
r=a
- 9#pand the electric field in terms of the potential and solve for the charge density)
u=

c
*
d 4
dr
|
r =a
- 2ow plug in the solution for the potential we obtained earlier' evaluate' and plot)
084
=
q
/a
3
(
a
y
)
.
a
3
y
3
(
.+
a
3
y
3
3
a
y
cos
)
:/ 3
'. Point Charge in the Presence of a Charged, Insulated, Conducting !"here
- Consider a sphere with total charge Q in the presence of a point charge q.
- he situation is e#actly the same as the grounded sphere' e#cept that in addition to the induced
charge' there is the rest of the total charge' Q q-' which distributes itself uniformly over the
sphere.
- here are thus three point charges' the real charge q at y' its corresponding image charge q- at
y- with the same solutions as previously' and an image charge of magnitude Q - q- 8 Q ; qa<y at
the origin.
- he potential can immediately be written down as the superposition of the potentials of the
three charges)
4(#)=
.
/c
*

q
#y

y
a
#
a
y
y

+
Q+
a
y
q
#
|
- +n spherical coordinates with the vector y on the z a#is)
4(r)=
q
/c
*

.
.r
3
+y
3
3 r y cos0

.
.
y
3
a
3
r
3
+a
3
3r y cos0
+
Q
q
+
a
y
r
|
- Using
u=

c
*
d 4
dr
|
r =a
to find the surface charge density yields)
=
q
/a
3
(
a
y
)
.
a
3
y
3
(
.+
a
3
y
3
3
a
y
cos
)
:/ 3
+
.
/a
3

Q+
a
y
q
|
0.0 0.5 1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0
0.0
0.5
1.0
1.5
2.0
2.5
3.0
y/a = 2
y/a = 3
y/a = 4

(
-
4

a
^
2
/
q
)
085
- he first term is %ust the induced surface charge found previously and the second term is %ust
the remaining charge spread uniformly over the area of the sphere.
u=u
induced
+
Qq' |
A
sphere
- Similarly' the force acting on charge q can immediately be written down as the superposition
of the forces between them using Coulomb-s law)
(=
q
/c
*

i
q
i
(##
i
)
##
i

:
(=
q
/c
*

q'
(yy' )
yy'
:
+(Qq' )
(y)
y
:
|
(=
.
/
*
q
y
3

Q
qa
:
(3 y
3
a
3
)
y( y
3
a
3
)
3
|
y
- +f instead of a charged' insulated conducting sphere' we have a sphere at fi#ed potential V' the
image charge at the center is replaced by the charge 5Va6.
). reen (unction for the !"here
- he potential due to a unit source and its image that satisfies homogeneous boundary
conditions is the !reen function for Dirichlet boundary conditions.
- 4e have already solved the potential for e#ternal to a grounded sphere and can write down the
sphere-s !reen function immediately)
G( # , #' )=
.
##'

x '
a
#
a
x '
#'

- +n spherical coordinates' where both vectors are arbitrary now' not on the z a#is)
G(# , #' )=
.
x
3
+x '
3
3 x x' cos

x'
3
a
3
x
3
+a
3
3 x x' cos
Sphere Green Function
- =ere' is the angle between the two vectors' so that in spherical coordinates)
cos =cos cos-+sinsin - cos(- )
- Due to symmetry' this is the !reen function for both cases' e#ternal to the sphere and internal
to the sphere.
- >eep in mind that in this !reen function e#pression' x is the magnitude of the observation
point location vector #' and not the Cartesian coordinate. Li$ewise' x- is the magnitude of the
source point location vector #-' so that in spherical coordinates' r 8 x and r- 8 x-. he variable a
086
is the radius of the sphere defining the boundary. +f a specific problem uses the symbol R' b' etc.
for the sphere radius' this should be used in place of the a.
- 7or the !reen function to be useful' we must $now it and its derivative normal to the surface'
away from the volume of interest 5the volume we are interested in is e#ternal' thus n- 8 -x-6)

d G
dn'
|
x ' =a
=
( x
3
a
3
)
a( x
3
+a
3
3 x acos y)
:/ 3
- his is proportional to the surface charge density induced by a unit charge.
- 7or a problem that is internal to the sphere' the same e#pression for the normal derivative
results e#cept the overall sign is flipped because the normal points in the opposite direction.
- 0s an e#ample' the potential outside a sphere with the potential specified on its surface
but no charge involved 5 p( #)=* 6 can be found using the !reen function method)
4(#)=
.
/
|
(
4
d G
D
d n-
)
da -
- his is essentially the sum of all the infinitesimal surface charge patches induced by a unit
charge weighted by the actual potential present at each surface patch. ,lug in the !reen function
and write out e#plicitly in spherical coordinates)
4(#)=
.
/
|
(
4
( x
3
a
3
)
a( x
3
+a
3
3 x a cosy)
:/ 3
)
da-
(#)=
.
/
|
*
3
|
*

(
( a , ' , ' )a
( x
3
a
3
)
(x
3
+a
3
3 x a cos )
:/3
)
sin ' d ' d '
*. Conducting !"here +ith ,emis"heres at &ifferent Potentials
- =ere is an e#ample where the spherical !reen function solution found above is useful.
- Consider a sphere of radius a centered on the origin split geometrically by the z 8 * plane so
that the top half is held at ;V potential and the bottom half is $ept at -V potential.
- 4e can immediately use the result from above)
4(#)=
.
/
|
*
3
|
*
/ 3
(
V a
( x
3
a
3
)
( x
3
+a
3
3 x acos y)
:/ 3
)
sin 0 ' d 0 ' d ' +
.
/
|
*
3
|
/ 3

(
(V ) a
( x
3
a
3
)
( x
3
+a
3
3 x acos y)
:/ 3
)
sin0' d 0' d '
where cos y=cos0 cos0' +sin0sin 0' cos(' )
- ,erform a change of variables on the second integral according to
- -- and - --+ so that cos y-cos y and the integrals can be combined)
087
( #)=
V a( x
3
a
3
)
/
|
*
3
|
*
/ 3
(
.
( x
3
+a
3
3 xa cos )
:/3

.
( x
3
+a
3
+3 x acos )
:/ 3
)
sin- d - d -
- his can not be integrated in closed form in this case.
- =owever' we can investigate a special case of the potential anywhere on the z a#is 5 8 *6)
( z)=
V a(z
3
a
3
)
/
|
*
3
|
*
/3
(
.
( z
3
+a
3
3 z a cos- )
:/ 3

.
(z
3
+a
3
+3 z acos -)
:/ 3
)
sin - d - d -
Substitute u=cos - ' du=sin - d - )
4( z)=
V a( z
3
a
3
)
/
3
|
*
.
(
.
( z
3
+a
3
3 z a u)
:/3

.
( z
3
+a
3
+3 z a u)
:/3
)
du
4( z)=V
(
.
( z
3
a
3
)
z .z
3
+a
3
)
4( z)=V
(
.+
.
z
3
a
3
.
z
/
a
/
+
z
3
a
3
)
1.0 1.5 2.0 2.5 3.0 3.5 4.0 4.5 5.0
0.0
0.1
0.2
0.3
0.4
0.5
0.6
0.7
0.8
0.9
1.0
z/a

/
V
088
Lecture 4 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Orthogonal Functions and Expansions
- In the interval (a, b of the varia!le x, a set of real or co"ple# functions U
n
(x where
n $ %, &, ... are ortho'onal if(

a
b
U
n
)( x)U
m
( x) dx=*, mn
- +hen m = n, the inte'ral is non,ero. -he functions are orthonor"al if nor"ali,ed to one(

a
b
U
n
)( x)U
m
( x) dx=6
nm
- .n ar!itrary, inte'ra!le function f(x can !e e#panded in a series of the orthonor"al functions
U
n
(x accordin' to(
f ( x)=

n=%
N
a
n
U
n
( x)
- -o find the e#pansion coefficients a
n
, we "ultiply !oth sides !y the function U
*
M
(x, inte'rate,
and use the orthonor"ality property(
f ( x)U
m
)
( x)=

n=%
N
a
n
U
n
( x)U
m
)
( x)

a
b
f ( x)U
m
)
( x)dx=

n=%
N
a
n

a
b
U
n
( x)U
m
)
( x) dx

a
b
f ( x)U
m
)
( x)dx=

n=%
N
a
n
6
nm

a
b
f ( x)U
m
)
( x)dx=a
m
- Interchan'e the ar!itrary la!el m for n and 'et the final for"(
f (x)=

n=%
N
a
n
U
n
( x) where a
n
=

a
b
f ( x)U
n
)
(x)dx Finite Series Expansion
089
- If the functions for" a co"plete set, and all functions that are useful in physics do, then the
series e#pansion !eco"es a "ore accurate representation of the function f(x as "ore ter"s in
the series are /ept. -he "ost accurate is the infinite series(
f (x)=

n=%

a
n
U
n
( x)
where a
n
=

a
b
f ( x)U
n
)
(x)dx Infinite Series Expansion
- If the interval (a, b is e#panded to !e infinite, than the ortho'onal functions !eco"e a
continuu" of functions, the inde# varia!le n !eco"es a continuous varia!le k, and the
ortho'onality condition !eco"es nor"ali,ed to the Dirac delta function(

U
k
)( x)U
k 0
( x) dx=6 (kk 0 )
f (x)=

A(k )U
k
(x)dk where A(k)=

f (x)U
n
)
( x)dx Infinite Continuous Expansion
2. Fourier eries
- -he "ost co""only used ortho'onal functions are sines and cosines, constitutin' 1ourier
series.
- Start with a 'eneral e#pansion in ter"s of sines and cosines over the interval (-a2&, a2&(
f ( x)=

n=*

A
n
cos(k
n
x)+B
n
sin( k
n
x)
- In order for the series to !e a valid representation of the function in the interval, the series
"ust !e periodic outside the interval, so that f(-a2& $ f(a2&. Usin' this re3uire"ent leads to(

n=*

A
n
(cos( k
n
(a/ &))cos( k
n
a/ &))+B
n
(sin( k
n
(a/ &)sin(k
n
a/ &)))=*
- -his "ust !e true independent of A
n
and B
n
, so that the coefficients "ust !e ,ero(
sin(k
n
(a/ &))sin( k
n
a/ &)=*
sin(k
n
a/ &)=* - k
n
a/ &=n
k
n
=
&n
a
-he series now !eco"es(
f ( x)=

n=*

A
n
cos
(
&n x
a
)
+B
n
sin
(
&n x
a
)
090
-o find the coefficients, "ultiply !oth sides !y
cos
(
&m x
a
)
where m is an inte'er and inte'rate
over the interval (-a2&, a2&(

a/ &
a/ &
dx f ( x) cos
(
&m x
a
)
=

n=*

A
n

a/&
a/ &
cos
(
&m x
a
)
cos
(
&n x
a
)
dx+B
n

a/&
a/ &
cos
(
&m x
a
)
sin
(
&n x
a
)
dx
- -he first inte'ral on the ri'ht is ,ero, e#cept when m $ n due to ortho'onality, and the second
inte'ral is always ,ero.

a/ &
a/ &
dx f ( x) cos
(
&m x
a
)
=A
m

a/ &
a/ &
cos
&
(
&mx
a
)
dx
- Use inte'ration !y parts to solve the inte'ral on the ri'ht and finally after rela!elin'(
A
n
=
&
a

a/ &
a/ &
f ( x)cos
(
&n x
a
)
dx
- -he sa"e approach is repeated, "ultiplyin' !oth sides !y
sin
(
&m x
a
)
and inte'ratin'(
B
n
=
&
a

a/ &
a/ &
f ( x)sin
(
&n x
a
)
dx
- In su""ary, any function on the interval (-a2&, a2& can !e e#panded in a 1ourier series(
f (x)=

n=*

A
n
cos
(
&n x
a
)
+B
n
sin
(
& n x
a
)
where A
n
=
&
a

a/&
a/ &
f ( x)cos
(
&n x
a
)
dx and B
n
=
&
a

a/&
a/ &
f ( x)sin
(
&n x
a
)
dx
- . "ore useful for" of the 1ourier series is in ter"s of co"ple# e#ponentials(
f (x)=
%
a

n=

A
n
e
i (& nx /a)
where A
n
=
%
a

a/ &
a/ &
f ( x0 )e
i (&n x 0/ a)
dx0
- Because the su""ation inde# now spans ne'ative infinity to positive infinity instead of 4ust
,ero to positive infinity, !oth ter"s e
5ikx
and e
-ikx
have !een co"!ined into one ter". So"eti"es
it is "ore useful to leaves the ter"s separate.
- If the interval !eco"es infinite (a 6 7, the series !eco"es an inte'ral of a continuu" of
functions. -here is now no restriction on k
n
, so it is 4ust k:
f ( x)=

A(k )e
i k x
dk
091
- Multiply !oth sides !y e
i k 0 x
and inte'rate(

f ( x)e
i k 0 x
dx=

A( k)

e
i k 0 x
e
i k x
dx dk
- Usin' the ortho'onality of co"ple# e#ponentials(

e
i(k k 0) x
dx=&(kk 0 )
A( k)=
%
&

f ( x) e
i k x
dx
- More often, the constant A
n
is redefined to
%
.&
A
n
to "a/e the e3uations sy""etric(
f (x)=
%
&

A(k)e
i k x
dk
where
A(k)=
%
&

f (x)e
i k x
dx
Fourier Integra
!. eparation o" #aria$les% Laplace E&uation in 'ectangular (oordinates
- 8ften a differential e3uation can !e !ro/en into a set of independent e3uations.
- -he Laplace e3uation
&
4=* is used when a char'e-free re'ion is !ounded !y a !oundary
where the potential is /nown. In rectan'ular coordinates(

&
4
x
&
+

&
4
!
&
+

&
4
"
&
=*
- -ry a solution of the for"( 4( x # ! # ")=$ ( x)% ( !) & ( ")
% ( x) & ( ")

&
$ ( x)
x
&
+$ ( x) & ( ")

&
% ( !)
!
&
+$ ( x)% ( !)

&
& ( ")
"
&
=*
- Divide each side !y $ ( x) % ( !) & ( ")
%
$ ( x)
d
&
$ ( x)
d x
&
+
%
% ( !)
d
&
% ( !)
d !
&
+
%
& ( ")
d
&
& ( ")
d "
&
=*
- -otal derivatives have replaced partial derivatives !ecause the functions are of only one
varia!le.
- -his e3uation "ust hold for all possi!le values of the independent coordinates, therefore the
ter"s "ust !e independent. 9ach can !e set to an ar!itrary constant(
%
$ ( x)
d
&
$ ( x)
d x
&
=o
&
,
%
% ( !)
d
&
% ( !)
d !
&
=
&
,
%
& ( ")
d
&
&( ")
d "
&
=y
&
where o
&
+
&
=y
&
- Si"plify the e3uations(
092
d
&
$ ( x)
d x
&
=o
&
$ ( x) ,
d
&
% ( !)
d !
&
=
&
% ( !) ,
d
&
&( ")
d "
&
=y
&
& ( ")
- .nd find the solutions(
$ ( x)=Ae
i x
+Be
i x
, % ( !)=C e
i !
+'e
i !
, &( ")=F e
"
+( e
"
$ ( x)=A+B x if =* , % ( !)=C+' ! if =* , &( ")=F+( " if =*
- -he particular solution for non-,ero constants is(
4( x # ! # ")=$ ( x)% ( !) & ( ")
( x # ! # ")=(A

e
i x
+B

e
i x
)(C

e
i !
+'

e
i !
)(F

e
"
+(

e
"
) if ) : * and * : *
- -he particular solutions for when the constants "ay !e ,ero are(
( x # ! # ")=(A
*
+B
*
x)(C
*
e
i !
+'
*
e
i !
)(F
*
e
"
+(
*
e
"
) if ) = * and * : *
( x # ! # ")=( A
*
e
i x
+B
*
e
i x
)(C
*
+'
*
!)( F
*
e
"
+(
*
e
"
) if ) : * and * = *
( x # ! # ")=(A
**
+B
**
x)(C
**
+'
**
!)( F
=*
+(
**
")
if ) = * and * = *
- -he 'eneral solution is the su" of all possi!le particular solutions(
( x # ! # ")=

*
( A

e
i x
+B

e
i x
)(C

e
i !
+'

e
i !
)( F

e
"
+(

e
"
)
+

*
( A
*
+B
*
x)(C
*
e
i !
+'
*
e
i !
)(F
*
e
"
+(
*
e
"
)
+

*
( A
*
e
i x
+B
*
e
i x
)(C
*
+'
*
!)(F
*
e
"
+(
*
e
"
)
+(A
**
+B
**
x)(C
**
+'
**
!)(F
**
+(
**
")
- -his is the "ost 'eneral solution possi!le. Most 'eo"etries are si"ple enou'h that "ost of
these ter"s drop out.
- Let us now discuss differential e3uations in 'eneral.
- . derivative e3uation such as
d !
d x
=& only specifies the solution up to an ar!itrary constant. In
this case ! $ &x 5 C. +e "ust have an additional piece of infor"ation, a !oundary condition, to
specify a uni3ue solution to the derivative e3uation. In this case, if we /now !(% $ ;, then we
find the uni3ue solution to !e ! $ &x 5 &.
- . differential e3uation is 4ust a co"!ination of derivatives and functions.
- 1or every derivative in a differential e3uation, the solution will have one inte'ration constant,
and there "ust !e one !oundary condition to specify it.
- -he Laplace e3uation in three-di"ensions has a second-order derivative (which is really 4ust a
derivative applied twice in each di"ension, for a total of si# derivatives. -his "eans that for a
particular solution, there will !e si# constants, and we need si# !oundary conditions to specify
these constants. -he si# !oundary conditions are 4ust the value of the potential on the si# sides
of the !o# containin' the volu"e of interest.
- Loo/in' at the "ost co""on particular solution to Laplace0s e3uation in three-di"ensional
093
rectan'ular coordinates, it would see" that we have "ore than si# constants(
( x # ! # ")=(A

e
i x
+B

e
i x
)(C

e
i !
+'

e
i !
)(F

e
"
+(

e
"
)
- But in reality, "any of the constants can !e co"!ined and also < is a function of the others
constants(
( x # ! # ")=A

(e
i x
+B

e
i x
)(e
i !
+'

e
i !
)(e

&
+
&
"
+(

&
+
&
"
)
- It is a 'ood practice when approachin' a pro!le" to write down the nu"!er of constants,
identify the", and write a of the !oundary conditions.
4. Example o" 'ectangular )oundary (onditions "or (harge*Free 'egions
- Consider for si"plicity a !o# with one corner at the
ori'in and the opposite corner at the point (a, b, + in
the (x, !, " di"ensions, where the potential is
everywhere ,ero on the surface of the !o# e#cept at
the " $ + surface where(
4( x # ! # "=+)=sin
(
x
a
)
sin
(
!
b
)
- -he other five !oundary conditions are the five
other sides of the !o# held at ,ero.
- . careful analysis leads us to see that all the ,ero-
potential sides force all particular solutions to
disappear e#cept the "ost co""on ones(
( x # ! # ")=

*
( A

e
i x
+B

e
i x
)(C

e
i !
+'

e
i !
)( F

e
"
+(

e
"
)
- =ow we apply all !oundary conditions one !y one(
4( x=*, ! # ")=*
*=

*
( A

+B

)(C

e
i !
+'

e
i !
)(F

e
"
+(

e
"
)
- -his is only true for all ! and " if
A

+B

=*
, or
B

=A

.
- -he solution is now(
( x # ! # ")=

*
A

(e
i x
e
i x
)(C

e
i !
+'

e
i !
)( F

e
"
+(

e
"
)
( x # ! # ")=

*
A

sin (x)(C

e
i !
+'

e
i !
)(F

e
"
+(

e
"
)
- =e#t apply the !oundary condition 4( x=a # ! # ")=* (
094
*=

*
A

sin( a)(C

e
i !
+'

e
i !
)( F

e
"
+(

e
"
)
- -his is only true for all ! and " if oa=n where n=*,%,&,. .. so that the solution !eco"es(
( x # ! # ")=

n*

*
A
n
sin
(
n x
a
)
(C
n
e
i !
+'
n
e
i !
)(F
n
e
"
+(
n
e
"
)
- -he e#act sa"e process occurs in the ! di"ension, yieldin'(
( x # ! # ")=

n*

m*
A
nm
sin
(
n x
a
)
sin
(
m !
b
)
(F
nm
e
"
+(
nm
e
"
)
where n # m=*,%,&,...
- +ith ) and * deter"ined, , has !een deter"ined(
y=.o
&
+
&
- y=
.
n
&

&
a
&
+
m
&

&
b
&
- y=.n
&
/ a
&
+m
&
/ b
&
- =e#t apply the !oundary condition 4( x # ! # " =*)=* (
*=

n*

m*
A
nm
sin
(
n x
a
)
sin
(
m !
b
)
(F
nm
+(
n m
)
and thus
(
nm
=F
nm
, yieldin'(
( x # ! # ")=

n*

m*
A
nm
sin
(
n x
a
)
sin
(
m !
b
)
sinh(n
&
/ a
&
+m
&
/ b
&
")
- .pply the last !oundary condition( 4( x # ! # "=+)=sin
(
x
a
)
sin
(
!
b
)
sin
(
x
a
)
sin
(
!
b
)
=

n*

m*
A
nm
sin
(
n x
a
)
sin
(
m !
b
)
sinh( n
&
/ a
&
+m
&
/ b
&
+)
- -he only ter" of the series e#pansion that is needed to represent the left side of the e3uality is
the n $ %, m $ % ter", reducin' the e3uation to(
%=A
%,%
sinh( %/ a
&
+%/ b
&
+)
which uni3uely deter"ines the final coefficient(
A
%,%
=
%
sinh(.%/ a
&
+%/b
&
+)
- -he final solution to this e#a"ple is(
095
( x # ! # ")=
sin
(
x
a
)
sin
(
!
b
)
sinh( %/ a
&
+%/ b
&
")
sinh( %/ a
&
+%/ b
&
+)
- +e can "a/e the case "ore 'eneral !y supplyin' the ar!itrary !oundary condition(
4( x # ! # "=+)=- ( x # !)
- -hen the previous analysis still follows, e#cept now the last !oundary condition re3uires(
- ( x # !)=

n*

m*
A
nm
sin
(
n x
a
)
sin
(
m !
b
)
sinh( n
&
/ a
&
+m
&
/ b
&
+)
- -he !oundary value function - is !ein' e#panded in a 1ourier series with coefficients(
A
n m
sinh( n
&
/ a
&
+m
&
/ b
&
+)
- .s was done with the 'eneral 1ourier series, we solve for the coefficients !y "ultiplyin' !oth
sides !y sines of x and ! and inte'ratin', so that the ortho'onality pic/s out coefficients(
A
n m
sinh ( n
&
/ a
&
+m
&
/ b
&
+)=
;
a b

*
a
dx

*
b
d!- ( x # !)sin
(
n x
a
)
sin
(
m !
b
)
A
n m
=
;
a bsinh ( n
&
/ a
&
+m
&
/ b
&
+)

*
a
dx

*
b
d!- ( x # !)sin
(
n x
a
)
sin
(
m !
b
)
- So that the 'eneral solution is(
( x # ! # ")=

n*

m*
A
n# m
sin
(
n x
a
)
sin
(
m !
b
)
sinh (n
&
/ a
&
+m
&
/ b
&
")
where
A
n m
=
;
a bsinh ( n
&
/ a
&
+m
&
/ b
&
+)

*
a
dx

*
b
d!- ( x # !)sin
(
n x
a
)
sin
(
m !
b
)
096
+. The Laplace E&uation in ,olar (oordinates
- If the !oundary conditions of a char'e-free re'ion e#hi!it uniformit! in one di"ension and a
+ir+uar shape in the other two di"ensions sy""etry, it is "uch "ore natural "athe"atically to
use polar coordinates rather than rectan'ular coordinates.
- If the !oundary conditions are unifor" in the ".di"ension, the three-di"ensional cylindrical-
coordinates pro!le" reduces to a two-di"ensional polar-coordinates pro!le".
- >ust li/e was done for rectan'ular coordinates, separation of varia!les and 1ourier series can
!e used to solve the Laplace e3uation in polar coordinates.
- -he two-di"ensional Laplace e3uation in polar coordinates is 'iven !y(

&
4=* -
%
p

p
(
p
4
p
)
+
%
p
&

&
4

&
=*
- +e use the separation of varia!les approach !y tryin' a solution of the for"(
4(p# )=/(p)1()
- Su!stitutin' it in(
1() p

p
(
p
/(p)
p
)
+/(p)
%
p
&

&
1()

&
=*
- Multiply !y
p
&
/(p)1()
and !rin' one ter" to the ri'ht(
p
/(p)

p
(
p
/(p)
p
)
=
%
1()

&
1 ()

&
- -he two ter"s are separately functions of two independent varia!les and "ust hold for all
values of the two independent varia!les, so they "ust !e related !y a constant, which we call 0
&
.
p
/(p)

p
(
p
/(p)
p
)
=v
&
and v
&
=
%
1()

&
1()

&
- ?ut each in an instructive for"(
p

p
(
p
/(p)
p
)
=v
&
/( p) and

&
1()

&
=v
&
1()
- -he 'eneral solution for v* is now apparent(
/( p)=a
v
p
v
+b
v
p
v
and 1()=A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
- So that the 'eneral solution to the Laplace e3uation in polar coordinates for v* is(
4(p# )=/(p)1()
097
4(p# )=

v
(a
v
p
v
+b
v
p
v
)( A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)
- If v=* , the differential e3uations !eco"e(
p

p
(
p
/(p)
p
)
=* and

&
1()

&
=*
with the 'eneral solutions for v=* (
/( p)=a
*
+b
*
ln p
and
A
*
+B
*

- So that, finally, the "ost 'eneral solution !eco"es(


(p # )=(a
*
+b
*
lnp)(A
*
+B
*
)+

v*
(a
v
p
v
+b
v
p
v
)( A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)
- -he coefficients are now deter"ined !y applyin' !oundary conditions and reco'ni,in' the
result as a 1ourier series e#pansion.
- Because the " di"ension is unifor" and is therefore i'nored, we have solved a second-order
differential in two di"ensions, so there should !e four total inte'ration constants and four
!oundary conditions. If we ta/e the "ost co""on particular solution and co"!ine constants,
we find this to !e the case(
4
1
(p# )=a
v
(p
v
+b
v
p
v
)(e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)
-. The Laplace E&uation .ith z */ni"orm (ylindrical*hell )oundaries
- Consider a cylindrical shell of radius 2
*
with a potential
of -(3 on the shell. +e are see/in' the potential inside the shell.
- Because the re'ion of interest involves the full sweep
of 3, to /eep 3 sin'le-valued we "ust re3uire(
4(p# )=4(p #+&)
- -his condition is not true for 'eo"etries for which the re'ion
where a valid potential is re3uired does not span all possi!le
values of 34
-In this 'eo"etry, the sin'le-valued re3uire"ent leads to(
(a
*
+b
*
ln p)( A
*
+B
*
)+

v #v*
(a
v
p
v
+b
v
p
v
)( A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)
=(a
*
+b
*
ln p)( A
*
+B
*
(+&))+

v # v*
(a
v
p
v
+b
v
p
v
)( A
v
e
i v (+&)
+B
v
e
i v(+&)
)
- Because the varia!les are independent, every ter" in the series "ust "atch, leadin' to(
B
*
=*
x
y
z
2
0
098
as well as(
e
i v
=e
i v( +&)
which is only possi!le if v=m where m is an inte'er( m=*,%,&,. ..
- -he solution now !eco"es(
4(p# )=a
*
+b
*
ln p+

m=%

(a
m
p
m
+b
m
p
m
)( A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
- Because the re'ion of interest includes the ori'in, the potential "ust !e finite at the ori'in.
-hus b
m
$ * and b
*
$ *, to /eep those ter"s fro" !lowin' up at the ori'in. -his reduces the
solution to(
4(p# )=

m=*

p
m
( A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
where the a
*
ter" has now !een included in the su".
- -he inde# m can !e "ade to run fro" ne'ative infinity to positive infinity, thus coverin' !oth
ter"s(
4(p# )=

m=

A
m
p
m
e
i m
- =ow apply the !oundary condition(
4(p=p
*,
)=- ()
- ()=

m=

A
m
p
*
m
e
i m
- Multiply !oth side !y a co"ple# e#ponential, inte'rate, and use the ortho'onality of
e#ponentials to find(
4(p# )=

m=

A
m
p
m
e
i m
where A
m
=p
*
m

- (0 )e
i (m0 )
d 0
- 8r, written in a "ore intuitive for"(
(p # )=

m=

A
m
(
p
p
*
)
m
e
i m
where A
m
=

- (0 )e
i (m0)
d 0
- .lthou'h this e#a"ple only considered one cylindrical shell, the sa"e approach is used to
solve for !oundary conditions on "ultiple cylindrical shells.
099
0. The Laplace E&uation .ith Intersecting ,lanes
- =e#t consider two planes that intersect, one on the x-a#is, the
other plane at an an'le * fro" the first plane, and !oth unifor"
in the " di"ension, with !oundary conditions(
4(p# =*)=- , 4(p# =)=- ,
4(p=p
*,
)=-
%
()
- -his is also applica!le to the ed'e of a "ore co"ple# pro!le",
where the char'es and other surfaces are far enou'h away that
they only co"e into play in that they create the !oundary
condition at 2
*
, thus the Laplace e3uation still applies.
- .s !efore, inclusion of the ori'in in the re'ion of interest
leads to b
0
$ *, includin' b
*
$ *(
4(p# )=A
*
+B
*
+

v # v*
p
v
( A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)
- .pply the !oundary condition 4(p# =*)=-
- =A
*
+

v #v*
p
v
( A
v
+B
v
)
- +hich is only possi!le if
A
*
=-
, A
v
=B
v
so that the solution now !eco"es(
4(p# )=- +B
*
+

v # v*
B
v
p
v
sin (v )
- .pply the !oundary condition 4(p# =)=- (
- =-+B
*
+

v # v*
B
v
p
v
sin(v )
*=B
*
+

v #v*
B
v
p
v
sin(v )
- -his "ust !e valid for all 2, re3uirin'
B
*
=*
and v=m/ where m=*,%,&,... , yieldin'(
4(p# )=- +

m=%

B
m
p
m/
sin( m/ )
- .pply the final !oundary condition, which is typically dependent on the char'e far away(
4(p=p
*,
)=-
%
()
-
%
()=- +

m=%

B
m
p
*
m/
sin( m/ )
-
%
()- =

m=*

B
m
p
*
m/
sin(m/ )
x
y
(2, 3)
*
100
- Multiply !oth sides !y sin(n/ ) and inte'rate !oth sides fro" * to *(

d (-
%
()- )sin(n/ )=

m=*

B
m
p
*
m/

d sin ( m/ )sin( n/ )
- Due to ortho'onality, the inte'ral on the ri'ht is always ,ero, e#cept when m $ n(

d (-
%
()- )sin(n/ )=B
n
p
*
n/

d sin
&
( n/ )
- -he inte'ral on the ri'ht evaluates to / & (
B
n
=
&

p
*
n/

d (-
%
()- )sin(n/ )
- -he final solution then ta/es the for"(
4(p# )=- +

m=*

B
m
p
m/
sin(m/ )
, B
m
=
&

p
*
m/

d (-
%
()- ) sin( m/ )
- -his can !e put in the "ore intuitive for"(
(p # )=- +

m=*

B
m
(
p
p
*
)
m/
sin(m/) where B
m
=
&

d (-
%
()- )sin(m/)
- Let us 'et a sense of the 'eneral !ehavior of the potential near the ed'e, independent of the far
away char'es and thus independent of the !oundary condition
-
%
()
. In the series e#pansion,
we /eep only the fist non-,ero ter", m $ %(
=ear p=*, 4(p# )=- +B
%
p
/
sin(/ )
- -he electric field, E=4 , is calculated in polar coordinates(
E=

p

p
+

%
p

- +B
%
p
/
sin(/ )
|
E=
B
%

p
/%
( psin( /)+

cos(/))
- -he surface char'e densities at =* and = are(
u( p)=c
*
En|
surface
- u( p)=c
*
E(p # =*)

101
u( p)=
c
*
B
%

p
/ %
ur"ace charge densities "or 1arious angles, higher densities in dar2er $lue.
3. Finite Element 4nalysis
- 8ften the ?oisson e3uation cannot !e solved analytically. Instead we "ust solve the pro!le"
nu"erically. 1inite 9le"ent .nalysis is one useful nu"erical "ethod.
- -his approach has three foundational ideas(
%. 9#pand the electric potential0s solution into a series su" over a set of si"ple
ortho'onal functions

i
so that we can calculate the derivatives of the /nown functions
instead of the un/nown electric potential. =ote that this is a si"ple one-di"ensional set
of functions, !ut that it spans two or three-di"ensional space.
&. Set up the pro!le" so that it !eco"es a linear al'e!ra pro!le", !ecause co"puters
can calculate this type of pro!le" relatively 3uic/ly.
@. Choose e#pansion functions that are locali,ed to different points in space (Afinite
ele"entsB so that the "atri# ends up sparse and can !e calculated "uch "ore 3uic/ly.
- Consider the ?oisson e3uation in two di"ensions valid in a re'ion !ounded !y /nown
Dirichlet !oundary conditions(

&
=g where g=p/ c
*
- Brin' everythin' to the sa"e side(

&
+g=*
- Multiply everythin' !y the test function so that we have it there to wor/ with(
102

&
+
i
g=*
- Inte'rate this e3uation over the entire surface re'ion S so that we have so"ethin' that loo/s
li/e Creen0s first identity(

S

i

&
+
i
g| da=*
- Creen0s first identity for two-di"ensions is(

S
(
&
+ ) d a=
|
C

n
d
- +e are assu"in' Dirichlet !oundary conditions so that the derivative of the potential alon' the
!oundary (=eu"ann !oundary conditions can !e set to ,ero "a/in' the ri'ht side of this
e3uation 'o away.

S
(
&
+ )d a=*

S

&
d a=

S
d a
- .pply this to the ?oisson e3uation to o!tain(

S

i
+
i
g| da=*

S

i
da=

S

i
g da
- =ow e#pand the electric potential into a su" of these e#pansion functions wei'hted !y
un/nown coefficients A
5
(
=

5
A
5

5
- =ote that the inde# 5 represents the set of functions spannin' !oth x and ! di"ensions.
- .pply this to the ?oisson e3uation(

S

i

5
A
5

5
|
da=

S

i
g da

5
A
5

S

i

5
da
|
=

S

i
g da
- .t this point, the factor in s3uare !rac/ets depends only on our choice of e#pansion functions.
- If we choose a si"ple set of e#pansion functions, we can analytically precalculate the factors
in the !rac/et and then 4ust treat the" as nu"!ers co"putationally.
- -he /ey to this approach is that we choose e#pansion functions that are only non-,ero in a
s"all finite re'ion, so that the surface inte'ral over these functions reduces to an inte'ral over a
103
s"all re'ion. If this re'ion is s"all enou'h, the source g is assu"ed to !e constant across this
re'ion and can co"e out of the inte'ral(

5
A
5

S

i

5
da
|
=g
i
S

i
da
- Dere g
i
is the char'e density at the location in space where function

i
is non-,ero.
- -he ri'ht-hand side is 4ust a set of nu"!ers that can !e calculate !eforehand so that the
pro!le" has !een reduced to a linear al'e!ra pro!le" where A
k
are the un/nowns.

5
6
i5
A
5
=(
i
where
6
i5
=

S

i

5
da
and
(
i
=g
i
S

i
da
- In "atri# notation this !eco"es(
E 4=5
- -he solution is(
4=E
%
5
- -he core co"putational tas/ of solvin' the ?oisson e3uation has !een reduced to findin' the
inverse of a "atri#, which co"puters can do very efficiently.
- =ote that the potential is /nown alon' the !oundaries and this "ust !e included as well.
- -he 1inite 9le"ent "ethod is therefore su""ari,ed as follows(
%. -he hu"an chooses a set of locali,ed e#pansion functions

i
&. -he hu"an analytically calculates all 6
i5
=

S

i

5
da and

S

i
da
@. -he co"puter finds the inverse 6
-%
;. -he co"puter calculates all (
i
=g
i
S

i
da
F. -he co"puter calculates 4=E
%
5
G. -he co"puter calculates the final solution to the electric potential =

5
A
5

5
104
Lecture 5 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. The Laplace Equation in Spherical Coordinates
- In this coordinate system, r is the radial distance from the oriin to the o!servation point, is
the polar anle that the point ma"es with the z-a#is, and is the a$imuthal anle in the x-y plane
relative to the x-a#is.
- Spherical coordinates are useful when the !oundary conditions have a spherical shape or
symmetry.
- %he Laplace e&uation in spherical coordinates'

(
4=)
*
r

(
r
(
( r 4)+
*
r
(
sin 0

0
(
sin 0
4
0
)
+
*
r
(
sin
(
0

(
4

(
=)
- Use the method of separation of varia!les !y tryin a solution of the form'
4(r ,0 ,)=
R(r)
r
P(0) Q()
+ere an e#tra factor ,*-r. is included to anticipate that the mathematics will !e simplified if
each factor has the same dimensionality.
- Su!stitute this into the Laplace e&uation'
*
r

(
r
(
( r

R(r)
r
P(0)Q()
|
)+
*
r
(
sin0

0
(
sin0

0

R(r )
r
P(0) Q()
|)
+
*
r
(
sin
(
0

(

R( r)
r
P(0) Q()
|
=)
P(0) Q()
*
r

(
R(r)
r
(
+
R( r)
r
Q()
*
r
(
sin0

0
(
sin0
P(0)
0
)
+
R(r )
r
P(0)
*
r
(
sin
(
0

(
Q()

(
=)
- %his e&uation is comple# enouh that we can not ma"e each term independent all at once.
/irst, et Q in a form to show it is independent !y multiplyin !y r
0
sin
(
0/ R(r ) P(0)Q() '
r
(
sin
(
0
R(r)
d
(
R( r)
d r
(
+
sin 0
P(0)
d
d 0
(
sin 0
d P(0)
d 0
)
+
*
Q()
d
(
Q()
d
(
=)
- +ere the partial derivatives have !ecome total derivatives !ecause the functions they operate
on are now functions of only one varia!le.
- %he last term is now independent of and , and must hold for all and , so that it must
e&ual a constant'
105
r
(
sin
(
0
R(r)
d
(
R( r)
d r
(
+
sin 0
P(0)
d
d 0
(
sin 0
d P(0)
d 0
)
m
(
=) and m
(
=
*
Q()
d
(
Q()
d
(
- 1e can solve the second e&uation. /irst put it in a more intuitive form'
d
(
Q()
d
(
=m
(
Q()
- 2ow the eneral solution is clearly'
Q()=A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
if m 3 ) and
Q( )=A
m=)
+B
m=)

if m 4 ).
- %he constant m is in eneral not necessarily an inteer. If the reion of interest includes the
full a$imuthal sweep of values, then m must !e an inteer to "eep the solution sinle-valued and
the case of m 4 ) reduces to Q,. 4 A
m4)
. /rom here on, we are dealin with this special case,
which is still &uite eneral.
- 1e now turn to the rest of the e&uation'
r
(
sin
(
0
R(r)
d
(
R( r)
d r
(
+
sin0
P(0)
d
d 0
(
sin 0
d P(0)
d 0
)
m
(
=)
- Divide each side !y sin
(
0 '
r
(
R(r)
d
(
R(r)
d r
(
+
*
sin 0 P(0)
d
d 0
(
sin0
d P(0)
d 0
)

m
(
sin
(
0
=)
- %he first term and the last terms are independent and can !e set to a constant'
r
(
R(r)
d
(
R(r)
d r
(
l (l +*)=) where l ( l+*)=
*
sin0P(0)
d
d 0
(
sin0
d P(0)
d 0
)

m
(
sin
(
0
- 5ut !oth each e&uations in more intuitive forms '
d
(
R(r )
d r
(
=l (l +*)
R(r)
r
(
and
d
d 0
(
sin0
d P(0)
d 0
)
+

l (l +*)
m
(
sin
(
0
|
sin 0 P(0)=)
- 5ut the second e&uation in a simpler form usin' x=cos0 and
d
d 0
=.*x
( d
dx
'
d
(
R(r )
d r
(
=l (l +*)
R(r)
r
(
and
d
dx

(*x
(
)
d P( x)
dx
|
+

l ( l+*)
m
(
*x
(
|
P( x)=)
- %he first e&uation can !e solved !y tryin R( r)=r
o
106
o(o*) r
o(
=l (l +*) r
o(
o
(
ol (l +*)=)
o=l+* , o=l
- So that eneral solution is'
R( r)=A
l
r
l +*
+B
l
r
l
which is valid for !oth l (l +*)) and l (l +*)=)
- Before solvin further, we can already see that the eneral solution ,if the whole a$imuthal
sweep is included. will have the form'
( r , , )=

m

l
(A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l *
)(A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)P
l
m
(cos)
where P
l
m
at this point has not !een solved yet, !ut will !e the solution to the differential
e&uation a!ove involvin theta.
-%here are two separation constants m and l, and there are thus four cases that may need to !e
handled separately. 6 &uic" chec" of the a!ove shows that it properly handles three cases. %he
,m 3 ), l,l7*. 4 ). case does not convere at x 4 * as we re&uire and most !e omitted.
- Solvin the separated e&uation for the last spherical coordinate is involved and re&uires more
detail as shown in the ne#t section. 1e will ta"e it in two steps. /irst we will solve it for the
special case of m4) to et a feel for what the solution will !e, then later we will move on and
solve it for all m.
2. rdinary Legendre !olynomials " m # $%
- Solvin for the P(0) part of the potential is comple# enouh that we will ta"e the special case
m 4 ) first and then treat the m 3 ) case in a later lecture.
- %o solve the e&uation
d
dx

(*x
(
)
d P( x)
dx
|
+l (l +*) P(x)=) ,
try a power series solution of the form P( x)=

j=)

a
j
x
j+
'

j=)

( j +o)( j +o*) a
j
x
j+o(
( j+o)( j +o+*) a
j
x
j+o
+l (l +*)a
j
x
j+o
=)

j=)

( j +o)( j +o*) a
j
x
j+o(

j=)

( j +o)( j +o+*)l (l +*)| a


j
x
j+o
=)
- 8emove the first two powers of x and then com!ine the same powers in one sum'
(o)(o*)a
)
x
o(
+(*+o)(o) a
*
x
o*
+

j =)

( j+(+o)( j+o+*)a
j+(
( j +o)( j +o+*)l (l +*)| a
j
|
x
j+o
=)
- %his must hold for all values of x, thus each power in the sum must have a coefficient e&ual to
107
$ero'
(o)(o*)a
)
=)
,
(*+o)(o)a
*
=)
, and
( j +o+()( j +o+*) a
j+(
( j +o)( j +o+*)l ( l+*)| a
j
=)
- %he third e&uation is solved to yield the recurrence relation, which ives us all remainin
terms from the first one'
a
j+(
=
( j +o)( j +o+*)l (l +*)
( j +o+()( j+o+*)
a
j

- %he first two e&uations are redundant, so that we can permanently choose
a
*
=)
. 6ccordin to
the recurrence relation a!ove, these means that all a
odd
4 ). 1e can write the series now as'
P
l
( x)=

j=), even

a
j
x
j+o
- %o satisfy the recurrence relations, we are left with two cases, 4 ) or 4 *.
- Dependin on l, it is evident that P
l
,x. is either an odd series e#pansion or an even series.
- %he solution only converes for x 4 * if the series is finite. %he series will only have a finite
num!er of terms if the coefficient in the recurrence relation at some point e&uals $ero'
( j
max
+o)( j
max
+o+*)l (l +*)
( j
max
+o+()( j
max
+o+*)
=)
- 1e apply our two cases'
- If 4 )'
( j
max
)( j
max
+*)l ( l +*)=)
with the solution
j
max
=l
, and pluin in'
P
l
( x)=

j=), even
l
a
j
x
j
- 1e can rewrite the sum over even inteers as a sum over all inteers if we dou!le the indices'
P
l
( x)=

j=)
l / (
a
( j
x
( j
where a
j+(
=
j ( j+*)l ( l +*)
( j +()( j +*)
a
j
if l is even
- If 4 *'
( j
max
+*)( j
max
+()l ( l +*)=)
with the solution
j
max
=l *
, and pluin in'
P
l
( x)=

j=), even
l *
a
j
x
j+*
- 8ewrite the sums over even inteers as a sum over all inteers !y dou!lin the indices'
108
P
l
( x)=

j =)
(l*)/ (
a
( j
x
( j+*
where a
j+(
=
( j +*)( j +()l ( l +*)
( j+0)( j+()
a
j
if l is odd
- 1e can e#plicitly show the solution for low values of l where the e&uations are simple'
P
)
( x)=a
)
P
*
( x)=a
)
x
P
(
( x)=a
)
+a
(
x
(
where
a
(
=0a
)
ivin P
(
( x)=a
)
(*0 x
(
)
P
0
( x)=a
)
x+a
(
x
0
where
a
(
=
9
0
a
)
ivin
P
0
( x)=a
)
( x
9
0
x
0
)
- %he overall scale factor a
)
is ar!itrary for each case and is conventionally set so that
P
l
(*)=*
P
)
( x)=*
P
*
( x)=x
P
(
( x)=
*
(
(*+0 x
(
)
P
0
( x)=
*
(
(0 x+9 x
0
)
- Leendre 5olynomials have the followin mathematical properties ,the derivations are left as
e#ercises for the curious student..
- 8odriues: /ormula' P
l
( x)=
*
(
l
l !
d
l
dx
l
( x
(
*)
l
- 8ecurrence 8elations'
P
l +*
( x)=
(l +*
l +*
P
l
( x)
l
(l +*)
P
l *
( x)
and'
P
l
( x)=
*
(l +*
d
dx

P
l+*
( x)P
l *
( x)
|
- %he orthoonality condition'

*
*
P
l :
( x) P
l
( x)dx=
(
(l +*
6
l :l
- %he Leendre 5olynomials form a complete set of orthoonal functions on the interval ,-*, *.,
so any function f,x. and !e e#panded in terms of Leendre 5olynomials'
f ( x)=

l=)

A
l
P
l
( x)
where A
l
=
(l +*
(

*
*
f ( x) P
l
( x) dx
109
- %he eneral solution to the Laplace ;&uation in spherical coordinates for the special case of
,m 4 ). has now !een solved ,when !oth poles re&uire a finite solution.'
4(r ,0 ,)=

l =)

( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l *
) P
l
(cos 0)
where P
l
,x. are the Leendre 5olynomials.
&. The Laplace Equation Solution 'or !ro(lems )ith *+imuthal Symmetry
- If the condition m 4 ) is met and if the reion of valid solution includes the entire ( radian
sweep of , then the pro!lem is said to have a$imuthal symmetry. %he solution a!ove applies
to any pro!lem where the !oundary conditions and do not depend on the a$imuth anle, !ut are
uniform in this direction.
- 6s an e#ample, consider a sphere of radius a with the potential V,. on its surface and we wish
to find the potential everywhere inside the sphere.
- Because the reion of valid solution includes the oriin, the constants B
l
4 ) to "eep the
solution from !lowin up, leadin to'
4(r ,0)=

l=)

A
l
r
l
P
l
(cos0)
- 6pply the !oundary condition' 4(r=a , 0)=V (0)
V (0)=

l=)

A
l
a
l
P
l
(cos 0)
- Multiply !oth sides !y
P
l :
(cos 0)sin0
and interate over theta from ) to '

V (0) P
l :
(cos0)sin0 d 0=

l =)

A
l
a
l

P
l
(cos0) P
l :
(cos 0)sin0 d 0
- 2ow use the orthoonality condition'

*
*
P
l :
( x) P
l
( x)dx=
(
(l +*
6
l :l
where x=cos0

V (0) P
l :
(cos0)sin0 d 0=

l =)

A
l
a
l (
(l +*
6
l : l
A
l
=
(l +*
( a
l

*
*
V (0) P
l
(cos0)sin 0 d 0
- %hus the final solution is, in a form more intuitive'
(r , )=

l=)

A
l
(
r
a
)
l
P
l
(cos) where
A
l
=
(l +*
(

)

V ()P
l
(cos)sind
110
- Consider two hemispherical shells of radius a where the !ottom half is held at $ero and the top
half is held at a fi#ed potential V.
A
l
=
(l +*
(
V

)
/ (
P
l
(cos 0)sin 0 d 0
- Ma"e the su!stitution x=cos0 '
A
l
=
(l +*
(
V

)
*
P
l
( x)dx
- 1e have to !e careful to do the l 4 ) case separately, as is typical in this type of pro!lem.
- /or l 4 ), we have'
A
)
=
*
(
V

)
*
P
)
(x)dx
A
)
=
*
(
V

)
*
dx
A
)
=
*
(
V
- /or l < ), we use the relation
P
l
( x)=
*
(l +*
d
dx

P
l+*
( x)P
l *
( x)
| to find'
A
l
=
(l +*
(
V

)
*
P
l
( x)dx
A
l
=
*
(
V

P
l+*
( x)P
l*
( x)
|
)
*
A
l
=
*
(
V

P
l +*
())+P
l*
())
|
- So that the final solution is'
( r , )=
*
(
V +
*
(
V

l =*

P
l+*
())+P
l *
())
|
(
r
a
)
l
P
l
(cos)
- If r is much less than a, we can =ust "eep the first few non-vanishin terms'
111
4(r ,0)
*
(
V
+
0
>
V
(
r
a
)
cos0

?
0(
V
(
r
a
)
0
(9cos
0
0cos)
+
**
*@
(
V
(
r
a
)
9
(@0cos
9
0?)cos
0
0+*9cos0)
- Usin raphin software, it is easy to plot these first four terms, as shown !elow.
- %he plot demonstrates that even =ust "eepin the first five terms ives a potential that meets
the !oundary conditions appro#imately, althouh it is o!vious that accuracy is lost at certain
points near the surface, when r is close to a.
- Many similar pro!lems with a$imuthal symmetry can !e solved in the same way.
,. -nit !oint Charge !otential E.pansion in Legendre !olynomials.
- 6s we discovered when dealin with Areen functions, the potential due to a point chare of
unit manitude ,q 4 >
)
. is a very useful !uildin !loc". If we e#pand it in Leendre
polynomials, we may !e a!le to use it in these types of pro!lems.
- Consider a unit chare placed on the z-a#is. %he potential felt at r from the unit chare at r
)
on
the z-a#is is'
4(r ,0)=
*
rr
)

=
*
.
r
(
+r
)
(
(r r
)
cos0
112
- %he potential is o!viously a$imuthally symmetric and can thus !e e#pressed in terms of
Leendre polynomials'
*
.
r
(
+r
)
(
( r r
)
cos0
=

l=)

( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l*
) P
l
(cos0)
- %o find the coefficients A
l
and B
l
, we note that this e&uation must hold for all , so we can
simplify the pro!lem !y pic"in a certain . 5ic"in 4 ) yields'
*
.
r
(
+r
)
(
( r r
)
=

l =)

( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l *
)
*
rr
)

l =)

( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l*
)
- /or
rr
)
,the o!servation point is closer to the oriin than the chare.'
*
r
)
r
=

l =)

( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l *
)
- Multiply !y r
)
'
*
*
r
r
)
=

l=)

(
A
l
r
)
r
l
+B
l
r
)
r
l *
)
- ;#pand the left side usin the eometric series rule'
*
*s
=

l =)

s
l

l=)

(
r
r
)
)
l
=

l=)

( A
l
r
)
r
l
+B
l
r
)
r
l*
)
- It is now o!vious that B
l
4 ) and every term must match, leavin'
(
r
r
)
)
l
=A
l
r
)
r
l
A
l
=r
)
(l +*)
- 5luin this in ives us the final e#pansion'
*
rr
)

l =)

r
l
r
)
l +*
P
l
(cos )
if
rr
)
113
- /or
r>r
)
,the o!servation point is further away from the oriin than the chare.'
*
rr
)
=

l =)

( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l *
)
- Multiply !y r'
*
*
r
)
r
=

l=)

( A
l
r
l+*
+B
l
r
l
)
- 6ain e#pand the left into a eometric series'

l=)

(
r
)
r
)
l
=

l=)

( A
l
r
l +*
+B
l
r
l
)
- 2ow A
l
4 ) and every term must match'
(
r
)
r
)
l
=B
l
r
l
B
l
=r
)
l
- 5luin this in ives us the final e#pansion'
*
rr
)

l =)

r
)
l
r
l +*
P
l
(cos ) if
r>r
)
- 6s an e#ample of the usefulness of this e#pansion, consider a dipole where a chare q is
located at z 4 a and -q is located at z 4 -a.
- %he potential created !y this dipole is'
4(r)=
q
>c
)
*
ra( +)

q
>c
)
*
ra( +)
- /or points far away from the oriin and the chares'
4(r)=
q
>c
)

l =)

a
l
r
l +*
P
l
(cos0)
q
>c
)

l=)

(a)
l
r
l +*
P
l
(cos0)
4(r)=
q
>c
)

l =)

(*(*)
l
)
a
l
r
l +*
P
l
(cos0)
4(r)=
(q
>c
)

l =)

a
(l +*
r
(l+(
P
(l +*
( cos0)
114
- /or very lare r ,or very small a, remem!erin that a perfect dipole is when a approaches
$ero. the potential can !e appro#imated as the first term in this series'
4(r)
q
>c
)
(a
r
(
cos0
- If we define the dipole moment as the chare times the separation' p=q( (a) then the
potential of a dipole ta"es on the familiar form'
4(r)
*
>c
)
pr
r
0
where the appro#imately e&ual sin !ecomes an e#actly e&uals sin for perfect dipoles.
5. /ields in a Conical 0ole
- %he Leendre polynomials form part of the solution to the Laplace e&uation if there is
a$imuthal symmetry and if the reion where we must have a valid solution includes !oth poles
x 4 B* ,C 4 ), D..
- 1hat if there is a$imuthal symmetry !ut the reion of interest includes only the north pole,
x 4 *E
- Consider a conical hole in a conductor that has an anle relative to its a#is.
- In spherical coordinates, the !oundary conditions are'
(r=))=finite, (=))=finite, (=)=), ( ))=(()
- %he !oundary condition outside the hole is un"nown so we cannot find a uni&ue solution, !ut
we can et a solution that is specific enouh to descri!e the !asic !ehavior of the fields in a
conical hole.
- 6ll of the pieces of the eneral m 4 ) solution derived in the previous sections still hold e#cept
that P
l
,x. are now not the Leendre polynomials !ut are somethin else. Let us find them and
la!el them P
!
,x. to avoid confusion.
- %he Leendre e&uation was found to !e ,where x 4 cos C.'
d
dx

(*x
(
)
d P( x)
dx
|
+v( v+*) P(x)=)
- 1hen !oth poles were included there was a symmetry which lead us e#pand in a series
solution a!out the midpoint x 4 ) , 4 D-( ..
- But now only one pole is included, so the symmetry is lost. It will !e cleaner now to e#pand in
a series solution a!out the pole x 4 * ,C 4 )..
- /or this reason, we ma"e a chane of varia!les'
115
x :=
*
(
(*x)
,
d
dx:
=(
d
dx
- %he Leendre e&uation !ecomes'
d
dx
:

(x :x :
(
)
d P(x)
dx:
|
+v(v+*)P( x)=)
- 6s done in the previous sections, try a series solution of the form'
P(x)=

j=)

a
j
x:
j +
- Su!stitutin this into the e&uation we find'
d
dx :
(

j=)

a
j
( j +) x:
j+

j=)

a
j
( j +) x:
j ++*
)
|
+v( v+*)

j=)

a
j
x:
j +
=)

j=)

a
j
( j +)
(
x :
j+*
+

j=)

( j+)( j ++*)+v( v+*)| a


j
x:
j +
=)
a
)

(
x :
*
+

j =)

a
j +*
( j+*+)
(
+a
j
( j +)( j++*)+v(v+*)|| x :
j+
=)
- %he set of functions in the series is orthoonal so each coefficient must vanish separately,
leadin to'
a
)

(
=) and
a
j+*
=a
j
( j +)( j++*)v(v+*)
( j +*+)
(
- If we choose a
)
4 ) we will have no series, so we are forced to identify F 4 ), which leads to'
a
j+*
=a
j
( j )( j+*)v(v+*)
( j +*)
(
- 6s a normali$ation, we choose a
)
4 *
- %he final solution !ecomes'
P(x :)=

j=)

a
j
x :
j
P(x)=

j=)

a
j

*
(
(*x)
|
j
P(x)=a
)
+a
*

*
(
(*x)
|
+a
(

*
(
(*x)
|
(
+...
116
P
v
( x)=*+(v( v+*))

*
(
(*x)
|
+
v(v+*)((v(v+*))
>

*
(
(*x)
|
(
+...
- 2ote that we have not applied any !oundary conditions yet so this solution is very eneral.
- If we apply the !oundary condition of finite potential at !oth poles as done in the previous
section, this forces " to e&ual a positive inteer and this eneral solution reduces down to the
ordinary Leendre polynomials as it should to match the results of the previous section.
- /or " not e&ual to a positive inteer, we can et solutions to other cases.
- By applyin a$imuthal symmetry and the finite potential re&uirement at the oriin, our
potential solution ta"es the form'
( r , , )=

v=)

A
v
r
v
P
v
(cos)
- 6pply the !oundary condition (=)=) '
P
v
(cos)=)
- Gnly certain " # "
$
will ma"e this e&uation hold true. Unfortunately, they have to !e found
numerically for a certain . Gnce found, the solution !ecomes'
(r , , )=

$ =*

A
$
r
v
$
P
v
$
(cos )
where
P
v
$
(cos)=)
and P
v
( x)=*+(v( v+*))

*
(
(*x)
|
+
v(v+*)((v( v+*))
>

*
(
(*x)
|
(
+...
- %his is as far as we can et without "nowin the fields outside the hole. But this is still enouh
to show eneral trends deep inside the hole.
- Deep within the hole, near r 4 ), the first term in the series solution will dominate so the other
terms can !e dropped'
( r , , )=Ar
v
*
P
v
*
(cos)
- %herefore all the electric field components and the surface chare density vary radially as'
r
v
*
*
- /or small ,conical holes., "
*
approaches the value
v
*
=
(.>)9


*
(
- /or lare ,conical points., "
*
approaches the value v
*
=

(ln
(
(

)|
*
- %herefore the electric field and surface chare density varies as'
117
r H

(.>)9


0
(
|
for conical holes and r H

(ln
(
(

)|
*
*
|
for conical points
- /or instance the electric field inside a >9 deree conical hole is %r
*.9@
.
- %his means the field is steadily ettin stroner the more we come out of the hole.
- /or a narrow conical hole, such as with a *) deree anle, we have
%r
*(.0
.
- %his means that if we measure a field strenth of * I-m near the mouth of the hole, than half
way into the hole the field strenth will !e (
-*(.0
I-m or ).)))( I-m and three-&uarters of the
way into the hole the field strenth will !e ).)))))))> I-m.
- In eneral we may say that electric fields are very wea" deep inside narrow holes
- /or a >9 deree conical point , 4 *09 derees. we find
%
*
r
).>?
- /or a *) deree conical point , 4 *?) derees. we find
%
*
r
).?J
- /or even sharper points, the field strenth approaches the value
%
*
r
so that if you o ten
times closer to the point, the field strenth ets ten times as stron.
118
;lectric field strenth near conical holes or conical points as a function of distance from the ape#.
6ll curves are normali$ed to have the same field strenth at some fi#ed distance R from the ape#.
119
Lecture 6 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Associated Legendre Polynomials
- We now return to solving the Laplace equation in spherical coordinates when there is no
azimuthal symmetry by solving the full Legendre equation for m = 0 and m 0:
d
dx

(1x
2
)
d P
l
m
( x)
dx
|
+

l (l +1)
m
2
1x
2
|
P
l
m
( x)=0 where x=cos0
- Once this equation is solved, the general solution for the Laplace equation in spherical
coordinates will have the form:
4(r ,0 ,)=

l
( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l1
)( A
m0
+B
m0
) P
l
m=0
(cos0)
+

m0 l
( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l 1
)( A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
) P
l
m
(cos0)
- Encouraged by the Rodrigues' form of the solution to the m = 0 Legendre equation, we try a
solution of the form P
l
m
( x)=(1x
2
)
m/ 2 d
m
dx
m g( x) and substitute in:
0=m x(1x
2
)
m/2

d
m+1
dx
m+1
g( x)
|
+m
2 d
m
dx
m
g( x) x
2
(1x
2
)
m/21
m
d
m
dx
m
g( x)(1x
2
)
m/ 2
+(1x
2
)
m/2+1

d
m+2
dx
m+2
g( x)
|
(m+2) x(1x
2
)
m/ 2 d
m+1
dx
m+1
g( x)
+l (l +1)|(1x
2
)
m/2 d
m
dx
m
g ( x)m
2
(1x
2
)
m/ 21 d
m
dx
m
g( x)
- Collect all similar terms:
0=(1x
2
)

d
m
dx
m
d
2
dx
2
g ( x)
|
2m+1| x
d
m+1
dx
m+1
g( x)+l (l +1)m(m+1)|
d
m
dx
m
g( x)
- We want to move as much as possible inside the derivatives. We can do this by using the
product rule.
- The product rule used m times states:
d
m
dx
m
(u v)=

k=0
m
m!
k ! (mk)!

d
mk
dx
mk
u
|
d
k
dx
k
v
|
- Let us try to apply this to rearrange the first term in the differential equation.
120
- If u=1x
2
then
d
dx
u=2 x
,
d
2
dx
2 =2
and all higher derivatives in the expansion are zero so
that:
d
m
dx
m
((1x
2
)v)=(1x
2
)

d
m
dx
m
v
|
2 mx

d
m1
dx
m1
v
|
m(m1)

d
m2
dx
m2
v
|
- Moving terms around:
(1x
2
)

d
m
dx
m
v
|
=
d
m
dx
m
((1x
2
) v)+2m x

d
m1
dx
m1
v
|
+m( m1)

d
m2
dx
m2
v
|
- Now if we set v=
d
2
dx
2 g (x) this product rule expansion becomes:
(1x
2
)

d
m
dx
m
d
2
dx
2
g ( x)
|
=
d
m
dx
m
((1x
2
)
d
2
dx
2
g( x))+2m x

d
m+1
dx
m+1
g( x)
|
+m(m1)

d
m
dx
m
g ( x)
|
- We can use this product rule to rearrange the first term of the Legendre equation so it
becomes:
0=
d
m
dx
m

(1x
2
)
d
2
dx
2
g( x)
|
2 x
d
m+1
dx
m+1
g( x)+l (l +1)
d
m
dx
m
g ( x)2m

d
m
dx
m
g ( x)
|
- Now we want to use the product rule expansion on the second term of the Legendre equation.
With u=x ,
du
dx
=1 , all higher derivatives are zero and v=
d
dx
g( x) , the general product rule
becomes:
d
m
dx
m

x
d
dx
g( x)
|
=x

d
m+1
dx
m+1
g( x)
|
+m

d
m
dx
m
g( x)
|
- After rearranging:
x

d
m+1
dx
m+1
g ( x)
|
=
d
m
dx
m

x
d
dx
g( x)
|
m

d
m
dx
m
g( x)
|
- Substitute in:
0=
d
m
dx
m

(1x
2
)
d
2
dx
2
g( x)2

x
d
dx
g( x)
|
+l ( l +1) g( x)
|
0=
d
m
dx
m

d
dx
(
(1x
2
)
d
dx
g( x)
)
+l (l +1) g(x)
|
- It is worth noting that if this is true for m = 0, then it will automatically be true for all m. So
121
we can set m = 0:
0=
d
dx
(
(1x
2
)
d
dx
g( x)
)
+l (l +1) g ( x)
- Now this is just the m = 0 Legendre equation, which we have already solved. We found the
solutions to be the ordinary Legendre polynomials, P
l
(x), so that
g( x)=P
l
( x)
.
- We now have the solution to the full Legendre equation:
P
l
m
( x)=(1x
2
)
m/2 d
m
dx
m
P
l
( x)
- There is an arbitrary phase factor that we have assumed to be one for simplicity, but is
conventionally set to (1)
m
, so that the associated Legendre functions become:
P
l
m
( x)=(1)
m
(1x
2
)
m/2 d
m
dx
m
P
l
(x)
- Or written explicitly using Rodrigues' equation:
P
l
m
( x)=
(1)
m
2
l
l !
(1x
2
)
m/2 d
m+l
dx
m+l
( x
2
1)
l
- It is worth noting upon examination of the equation
0=
d
m
dx
m

d
dx
(
(1x
2
)
d
dx
g( x)
)
+l (l +1) g( x)
|
that the highest power of x inside the brackets is l, so that m cannot be greater than l, otherwise
the equation would be trivially satisfied and thus there would be no unique solution. In
summary, both l and m are integers and the possible m are -l, -(l-1), ..., 0, ..., (l-1), l.
- Several useful mathematical relations involving the associated Legendre functions can be
found (the derivations are left to the interested student).
P
l
m
( x)=(1)
m
(l m)!
(l +m)!
P
l
m
( x)
(l m+1) P
l+1
m
( x)=(2l +1) x P
l
m
( x)(l +m) P
l 1
m
( x)
.1x
2
P
l
m+1
( x)=(l m) x P
l
m
( x)(l +m) P
l 1
m
( x)
( x
2
1)
d
dx
P
l
m
( x)=l x P
l
m
( x)(l +m) P
l 1
m
( x)
- For fixed m, the Legendre functions form an orthogonal set:
122

1
1
P
l !
m
( x) P
l
m
( x) dx=
2
2l +1
(l +m)!
(l m)!
6
l ! l
2. Spherical Harmonics
- With the full Legendre equation now solved, the general solution of the Laplace equation in
spherical coordinates has been found:
4(r ,0 ,)=

l =0

( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l 1
)( A
m0
+B
m0
) P
l
m=0
( cos0)
+

l =0

m=1
l
( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l 1
)( A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
) P
l
m
(cos0)
where P
l
m
are the associated Legendre functions.
- Typically, most problems require a valid solution on the full range of . The single-valued
requirement in this case forces B
m0
= 0, and the m = 0 term can now be included in the sum with
the rest of the terms:
4(r ,0 ,)=

l =0

m=0
l
( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l 1
)( A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
) P
l
m
(cos 0)
- An alternate way of presenting this is to let m sum from -l to l and thus combine the A
m
and B
m
terms with the other constants:
4(r ,0 ,)=

l =0

m=l
l
( A
l , m
r
l
+B
l ,m
r
l1
)e
i m
P
l
m
(cos0)
- The normalizing terms are included in the undetermined constants A
lm
and B
lm
. When a
boundary condition is applied, these constants become specified and the normalizing terms
result naturally. However, to make the math cleaner, we can explicitly pull the normalizing
terms out of the constants in advance.
4(r ,0 ,)=

l =0

m=l
l
( A
l , m
r
l
+B
l ,m
r
l1
)
.
2l +1
" .
(l m) !
(l +m) !
e
i m
P
l
m
(cos0)
- It is now evident that P
l
m
(cos ) times its normalization term forms a complete set of
orthonormal functions in the variable , indexed by l for a fixed m, and e
im
times its
normalization term forms a complete set of orthonormal functions in the variable , indexed by
m. The product of both thus creates orthonormal functions that spans all angles of the unit
circle. These are known as spherical harmonics Y
lm
:
Y
lm
( , )=

2l +1
"
(l m)!
(l +m)!
e
i m
P
l
m
(cos) so that
123
(r , , )=

l=0

m=l
l
( A
l , m
r
l
+B
l , m
r
l 1
)Y
lm
( , )
- The orthonormality of the spherical harmonics explicitly means that:

0
2

1
1
Y
l ! m!
#
( x , )Y
l m
( x , ) dx d =6
l ! l
6
m! m
where x=cos0
or

0
2

Y
l ! m!
#
( ,)Y
l m
( , )sin d d =
l ! l

m! m
- The validity of this equation can be checked trivially by expressing the spherical harmonics in
terms of its definition and applying the orthonormality of the associated Legendre functions and
the complex exponentials.
- Using the definitions of the spherical harmonics, the patient student can work out the explicit
analytic form for any given l and m. The lowest-order spherical harmonics are especially
simple and are typically tabulated in textbooks.
- Because the spherical harmonics form an orthonormal set of equations, an arbitrary function
f (0 , ) can be expanded in terms of spherical harmonics:
f ( , )=

l =1

m=l
l
A
lm
Y
lm
( , ) where A
lm
=

0
2

f ( , ) Y
lm
#
( , )sin d d
- There are several useful special cases for spherical harmonics that we should keep in mind.
- If m = 0, the spherical harmonic does not depend on the azimuthal angle and the associated
Legendre function reduces down to a Legendre polynomial:
Y
l , 0
( , )=

2l +1
"
P
l
(cos)
- If m = l, the spherical harmonic's dependence on polar angle becomes especially simple, just
the sine function to the m
th
power, so there is only one maximum in this direction:
Y
m, m
( , )=
(1)
m
2
m
m$

(2m+1)(2m)$
"
e
i m
sin
m

- The spherical harmonics with negative powers of m are trivially related to those with positive
powers:
Y
l ,m
( , )=(1)
m
Y
l ,m
#
( , )
- Regions of interest include the positive and negative z axis, where the spherical harmonics
simplify:
124
Y
lm
(0 )=

0 if m0

2l +1
"
if m=0

and Y
lm
(, )=

0 if m0

2l +1
"
(1)
l
if m=0

3. Boundary Value Problems in Sherical !oordinates


- Consider the problem where there is a region of space without any charges, bounded by a
sphere with radius r
0
centered at the origin on which there is a potential
4(r=r
0
0 , )=V (0 , )
. We want to know the potential inside the sphere. We use the general
solution to the Laplace equation in spherical coordinates:
(r , , )=

l=0

m=l
l
( A
lm
r
l
+B
lm
r
l 1
)Y
lm
( , )
- The region of interest includes the origin, thus B
lm
= 0 to keep the solution from blowing up
there:
( r , , )=

l=0

m=l
l
A
lm
r
l
Y
lm
( , )
- Now apply the boundary condition:
V ( , )=

l=0

m=l
l
A
lm
r
0
l
Y
lm
( , )
- This is an expansion in spherical harmonics, and the constants are thus:
A
lm
r
0
l
=

0
2

V ( , ) Y
lm
#
( , )sin d d
- The solution is then:
( r , , )=

l=0

m=l
l
A
lm
r
l
Y
lm
( , ) where A
lm
=r
0
l

0
2

V ( , )Y
lm
#
(, )sin d d
- Or written in a more intuitive way by redefining the constant:
(r , , )=

l=0

m=l
l
A
lm
(
r
r
0
)
l
Y
lm
( , )
where A
lm
=

0
2

V ( , )Y
lm
#
( , )sin d d
125
4. The Addition Theorem for Spherical Harmonics
- Consider two coordinate vectors (r, % and (r', ! '% which have the an&le 'etween the(.
) *he ordinary Le&endre polyno(ial as a function of the an&le 'etween the(
P
l
(cosy)
can 'e
e+panded in spherical har(onics of the coordinate vectors,
P
l
(cosy)=
"
2l +1

m=l
l
Y
l m
#
(0! ,! )Y
lm
(0 , )
) *his is -nown as the addition theore(.
) .reviously we derived the potential at r in spherical coordinates that results fro( a unit char&e
at so(e point r
0
on the z-axi as,
4(r ,0 ,)=
1
rr
0

l =0

r
l
r
0
l+1
P
l
(cos0)
if
rr
0
and
1
rr
0

l=0

r
0
l
r
l +1
P
l
( cos0) if
r>r
0
) *he e/uations still hold when the point r
0
is off the z)a+is if the Le&endre polyno(ials 'eco(e
functions of the an&le 'etween the o'servation point r and the source point r
0
!
1
rr
0

l=0

r
l
r
0
l +1
P
l
( cosy)
if
rr
0
and
1
rr
0

l=0

r
0
l
r
l +1
P
l
( cosy) if
r>r
0
) *his e/uation is not terri'ly useful 'ecause the an&le depends on the spherical coordinates.
) 0e can use the addition theore( to e+pand the ordinary Le&endre polyno(ial so that the
e+pression is a function of spherical coordinates rather than a function of the an&le 'etween
coordinate vectors,
1
rr
0

="

l =0

m=l
l
1
2l +1
r
l
r
0
l+1
Y
l m
#
( ! , !)Y
lm
( , )
if
rr
0
and
1
rr
0

="

l =0

m=l
l
r
0
l
r
l+1
1
2l +1
Y
l m
#
(! , !) Y
lm
( , ) if
r >r
0
) *his will 'e useful if we want to -now the potential produced 'y (ultiple point char&es in
e+plicit coordinates.
". The Lalace E#uation in !ylindrical !oordinates
) 1arlier we solved the Laplace e/uation in cylindrical coordinates for the special case of when
the 'oundary conditions are unifor( in the z)di(ension and the pro'le( reduced to polar
coordinates.
) 0e now revisit the pro'le( for when the 'oundary conditions are not unifor( in the z)
di(ension.
) *he Laplace e/uation in cylindrical coordinates is,
\
2
4=0 -
1
p
c
cp
(
p
c4
cp
)
+
1
p
2
c
2
4
c
2
+
c
2
4
cz
2
=0
126
) Use the (ethod of separation of varia'les 'y tryin& a solution of the for(,
4(r ,, z)="(p)#() $ ( z)
and su'stitutin& it in,
#() $ ( z)
1
p
c
cp
(
p
c"(p)
cp
)
+"( p) $ ( z)
1
p
2
c
2
#()
c
2
+"(p)#()
c
2
$ ( z )
cz
2
=0
) Divide 'y "( p) #() $ ( z) ,
1
"(p)
1
p
c
cp
(
p
c"(p)
cp
)
+
1
#()
1
p
2
c
2
#()
c
2
+
1
$ ( z )
c
2
$ ( z)
cz
2
=0
) *he last ter( depends only on z and the other ter(s do not so to 'e valid for all z they (ust 'e
related 'y a constant,
1
"(p)
1
p
c
cp
(
p
c"(p)
cp
)
+
1
#()
1
p
2
c
2
#()
c
2
+k
2
=0 where k
2
=
1
$ ( z)
c
2
$ ( z)
c z
2
) Multiply the left e/uation 'y p
2
,
p
"(p)
c
cp
(
p
c"(p)
cp
)
+
1
#()
c
2
#()
c
2
+k
2
p
2
=0 where k
2
=
1
$ ( z )
c
2
$ ( z)
c z
2
) *he second ter( depends now only on and the rest of the ter(s do not so we set it to a
constant. 2ll the partial derivatives 'eco(e re&ular derivatives as the functions are of one
varia'le only now,
p
"(p)
d
d p
(
p
d "(p)
d p
)
v
2
+k
2
p
2
=0 where v
2
=
1
#()
d
2
#()
d
2
k
2
=
1
$ ( z)
d
2
$ ( z )
d z
2
) 0e put each e/uation in a (ore intuitive for(,
1
p
d
d p
(
p
d "(p)
d p
)
+
(
k
2

v
2
p
2
)
"(p)=0 where
d
2
#()
d
2
=v
2
#()
d
2
$( z)
d z
2
=k
2
$ ( z)
) 3n order to &et the (ost &eneral solution we (ust cover all four cases,
) Case 1, 3f v=0 and k=0 then the solutions are,

"( p)=A
0 0
+B
0 0
ln p

#()=%
0 0
+&
0 0

and
$ ( z)='
0 0
+(
0 0
z

) *he co(plete particular solution is the product of these parts.
127
) Case 2, 3f v0 and k=0 then the solutions are,
"( p)=A
v ,0
p
v
+B
v ,0
p
v
#()=%
v ,0
e
i v
+&
v , 0
e
i v
and
$ ( z)='
v , 0
+(
v ,0
z
) *he co(plete particular solution is the product of these parts.
) Case 4, 3f v=0 and k0 solutions to the last two e/uations are,
#()=%
0 k
+&
0 k

$ ( z)='
0 k
e
k z
+(
0 k
e
k z
*he differential e/uation involvin& " has the sa(e solution as the ne+t case and will 'e handled
with it.
) Case ", 3f v0 and k0 the solutions to the last two e/uations are,
#()=%
v , k
e
i v
+&
v ,k
e
i v
$ ( z)='
v , k
e
k z
+(
v , k
e
k z
) *he differential e/uation involvin& " (ust 'e solved 'y tryin& a series solution. 5nce found
the &eneral solution for this case will have the for(,
4(p, , z )=

v0

k0
"
v , k
(p)(%
v , k
e
i v
+&
v , k
e
i v
)( '
v , k
e
k z
+(
v , k
e
k z
)
) 6irst si(plify the e/uation 'y (a-in& the su'stitution, x=k p
1
x
d
d x
(
x
d "( x)
d x
)
+
(
1
v
2
x
2
)
"( x)=0
) *ry a solution of the for(
"( x)=

) =0

a
)
x
)+o
and su'stitute it in,

)=0

a
)
x
)+o2
(( ) +o)
2
v
2
)+

)=0

a
)
x
) +o
=0
) 7e(ove the first two ter(s of the su( on the left and co('ine the re(ainin& su(s,
a
0
x
o2
( o
2
v
2
)+a
1
x
o1
((1+o)
2
v
2
)+

)=0

x
)+o
( a
)+2
(( )+2+o)
2
v
2
)+a
)
)=0
) 1very power of x is independent thus the coefficient of every power (ust vanish,
a
0
(o
2
v
2
)=0 a
1
((1+o)
2
v
2
)=0
a
)+2
=
1
(( ) +2+o)
2
v
2
)
a
)
) 6ro( these it is found that o=!v
a
odd
=0
and
a
)+2
=
1
( ) +2)( ) +2!2v )
a
)
128
) Because all odd powers are 8ero we can iterate over all inte&ers and rewrite the indices,
a
2 )
=
1
" ) ( )!v)
a
2( ) 1) for ) =1 2 4...
) 3n su((ary one solution to the " e/uation is the Bessel * function,

"
v , k
( p)=*
v
( k p)
where
*
v
( x)=

)=1

a
2( ) 1)
x
2( )1)+v

a
2 )
=
1
" ) ( )+v)
a
2( ) 1)
and 'y
convention
a
0
=
1
2
v
I(v+1)
in ter(s of the 9a((a function.
) 5ne (i&ht thin- that the other solution to the " e/uation is *
-+
'ut it turns out that this is not
linearly dependent fro( *
+
when + is an inte&er and we (ust find another solution.
) *raditionally the :eu(ann function or Bessel function of the second -ind is ta-en as the
other linearly independent solution. 3t is defined 'y,
,
v
( x)=
*
v
( x)cos(v )*
v
( x)
sin(v x)
) Useful properties includin& the recurrence relations can 'e easily derived or found in
te+t'oo-s.
) *he &eneral solution for " in ter(s of the Bessel functions 'eco(es,
"
v , k
( p)=A
v , k
*
v
( k p)+B
v ,k
,
v
( k p)
) *he &eneral solution to the Laplace e/uation in cylindrical coordinates for case " 'eco(es,
4(p, , z )=

v0

k0
( A
v , k
*
v
(k p)+B
v , k
,
v
(k p))(%
v , k
e
i v
+&
v , k
e
i v
)( '
v , k
e
k z
+(
v , k
e
k z
)
) *he (ost &eneral solution to the Laplace e/uation in cylindrical coordinates is the su( of all
the solutions of all the possi'le cases,
(p , , z)=( A
00
+B
00
lnp)(%
00
+&
0 0
)( '
0 0
+(
0 0
z)
+

v0
(A
v , 0
p
v
+B
v ,0
p
v
)(%
v ,0
e
i v
+&
v ,0
e
i v
)('
v ,0
+(
v ,0
z )
+

k0
(A
0 k
*
0
(k p)+B
0 k
,
0
(k p))(%
0 k
+&
0 k
)('
0 k
e
k z
+(
0 k
e
k z
)
+

v0

k0
( A
v , k
*
v
(k p)+B
v ,k
,
v
(k p))(%
v ,k
e
i v
+&
v , k
e
i v
)('
v ,k
e
k z
+(
v, k
e
k z
)
) *o 'e useful we (ust find ortho&onal sets of functions involvin& the Bessel functions so that
we can use the ortho&onality condition to invert e/uations involvin& the 'oundary conditions.
*he functions,
129
.p *
v
(
x
vn
p
a
)
can 'e shown to 'e ortho&onal on the interval ;0 a% for fi+ed + and n < 1 2 4... where x
+n
are
the roots that satisfy
*
v
( x
vn
)=0
.
) *he ortho&onality condition for these functions can 'e shown to 'e,

0
a
p *
v
(
x
v n!
p
a
)
*
v
(
x
v n
p
a
)
d p=
a
2
2
*
v+1
( x
v n
)|
2
6
n! n
) *his can 'e used to e+pand an ar'itrary function in a Bessel series,
f (p)=

)=1

A
vn
*
v
(
x
v n
p
a
)
where A
v n
=
2
a
2
*
v+1
2
( x
v n
)

0
a
p f (p) *
v
(
x
v n
p
a
)
6. Boundary Value Problems in !ylindrical !oordinates
) Consider a cylinder with radius a and hei&ht - with its 'otto( centered at the ori&in. *he
potential is everywhere 8ero on the surface of the cylinder e+cept the top where it is a potential
V ( p, ) . *his leads to the 'oundary conditions, 4(p=a ,, z )=0 4(p, , z=0)=0 and
4(p, , z=-)=V (p , )
) *he &eneral solution to the Laplace e/uation in cylindrical coordinates is,
4(p, , z)=( A
00
+B
00
ln p)(%
00
+&
0 0
)( '
0 0
+(
0 0
z)
+

v0
( A
v , 0
p
v
+B
v , 0
p
v
)(%
v ,0
e
i v
+&
v , 0
e
i v
)( '
v , 0
+(
v ,0
z)
+

k0
( A
0 k
*
0
( k p)+B
0 k
,
0
(k p))(%
0 k
+&
0 k
)( '
0 k
e
k z
+(
0 k
e
k z
)
+

v0

k0
( A
v , k
*
v
( k p)+B
v ,k
,
v
( k p))(%
v ,k
e
i v
+&
v ,k
e
i v
)( '
v , k
e
k z
+(
v , k
e
k z
)
) *he re&ion where we need a valid solution includes the ori&in so several of the coefficients
(ust 'e 8ero to -eep the solution fro( 'lowin& up. *his leads to,
4(p, , z )=(%
00
+&
0 0
)( '
0 0
+(
0 0
z)
+

v0
p
v
(%
v ,0
e
i v
+&
v , 0
e
i v
)( '
v ,0
+(
v , 0
z)
+

k0
*
0
( k p)(%
0 k
+&
0 k
)( '
0 k
e
k z
+(
0 k
e
k z
)
+

v0

k0
*
v
(k p)(%
v ,k
e
i v
+&
v ,k
e
i v
)( '
v , k
e
k z
+(
v ,k
e
k z
)
) *he re&ion where we need a valid solution spans the full circle of an&les for so we re/uire
the function to 'e sin&le)valued,
4(p, , z )=4( p, +2, z)
130
) *his e/uality (ust hold for all values of all of the independent varia'les thus each ter( (ust
(atch. *his re/uire(ent leads to,
&
00
=0 &
0 k
=0 and v=m where m=0124. ..
4(p, , z )=( '
0 0
+(
0 0
z)
+

m0
p
m
(%
m ,0
e
i m
+&
m, 0
e
i m
)( '
m, 0
+(
m, 0
z)
+

k0
*
0
( k p)( '
0 k
e
k z
+(
0 k
e
k z
)
+

m0

k 0
*
m
(k p)(%
m ,k
e
i m
+&
m ,k
e
i m
)( '
m, k
e
k z
+(
m ,k
e
k z
)
) 2pply the 'oundary condition, 4(p, , z=0)=0
0='
0 0
+

m0
p
m
(%
m ,0
e
i m
+&
m, 0
e
i m
) '
m,0
+

k0
*
0
( k p)( '
0 k
+(
0 k
)
+

m0

k 0
*
m
( k p)(%
m ,k
e
i m
+&
m , k
e
i m
)( '
m, k
+(
m , k
)
) *his leads to the re/uire(ents that
'
00
=0 '
m, 0
=0 (
0k
='
0 k
and (
m, k
='
m ,k
4(p, , z )=(
0 0
z
+

m0
p
m
(%
m ,0
e
i m
+&
m, 0
e
i m
) z
+

k0
*
0
( k p) '
0 k
sinh (k z)
+

m0

k 0
*
m
(k p)(%
m ,k
e
i m
+&
m ,k
e
i m
)sinh(k z )
) 2ll the m < 0 ter(s now have a for( for which they can 'e co('ined with the m 0 ter(s,
4(p, , z )=

m
p
m
(%
m ,0
e
i m
+&
m, 0
e
i m
) z
+

m

k0
*
m
(k p)(%
m, k
e
i m
+&
m, k
e
i m
)sinh( k z)
) *he first ter( on the ri&ht is =ust a special case of the last ter( when k < 0 ;close to 8ero *
m
has an asy(ptotic for( that is proportional to .
m
%. *hey can 'e co('ined,
4(p, , z )=

m

k
*
m
( k p)(%
m , k
e
i m
+&
m, k
e
i m
) sinh( k z)
) 2pply the 'oundary condition, 4(p=a ,, z)=0 ,
0=

m

k
*
m
( k a)(%
m, k
e
i m
+&
m ,k
e
i m
)sinh (k z)
) *his can only hold true for all values of the independent varia'le and z if the coefficients are
8ero,
131
0=*
m
( k a)
for all m and k
) *here is only a discrete set of solutions to this e/uations ) its roots. *he roots cannot 'e found
analytically. 0hen done nu(erically the roots are desi&nated as x
mn
for n<1 2 4... so that
k=
x
mn
a
) *he solution now 'eco(es,
4(p, , z )=

m=0

n=1

*
m
(
x
mn
p
a
)
(%
m ,n
e
i m
+&
m ,n
e
i m
)sinh
(
x
mn
z
a
)
) *he final 'oundary condition is 4(p, , z=-)=V (p , ) now applied,
V ( p, )=

m=0

n=1

*
m
(
x
mn
p
a
)
(%
m, n
e
i m
+&
m, n
e
i m
)sinh
(
x
mn
-
a
)
) *his is a 6ourier series in and a 6ourier)Bessel series in .. 0e find the coefficients in the
usual way. Multiply 'oth sides 'y an e+ponential and inte&rate,

0
2
V (p ,)e
i m!
d =

m=0

n=1

*
m
(
x
mn
p
a
)

0
2
(%
m, n
e
i( mm!)
+&
m ,n
e
i (mm!)
) d sinh
(
x
mn
-
a
)
) Use the ortho&onality condition

e
i (mm!) x
dx=26
m ,m!
and rela'el,

0
2
V (p ,)e
i m
d =2

n=1

*
m
(
x
mn
p
a
)
%
m ,n
sinh
(
x
mn
-
a
)
) Multiply 'oth side 'y
p *
m
(
x
mn!
p
a
)
and inte&rate,

0
a
p *
m
(
x
mn!
p
a
)

0
2
V (p, ) e
i m
d d p=2

n=1

0
a
p *
m
(
x
mn!
p
a
)
*
m
(
x
mn
p
a
)
d p%
m, n
sinh
(
x
mn
-
a
)
) Use the ortho&onality condition,

0
a
p *
v
(
x
v n!
p
a
)
*
v
(
x
v n
p
a
)
d p=
a
2
2
*
v+1
( x
v n
)|
2
6
n! n

0
a
p *
m
(
x
mn!
p
a
)

0
2
V (p, ) e
i m
d d p=2

n=1

a
2
2
*
m+1
( x
mn
)|
2
6
n! n
%
m, n
sinh
(
x
mn
-
a
)

0
a
p *
m
(
x
mn
p
a
)

0
2
V (p ,)e
i m
d d p=a
2
*
m+1
( x
mn
)|
2
%
m ,n
sinh
(
x
mn
-
a
)
132
) Solve for the coefficient,
%
m ,n
=
csch
(
x
mn
-
a
)
a
2
*
m+1
( x
mn
)|
2

0
2
d

0
a
d ppV (p , ) *
m
(
x
mn
p
a
)
e
i m
) 3n the e+act sa(e process the other set of coefficients is found to 'e,
&
m, n
=
csch
(
x
mn
-
a
)
a
2
*
m+1
( x
m n
)|
2

0
2
d

0
a
d ppV ( p, ) *
m
(
x
mn
p
a
)
e
i m
) 3t is apparent now that &
m, n
=%
m ,n
#
) 3n su((ary the final solution is,
(p , , z)=

m=0

n=1

*
m
(
x
mn
p
a
)
(%
m, n
e
i m
+%
m, n
#
e
i m
)sinh
(
x
mn
z
a
)
where
%
m ,n
=
csch
(
x
mn
-
a
)
a
2
*
m+1
( x
mn
)|
2

0
2
d

0
a
d ppV (p , ) *
m
(
x
mn
p
a
)
e
i m
133
Lecture 7 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Expansion of Green Functions in Spherical Coordinates
- Consider the problem of a spherical boundary with radius a, the potential is known on the
boundary, there is charge present, and we wish to find the the potential anywhere external to the
sphere.
- We have already solved this problem using Green's functions:
4(x)=
1
4c
0

p(x ') G
D
d

x'
1
4

(
4
d G
D
d n'
)
da '
! "#ternal and internal to a spherical $oundary we have already found the %reen's function& it
$ein' the potential created $y a unit char'e and its i(a'e.
G( x , x' )=
1
xx'

x '
a
x
a
x '
x'

! Due to sy((etry& this is valid for $oth the internal pro$le( and the e#ternal pro$le(. Let us
call the first ter( G
1
and the second ter( G
)
and write the( in ter(s of unit vectors.
G(x , x' )=G
1
+G
)
where G
1
=
1
x xx ' x'
and G
)
=
1
(
x ' x
a
)
x(a) x'

! *hen solvin' pro$le(s with $oth char'es and $oundary surfaces& the (athe(atics is
si(plified if the %reen's function is e#panded in spherical har(onics.
! +he addition theore( was used to find the spherical har(onics e#pansion of a unit char'e
potential and is as follows,
"#pansion -,
1
rr
0

=4

l =0

m=l
l
1
)l +1
r
l
r
0
l +1
Y
l m
.
(0' ,') Y
lm
(0 , )
if
rr
0
and
"#pansion B,
1
rr
0

=4

l =0

m=l
l
1
)l +1
r
0
l
r
l+1
Y
l m
.
(0 ' , ' )Y
lm
(0 , ) if
r>r
0

! Both ter(s in the %reen function can $e e#panded into a series of spherical har(onics usin'
these e#pansions& $ut we have to $e careful a$out the different cases.
134
! External to the sphere& the source point x' is always 'reater than the sphere radius a& and the
o$servation point x is always 'reater than a. +his (eans that x'x/a 0 a always& so that when
e#pandin' G
)
& we always use the e#pansion B. But x is so(eti(es 'reater than x' and
so(eti(es not& so when e#pandin' G
1
& we (ust handle the cases separately and use $oth
e#pansions.
! 1ote that x' is the location of the real char'e in the ori'inal pro$le(& not the i(a'e char'e.
+here is no i(a'e char'e any(ore. +he i(a'e char'e was 2ust an inter(ediate (athe(atical
tric3 to 'et the %reen function. Usin' the ri'ht e#pansions for G
1
and G
)
& we end up with,
G( x , x' )=4

l=0

m=l
l
1
)l +1

r
l
r '
l +1

1
a
(
a
)
r r '
)
l +1
|
Y
l m
.
(0 ' , ' )Y
lm
(0 ,) if rr ' and
G( x , x' )=4

l=0

m=l
l
1
)l +1

r '
l
r
l+1

1
a
(
a
)
r r '
)
l +1
|
Y
l m
.
(0' ,' )Y
lm
(0, ) if r>r '
! Internal to the sphere& now x and x' are always less than a. +his a(ounts to usin' the
e#pansion B for G
)
in $oth cases. *hen e#pandin' G
1
& we still have to ta3e the cases separately
and use $oth e#pansions.
! Usin' the ri'ht e#pansions for G
1
and G
)
& we end up with the internal %reen functions,
G(x , x' )=4

l =0

m=l
l
1
)l +1
r
l
r '
l+1

1
a(
r r '
a
)
)
l
|
Y
l m
.
(' , ' )Y
lm
( , )
if rr ' and
G(x , x' )=4

l =0

m=l
l
1
)l +1
r '
l
r
l+1

1
a (
r r '
a
)
)
l
|
Y
l m
.
( ' , ')Y
lm
( , )
if r>r '
+q
x'
x
a
x < x'
x' > a
x > a
x'x/a > a
+q
x'
x
a
x > x'
x' > a
x > a
x'x/a > a
+q
x'
x
a
x < x'
x' < a
x < a
x'x/a < a
+q
x'
x
a
x > x'
x' < a
x < a
x'x/a < a
135
2. Solution of Potential Problems with the Sherical !reen "unction Exansions
! Consider a hollow 'rounded sphere of radius b containin' a concentric rin' of char'e in the x!
y plane with radius a and unifor(ly char'ed with a total char'e Q. *e wish to find the potential
everywhere inside the sphere.
! +his pro$le( involves $oth a char'e density,
p( x' )=
Q
)a
)
6(r 'a)6(cos0' )
and a $oundary condition 4(r=b, 0 , )=0 . *e use the %reen function solution to account for
$oth.
! +he %reen's function solution for Dirichlet $oundary conditions is,
4(x)=
1
4c
0

p(x ') G
D
d

x'
1
4

(
4
d G
D
d n'
)
da '
! 4n this pro$le(& the $oundary condition 4(r=b, 0 , )=0 eli(inates the second ter(. +he
solution is now,
4(x)=
1
4c
0

p(x ') G
D
d

x'
! +he %reen's function e#pansion for the interior!of!a!sphere pro$le( was found a$ove and is
used to write out the potential e#plicitly,
4(x)=
1
4c
0

p(x ') 4

l =0

m=l
l
1
)l +1
r
5
l
r
0
l +1

(r r ' )
l
b
)l +1
|
Y
l m
.
(0' , ' )Y
lm
(0 ,)d

x'
6lu' in the char'e density,
4(x)=
Q
)a
)
c
0

0
b

0
)

6( r 'a)6(cos0' )

l =0

m=l
l
1
)l +1
r
5
l
r
0
l +1

(r r ' )
l
b
)l+1
|
Y
l m
.
(0 ' , ' )Y
lm
(0 ,)r '
)
sin 0 ' d 0 ' d ' dr '
! +he delta functions collapse two of the inte'rals,
4(x)=
Q
)a
)
c
0

0
)

l =0

m=l
l
1
)l +1
r
5
l
r
0
l +1

(r
5
r
0
)
l
b
)l+1
|
Y
l m
.
(/ )& ' )Y
lm
(0 ,)a
)
d '
where now r
5
and r
0
are the s(aller and the lar'er of r and a.
! 4t is o$vious fro( the sy((etry that only the m 7 0 ter( will contri$ute,
4(x)=
Q
)a
)
c
0

0
)

l =0

1
)l +1
r
5
l
r
0
l +1

(r
5
r
0
)
l
b
)l +1
|
Y
l 0
.
(/ )& ' )Y
l 0
(0 , ) a
)
d '
136
4(x)=
Q
)a
)
c
0

0
)

l =0

1
)l +1
r
5
l
r
0
l +1

(r
5
r
0
)
l
b
)l +1
|.
)l +1
4
P
l
(0)
.
)l +1
4
P
l
(cos0)a
)
d '
4(x)=
Q
4c
0

l =0

r
5
l

1
r
0
l+1

r
0
l
b
)l +1
|
P
l
(0) P
l
(cos 0)
! Use the fact that
P
)n+1
(0)=0
and P
)n
(0)=
(1)
n
()n1)88
)
n
n8
,
(x)=
Q
4c
0

n=0

(1)
n
()n1)88
)
n
n8
r
5
)n

1
r
0
) n+1

r
0
)n
b
4n+1
|
P
l
(cos)
137
Lecture 8 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Multipole Expansion of the Potential
- Consider a localized charge density completely contained within some region R.
- Very far away from the region R, the charge density behaves more and more like a sphere or a
point charge.
- Far away from the region R then we can make an expansion of the potential in spherical
harmonics and keep only the first few terms and it will still be a valid approximation to the
solution.
- This is useful when the charge density is localized but too complex to be approached in an
exact way.
- Because we want the potential far away from the charge density, where there is no charge, we
can use the spherical coordinates solution to the Laplace equation when a valid solution is
required on the full azimuthal range:
(r , , )=

l=0

m=l
l
( A
lm
r
l
+B
lm
r
l 1
)Y
lm
( , )
where Y
lm
(0 , )=
.
2l +1
4
.
(l m)!
(l +m)!
e
i m
P
l
m
(cos0) are the spherical harmonics
- The region we are interested in includes infinity, but not the origin. To ensure the solution
approaches zero at infinity, we require A
l
= 0. The solution now becomes:
(r , , )=

l=0

m=l
l
B
lm
Y
lm
( , )
r
l +1
- For later convenience, we redefine the arbitrary constant,
B
lm
=
1
4
0
4
2l +1
q
l m so that:
(r , , )=
1
4
0

l=0

m=l
l
4
2l +1
q
l m
Y
lm
( , )
r
l+1
- This equation is called a multipole expansion. The l = 0 term is called the monopole term, l =
1 are the dipole terms, etc.
- We must now determine the coefficients q
lm
to fully solve the problem.
- The solution in integral form was already obtained as Coulomb's law for the potential:
4=
1
4c
0

p(x )
xx
d x
- We expand the 1/xx factor into spherical harmonics, remembering that we are interested
138
in the solution far away from the charge so that we want the x > x' case.
1
xx
=4

l =0

m=l
l
r
l
r
l+1
1
2l +1
Y
l m
!
(0 ,) Y
lm
(0 , )
so that:
4=
1
4c
0

l=0

m=l
l
4
2l +1

Y
l m
!
(0 , ) r
l
p( x ) d x
|
Y
lm
(0 ,)
r
l +1
- Comparing this solution to the one above, it becomes apparent that:
q
l m
=

Y
l m
!
( , )r
l
(x )d x
- These coefficients are called the spherical multipole moments. Their physical significance can
be seen by representing the first few terms explicitly in Cartesian coordinates.
- The l = 0 term is just proportional to the total charge q, which is known as the monopole
moment, and has no angular dependence:
q
00
=
.
1
4

p( x )d x
q
00
=

1
4
q
- The l = 1 terms are proportional to the components of the electric dipole moment p.
q
10
=
.
"
4

cos(0 )r p(x ) d x
q
10
=
.
"
4

z p(x ) d x
q
10
=

"
4
p
z
q
1#!1
=
.
"
$

sin(0 ) e
i
r p(x ) d x
q
1#!1
=
.
"
$

sin(0 )(cos( )i sin( )) r p(x ) d x


q
1#!1
=
.
"
$

( x i y )p( x ) d x
139
q
1#!1
=
.
"
$
( p
x
i p
y
)
- The total Cartesian dipole moment is defined as p=

x p( x ) d x
- The l = 2 terms are proportional to the Cartesian quadrupole moments Q
ij
:
q
20
=
.
%
1&

("cos
2
(0 )1)r
2
p(x ) d x
q
20
=
.
%
1&

(" z
2
r
2
)p( x ) d x
q
20
=

%
1&
Q
""
q
2#!1
=
.
1%
$

sin (0 )cos(0 ) e
i
r
2
p( x ) d x
q
2#!1
=
.
1%
$

sin (0 )cos(0 )(cos( )i sin( ))r


2
p(x ) d x
q
2#!1
=
.
1%
$

z ( x i y )p( x ) d x
q
2#!1
=
.
1%
$

z ( x i y )p( x ) d x
q
2#!1
=
1
"
1%
$
(Q
1"
i Q
2"
)
q
2#!2
=!
.
1%
"2

sin
2
(0 ) e
i 2
r
2
p(x ) d x
q
2#!2
=!
.
1%
"2

sin
2
(0 )(cos( )i sin())
2
r
2
p(x ) d x
q
2#!2
=!
.
1%
"2

( x i y )
2
p( x ) d x
q
2#!2
=
1
"
1%
"2
(Q
11
2i Q
12
Q
22
)
- In general, the Cartesian quadrupole moments are defined as:
140
Q
ij
=

(" x
i
x
j
r
2
6
ij
) p(x ) d x
- With the first few coefficients found, we can write out the potential explicitly:
4(r ,0 ,)=
1
4c
0

l =0

m=l
l
4
2l +1
q
l m
Y
lm
(0 , )
r
l+1
4(r ,0 ,)=
1
c
0
r
q
0#0
Y
0#0

+
1
"c
0
r
2

q
1#0
Y
1#0
+q
1#1
Y
1#1
+q
1# 1
Y
1# 1
|

+
1
%c
0
r
"

q
2#0
Y
2#0
+q
2#1
Y
2#1
+q
2#1
Y
2# 1
+q
2# 2
Y
2#2
+q
2#2
Y
2# 2
+...
|
- The spherical harmonics for these first few terms are simple enough to be written out
explicitly:
4(x)=
1
c
0
r .
1
4
q
0#0
+
1
"c
0
r
2
.
"
$
.2q
1#0
cos(0)(q
1#1
e
i
q
1#1
e
i
)sin(0)|
+
1
%c
0
r
"
.
%
1&
q
2#0
("cos
2
01).&(q
2#1
e
i
q
2# 1
e
i
)sin0cos 0+."/ 2( q
2# 2
e
i 2
+q
2#2
e
i 2
)sin
2
(0)|+...
- Now switch from spherical multipole moments to Cartesian multipole moments:
4(x)=
q
4c
0
r
+
1
$c
0
r
2

2 p
z
cos(0)+(( p
x
i p
y
) e
i
+( p
x
+i p
y
)e
i
) sin(0)
|
+
1
1&c
0
r
"

Q
""
("cos
2
01)+2((Q
1"
i Q
2"
) e
i
+(Q
1"
+i Q
2"
)e
i
)sin 0 cos0
|
+
1
1&c
0
r
"

1/ 2((Q
11
2i Q
12
Q
22
)e
i 2
+(Q
11
+2i Q
12
Q
22
)e
i 2
)sin
2
(0)
|
+...
(x)=
1
4
0

q
r
+
px
r
"
+
1
2

i=1
"

j=1
"
Q
i j
x
i
x
j
r
%
+...
|
- The last step was obtained using the traceless nature of the quadrupoles, i.e.
Q
""
=Q
11
Q
22

2. Multipole Expansion of the Electric Field
- The electric field is most easily expressed in spherical coordinates.
- The potential in spherical coordinates was found to be:
4(r ,0 ,)=
1
4c
0

l =0

m=l
l
4
2l +1
q
l m
Y
lm
(0 , )
r
l+1
141
- The electric field is just the negative gradient:
E=\4
- In spherical coordinates:
E=

r
c4
cr
+

0
1
r
c4
c0
+

1
r sin0
c4
c
|
E=
1
c
0

l=0

m=l
l
q
l m
2l +1

r
c
cr
Y
lm
(0 ,)
r
l +1

0
1
r
c
c0
Y
lm
(0 ,)
r
l +1

1
r sin 0
c
c
Y
lm
(0 , )
r
l+1
|
E=
1
c
0

l=0

m=l
l
q
l m
2l +1
1
r
l+2

r(l +1)Y
lm
(0 , )

0
c
c0
Y
lm
(0 , )

i m
sin0
Y
lm
(0 , )
|
- The monopole contribution to the electric field (l = 0) is then:
E
l =0
=
1
c
0
q
00
1
r
2

Y
00
(0 ,)
|
r
E
l =0
=
q
4c
0
r
2
r
- This is, of course, the electric field due to a point charge q. This means that far enough away
from a finite localized charge distribution with total charge q, the electric field is approximately
equal to the field produced from a point charge q at its center.
- The dipole contributions to the electric field (l = 1) evaluate to:
E
l =1
=
1
c
0
q
1#1
"
1
r
"

r 2Y
1#1
(0 , )

0
c
c0
Y
1#1
(0 , )+

i
sin 0
Y
1#1
(0 ,)
|
+
1
c
0
q
1# 0
"
1
r
"

r2Y
1#0
(0 ,)

0
c
c0
Y
1#0
(0 ,)
|
+
1
c
0
q
1# 1
"
1
r
"

r 2Y
1# 1
(0 , )

0
c
c0
Y
1# 1
(0 , )

i
sin 0
Y
1#1
(0 , )
|
E
l =1
=
(
1
4c
0
r
"
)
r

2 p
z
cos 0+2 p
x
sin0cos +2 p
y
sin 0sin
|

+
(
1
4c
0
r
"
)

0 p
z
sin 0p
x
coscos0p
y
sin cos 0|

+
(
1
4c
0
r
"
)

p
x
sin p
y
cos|
142
- After transforming every part of this equation into Cartesian coordinates and collecting terms,
the dipole contribution of a localized charge distribution simplifies to a coordinate-independent
form:
E
l =1
=
" x( p x)p
4
0
x
"
where p=

x (x )d x (dipole at the origin)


- The development thus far has assumed the multipoles are centered on the origin. If we desire
to add together the effects of multiple charge distributions or multiple dipoles that are not at the
same location, they can not both be at the origin. To generalize, the dipole at location x
0
creates
the field:
E
l =1
=
"

(xx
0
)(p

(xx
0
))p
4
0
xx
0

"
(dipole at x
0
)
where the hat over the terms in parentheses means that the vector that results after taking the
difference is normalized to be a unit vector.
Order Name
Sample
Point Form
Potential
Electric
field
Spherical Moments Cartesian Moments
l = 0 monopole

1
r
E
1
r
2
q
00
q
l = 1 dipole

1
r
2
E
1
r
"
q
1-1
, q
10
, q
11
p
x
, p
y
, p
z
l = 2 quadrupole

1
r
"
E
1
r
4
q
2-2
, q
2-1
, q
20
, q
21
,

q
22
Q
xx
, Q
xy
, Q
xz
Q
yx
, Q
yy
, Q
yz
Q
zx
, Q
zy
, Q
zz
l = 3 octupole

1
r
4
E
1
r
%
q
3-3
, q
3-2
, q
3-1
,
q
30
, q
31
, q
32
,

q
33
Q
ijk
i, j, and k = x, y, or z
...
l l-pole -

1
r
l+1
E
1
r
l +2
q
l,-l
, q
l,-l+1
, , q
l,l-1
,

q
l,l
Q
ijk...l
i, j, k...l = x, y, or z
+
+
-
+
- +
-
+
-
+
-
-
+
-
+
143
- In general, multipole moments depend on the choice of origin. A point charge at the origin has
only a monopole moment, but move it off the axis and it has higher-order multiple moments.
This is because we are measuring the potential as an expansion in spherical coordinates, which
are defined from the origin.
- More specifically, the lowest nonvanishing multipole moment is always independent of the
choice of origin, but the higher mutipoles do depend on the origin.
3. Basic Concepts about Electrostatics with Ponderable Media
- Up to this point, all charges and fields have been assumed to be in vacuum, or in perfect
conductors.
- Most materials are not perfect conductors, but are ponderable media which have some
electrical response to the charges and fields. These effects must be taken into account.
- Macroscopically speaking, a non-conducting material contains a set of fixed positive and
negative charge regions that typically cancel each other out on average, so that the material is
electrically neutral.
- If extra charges are added to the material, it gains a net charge, but the majority of underlying
charges still cancel out.
- When an eternal electric field is applied to the material, each charge region experiences a
force from the field.
- Because the charge regions are fixed and cannot move in response to the field, they instead
deform and gain non-zero multipole moments. The most dominant is the dipole.
- An electric field thus induces dipole moments in all of the charge regions, the total effect
being that the electric field induces an electric polarization P(x) in the material.
- Consider the conceptual problem of a sphere of uniform material in a uniform electric field.
- Before the electric field is applied, the charge regions, and thus the material is neutral on
average:
- After the electric field is applied, the negative portions of each charge region are attracted to
the source of the electric field and deform. Each charge region has become polarized (gained a
non-zero dipole moment, more or less aligned with the electric field).
+
-
144
- Deep inside the sphere, the charge regions still cancel each other out on average and the
material has a net zero charge. On the edges of the sphere, however, there are no charges
available to cancel out the deformed parts.
- There is then a net positive charge on one side of the sphere and a net negative charge on the
other side of the sphere. (Note that this is a simplified conceptual picture. In reality, the
originally uniform external field lines will be attracted to the surface charge and bend towards
the sphere.)
- These polarization charges give rise to an electric field proportional to the polarization that
opposes the original applied field.
- The total field (the actual field felt by some test charge placed in the material) will be some
combination of the applied field and the induced field.
- In essence, the dielectric material weakens the effect of the applied field.
- +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+ -
- +
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
+
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
-
+ -
145
- For clarity, let us define the following:
D/
0
: The applied electric field in the absence of the dielectric material (where D is
called the displacement) plus interactions that are not directly attributable to the
polarization
-P/
0
: The induced electric field caused by the polarization of the material (where P is
the polarization)
E: The total electric field including the applied field and the material's response
- The polarization P is defined as the macroscopically averaged dipole moment density. The
induced field is the negative of the polarization. (This little curiosity arises from the fact that
electric field lines are defined to point from positive to negative charges, whereas dipole vectors
point from negative to positive charges.)
- Instead of treating the applied field as the result of charges external to the problem, we can
explicitly include them. Let us then define the following:
' (he free or excess charge distri)ution# which *ives rise to the applied electric field
+D/
0
,

pol
' (he polarizatio charge# +induced )ound char*e,# which *ives rise to the
polari-ation P

total
' (he total charge# which is the su. of the free and polari-ation char*e# which *ives
rise to the total field E.
146
Lecture 9 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Electrostatic Equations with Ponderable Materials
- We desire to find the electric fields of any system which includes materials.
- We can consider a material to be a collection of small reions with a chare distribution.
- Let us find the potential due to one of these chare distributions! then interate over all chare
distributions to et the total potential.
- We "now that we can e#pand the potential due to a locali$ed chare distribution into its
mulitpole moment contributions and only "eep the first few terms if we are far away. Because
we will shrin" the chare reions to a very small si$e when formin the interal! any point in
space can be considered far away from the chare reion.
- Consider a small volume dV containin a chare density producin a potential d e#panded
into multipole contributions%
d 4=
&
'c
(
dq
r
+
&
' c
(
!
r
)
+...
- Because the chare reion is infinitesimal and we want a macroscopic e#pression! we are far
enouh away that terms become neliible e#cept the monopole and dipole terms.
- We switch to absolute coordinates to allow us to add up effects at different locations.
d 4=
&
'c
(
dq
!!*
+
&
' c
(
( !!* )
!! *
)
- Multiply and divide by the volume dV%
d =
&
'
(
&
!!*
(
dq
dV
)
dV +
&
'
(
(!!* )
!!*
)

d V
)
dV
- By definition! the chare per unit volume is the chare density!
dq
dV
=(!* ) ! and the averae
dipole moment per unit volume is the polari$ation!

dV
=P .
d =
&
'
(
(!* )
!!*
dV +
&
'
(
P(!! *)
!!*
)
dV
- +o et the total electric potential! we add up the effects of all the small chare reions.
Mathematically! this means interatin both sides of the e,uation%
(!)=
&
'
(

(!* )
!!*
d
)
! *+
&
'
(

P(!!*)
!! *
)
d
)
!*
- +his is now the potential due to all chare reions in the material. Because we started very
147
enerally! it includes all materials -e#cept materials where ,uadrupole moments! etc. are
sinificant.. +he first term is /ust Coulomb*s law with no materials tellin us the potential due to
the free0e#cess chares. +he second term is the potential due to the material itself. +ypically! an
applied field induces the polari$ation P in the material! which then creates its own field.
- We want to combine the two terms.
- Use the mathematical identity%
!! *
!!*
)
=
* &
!!*
4(!)=
&
'c
(

p(! * )
!!*
d ! *+
&
'c
(

P
* &
!! *
d !*
- 1pply interation by parts to the second interal%

P
* &
!!*
d !*=

Pn
!! *
|
S

*P
!!*
d ! *
- We are interatin over all space! so the boundin surface is at infinity where there is no
material. +his ma"es the first term vanish! so that%

P
* &
!!*
d !*=

*P
!!*
d !*
- Use this identity in the potential e,uation%
(!)=
&
'
(

(!* )
!!*
d !*
&
'
(

*P
!!*
d ! *
- Collect terms%
4(!)=
&
'c
(

(p(! *)*P)
!! *
d !*
- +his is /ust Coulomb*s law for the total potential if we reconi$e the term in parentheses as the
total chare density%
(!)=
&
'
(

total
(!* )
!!*
d ! * where

total
( !* )=(!* )+
pol
(!*)
and

pol
(!* )=*P
- 2f we divide the rihtmost e,uation directly above by
(
it loo"s li"e 3auss*s law in differential
form%
*
(
P/ c
(
)
=
&
c
(
p
pol
(!* )
so that we can identify --P/
(
. as the electric field caused by the polari$ation chare density.
- +he ,uantity
pol
is the 4polari$ation chare density5! or the 4bound chare density5! or the
148
4induced chare density5. 2t is the material*s response to the fields.
- +he ,uantity is the 4free chare density5! or more accurately the 4e#cess chare density5! or
the 4inducin chare density5. 2t is the chare that is placed when the problem is created -e..
charin up a balloon by rubbin it in your hair.. +his is the chare we have already dealt with.
- +he ,uantity
total
is the total chare density! which is the sum of the bound and free chares.
- 2t should be noted that! because of the way it has been defined! the polari$ation -the averae
dipole moment density. P points in the opposite direction from the field due to the polari$ation%
Material response electric field 6 --P/
(
.
- +his is because the dipole moment of a chare reion always points from its neative side to
its positive side! whereas electric fields start on positive chares and end on neative chares.
- While possibly confusin! this definition is useful because dipoles are seen to line up with the
applied field.
- 1ll of our results from electrostatics without materials carry over now if we reali$e that we
must use the total chare distribution
total
when we see" the total field E.
- 3auss*s law in differential form becomes%
E=
&
c
(
p
total
(!)
E=
&
c
(
(p( !)+p
pol
(!))
E=
&
c
(
(p( !)P)
- +he field E is the total field! and the ,uantity --P/
(
. is the induced field! so that the last piece
in the e,uation above is a field-li"e entity and can be loosely thouht of as the oriinal
e#ternally applied field plus interactions.
- Define this applied field as -"/
(
. where " is called the displacement. Because -"/
(
.

is an
electric-field-li"e entity it must obey its version of 3auss*s Law%

(
"
c
(
)
=
&
c
(
p(!)
"=(!)
- 7luin this into the e,uation above%
E=
&
c
(
( "P)
- 2nterate both sides%
E="/
(
P/
(
149
- +his simple e,uation states that the total electric field E is the sum of the applied field plus
interactions -D/
(
. and the resultin induced field --P/
(
.. While this statement is true! we must
be careful about what we mean. +he free chares and bound chares interact with each other so
that they can end up in different locations than where oriinally placed. 8or this reason! " is
more than /ust what the field would be in the absence of the material.
- 1ll of the e,uation thus far apply to any ponderable material where the dipole moments are the
dominant terms in the response of the material to the applied field.
- +hese e,uations are not particularly useful until an e#plicit model is developed allowin us to
find the polari$ation P based on the material*s static properties.
#. Electrostatic Equations in Linear Isotroic "ielectric Materials
- +he simplest and and most common type of dielectric material is that of linear! isotropic
dielectrics.
- +he isotropic property means that the applied field will always ive rise to the same induced
field! no matter how the material is oriented.
- +he linear property means that the induced field is linearly proportional to the applied field
inducin it. 2n other words! the polari$ation P points in the same direction as the displacement
" and the manitude of the polari$ation e,uals some constant times the manitude of the
displacement%
P=
c
r
&
c
r
"
- +he constant lin"in the two is chosen to have this form to simplify the final e,uations! as is
shown below.
- +he variable
r
is "nown as the relative electric permittivity of a material! or its dielectric
constant. 2t is defined relative to the permittivity of free space%
c
r
=c/ c
(
.
- Most materials have dielectric constants between & and &((.
- 9acuum has a dielectric constant of & by definition! so that there is no polari$ation in response
the applied electric field.
- Silicon Dio#ide -sand or ,uart$. has a dielectric constant of ).:! so that the polari$ation has
about :); the strenth of the displacement.
- Water at room temperature has a static dielectric constant of <(! so that the polari$ation is ==;
the manitude of the displacement. 2n other words! most of the applied electric field is canceled
out by the respondin polari$ation field. +hat is why radio wave cannot penetrate water.
->iher fre,uencies of liht do penetrate water! but that is because liht is really an
electrodynamic and not an electrostatic phenomenon! which becomes more apparent at hiher
fre,uencies..
- ?ow combine the linear material response e,uation with the electrostatic field e,uations.
150
E="/ c
(
P/ c
(
and P=
c
r
&
c
r
" for linear materials becomes%
E=
(
&/ c
(
&/ c
(
c
r
&
c
r
)
"
E=( &/ ) "
- @nowin this relationship for linear materials! we can simplify 3auss* Law for the
displacement%
"=p( !)
( E)=(!) Gauss's Law in differential form inside a linear dielectric
- +his e,uation applies everywhere! even if the material is nonuniform or we have many
materials put toether! as lon as all of the materials are linear.
- 2f the material varies spatially! the permittivity may also vary spatially and can not be moved
outside the diverence operator. +he e,uation must be solved in this form.
- 1 special case is if the permittivity is uniform in a reion and thus does not depend on
position.
- +hen the permittivity can be moved outside the diverence operator%
E=
&

(!)
Gauss's Law in differential form inside a linear uniform dielectric
- +his e,uation states essentially that the diverence of the electric field E is e,ual to the
constant effects of the material -&0. times the effect of the free chare density.
- +herefore! the reater the permittivity of the material -the more able the material is to be
polari$ed.! the less a chare density is able to create a total electric field.
- 2f the reion containin the uniform dielectric material is ta"en to include all space! this
e,uation applies everywhere. 1ll the problems in such a medium reduce to the same problems
done in previous chapters e#cept the permittivity of free space
(
is replaced by the permittivity
of the material .
- 2f the problem involves a few different reions with different materials! but each material is
linear and uniform! then this e,uation applies separately in each reion. 2n such a case the
different reions will need to be solved independently and connected by boundary conditions.
$. %oundary&'alue Problems with "ielectrics
- +he last e,uation above only applies to reions of uniform dielectric.
- >owever! this e,uation can still be used for problems with reions with different materials if
each reion of uniform dielectric is solved independently and then the solutions are forced to
match up at the boundaries.
- +he first boundary condition is found by drawin a pillbo# around the surface in the usual
way! but only includin the free chare and thus applyin the interal to only the applied field%
( "
A
"
&
)n
&A
=
151
- >ere n
&A
is the boundary surface normal pointin from reion & into reion A.
- +he second boundary condition is found by drawin a loop half-way in the surface%
(E
A
E
&
)n
&A
=(
- Consider two semi-infinite reions of linear uniform dielectric material that meet at the x-y
plane.
- +he material on the neative z side! in reion A! has a permittivity
A
and the material on the
positive z side! in reion &! has a permittivity
&
.
- 1 point chare q is embedded on the z-a#is a distance d from the oriin in reion &.
- +he e,uations to be solved are%
c
&
E
&
=p
for z B (
c
A
E
A
=(
for z C (
- +he boundary conditions at z 6 ( are%
c
&

&! z
=c
A

A! z
! and

&! r
=
A! r
for all ! in cylindrical coordinates
- Let us use the imae method to solve for the field in reion &.
- We place an imae chare q* at z 6 -d as shown in the imae below%
- +he potential in reion & is /ust that felt by a point chare and its imae. 2n cylindrical
coordinates%
z
x

2
q
q'
r
d d
z
152
4
&
=
&
'c
&
(
q
.r
A
+( zd)
A
+
q *
.r
A
+( z+d )
A
)
- +o solve for the field in reion A! we treat it as a separate problem and place an imae chare
q** at z 6 d. +here are no other chares involved -the actual chare q does not directly come into
play in reion A because of the way we have set up the problem. so that the solution is%
4
A
=
&
'c
A
(
q**
.r
A
+( zd )
A
)
- ?ow apply the boundary condition
c
&

&! z
=c
A

A! z
at z 6 (%
c
&

z
4
&
=c
A

z
4
A
c
&

z (
&
'c
&
(
q
.r
A
+( zd )
A
+
q*
.r
A
+( z +d )
A
))
=c
A

z (
&
'c
A
(
q **
.r
A
+( zd )
A
))

z (
q
.r
A
+( zd)
A
+
q *
.r
A
+( z+d)
A
)
=

z (
q**
.r
A
+( z d )
A
)
(&/ A)
q(Ad )
(r
A
+d
A
)
)/A
+(&/ A)
q* ( Ad )
( r
A
+d
A
)
)/ A
=(&/ A)
q** (Ad )
( r
A
+d
A
)
)/ A
qq *=q **
- 1pply the boundary condition%

&! r
=
A! r
at z 6 (%

r
4
&
=

r
4
A

r (
&
'c
&
(
q
.r
A
+( zd)
A
+
q*
.r
A
+( z+d)
A
))
=

r (
&
'c
A
(
q**
.r
A
+( zd )
A
))
(
&
'c
&
(
(&/ A)
Ar q
(r
A
+d
A
)
)/A
+(&/ A)
Ar q*
(r
A
+d
A
)
)/A
)
)
=
(
&
'c
A
(
(&/ A)
Ar q**
(r
A
+d
A
)
)/A
)
)
&

&
( q+q *)=
&

A
q**
+he two bo#ed e,uations can be solved in terms of the "nown chare q.
q* =
c
&
c
A
c
&
+c
A
q
153
q** =
Ac
A
c
&
+c
A
q
- So that the final solution for the potential is%
=
q
'(
&

&
r
A
+( zd)
A
+
(

&

&
(
&
+
A
)
)
&
r
A
+( z+d)
A
)
if z B (
=
q
'(
A

&
+
A
)
&
r
A
+( zd )
A
if z " (
- Drawin a pillbo# in the usual way! but only enclosin the polari$ation chare! leads to the
boundary condition%
u
pol
=(P
A
P
&
)n
&A
at z 6 (
- 8or linear materials%
u
pol
=
(
c
r #A
&
c
r #A
"
A

c
r #&
&
c
r # &
"
&
)
n
&A
u
pol
=
(
c
r #A
&
c
r #A
c
A
E
A

c
r #&
&
c
r #&
c
&
E
&
)
n
&A
u
pol
=
(
(c
A
c
(
) E
A
(c
&
c
(
) E
&
)
n
&A
u
pol
=
(
(c
A
c
(
)(4
A
)(c
&
c
(
)(4
&
)
)
n
&A
u
pol
=(c
A
c
(
)(

z
4
A
)(c
&
c
(
)(

z
4
&
)
u
pol
=(c
A
+c
(
)

z
q
'(
A
c
&
+c
A
)
&
.r
A
+( zd )
A

+(c
&
c
(
)

z
q
'(
&
c
&
.r
A
+( zd )
A
+
(
c
&
c
A
c
&
(c
&
+c
A
)
)
&
.r
A
+( z+d)
A
)
u
pol
=(c
A
+c
(
)
q
'(
A
c
&
+c
A
)
(&/ A)
(Ad )
( r
A
+d
A
)
)/ A

+(c
&
c
(
)
q
'(
(&/ A)
(Ad )
c
&
(r
A
+d
A
)
)/A
+
(
c
&
c
A
c
&
(c
&
+c
A
)
)
(&/ A)
(Ad )
(r
A
+d
A
)
)/A
)

154
u
pol
=
q
A
c
(
(c
A
c
&
)
c
&
(c
A
+c
&
)
d
(r
A
+d
A
)
)/A

(. Electrostatic Energy in "ielectric Media
- 1s derived in a previous lecture! the electrostatic potential enery stored in a chare
confiuration in vacuum is iven by%
$=
&
A

p(!)4(!) d !
- +his e,uation can still be used in the presence of linear dielectrics if we thin" of assemblin
the free chare density ! where each piece interacts with the total potential enerated by the
chare density! which includes the dielectric effects.
- +he free chare density ives rise /ust to the applied electric field -proportional to the
displacement %. accordin to%
"=p( !)
so that we have%
$=
&
A

"4d !
2nteration by parts leads to%
$=
&
A

"4d !
+he total potential is related to the total electric field accordin to E=4 . +he enery is%
$=
&
A

E"d !
8or linear materials! E=( &/ c) " so that we can cast the enery in the form%
$=

E
A
d !
155
Lecture 10 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Magnetostatics Introduction
- All of the proceeding concepts have been applied to electrostatics when static electric charges
create static electric fields.
- !e now turn to a special case of electrodyna"ics #nown as "agnetostatics when electric
charges "ove$ but "ove in such a way that they create static "agnetic fields.
- %he current density J is a vector field that describes the flow of charge at every point in space.
- %he current density is "easured as the a"ount of positive charge per unit area per unit ti"e$
with the direction of the vector indicating the direction of charge flow.
- !hen the electric current is confined in a wire$ it is useful to integrate the current density over
the cross-sectional area of the wire and find the total current I$ or total electric charge flowing
through the wire per unit ti"e.
- &f the total charge Q
V
inside a volu"e V decreases$ this "eans that so"e charge is flowing out
passed the surface S bounding the volu"e. Charge is always conserved$ it can be neither created
nor destroyed

Q
V
t
=

S
Jn da
- Use of the divergence theore" leads to the for"

Q
V
t
=

V
J d x
- '(pand the total charge

V
pd x=

V
J d x
- Shrin# the volu"e down so that the integrands "ust be e)ual everywhere

t
=J
- %his is the continuity e)uation in differential for".
- Magnetostatics is the special case where we assu"e no build up or depletion of charge at any
point
J=* Definition of Magnetostatics (constant flow of charge)
- %he "agnetic induction field B +also #nown as the "agnetic flu( density, is a vector field
created by electrical currents. Magnetic fields directly produce forces on "agnets.
156
2. The Biot!a"art La#
- Using small straight wires containing currents and co"pass "agnets$ -ersted$ Biot$ and
Savart e(peri"entally found the following properties
- %he "agnetic field is directly proportional to the length dl of the s"all wire.
- %he "agnetic field is directly proportional to the electrical current I in the wire.
- %he "agnetic field is inversely proportional to the s)uare of the distance r fro" the wire.
- %he "agnetic field points in the direction nor"al to the plane in which the wire and
observation point lie.
- '(pressing each of these e(peri"ental observations one by one
dBdl
dBI dl
dB
I dl
r
.
d B
I dl
r
.
(

l r)
d B=k
I dl
r
.
(

l r)
- Co"bine the vector "agnitudes with the unit vectors to get total vectors
d B=k
I
r
/
(d lr)
- %he proportionality constant k depends on the units used. &n S& units$
k=
*
/ 0
where
*
is
the "agnetic per"eability of free space$ so that the e)uation beco"es
d B=

*
0
I
r
/
(d lr)
- %he total "agnetic field generated by an electric current flowing through a wire is the integral
of the field generated by all of its s"all seg"ents
B=

*
0

I d lr
r
/
The Biot-Savart aw for !ires
- But what about "ore co"ple( electric currents that are not confined to s"all wires1
- !e e(pand the current I in ter"s of its integration over the current density J
B=

*
0

l d l r
r
/
da
157
B=

*
0

Jr
r
/
dl da
- Co"bine the integral along the wire and the integral over the cross-section of the wire to get a
total volu"e integral. Also e(pand the separation vector r in ter"s of fi(ed coordinates$
r 2 x $ x3
B( x)=

*
0

J(x 3)(xx3 )
xx3
/
d
/
x 3 The Biot-Savart aw
- %he Biot-Savart Law is the "agnetic e)uivalent of Coulo"b3s law. 4ust li#e Coulo"b3s law$
the integral in this e)uation "ust be done over all space. %his renders it not particularly useful.
!e see# to convert it to a for" that is local and can acco""odate bounding surfaces.
%. &m'ere(s La#
- As with the the electrostatics case$ let us try to get this "agnetostatics e)uation in differential
for".
- Use the identity
(xx3 )
xx 3
/
=
(
5
xx 3
)

B( x)=

*
0

J(x3 )(
(
5
xx3
)
)d x 3
- Use the identity J()=( J)(J)
B( x)=

*
0

(
(
5
xx3
)
J(x3 ))
(
5
xx3
)
( J(x 3))| d x3
- &n this case$ J(x 3)=* for the si"ple reason that the current density J is defined entirely in
ter"s of the pri"ed di"ensions here and the curl contains derivatives with respect to the
unpri"ed di"ensions.
B( x)=

*
0

(
J(x3 )
xx3
)
d x3
- %he curl is in the unpri"ed syste" and the integral is over the independent pri"ed syste"$ so
that the curl operation can be "oved out of the integral.
B( x)=

*
0

J( x3 )
xx 3
d x3
- %a#ing the divergence of both side and noting that the divergence of the curl is always 6ero
leads to the observation that B=* . 7e"e"bering that the divergence of the electric field is
caused by electric charge$ we conclude that a non-6ero divergence in the "agnetic field would
be caused by "agnetic charge.
158
- %he fact that the "agnetic field never diverges "eans that there are no magnetic charges.
- %his "eans that ulti"ately all "agnetic fields are created by "oving electric charges$ even if
only on the ato"ic level.
- %his "eans also that "agnetic field B lines have no beginning or end but "ust always 8oin
into loops.
- &f we instead ta#e the curl of both sides$ we get
B(x)=

*
0

J( x3 )
xx 3
d x3
- Use the identity ( &)=( &)
.
&
B(x)=

*
0

J(x3 )
5
xx 3
d x3

*
0

J(x3 )
. 5
xx 3
d x3
- Use the identities

(
5
xx3
)
=3
(
5
xx3
)
$

.
(
5
xx3
)
=06(xx3 )
B(x)=

*
0

J(x 3)3
5
xx3
d x3 +
*

J( x3 )6(xx3 ) d x3
B(x)=
*
J(x)

*
0

J( x3 )3
5
xx3
d x3
- &ntegration by parts gives
B(x)=
*
J(x)

*
0

3J( x3 )
5
xx3
d x3
- &n "agnetostatics$ by definition there is no charge build up so that J=* giving
B(x)=
*
J(x)
"m#ere$s aw in Differential %orm
- %his e)uation "eans that electric currents give rise to curling "agnetic fields. &f there is no
current present$ there can still be a non-6ero "agnetic field. &t is si"ply irrotational and
deter"ined co"pletely by the boundary conditions.
- &n electrostatics$ we could draw a 9aussian surface and convert 9auss3s law bac# and forth
between differential and integral for". &n "agnetostatics$ we can also convert A"pere3s law
bac# and forth between differential and integral for".
- Consider an arbitrarily curved surface S bounded by the line contour &. %he "agnetic field B
is defined everywhere on S in ter"s of the current density J according to A"pere3s Law in
differential for".
- Dot both sides with the unit nor"al vector on the surface S at point x and integrate over all
such points on the surface.

S
(B)n da=
*
S
Jnda
159
- Apply Sto#e3s %heore" to get

&
Bd l =
*
S
Jnda
- %he surface integral of the electric current density is 8ust the total current passing through the
loop

&
Bd l =
*
I
enc
"m#ere$s aw in Integral %orm
- %he closed contour & is called an A"perian loop and is si"ilar to the 9aussian surfaces of
electrostatics.
). Magnetic *orce
- &n the physical world$ we really only "easure forces.
- &n statics$ electric and "agnetic fields are ways of generali6ing the effect created by charges
and currents to all points of space. +&n electrodyna"ics$ fields ta#e on an e(istence of their own
independent of sources.,
- '(peri"entally$ it is found that the "agnetic field B e(erts a force * on a test charge ' with
velocity v according to
*=' "B
- %o fit within the "agnetostatics fra"ewor#$ we "ust e(press this in ter"s of currents. !e
replace the one test charge with an infinitesi"al length d l of current I
d *=I d l B
- %he total force on the wire is 8ust the integral of the force on all the wire seg"ents
*=

I d l B Magnetic %orce on a !ire


- %o "a#e this "ore general and apply to any current density$ we e(pand the current
*=

l da d lB
- Co"bine the integral over the cross-sectional area with the line integral to get a volu"e
integral
*=

J(x)B( x) d x Magnetic %orce on a &(rrent Densit)


N=

x(J(x)B(x))d x Magnetic Tor'(e on a &(rrent Densit)


160
+. The ,ector -otential.
- &n electrostatics$ the "athe"atics was si"plified by introducing an electric potential and
defining the electric field in ter"s of it. &n a si"ilar "anner$ let us define the "agnetic field in
ter"s of a vector potential
B(x)=& Vector *otential Definition
- :reviously we derived the Biot-Savart Law in curl for"
B( x)=

*
0

J( x3 )
xx 3
d x3
&=

*
0

J(x3 )
xx3
d x3
&=

*
0

J(x3 )
xx3
d x3 +1
- %he curl does not uni)uely define the vector potential. !e can always add the gradient of
so"e scalar +called a gauge transfor"ation, to the vector potential and end up with the sa"e
"agnetic field. %his underscores the fact the "agnetic fields and forces are the real physical
things and the vector potential is 8ust a useful "athe"atical entity. &f we choose the gauge
where 1=constant $ then we have
&=

*
0

J(x3 )
xx3
d x3 Biot-Savart aw for Vector *otential
- !e can now e(press A"pere3s Law in differential for" in ter"s of the vector potential
B(x)=
*
J(x)
( &)=
*
J(x)
- Use the vector identity ( &)=( &)
.
&
( &)
.
&=
*
J(x)
- Choosing the gauge 1=constant as was done above$ leads to &=* $ so that we have

.
&=
*
J( x) "m#ere$s aw in differential vector #otential form
161
Lecture 11 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Magnetic Fields of a Localized Current Distriution
- Similar to the electrostatic multipole expansion, if we have a localied current distri!ution and
want to "now the ma#netic fields far away, we can ma"e a ma#netostatic multiplole expansion
and only "eep the first few terms.
- Consider the Biot-Savart Law for the vector potential$
!=

%
&

"#'
##'
d #' where $ #=! and this is a solution to
$#=
%
"#
- (he primed coordinates refer to the localied currents, so that an expansion in powers of the
primed varia!les will allow us to drop hi#her order terms$
)
##'
=
)
#

##'
#
*
...
- Usin# this expansion$
!=

%
&
)
#

"# ' d #'



%
&
#
#
*

#' "#' d #'...


- (he first term corresponds to the ma#netic field #enerated !y a ma#netic monopole moment.
+e already "now that there are no monopoles, so that this term should !e ero. Let us prove it.
- Consider a functions f and g and ma"e an expansion usin# inte#ration !y parts$

V
g "' f d # '=

S
f g " #' da

V
f ' g " d #'
- Because the current is localied, if the !oundin# surface is lar#er than the current distri!ution,
the current density will !e everywhere ero on the surface, so that$

V
g "' f d # '=

V
f ' g " d #'
- ,xpand the ri#ht side usin# a vector identity$

V
g "' f d # '=

V
f "' g d #'

V
f g '" d #'
- Collect terms$

V
g "' f f "' g f g '" d #'=%
162
- (his holds for any functions f and g and vector ". +e now apply it to our pro!lem. Ma"e " the
current density vector. (he definition of ma#netostatics is that there is no diver#ence$ '"=%

V
g "' f f "' g d #'=%
- Set f - ) and g - x
i
$

V
J
i
d # '=%
- .f the inte#ral of every component is ero, than the inte#ral of the whole vector is ero and we
have proven that the first term in the expansion is ero. .f only the second term in the expansion
is "ept and all hi#her order terms are dropped, the potential far from a localied current density
!ecomes$
!=

%
&
)
#
*

## ' "#' d #'


- ,xpress this explicitly in terms of components$
!=

%
&
)
#
*

j
x
j
x
j
'

i
#
i
J
i

d #'
- Brea" the terms in half and shuffle thin#s around$
!=
)
/

%
&
)
#
*

d #'

i
#
i

j
x
j
[x
j
' J
i
x
j
' J
i
]
- .f we set f - x
i
' and g - x
j
' in the identity on the !ottom of the previous pa#e, we #et$

V
x
j
' J
i
d #'=

V
x
i
' J
j
d # '
- Use this to evaluate the inte#ral in the potential e0uation$
!=
)
/

%
&
)
#
*

d #'

i
#
i

j
x
j
[ x
i
' J
j
x
j
' J
i
]
!=
)
/

%
&
)
#
*

d #' #[ y x ' J
y
y ' J
x
z z ' J
x
x' J
z
]
y[ z y' J
z
z ' J
y
x x' J
y
y ' J
x
]
z[ x z ' J
x
x' J
z
y y' J
z
z ' J
y
]
!=
)
/

%
&
)
#
*

d #' # y ' J
z
z ' J
y
# z ' J
x
x ' J
z
y x' J
y
y ' J
x
z
163
!=
)
/

%
&
)
#
*

d #' ##' "


!=
)
/

%
&
)
#
*
#

(#'")d #' Potential far away from localized current distribution


- (his loo"s very similar in form to the potential produced !y an electric dipole if we define a
ma#netic dipole moment m$
!=

%
&
m#
#
*
where
m=
)
/

(# '")d #'
Potential of a magnetic dipole
- (he ma#netic field is easily calculated$
$ #=!
$ #=

%
&

m#
#
*
$(#)=

%
&
*n(nm)m
#
*
Magnetic field of a magnetic dipole
%. $eha&ior of a Localized Current Density in the 'resence of an E#ternal Magnetic Field
- .f an external ma#netic field is applied to a localied current distri!ution, the distri!ution feels
a force and a tor0ue.
- 1ssume the external ma#netic field is slowly varyin# over the distri!ution. +e can ma"e a
(aylor series expansion of the ma#netic field and only "eep the lowest terms.
- 1fter some al#e!ra, we find$
F=(m$(%))
- 1 constant ma#netic field exerts no net force on a localied current distri!ution.
- 2on-uniform fields do exert a force on localied current distri!utions.
- .n view of F=q &$ , free char#ed particles tend to spiral around ma#netic field lines usin#
the ri#ht hand rule. (he spiralin# motion creates a current loop with the ma#netic moment
#enerally pointin# in the same direction as the ma#netic field. .f the spiralin# particle
approaches a re#ion where the ma#netic fields line pinch to#ether so that the field increases, the
#radient and thus the force !ecome non-ero and point away from hi#h-flux re#ion. (his is the
concept !ehind ma#netic confinement and the reason that the 3an 1llen radiation !elts have low
density over the earth's ma#netic poles.
- (he tor0ue ends up as$
N=m$(%)
- Suppose the external ma#netic field is uniform and we arran#e the axes so that the ma#netic
164
field points in the x direction, $%=B
%

i , and the ma#netic moment is in the x-y plane,


m=mcos
m

i sin
m

(
F=%
N=mcos
m

i sin
m

( B
%

i
N=B
%
msin
m

)
*. Magnetostatics in 'onderale Materials
- Up to this point, all the ma#netostatics have !een done in a vacuum.
- .f the currents are placed in a material, the material responds and adds addition ma#netic
effects.
- +e must than add these additional ma#netic effects to the e0uations a!ove.
- 1nalo#ous to the electric polariation of a material, the ma#netiation M is the ma#netic
moment density.
- (he ma#netiation may !e induced or may exist of itself such as in a permanent ma#net.
- Macroscopically spea"in#, a ma#netic material contains many small re#ions of non-ero
ma#netic moment called domains. 4(he ma#netic moments in a domain are ultimately caused
!y the or!its of electrons in molecules causin# tiny loop currents, !ut a 0uantum approach is
re0uired to descri!e this realm.5
- .n a non-permanent ma#net, the ma#netic moments of the domains point randomly and cancel
each other out on avera#e.
- +hen an external ma#netic field is applied or a current density is em!edded in the material,
creatin# an applied ma#netic field, the domains feel a tor0ue until they are ali#ned. (hey no
lon#er cancel out !ut create an additional ma#netic field "nown as the ma#netiation M.
- (here has traditionally !een a wide ran#e of names applied to the different ma#netic fields
which can lead to confusion. .t is safest to simply understand what each field is physically and
than refer to each !y its letter name.
x
y
z
B
m
N
165
- For clarity, let us define the following:

0
H: The applied magnetic field due to the free currents, plus the magnetic field due to
effective magnetic charges (where H is known historically as the magnetizing
field, auxiliary magnetic field, magnetic field intensity, or even just magnetic
field).

0
M: The induced or permanent magnetic field caused by the magnetization of the
material, or in other words due to the bound currents (where M is the magnetization)
B: The total magnetic field including the applied magnetic field and the material's
response to the applied field/innate magnetization (B is also known historically as the
magnetic flux density or magnetic induction.)
- Instead of treating all of the fields as the result of electric currents external to the problem, we
can explicitly include them. We can define the following:
J$ (he free current density, which #ives rise to the curlin# of the applied ma#netic field

0
H (a non-curling H field can exist even when there are no free currents).
"
M
$ (he magnetization current density, 4induced or permanent !ound currents5, which
#ives rise to the ma#netiation M.
"
total
$ (he total current density, which is a com!ination of the free currents and
ma#netiation, and #ives rise to the total ma#netic field $.
- 1s derived previously, the ma#netic vector potential due to a localied current distri!ution can
!e approximated !y the first non-ero term in the expansion, the dipole term$
!=

%
&
m#
#
*
4for a sin#le dipole5
- (o include the effects of materials, we simply inte#rate over all of the dipoles' potentials and
add this result to the potential due to the free currents found a!ove$
!=

%
&

"#'
##'
d #'

%
&

M## '
## '
*
d
*
#'
!=

%
&

[
"# '
##'

M ##'
##'
*
]
d #'
- 1fter an inte#ration !y parts and the use of a vector identity, this can !e cast in the form$
!=

%
&

"# '' M# '


##'
d #'
- (his can !e treated as the ori#inal expression if we define the followin#$
!=

%
&

"
total
( #' )
##'
d #' where
"
total
="+"
M
and
"
M
=M
166
- +e can now use all the e0uations from the ma#netostatics-in-vacuum analysis for the
ma#netostatics-in-material case if we reco#nie the currents in each e0uation as now the total
current density.
- 1mpere's Law in differential form therefore !ecomes$
$=
%
"
total
$=
%
[ "+M]
- 6ust as the ma#netiation current density "
M
#ives rise to the ma#netiation
"
M
=M
, the
free current density #ives rise to the applied ma#netic field accordin# to "=+. 7lu##in#
this
into 1mpere's law #ives us$
$=
%
[ +M]
$=
%
++
%
M
- +e have thus shown mathematically that the total field e0uals the effects of free currents and
material ma#netic effects.
- (he analysis thus far is completely #eneral and applies to all ma#netic materials.
- (he e0uations simplify 0uite a !it for certain special types of ma#netic materials.
,. Magnetostatics in Isotro-ic, Linear, .niform Diamagneic/'aramagnetic Materials
-Certain materials have a linear connection !etween the applied field and the induced field$
M=
r
) +
where
r
is the relative ma#netic permea!ility,

r
=/
%
- .n free space, -
%
,
r
- ), and so M - %. (his means
$=
%
+
in free space re#ions.
- .n parama#netic materials, 8
%
,
r
8 ), and so M - 9 :
r
; ): +. (he ma#netiation points in
the same direction and amplifies the applied field. 7arama#netic materials such as steel or iron
are always attracted to hi#h-flux re#ions such as the tip of a permanent ma#net.
- .n diama#netic materials, <
%
,
r
< ), and so M - - :
r
; ): +. (he ma#netiation points in
the opposite direction as the applied field and wea"ens the applied field. Diama#netic materials
are repelled away from re#ions of hi#h flux such as the tip of a permanent ma#net.
- (he hi#her the a!solute value of the ma#netic permea!ility, the more a material responds to an
applied field.
- 7lu# the linear relationship a!ove into all of the material ma#netostatic e0uations and they
simplify$
$=
%
+
%
M
= $= +
!=

%
&

"# '' M# '


##'
d #' = !=

&

"( #' )
##'
d #'
$=
%
[ "M] = $= "
167

/
!=
%
[ "M] =
/
!= "(#)
- (herefore, the total ma#netic field in the presence of linear ma#netic materials can !e found as
if the ma#netic material is not even there, as lon# as the permea!ility of free space is replaced
with the permea!ility of the material, !ut only in a re#ion of uniform material.
0. $oundary Conditions on the Magnetic Fields
- +e can use the uniform material approach even if there are multiple materials present.
- +e can divide the pro!lem into different re#ions that meet at !oundaries, and than we can
!rea" the pro!lem into many smaller pro!lems. +e solve the e0uations in each re#ion, than
match up the solutions at the !oundary to #et the final, uni0ue solution.
- +e wish then to derive the !oundary conditions on the ma#netic fields at a !oundary where
two different materials meet.
- Start with the statement that there are no ma#netic monopoles$
$=%
- .nte#rate this over a pill!ox volume V which is half in one material and half in the other. Use
the diver#ence theorem to convert the volume inte#ral to a surface inte#ral$

S
$nda=%
- Shrin" the volume V until its sides ma"e no contri!ution to the inte#ral and the ma#netic field
is constant over the surface$
($
/
$
)
)n=%
- Conceptually this means that the normal component of the total ma#netic field is continuous
across material !oundaries. 4(he normal points from re#ion ) into re#ion /.5
- 2ow start with the statement that the free currents #ive rise to the + field$
+="
- .nte#rate this over a s0uare surface S half in one material and half in the other, then use Sto"e's
theorem to convert the surface inte#ral of a curl to a line inte#ral alon# the !oundary of the S.

+d l =

S
"t da
- (he normal vector t is normal to the surface S and is therefor tan#ent to the material !oundary.
- Shrin" the rectan#ular loop until the sides #ive no contri!ution to the inte#ral and the + field
and current are constant over the top and !ottom. (he loop vector l, the !oundary surface
normal n and the !oundary surface tan#ent t are all perpendicular so that l =tn $
+
/
tn !
)
+
)
t n !
)
="t !
)
!
/
- (he current density contained in the two-dimensional !oundary surface times a unit len#th is
"nown as the surface current density
1=" !
/
so that we now have$
168
+
/
+
)
t n=1t
- Use of a vector identity #ives$
n +
/
+
)
t=1t
- (he vector t normal to the inte#ration surface is ar!itrary and can !e oriented in any direction
within the surface plane. (his e0uation must therefore hold for all possi!le directions$
n( +
/
+
)
)=1
- Conceptually this means that the free surface current #ives rise to a >ump in the tan#ential
component of the + field across the material's !oundary.
169
Lecture 12 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Review of Magnetostatics in Magnetic Materials
- Currents give rise to curling magnetic fields:
B=

total
or != or
M=
M
where

total
=+
M
- !here are no magnetic monopoles:
B= which leads to !=M
- Defining a vector potential B=" leads to:

"
"=

total
and "=

total
(#$ )
##$
d #$
- %n a region where the magnetic material is linear and uniform so that B=! we can apply all
of the B-field e&uations to the free current instead of the total current
total
if we replace the
permittivity of free space

with the permittivity of the material . 'or instance:

"
"= and "=

#

(#$ )
##$
d #$
- !he (oundary conditions for any type of materials are:
(B
"
B
)
)n=
and
n( !
"
!
)
)=$
2. %&ecial 'ases in Magnetostatics
- %f the materials are linear and there is no free current density in the region of space where we
want to *now the fields + , -. then the e&uation reduces to:

"
"=
- !hese can (e solved in the usual way with appropriate (oundary conditions.
- /n alternate approach is to define a scalar potential
B=1
M
so that the 0ero-divergence
e&uation (ecomes:

"

M
=
- %f there is no current density. , . and if the material is not linear. (ut instead the
magneti0ation M is *nown and fi1ed +such as in permanent magnets-. the e&uations reduces to:
170

"
"=

M
and "=

M
(# $)
##$
d #$ where

M
=M
- !he alternate scalar approach
!=4
M
can also (e used in this case. !he statement of no
magnetic monopoles really means that the divergence of the ! field and the M field are e&ual:
B=
(

!+

M)=
!=M

"

M
=M
- where we can now treat the divergence of the magneti0ation as an effective magnetic charge
density:
p
M
=M
.
(. %am&le )ro*lem
- Consider an unmagneti0ed solid sphere of radius a made of a uniform linear magnetic material
with permea(ility which is then placed in an originally uniform e1ternal magnetic field
B=B

+
.
- Since there is only linear material and no currents. we can solve for the magnetic potential:

"
1
M
= where
B=1
M
and the potential far away (ecomes
1
M
=B

r cos 0
- !his is simply the Laplace e&uation in spherical coordinates with a0imuthal symmetry. which
we already *now the general solution to (e:
1
M
( r , 0 , )=

l
( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l )
) P
l
(cos0)
- 2utside the sphere. apply the (oundary condition at large r:
B

r cos0=

l
( A
l
r
l
) P
l
(cos0)
A
)
=B
.
A

=. A
"
=. A
3
=...
1
M
out
(r , 0 , )=B

r cos0+

l =

B
l
out
r
l )
P
l
(cos0)
- %nside the sphere. B
l
, to *eep a valid solution at the origin:
1
M
in
( r , 0 , )=

l =

A
l
in
r
l
P
l
(cos0)
- !here are no currents and all materials are linear. so the (oundary conditions (ecome:
171
(B
out
B
in
) r= and
(
)

B
out

B
in
)

0=
at r , a
- /pplying the first (oundary condition gives:
(
M
out
+
M
in
)r=
1
M
out
r
=
1
M
in
r
B

cos+

l =

B
l
out
(l ))a
l "
P
l
(cos)=

l =)

A
l
in
l a
l )
P
l
(cos)
B

out
=
A
)
in
=B

"B
)
out
a
3
A
l
in
=B
l
out
(l ))
l
a
"l )

- /pplying the second (oundary condition gives:
)

1
M
out
0
=
)

1
M
in
0
)

asin 0+

l =)

B
l
out
a
l)
P $
l
(cos0)
|
=
)

l =)

A
l
in
a
l
P$
l
(cos 0)
|
A
)
in
=

+B
)
out
a
3
|
A
l
in
=

B
l
out
a
"l)
- /ll of the e&uations in (o1es can only (e satisfied if B
l
out
=A
l
in
= for l 4 ) and if
B
)
out
=

+"

a
3
B

A
)
in
=

3
+"

|
B

- 5e now have the final solution to the magnetic potential. and can therefore find the magnetic
fields:
172

M
out
(r , , )=

(
r
a
)
+

+"

(
a
r
)
"
|
B

a cos and

M
in
(r , , )=

3
+"

|
B

r cos
B=1
M
B=

r
1
M
r
+

0
)
r
1
M
0
|
B
in
=

3
+"

|
B

rcos0

0sin 0|
B
in
=

3
+"

|
B

+
and B
out
=B

++B

+"

(
a
r
)
3
3 rcos +|
and the other fields are linearly related:
!
in
=
)

B
in
6
!
in
=

3
+"

|
B

+
!
out
=
)

B
out
6 !
out
=
)

++B

(+"

)
(
a
r
)
3
3 r cos +|
M
in
=
(
)

)
)
B
in
6 M
in
=

3(

(+"

)
|
B

+
M
out
=
(
)

)
B
out
6 M
out
=
- 5e can chec* this (y loo*ing at several special cases.
- %f the permea(ility of the sphere is 7ust the permea(ility of free space. ,

. the sphere is
essentially removed and there should (e no fields e1cept the original uniform field. !he
e&uations a(ove confirm this.
173
- %f the permea(ility of the sphere is positively infinite +a perfectly paramagnetic material-. the
fields reduce to:
!
in
= . B
in
=

M
in
=3B

+
M
out
=
.
B
out
=

!
out
=B

++B

(
a
r
)
3
3 r cos0+|
+at r , a. we have B
out
=3B

cos r -
- %f the permea(ility is twice the permea(ility of free space +wea* paramagnetic material-. ,
"

then we have:

M
in
=
3
#
B

+
.

!
in
=
3
#
B

+
.
B
in
=
3
"
B

+
M
out
= . B
out
=

!
out
=B

++B

)
#
(
a
r
)
3
3 r cos0 +|

0
M
0
H
B

0
M
0
H
B
174
- %f the permea(ility is half the permea(ility of free space +diamagnetic material-. , +)8"-

then we have:

M
in
=
3
9
B

+
.

!
in
=
:
9
B

+
.
B
in
=
3
9
B

+
M
out
= B
out
=

!
out
=B

+B

)
9
(
a
r
)
3
3 r cos0+|


,. -ara.ay/s Law of In.uction
- 5e now leave magnetostatics and as* the &uestion: 5hat is the effect if the magnetic field is
changing in time;
- 'araday o(served that moving magnets. moving wires with currents. or changing the current
in wires created currents in near-(y wires.
- <hysically this means that magnetic fields that change in time create electric fields. which
e1ert a force and drive electric currents through ad7acent wires.
- !he change in time of the total magnetic flu1 F
B
through a surface S creates an electromotive
force E around the loop C (ounding S according to:
E=
dF
B
dt
- !he negative sign accounts for the fact that the changing magnetic flu1 induces currents that
create fields which oppose the original flu1.
- =1panding the flu1 and electromotive force in terms of their integral definitions:
|
C
Ed l=
d
dt

S
Bnda
- !he time derivative can (e e1panded into partial derivatives. !he additional terms can (e
com(ined with the electric field if we redefine the electric field as fi1ed in the la(oratory frame
and not fi1ed on the moving loop C.

0
M
0
H
B
175
|
C
Ed l=

S
B
t
nda
Faraday's Law in Integral Form
- /pply Sto*e$s !heorem to the left side:

S
(E)n da=

S
B
t
nda
- Shrin* the surface S until it is infinitesimally small so that the integrands must hold at all
points in space:
E+
B
t
=
Faraday's Law in Differential Form
- >ote that if the magnetic field B is constant in time. this reduces to E= which was the
case in electrostatics. <hysically this means that changing magnetic fields can create curling
electric fields.
0. Energy in the Magnetic -iel.
- /n electromotive force E does wor* W on a current I inside a loop according to:
dW
dt
=I E
- / changing magnetic flu1 F
B
creates an electromotive force and thus does wor*:
dW
dt
=I
dF
B
dt
- 'or an instantaneous time interval:
dW=I dF
B
- !his can (e cast in terms of the magnetic fields and after much alge(ra we find for linear
materials:
W=
)
"

!Bd
3
#
W=
)
"

B
"
d
3
#
- !his means that the total magnetic potential energy stored in a system is e&ual to the integral
of the magnetic field s&uared.
- 5e can then spea* of a magnetic potential energy density w:
w=
)
"
B
"
176
Lecture 13 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Static Equations and Faraday's Law
- The two fundamental equations of electrostatics are shown elow.
E=

total

!
Coulomb's Law in Differential Form
- Coulom"s law is the statement that electric char#es create diver#in# electric fields.
E=! Irrotational Electric Fields when Static
- This means that if everythin# is static$ then the electric fields have no curl.
- The two fundamental equations of ma#netostatics are shown elow%
=! No Magnetic Monopoles
- &ust as electric char#es #ive rise to diver#in# electric fields$ ma#netic char#es would #ive rise
to diver#in# ma#netic fields. But there are no ma#netic char#es 'no ma#netic monopoles(. So
there is no diver#ence to the ma#netic fields. There other equation of ma#netostatics is%
=
!
!
total
mpere's Law for Stead! Currents
- This equation states that steadily movin# electric char#es #ive rise to curlin# ma#netic fields.
- These four equations completely specify all electroma#netic fields when everythin# is static in
time. But what happens if somethin# chan#es in time)
- *araday was the first to show that these equations are not complete if we want to include time-
varyin# effects. +e showed that chan#in# ma#netic fields #ive rise to curlin# electric fields. The
irrotational E field equation of electrostatics ecame *araday"s law in electrodynamics. The four
equations now stood as%
E=

total

!
Coulomb's Law in Differential Form
E=

t
Farada!'s Law of Induction
=! No Magnetic Monopoles
=
!
!
total
mpere's Law for Stead! Currents
- But these four equations are now lo#ically and mathematically inconsistent if we are no lon#er
considerin# static situations.
177
- To show this$ ta,e the diver#ence of -mpere"s law%
=
!
!
total
- Mathematically spea,in#$ the diver#ence of the curl 'shown on the left( is always .ero$
leadin# to%
!=!
total
- This equation was fine for static situations$ ut for non-static situations$ the continuity
equation states%

total
t
=!
total
- /n non-static situations$ the time-derivative of the char#e density is non-.ero$ directly
contradictin# the equation aove it.
". The #a$well Equations
- /t too, the #enius of Ma0well to reali.e this prolem and fi#ure out how to fi0 it. *or this
accomplishment he is now honored with the distinction of havin# the final four equations
named after him.
- Ma0well reali.ed that to remove the contradiction$ he could add an e0tra term to -mpere"s law
that would automatically ma,e the continuity equation hold true. '1ote% the continuity equation
is more of a consistency chec, than a fundamental law aout the fields. /t should e contained
automatically in the electroma#netic field equations.(
- Let us start with the continuity equation and wor, ac,wards to see what the more complete
form of -mpere"s law should loo, li,e.

total
t
=!
total
- 2lu# in Coulom"s law into the left side of the continuity equation%

!
E
t
=!
total
- 3e can always add .ero to an equation. Let us add the statement
4

!
( )=!
so that we
end up with -mpere"s law%

!
E
t

4

!
=!
total
- /nte#rate the diver#ence out of every term and rearran#e%
=
!
!
total
+
!

!
E
t
mpere's Law with Ma"well's Correction
178
- This matches the ori#inal -mpere"s law$ e0cept there is an e0tra term now to ma,e the
continuity equation hold.
- 3ith -mpere"s law in complete form$ and the other three equations still holdin# true$ these
four equations now descrie all electrodynamics. They are ,nown as the Ma0well equations%
E=

total

!
$ =!
Ma"well E#uations for $otal Fields
E=

t
$
=
!
!
total
+
!

!
E
t
- Because *araday"s law says ma#netic fields can create electric fields and -mpere"s corrected
law says that electric fields can create ma#netic fields$ there is a feedac, process where they
can create each other cyclically$ independent of any char#es$ currents$ or materials. This is the
asis ehind electroma#netic radiation.
- The Ma0well equations can e cast in a more useful$ ut less intuitive form$ in terms of partial
fields instead of total fields$ and in terms of free currents5char#es instead of total
current5char#es%
%= $ =!
Ma"well E#uations for %artial Fields
E=

t
$
&=!
%
t
- 1ow it ecomes ovious why the partial fields were defined in different units than the total
fields% it ma,es the constants disappear in the final form of the Ma0well 6quations.
- /t should e noted that Ma0well"s equations #ive a full description of the electroma#netic
fields& The complete physical picture is then otained y usin# the equation that lin,s the fields
to forces 'the Lorent. equation( and the one that lin,s forces to accelerations '1ewton"s law(%
F=# E# ' or the more #eneral form F=

[$ E$!$ $] d
7
$
F=ma
- - quic, chec, of Ma0well"s equations reveals that they reduce down to the equations we have
een usin# in electrostatic and ma#netostatics if the fields do not depend on time.
3. oundary (onditions
- The diver#ence equations are no different than in electrostatics and ma#netostatics$ so we can
apply the 8aussian pillo0 method in the usual way and end up with the normal-component
oundary conditions%
( %
9
%
4
)n=
(
9

4
)n=!
179
- Let us now draw an -mperian loop straddlin# the surface and inte#rate the curl equations
over the loop in the usual way.

Ed l=

t
n da

&d l=

!
%
t

nda
- -s we shrin, the area of the loops to .ero$ the finite fields #o to .ero as well. The volume
current density ! ecomes a surface current density ).
n( E
9
E
9
)=!
n(&
9
&
9
)=)
- So it turns out that the oundary conditions for electrodynamics is the same as those we used
for electrostatics and ma#netostatics.
*. Electromagnetic +a'es
- Ma0well"s equations form a set of linear$ first-order coupled differential equations. Usin# them
could e easier if we decouple the equations.
- Ta,e the partial derivative of the Ma0well--mpere law with respect to time$ and put *araday"s
law into it%


t
=
!
!
tot
t
+
!

!

9
E
t
9
E=
!
!
tot
t

!

9
E
t
9
(E)
9
E=
!
!
tot
t

!

9
E
t
9
- /nsert in Coulom"s law to find%

9
E
!

9
E
t
9
=
4

!

tot
+
!
!
tot
t
- - similar process is followed to reveal%

t
9
=
!
!
tot
- The equations aove in o0es are Ma0well"s equations in wave-equation form. 'Coulom"s
law and the no-ma#netic char#e law must still e included with these in order to #et a unique
Maxwell Equations in Wave Form
180
solution.(
- These equations tell us that non-.ero fields can e0ist even in the total asence of char#es and
currents$ in the form of self-propa#atin# electroma#netic waves.
- These equations also tell us that currents and char#es$ whether ound or free$ can create and
destroy travelin# electroma#netic waves.
- Ma0well"s equations in wave-equation form are very useful ecause all of the field
components have een mathematically decoupled 'they are of course still coupled physically
throu#h ' and !(. This means that each scalar equation contains one and only one field
component.
- /n view of our e0perience with waves on a strin#$ we reco#ni.e the constants in front of the
second-order time derivatives as the inverse of the square of the velocity of the wave. This is
found e0perimentally to e the speed of li#ht in vacuum$ c$ implyin# that li#ht is an
electroma#netic wave.
4
c
9
=
!

!
- /t should e noted that when we left the realm of electrostatics and entered the realm of
electrodynamics$ we added the e0tra dimension of time.
- The two ,nown variales$ the char#e density ' and the current density !, are now functions of
four dimensions% '"$ !$ ($ t(.
- The two un,nown vector fields$ the electric field E and the ma#netic field are also now
functions of the four dimensions.
,. Standard Electrodynamic -ector and Scalar .otential
- 1ow that we have the most #eneral electrodynamic equations$ let us try to use potentials li,e
we used for the special cases of electrostatics and ma#netostatics.
- /f we approach it properly$ the electrodynamics techniques should always reduce to the
electrostatics5ma#netostatics techniques if the fields are non-varyin# in time.
- /n view of the non-diver#in# nature of the ma#netic field =! 'which still holds even in
electrodynamics( and the fact that the diver#ence of the curl of some vector is always .ero$ we
can still define the ma#netic field in terms of the curl of a vector potential%
=/ ecause (/)=! automatically for any /
- 2lu##in# this into *araday"s Law #ives%
E=

t
:
E=

t
/

E
/
t

=!
- /n view of the fact that the curl of a #radient of some scalar is always .ero$ we can set the
terms in parentheses equal to the ne#ative #radient of a scalar potential%
E
/
t
=
ecause ()=! automatically for any )
181
E=
/
t
- /f the potential definitions shown in the o0es aove are inserted into the remainin# Ma0well
equations 'Coulom"s law and the Ma0well--mpere law( we find%


t
/=

total

!

/
9
/
!


t

!

9
/
t
9
=
!
!
total
- Due to the nature of the curl and #radient operators$ there is some freedom to how we can
define the potentials and still end up with the same electroma#netic fields. 3e must introduce
another equation involvin# the potentials in order to #et a unique solution.
- 3e could pic, potentials that oey the Loren. condition%
/=
!

t
- Usin# these particular potentials allows us to decouple the two equations aove to find%

!

9

t
9
=

total

9
/
!

9
/
t
9
=
!
!
total
- This choice of potentials is ,nown as the Loren. #au#e.
- /n the Loren. #au#e$ the potentials are found to oey wave equations ;ust li,e the fields.
- 1ote that the Loren. #au#e is not a completely specified #au#e< there is still not a unique
solution. More accurately then$ the Loren. condition leads to a family of #au#es.
- The equations in o0es aove are completely #eneral. /f we are in vacuum 'there are no
dielectric or ma#netic materials involved($ then of course the total char#e density and total
current density ;ust reduce to the free char#e density and the free current density.
- /n uniform$ linear$ isotropic$ dispersionless$ lossless dielectric and ma#netic materials$ this of
course reduces to%

t
9
=

9
/

9
/
t
9
= !
$he Ma"well E#uations in $erms
of %otentials in the Loren( *auge
182
- -lternatively$ we can choose the #au#e where /=! . Then the equations reduce to%

9
=

total

9
/
!

9
/
t
9
=
!
!
total
+
!


t
- This is ,nown as the Coulom #au#e$ radiation #au#e$ or transverse #au#e.
- The first equation is the same as in electrostatics. This means that as the char#e density
chan#es in time$ the scalar electric potential 'not the field( responds instantaneously as if it were
static.
- This does not violate causality however ecause only the fields are physical$ and the electric
fields depends on more than the scalar potential. Beyond the shell of causality$ there is always a
piece of / that will cancel = and maintain E as non-instantaneously lin,ed to the char#e
density$ therey preservin# causality.
$he Ma"well E#uations in $erms
of %otentials in the Coulomb *auge
183
Lecture 14 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. The Complete Equations of Classical Electrodynamics
- If we write down all the electrodynamic laws with materials included, we have
Divergence of Electric Fields Divergence of Magnetic Fields
E=
total
/
!
B=!
= !=
M
"=
pol
#=
M
Curl of Electric Fields Curl of Magnetic Fields
E=
B
t
B=
!
$
total
+
!

!
E
t
=
!

!
!
t
!=$+

t
"=
!

!
#
t
#=$
M

"
t



- "nce the constitutive e#uations are $nown% & 'E, B( and ! & !'E, B( 'which descri)e the
material*s response(% the field relations )ecome complete. +he completed field relations trivially
lin$ the E, and " fields as well as a the B, !, and #. ,s a result, when the completed field
relations are applied, the twelve diver-ence and curl e#uations collapse down to four
independent equations, one from each white )o. a)ove. /hich e#uation that we choose from
each )o. a)ove to )e the independent one depends on personal taste and the specifics of the
pro)lem at hand. +he two most popular choices are
Field Relations
Kinematic Equations
E=
0
c
!

0
c
!
"
B=
!
!+
!
#
$=$(E, B)
!=!( E, B)
=(E , B)
%=

total
E+$
total
B
|
d
1
&
%=ma
184
Collapsed 2#uations of Classical 2lectrodynamics In +erms of +otal 3ields
Divergence of Electric Fields Divergence of Magnetic Fields
E=
total
/
!
B=!
Curl of Electric Fields Curl of Magnetic Fields
E=
B
t
B=
!
$
total
+
!

!
E
t
Collapsed 2#uations of Classical 2lectrodynamics In +erms of +otal and 4artial 3ields
Divergence of Electric Fields Divergence of Magnetic Fields
=p B=!
Curl of Electric Fields Curl of Magnetic Fields
E=
B
t
!=$+

t
Kinematic Equations
Kinematic Equations
%=

total
E+$
total
B
|
d
1
&
%=ma
%=

total
E+$
total
B
|
d
1
&
%=ma
185
'. (niqueness in #a&)ell*s Equations
- Is there redundancy in Ma.well*s e#uations5 Don*t Ma.well*s e#uations over-specify the
solution )ecause there are ei-ht scalar e#uations in the si. un$nowns, E
x
, E
y
, E
z
, B
x
, B
y
, B
z
5
- Let us answer this #uestion )y )rea$in- e#uations into components.
- 6elmholt7*s decomposition theorem states that any well-)ehaved vector field + can )e
decomposed into a transverse 'i.e. solenoidal, curlin-, non-diver-in-( part +
t
and a lon-itudinal
'i.e. diver-in-, irrotational, non-curlin-( part +
l
. +he words 8transverse9 and 8lon-itudinal9 do
not refer to the vector directionality of the components of +, rather they specify the differential
)ehavior of the components.
+=+
t
++
l
where
+
l
=!
and
+
t
=!
- If we e.pand the electric and ma-netic field in Ma.well*s e#uations into transverse and
lon-itudinal parts we end up with
'0(
E
l
=

!
':(
B
l
=!
'1( E
t
=
B
t
t

B
l
t
';( B
t
=
!
$+
0
c
:
E
t
t
+
0
c
:
E
l
t
- +a$in- the diver-ence of e#uations '1( and ';( and usin- the continuity e#uation, $=

t
,
we end up with modified forms for 3araday*s law and the ,mpere-Ma.well law
'1*(

t
(
B
l
)
=!
';*(

t (
E
l

!
)
=!
- 2#uation '1*(, which came from 3araday*s law, may seem to )e identical to e#uation ':(, which
is the no-ma-netic-char-e law. Similarly, e#uation ';*(, which came from the Ma.well-,mpere
law, may seem identical to e#uation '0(, which is Coulom)*s law.
- Coulom)*s law '0( and the no-ma-netic-char-e law ':( therefore seem redundant and useless.
- /hy are they included as part of Ma.well*s e#uations5
- Coulom)*s law and the no-ma-netic-char-e law are not redundant and the reason is the
presence of the partial derivative operator with respect to time present in e#uations '1*( and ';*(.
- Inte-ratin- away the time derivatives in '1*( and ';*( yields
'1**(
B
l
= f ( x , y , z)
';**(
E
l
=

!
+g(x , y , z)
- +hese e#uations show that 3araday*s law and the Ma.well-,mpere law do not uni#uely
specify the lon-itudinal aspects of the fields, they only specify the time-evolution of the
lon-itudinal aspects of the field, which turns out to )e static 'more correctly, statically lin$ed, or
instantaneously lin$ed(. /e still need Coulom)*s law and the no-ma-netic char-e law in order
to -et a uni#ue solution.
- 3or this reason, Ma.well*s e#uations are not redundant.
- 3araday*s law and the Ma.well-,mpere law therefore dictate the dynamical )ehavior of all
electric field and ma-netic field components, includin- the lon-itudinal components, and
186
Coulom)*s law and the no-ma-netic-char-e law serve only as initial conditions.
- "nce we use Coulom)*s law and the no-ma-netic-char-e law to properly esta)lish initial
conditions, then 3araday*s law and the Ma.well-,mpere law alone dictate the fields the rest of
the time.
- 3rom a mathematical perspective, Ma.well*s e#uations are not ei-ht scalar e#uations in si.
un$nowns, rather they are si. scalar e#uations '3araday*s law and the Ma.well-,mpere law( in
si. un$nowns plus two initial conditions.
- 3or this reason, Ma.well*s e#uations are neither redundant nor over-specified.
- +he presence of si. e#uations in si. un$nowns means that we can in principle find a uni#ue,
consistent, solution to Ma.well*s e#uations for a -iven set of properly-posed )oundary<initial
conditions.
- =ote that transformin- Ma.well*s e#uations to wave-e#uation form does not reduce the
num)er of dynamical e#uations, we still have si. e#uations in si. un$nowns and we still need
proper initial conditions. +he advanta-e of the wave-e#uation form is solely that the field
components are all completely decoupled.
,. -uasistatics
- +he 6elmholt7 decomposition theorem 'derived in the Supplemental =otes on the course
we)site( tells us that if a vector field % has a source to its diver-ence, =% , and a source to
its curl, (=% , then the field can )e e.panded into inte-rals over these sources accordin-
to
%(&)=
0
;

(&* )(&& *)
&&*
1
d &* +
0
;

((&* )(&&* )
&&*
1
d &*
where =% and (=%
- +his is a -eneral mathematical result descri)in- the properties of vector fields in -eneral. Let
us loo$ at some applications in electroma-netics.
,.1 Electrostatics
- In electrostatics, the electric field E is non-curlin-, ( & !, so that the second term in the
-eneral e.pansion a)ove -oes away, and the source of the diver-in- electric field is the electric
char-e density,
=
total
/
!
. 4lu--in- this in, the -eneral e.pansion reduces to Coulom)*s law
E(&)=
0
;
!


total
(& *)(&&* )
&& *
1
d &*
- "nce e.perimental o)servations tell us that in electrostatics '0( the electric field is non-
curlin- and ':( the electric char-e density is the source of the diver-ence, then mathematics -ets
us the rest of the way to Coulom)*s law.
,.' #agnetostatics
- In ma-netostatics, the ma-netic field B is non-diver-in-, =! , so that the first term in the
-eneral vector e.pansion -oes away. ,lso, the source of the curlin- ma-netic field is the electric
current density, (=
!
$
total
. 4lu--in- this in, the e.pansion )ecomes the Biot-Savart law
B(&)=

!
;

$
total
(& *)(&&* )
&&*
1
d & *
187
,., #agneto.quasi.statics
- In ma-neto-#uasi-statics 'M>S(, all char-es<currents are not static )ut travel or oscillate
slowly enou-h compared to the speed of li-ht that, to a -ood appro.imation, the ma-netic field
instantaneously trac$s the currents that create them. +his is true when ma-netic fields dominate
over electric fields. +his is e#uivalent to settin-
E
t
=! in Ma.well*s e#uations
E=

total

!
, B=!
Magnetoquasistatic Equations
E=
B
t
,
B=
!
$
total
- In this realm, the ma-netic field is solved e.actly as in ma-netostatics. "nce solved, the
ma-netic field )ecomes a source for the electric field. In M>S, the electric and ma-netic field
are not completely coupled in an entire feed)ac$ loop. ,s a result, M>S descri)es electrostatic
effects, ma-netostatic effects, and induction effects, )ut does not include radiation effects.
- In ma-neto-#uasi-statics, the source of the diver-in- electric field is the electric char-e
density,
=
total
/
!
, and the source of the curlin- electric field is the chan-in- ma-netic field,
(=
B
t
. +he ma-netic field is found )y solvin- the ma-netostatics pro)lem. 4lu--in- these
sources into the -eneral mathematical e.pansion of a vector field, we find
E(&)=
0
;
!


total
(& *)(&&* )
&& *
1
d &*
0
;

t

B(&* )(&&* )
&&*
1
d &*
M!" "olution
where B(&)=

!
;

$
total
(& *)(&&* )
&&*
1
d & *
,.4 Electro.quasi.statics
In electro-#uasi-statics '2>S(, a-ain all char-es<currents travel or oscillate slowly, )ut here
electric fields dominate over ma-netic. +he electric field instantaneously trac$s the char-es that
create them. +his is e#uivalent to settin-
B
t
=! in Ma.well*s e#uations
E=

total

!
, B=!
Electroquasistatic Equations
E=! ,
B=
!
$
total
+
!

!
E
t
- In this realm, the electric field is solved e.actly as in electrostatics and )ecomes a source for
the ma-netic field. ,-ain, the electric and ma-netic field are not completely coupled. ,s a
result, 2>S descri)es electrostatic effects, ma-netostatic effects, and displacement current
effects, )ut does not include radiation effects.
- In electro-#uasi-statics, the ma-netic field is not diver-in-, =! , and the source of the
curlin- ma-netic field is the total current as well as the chan-in- electric field, (=
!
$+
0
c
:
E
t
.
+he electric field is found )y solvin- the electrostatics pro)lem. 4lu--in- these sources into the
188
-eneral mathematical e.pansion of a vector field, we find
B(&)=

!
;

$
total
(& *)(&&* )
&&*
1
d & *+
0
;c
:

t

E(&* )(&& *)
&&*
1
d &*
E!" "olution
where
E(&)=
0
;
!


total
(& *)(&&* )
&& *
1
d &*
,./ Electrodynamics
- ,t hi-h fre#uencies and hi-h speeds, no appro.imations can )e made and Ma.well*s e#uations
must )e used in their full form. +his means that the electric and ma-netic field are completely
coupled in a feed)ac$ loop leadin- to radiation. Because of this complete couplin-, the sortin-
out of transverse and lon-itudinal sources<field components is too complicated to )e presented
here.
- +he different devices in the home where 2>S, M>S, and 2M effects dominate are shown
)elow.
189
4. 0reen %unctions for the 1a2e Equation
- In the Loren7 -au-e, the potentials o)ey wave e#uations. +he wave e#uations can )e thou-ht
of as the ;-dimensional e#uivalent of the 4oisson e#uation, where the fourth dimension is time.
- Because of this e#uivalence, we can use the ?reen function method in the e.act same way.
- Consider a re-ion with no )oundaries and no materials, only a free char-e distri)ution.

!

:

t
:
=

!
+he correspondin- ?reen function # must o)ey

!
c
!

:
t
:
|
#=;6(&&* )6(t t * )
- +he deltas only e.ist in one point in spacetime, so that everywhere else the solution to the
source-less wave e#uation is @ust free travelin- waves
#e
!i 3&i ut
- 6ere 3 is the wave num)er and $ the an-ular fre#uency of the travelin- wave solution where
%=u/ c in free space.
- +o accommodate the effects of the deltas, we shift this solution to the point char-e. /e also
$now that a point char-e must have a 0<& dependence for potential-li$e entities, so that we
have
#=
0
&& *
e
!i 3( &&*)i u( tt *)
- +his is the same as the potential due to a spherical travelin- wave propa-atin- inward or
outward from the point source.
- +he -eneral solution is the com)ination of all possi)le solutions. Because the wave num)er
and fre#uency are not independent, we need only sum over one.
#=
0
:

0
&&*
e
!i 3( &&* )i u(t t *)
d u
#=
0
&& *
0
:

e
i u(t *t !&&*/c)
d u
- +his is the -eneral solution to the wave e#uation for the ?reen*s function with a point source.
- +he inte-ral of a comple. e.ponential is @ust a Dirac delta so that
#=
0
&& *
6 (t *t!&&*/ c)
- +he solution to the wave e#uation for the potential usin- the ?reen function method is the
inte-ral of the sources wei-hted )y the ?reen function 'when no )oundaries are present(
190
4=
0
;c
!

#( & , &* ,t , t ' ) p(& * , t * ) d &* d t *


- 4lu--in- in the ?reen*s function and evaluatin- the delta
4(& , t )=
0
;c
!

p(& * , t !&&*/ c)
&& *
d &*
- ,ma7in-ly, this is essentially the same e#uation we use in electrostatics, Coulom)*s law, with
one very important modification. +he potential at time t is not that due to the char-e distri)ution
at time t, )ut that due to the char-e distri)ution at an earlier time. '+he A or B si-n accounts for
the two possi)ilities of an initial wave propa-atin- in and )ein- a)sor)ed )y the char-es or an
out-oin- wave )ein- created )y the char-es.
- +he shift in time accounts for the finite time it ta$es for the fields created at the char-e to
reach out to the o)servation point. It is forced upon us )y causality.
- +his can )e written more intuitively as
4(& , t )=
0
;c
!

p( &* , t )|
ret
&&*
d &*
where the 8ret9 su)script si-nifies we must use the retarded time, or the char-e density at the
earlier time.
- +his is why when we loo$ at stars hundreds of li-ht years away, we are not seein- them as
they are now )ut as they were hundreds of years a-o when they created their electric and
ma-netic fields that are @ust now reachin- us.
/. Introduction to #aterial 4esponse in Electrodynamics
- ,lthou-h the Ma.well e#uations in total-field form are the most strai-htforward, they are the
least useful. +he total-field forms re#uire us to $now the total char-e density, (
total
& ( A (
)ound
,
and the total current density, $
total
& $ A $
)ound
. Usually we do not $now the )ound char-es and
currents, )ut must instead specify the material response a different way.
- +he partial-fields form of the Ma.well e#uations is the most useful
=p , B=!
Maxwell Equations for )artial Fields
E=
B
t
,
!=$+

t
- In this form, we do not need to $now the )ound char-es and )ound currents.
- But we do need to have some functional relationship )etween and E as well as )etween !
and B in order to solve the Ma.well e#uations. +he functional relationships then contain the
material effects instead of the )ound char-es and currents. Below are several cases.
Linear, (niform, Isotropic, ispersionless, Lossless #aterials5
=c E and !=
0

B
191
- 6ere * and + are independent of field stren-th 'linear(, independent of location 'uniform(,
independent of direction 'isotropic(, independent of fre#uency 'dispersionless(, and are real
num)ers 'lossless(. Most materials can )e appro.imated to )ehave li$e this. In such materials,
the Ma.well e#uations reduce to
E=
0
c
p , B=!

E=
B
t
,
B= $+

t
Linear, (niform, Isotropic, ispersi2e, Lossy #aterials
=c(u)E and
!=
0
(u)
B
- 6ere *'$( and +'$( are the same as )efore, e.cept they now do depend on the fre#uency $ of
the fields 'dispersive( and are comple. num)ered 'lossy(.
- , electroma-netic pulse that propa-ates can )e thou-ht of as a com)ination 'a 3ourier
inte-ral( of many harmonic waves, each with a distinct fre#uency $, 2ach harmonic wave
component has a different fre#uency and thus e.periences a different material response due to
the fre#uency-dependent permittivity and permea)ility. Some components will travel faster
throu-h the material. +he net effect is that the pulse shape chan-es and the pulses disperses.
- /hen a material has an ima-inary part to its permittivity and permea)ility, then the material
a)sor)s ener-y from the electroma-netic wave.
Linear, Non.(niform, Non.Isotropic, ispersi2e, Lossy #aterials.
=c(u, &) E and
!=
0
(u, &)
B
- 6ere the permittivity and permea)ility are now tensors so that each component of the fields
are acted upon differently. +hey are also functions of space )ecause the material is non-uniform.
Non.linear #aterials
"=f (E , B) and #=g (E , B)
- 3or non-linear materials, the material response can )e #uite comple. and the physics must )e
handled on a case-)y-case )asis.
- 3or low fre#uencies, as an appro.imation, the electric and ma-netic effects decouple
"=f (E) and #=g (E)
-+he functional relationship can )e e.panded in a power series 'shown in one dimension for
simplicity(
192
0
c
!
)=_
( 0)
E+_
(:)
E
:
+_
( 1)
E
1
+...
- "ften, many nonlinear effects can )e e.plained #uite accurately )y only $eepin- the first few
terms.
6. Conser2ation of Energy and the "oynting 7ector
- In electrostatics, we found that the total wor$ - re#uired to assem)le a static char-e
distri)ution is -iven )y 'this is e#uivalent to the potential ener-y stored in the electric fields(
-
electrostatics
=
0
:

Ed
1
&
- +he inte-rand can then )e thou-ht of as a potential ener-y density w
w
electrostatics
=
0
:
E
- Similarly, in ma-netostatics we found that the potential ener-y - stored in the ma-netic fields
produced, is -iven )y
-
ma-netostatics
=
0
:

!Bd
1
&
and the ener-y density is
w
ma-netostatics
=
0
:
!B
- +he total ener-y stored if )oth char-es and currents are present is then
w=w
electrostatics
+w
ma-netostatics
w=
0
:
(E+B!)
- +his e#uation is for static electroma-netic fields, )ut we should suspect that it applies to
chan-in- electroma-netic fields as well. Let us show this )y considerin- the conservation of
ener-y.
- +he conservation of ener-y means that the rate at which electroma-netic ener-y - is lost out
of the fields in a volume . should e#ual the rate at which $inetic ener-y -
%
is -ained )y the
char-ed o)@ects interactin- with the field, plus the ener-y -
c
leavin- . throu-h its closed
surface C

-
t
=
-
%
t
+
-
c
t
- 2.pand each ener-y varia)le in terms of an inte-ral over the ener-y density
193

.
w
t
d
1
&=

.
w
%
t
d
1
&+
|
C
n8da where 8 is the ener-y flow vector
- Let us now try to -et a more e.plicit form for the ener-y lost to $inetic ener-y of the
char-es w
%
.
- If a force is applied to an o)@ect, it accelerates. +he infinitesimal wor$ done d-
K
to accelerate
the o)@ect is converted to the e.tra $inetic ener-y that the o)@ect -ains.
d -
K
=%d &
- Divide )oth sides )y an infinitesimal period of time dt.
d -
K
dt
=%
d &
dt
d -
K
dt
=%2
- If the o)@ect has a total char-e q and the force is due to an electric field %=q E 'ma-netic
fields do no wor$( then
d -
K
dt
=(q2)E
- /e can instead spea$ of a char-e current density $ instead of the velocity of a sin-le o)@ect.
+hen the total wor$ is the spatial inte-ral over the current density.
d -
K
dt
=

.
$Ed
1
&
- +he $inetic ener-y density w
%
then )ecomes
d w
K
dt
=$E
-4lu--in- this in the e#uation a)ove leads to

.
w
t
d
1
&=

.
$Ed
1
&+
|
C
n8da
Conservation of Energy
- /e have )uilt this e#uation up in a non-vi-orous way usin- conceptual ar-uments. ,s such,
we can ma$e no statement a)out the electroma-netic ener-y density w held in the fields or the
ener-y flow vector 8.
- 3ortunately, the Ma.well e#uations already implicitly contain the conservation of ener-y
e#uation.
- If we can -et Ma.well e#uations into the form a)ove, then we can ma$e statements a)out w
and ".
194
- Let us start with the ,mpere<Ma.well e#uation

!=$+

t
- Dot each side )y the electric field and inte-rate over the volume .

.
( !)Ed
1
&=

.
$Ed
1
&+

. (

t
)
Ed
1
&

- Use the vector identity (!)E=!(E)(E!)

.
!(E) d
1
&

. (

t
)
Ed
1
&=

.
$Ed
1
&+

.
(E!) d
1
&
- Use 3araday*s Law
E=
B
t

.
!
(
B
t
)
d
1
&

. (

t
)
Ed
1
&=

.
$Ed
1
&+

.
( E!) d
1
&

!
(
B
t
)
+
(

t
)
E
|
d
1
&=

.
$Ed
1
&+

.
(E!) d
1
&
- If the material is linear with ne-li-i)le dispersion and losses, then
(
!
t
)
B=!
(
B
t
)
- +his means that the product rule

t
( !B)=!
(
B
t
)
+
(
!
t
)
B
reduces to
!
(
B
t
)
=
0
:

t
(!B)
and the same ar-ument is used to show
E
(

t
)
=
0
:

t
( E)
- /e can use these relations to move the derivative out

.

t

0
:
( !B+E)
|
d
1
&=

.
$Ed
1
&+

.
(E!) d
1
&
- Use of the diver-ence theorem on the last term leads to

.

t

0
:
( !B+E)
|
d
1
&=

.
$Ed
1
&+
|
C
n(E!) d a
- /e now compare this to the conceptual form of the conservation of ener-y 'the )o.ed
e#uation a)ove(. +his e#uation is the conservation of ener-y e#uation if we reco-ni7e the
195
ener-y density w and ener-y density flow vector 8 to )e
w=
0
:
( !B+E)
, 8=E!
- +he ener-y density for nonstatic fields ends up the same as for the static fields.
- +he ener-y density flow vector 8 is called the 4oyntin- vector.
- /ith use of the diver-ence theorem, the 4oyntin- theorem 'conservation of ener-y( can )e put
in differential form

w
t
=$E+8
Conservation of Energy for /inear, /ossless Materials
9. Conser2ation La)s
- In a similar way, other conservation laws can )e derived from Ma.well*s e#uations.
- +he followin- e#uations are implicitly contained in Ma.well*s e#uations, the Loren7 force
law, and =ewton*s law
- Conservation of Char-e

t
=$
- Conservation of Linear Momentum
d
dt
(p
mech
+p
field
)=0
where p
mech
is the mechanical momentum density of the currents,
the momentum density of the fields is
p
field
=
0
c
:
E!
,
the momentum density flow tensor 'the Ma.well stress tensor( is
0
i 1
=
!
E
i
E
1
+
!
c
:
B
i
B
1

0
:

!
o
i 1
( E
:
+c
:
B
:
)
,
and the diver-ence operator is a second-ran$ tensor diver-ence.
- Conservation of ,n-ular Momentum

t
(rp
mech
+rp
field
)=(r0 )
196
Lecture 1 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory II
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Overview of Electrodynamic Theories
LOW SEE! "I#" SEE! $close to s%eed of light&
'
I
#

S
I
(
E
S
)lassical Electrodynamics
(includes electrostatics, magnetostatics
Maxwell Equations
*elativistic Electrodynamics
Covariant Maxwell Equations
S
+
,
L
L

S
I
(
E
S

$
a
t
o
m
i
c
&
)lassical -uantum Electrodynamics
Schrdinger Equation
*elativistic -uantum Electrodynamics
Dirac Equation
.. Overview of the )ourse
! Last semester we covered electrostatics, magnetostatics, pseudo!magnetostatics, and an
introduction to electrodynamics.
! "his semester we will study electrodynamics in depth, as well as special relativity and
relativistic electrodynamics, which is #est handled in covariant form.
! $n electrodynamics, changing magnetic fields can give rise to electric fields which in turn can
give rise to new magnetic fields. "his feed#ac% process continues indefinitely and a self!
sustaining electromagnetic wave propagates and #ecomes independent of any electric charges
or currents.
! Seen from a physical perspective, every electrodynamic system necessarily involves
electromagnetic waves, whether created, destroyed or transmitted.
! &e will therefore focus this semester on'
! "he interaction of waves with materials (reflection, refraction, dispersion, a#sorption
! Bounded electromagnetic waves (waveguides, cavities
! "he creation of electromagnetic waves (radiation, antennas, etc.
! "he interaction of waves with o#(ects (scattering
! Special relativity
! $n this course, a self!sustaining electrodynamic field will #e referred to as a )wave* or as
)light*. +lthough in many conte,ts the word )light* narrowly refers to visi#le light, it is used in
this course to mean any electromagnetic wave of any fre-uency (radio waves, microwaves, .!
rays, etc. and even those without well!defined fre-uencies.
! $t should #e noted that waves that are on the high!fre-uency end of the spectrum (gamma rays,
.!rays, ultraviolet, and often even visi#le have such a small wavelength that they are often
197
#etter descri#ed using -uantum electrodynamics when interacting with materials.
/. *eview of the +a0well E1uations
! "he #ehavior of classical electrodynamic fields are completely descri#ed #y Ma,well/s
e-uations'
!=p , '=0

E=
'
t
,
"=2+
!
t
! "he free electric charge density gives rise to a diverging electric field !.
! "he change of the total magnetic field ' in time gives rise to a curling total electric field E.
! "he total magnetic field ' is always non!diverging (there are no magnetic charges.
! "he free electric current density 2 as well as the change of the electric field ! in time give rise
to a curling magnetic field ".
! "hese e-uations cannot #e used until the material/s response to the electromagnetic fields is
%nown, summari1ed #y finding a relationship #etween ! and E as well as #etween ' and ".
! $n free space (vacuum, ! 2
0
E and " 2 (34
0
'.
! $n linear materials, ! 2 E and " 2 (34'.
! Most materials #ehave linearly, at least to a good appro,imation.
! "he electric permittivity and magnetic permea#ility may in general depend on spatial
coordinates and on time.
! "he non!uniform temporal response of a material to electromagnetic waves is descri#ed #y the
permittivity/s and permea#ility/s dependence on angular fre-uency . "his measures the
fre-uency at which a wave oscillates in time as it travels through the material.
! "he flow of energy is descri#ed #y the energy flow vector, %nown as the 5oynting vector S'
S=E"
! Due to the way it was descri#ed, the 5oynting 6ector only has meaning in linear, uniform,
lossless, non!dispersive, materials.
! "he total energy density u is given #y'
u=
3
7
(E!+'")
! "hese o#ey the law of conservation of energy'
u
t
=S2E
3. lane Waves in +aterials that are Linear, 4niform, Isotro%ic, 5ut 6re1uency7!e%endent
! "o study the interaction of waves with materials, it ma%es sense to start with the simplest
waves ! single!fre-uency plane waves ! and the simplest materials ! linear, uniform, isotropic,
fre-uency!dependent materials with neither charges nor currents present.
! Single!fre-uency planes waves are very useful #ecause we can always #uild up more comple,
waves as a 8ourier superposition of the plane waves.
198
! &e will see that single!fre-uency plane waves are the particular solutions to Ma,well/s
e-uations in linear, uniform, isotropic, source!free materials, and the general solution is (ust the
superposition of all possi#le fre-uencies, polari1ations, and directions, weighted #y coefficients.
! &e start with Ma,well/s e-uations in the a#sence of sources ( 2 0, 2 2 0'
!=0 , '=0

E=
'
t
,
"=
!
t
! Linear, uniform, isotropic, fre-uency!dependent material o#eys' ! 2 (E and
" 2 (34( '.
! 5lugging this into the source!free Ma,well e-uations gives us'
E=0 , '=0

E=
'
t
,
'=(u) c(u)
E
t
(3
! "a%e the curl of the #ottom e-uations and use the identity ( ,)=( ,)
7
, '

( E)
7
E+

t
'=0
and
( ')
7
'(u) c(u)

t
E=0
! 9ow use the non!diverging nature of E and ' as stated in the top e-uations to drop out the
first terms'

7
E

t
'=0
and

7
'+(u)c(u)

t
E=0
! 9ow su#stitute in the curl of the fields as given in the original lower e-uations (3, which
leads to'

7
E()()

7
E
t
7
=0 and
7
'()()

7
'
t
7
=0
! &e have decoupled the fields and ended up with wave e-uations.
! &ave e-uations typically have sines and cosines as solutions.
! Let us try solutions that are of the form'
E=E
0
e
i 80
e
i ut
and '='
0
e
i 80
e
i ut
! $t should #e noted that we use the comple, representation of sines and cosines #ecause this
form is more managea#le mathematically. (:emem#ering that ;uler/s e-uation relates the two
forms according to e
ix
=cos x+i sin x .
! <owever, imaginary num#ers do not e,ist in the real world, so e!ore we can use the !ields
elsewhere, we must ta%e the real part of the fields.
! "he property 8, %nown as the wave vector, descri#es the compactness of the spatially varying
199
sine function as well as the direction in which the field varies sinusoidally. "he magnitude of
the wave vector 8 is referred to as the wave num#er ".
! +n alternate way of descri#ing the scale of the spatial variation is the wavelength #.
! Both descriptions are e-uivalent and are related through " 2 7=4#.
! 5lugging in our trial solutions gives'
"
7
E
0
e
i 80
+(u)c(u)u
7
E
0
e
i 80
=0 and "
7
'
0
e
i 80
+(u) c(u)u
7
'
0
e
i 80
=0
"
7
+(u) c(u)u
7
=0
"=!( ) ()
! &e have found that the harmonic wave is indeed the solution to the wave e-uations, #ut only
if the spatial nature of the wave (the wave num#er " is related to the temporal nature of the
wave (the fre-uency as shown a#ove.
! ;-uations that connect the spatial and temporal aspects of waves inside materials are %nown
as )dispersion relations* #ecause they descri#e how different fre-uencies get dispersed.
! "he positive " value is the one that typically gives results consistent with e,periments. ("he
negative value corresponds to e,otic waves that propagate in meta!materials.
! 8rom this point on, we assume we are dealing with standard materials and use the positive ".
! $f the material/s permittivity and permea#ility can #e appro,imated to #e fre-uency!
independent, then the dispersion relation #ecomes'
"=
! "he wave num#er " and fre-uency are now related #y a constant and no dispersion occurs.
! 8urthermore, in a vacuum, the relation #ecomes'
"=

! 8rom regular wave mechanics (waves on a string, waves in water, etc. we %now that the wave
num#er and angular fre-uency are related through the wave/s velocity v according to'
"=
(
3
v
)
u
! &e can thus solve for the velocity of electromagnetic waves to find'
v=
3
.

0
c
0
in vacuum
! + numerical calculation of the velocity yields v 2 >?30
@
m4s.
- When Maxwell first did this derivation, he was astonished to see that the speed of his newly
discovered electromagnetic waves matched the speed of light.
! "his was a historical turning point in physics. "his discovery united electrodynamics and
optics.
! "hus the speed of light in vacuum c and the electric permittivity
0
and magnetic permea#ility
200

0
of free space are all universal constants, can #e used interchangea#ly, and are related
according to'
c=
3

0
in vacuum
! Similarly, inside linear materials, the velocity of the wave is'
v=
3

in linear materials
! "he velocity of light in any material is always slower then the velocity of light in free space.
! 5hysically, this means that the #ound electrons interact with the wave and slow it down.
! Because the speed of light c in free space is the ultimate speed limit, it ma%es sense to e,press
the speed of light v in material in terms of c.
v=
c
c
3
.c
v=
c
.
c

0
c
0
v=
c
n
where
n=

0
or n=

r
! "he varia#le n is %now as the inde, of refraction. $f we solve for n to find n 2 c4v we see that it
is a dimensionless varia#le greater than one that measures the e,tent to which a material slows
down waves.
! Auite often we deal with materials that are dielectric only #ut are not significantly magnetic,
so that
r
2 3. "he inde, of refraction #ecomes'
n=

r in non!magnetic materials
! Bften the dielectric constant (relative permittivity
r
is a comple,!valued num#er and this
relation is more involved than it may seem at first.
! &hen a wave enters a new medium and changes speed, its path necessarily #ends or
)refracts*.
! "he )inde, of refraction* gets its name #ecause it can #e measured #y o#serving how much
the wave/s path refracts when entering the material.
! $n summary, the principle solution of the wave e-uations is a single!fre-uency plane wave'
E=E
0
e
i ( 80ut)
and '='
0
e
i( 80ut)
where "=!.(u)c(u)u
! "hese waves are called plane waves #ecause at a certain time t, the fields have a constant
value along a plane perpendicular to 8.
201
! "he general solution to the wave e-uation is then an infinite sum over all plane wave
solutions, weighted #y coefficients. $n this way it #ecomes o#vious that an ar#itrary wave shape
can #e constructed using a sum of plane waves if the coefficients are chosen properly.
! &hen we transformed the Ma,well e-uations into the wave e-uation, we lost information
a#out the directional part of the wave vector 8. &e can now recover this information #y
plugging the plane wave solutions #ac% into the Ma,well e-uations. "his gives us'
8E
0
=0
,
8'
0
=0

8E
0
=u'
0
,
8'
0
=u(u)c(u)E
0
! 8rom these e-uations it #ecomes o#vious that the electric field vector E, magnetic field vector
', and the propagation vector 8 are all perpendicular to each other.
! $t must #e remem#ered that this derivation is only valid inside uniform materials. $n a region
of non!uniformity, such as at the #oundary #etween materials, the vectors #ehave very
differently.
! Using the relationship #etween the wave num#er and fre-uency that we found previously, the
#ottom e-uations a#ove #oth reduce to the same result'
E
0
=
3
() ()
$
0 so that
E
0
=
c
n
$
0
for non!dispersive materials
! "he electric field and magnetic field of a plane wave are linearly related #y a constant. "hus
the electric and magnetic field reach their pea%, 1ero, minimum, etc. at the same point in time
and space. +ll of these properties are displayed in the s%etch #elow.
k
E
B
#

Light Propagation in
Standard Materials (Right-
Handed Materials)
202
9. Energy of lane Waves
! +s discussed earlier, the 5oynting vector descri#es the nature of how electromagnetic energy
flows and is defined as'
S=E"
! Let us apply this to plane waves to see how energy flows in plane waves in linear uniform
materials.
! &e must remem#er to use only the real %arts o! the !ields, as they are what correspond to
reality.
! &e su#stitute in the solutions for the fields'
S=(E
0
cos(80ut ))(
3

. c

8E
0
cos(80ut ))
S=
3

.c E
0
7
cos
7
(80ut )

E
0
(

E
0
)
S=
.
c

E
0
7
cos
7
(80ut )

8
! "his is the instantaneous energy density flow. &e can see that energy always flows in the
direction of propagation for right!handed materials, in the positive 8 direction. &e also see that
the rate at which it flows oscillates.
! Bften of more use is not the instantaneous energy flow #ut the time!averaged energy flow,
%nown as the )irradiance* or the )intensity* & and is e-uivalent to power per area. "his arose
#ecause most early optical detectors which measured electromagnetic energy flow could not
respond fast enough to give the instantaneous S, #ut instead outputted the time!averaged value.
! &e ta%e a time average #y integrating over some time interval and dividing #y time'
CS D=

t ' /7
t +' /7
S(t ( )dt (

t' /7
t+' /7
dt (
CS D=
.
c

E
0
7 3
'

8

t ' / 7
t +' / 7
cos
7
(80ut ) dt (
CS D=
.
c

E
0
7 3
'

8
3
u

80utu' /7
80ut+u' /7
cos
7
(u) du
CS D=
3
7 .
c

E
0
7

3+
3
7
cos(7807ut )
(
sin (u' )
u'
)
|
! "he time interval ' must #e sufficiently large for the averaging to #e useful. +s ' gets large,
the function (sin('4' approaches 1ero. "his leaves'
203
CS D=
3
7

E
0
7

8 &ntensity o! a )ave in *inear +ni!orm Materials
! "hus on average, energy flows constantly in the direction of propagation and is proportional to
the s-uare of the electric field ma,imum E
0
.
:. olari;ation
! +s we have shown, the magnetic field in plane waves follows the electric field in a very
predicta#le way. 8or this reason, we typically tal% a#out the electric field and ignore the
magnetic field. $t is always there and we can find the magnetic field whenever we want to.
! &e now %now that plane waves have an electric field of the form'
E=E
0
e
i ( 80ut)
! &e have said nothing of the polari1ation vector E
0
other than that we %now it is independent
of time and space, and lies in a plane perpendicular to the propagation direction 8.
! <ere the polari1ation (polar orientation E
0
of a wave should not #e confused with the
polari1ation of the dielectric material that the wave induces.
! Let us e,pand the wave/s polari1ation vector E
0
in the most general form we can.
! Because we %now this vector must lie in the plane perpendicular to 8, it can only have two
components'
E=(c
3
E
3
+c
7
E
7
) e
i ( 80ut )
! <ere <
3
and <
7
are linear unit coordinate vectors that define the plane perpendicular to 8, and
E
3
and E
7
are the vector/s components in this coordinate system.
! $n general, the components may also #e comple, num#ers. Let us e,pand them in terms of
magnitude and phase.
E=(c
3
E
3
e
i 0
3
+c
7
E
7
e
i 0
7
) e
i( 80ut)
! <ere ,
3
and ,
7
are the phases of the comple, num#ers E
3
and E
7
respectively. &e can
distri#ute to get a feel for what these mean.
E=
3
E
3
e
i (80t+
3
)
+
7
E
7
e
i(80t +
7
)
-eneral .orm !or the /olari0ation o! a /lane )ave
! "he simplest polari1ation state is when there is only one component present. "his happens
when the wave is linearly polari1ed in the direction of one of the unit vectors. 8or e,ample if E
7
2 0 then'
E=c
3
E
3
e
i (80ut +0
3
)
! "his is often referred to as hori0ontally polari1ed light.
! $f only the other component is present, then we have vertically polari1ed light.
! "he general form for the polari1ation shown in the #o, a#ove can thus #e thought of as the
superposition of two linearly polari1ed waves that are perpendicular and aligned along the a,es.
! $f #oth components are not 1ero, #ut have the same phase, ,
3
2 ,
7
, then the wave reduces to'
204
E=(c
3
E
3
+c
7
E
7
)e
i (80ut +0
3
)
! "his is a linearly polari1ed wave where the direction of polari1ation lies at an angle
tan
!3
(EE
7
E4EE
3
E from the <
3
a,is.
! $f the components have phases that are not e-ual, ,
3
F ,
7
, then the wave is elliptically
polari1ed. "he point where the electric field is always at its pea% traces out an elliptical spiral in
space.
! + special case of elliptical polari1ation is if ,
7
2 ,
3
G =47 and EE
3
E 2 EE
7
E. "his is %nown as
circular polari1ation.
E=E
3
(c
3
!i c
7
)e
i ( 80ut +0
3
)
! &ith circularly polari1ed light, the pea% traces out a circle in space. "he upper sign gives a
countercloc%wise rotating wave (left circular when viewed facing into the oncoming wave, and
the lower sign gives a cloc%wise rotating wave (right circular.
! "his can #est #e understood #y aligning the propagation direction with the direction 0, <
3
with
the direction x and <
7
with the direction y, and ta%ing the real part of the components to get the
actual fields'
E
x
=

E
3

cos( " 0ut +0


3
)
,
E
y
=

E
3

sin(" 0ut +0
3
)
! "he magnitude of the total electric field vector for circularly polari1ed light is'
E=
.
E
x
7
+E
y
7
E=

E
3
.
cos
7
(80ut +0
3
)+sin
7
(80ut +0
3
)
E=

E
3

! "hus the magnitude of the electric field E vector stays constant at its pea% value EE
3
E over all
space and time. "his is the definition of circle.
!&e must #e careful with the language that we use here and what we mean #y it. "he magnitude
of a vector and the magnitude of a comple, num#er are totally different things even though they
may use the same a#solute value sym#ol. "he electric field varia#le that we use is #oth a vector
and a com%lex numer, so we must specify which magnitude we really mean. $n the end though,
only the real parts of the comple,!valued vectors matter.
! "he angle , that the total electric field vector ma%es with the x!a,is
is'
0=tan
3
(
E
y
E
x
)
0=( " 0ut +0
3
)
! "hus at the origin at t 2 0, the electric field vector ma%es an angle G,
3
to the x a,is. +s time passes, the angle that the electric field ma%es with the x a,is gets more
positive for the upper sign, and more negative for the lower sign.
x
y
z
E
205
! "he two circularly polari1ed waves are (ust as valid a set of orthogonal #asis vectors. &e
define'
c
H
=
3
.7
(c
3
+i c
7
)
and
c
!
=
3
.7
(c
3
i c
7
)
! "he general form for a plane wave in terms of these #asis vectors #ecomes'
E=(c
H
E
H
+c
!
E
!
)e
i ( 80ut )
E=
H
E
H
e
i (80t+
H
)
+
!
E
!
e
i (80t+
!
)
=. +easuring olari;ation
! $n practice, it is much more difficult to directly measure the phases of a plane wave than the
magnitudes.
! &e can measure the phases indirectly #y measuring the magnitude (or the field intensities
which are (ust the s-uares of the magnitudes multiple times while using polari1ers.
! "he Sto%es parameters do (ust that. "hey are intensity parameters that are easily measura#le
and can #e used to find the polari1ation state. "hey are defined as follows'
s
0
=

E
3

7
+

E
7

7
=E
7
s
3
=

E
3

E
7

7
s
7
=7 +( E
3
I
E
7
)
s
>
=7 5( E
3
I
E
7
)
! "he Sto%es parameters s
0
, s
3
, s
7
, s
>
, are also often la#eled &, 1, +, 2. 9ote that Sto%es
parameters can descri#e polari1ed as well as mi,ed polari1ation light.
! "he Sto%es parameters are formed into a column vector called the Sto%es vector'
S=

s
0
s
3
s
7
s
>
|
! "he Sto%es parameters are then easily inverted to give the comple, field values.
! +n o#(ect/s scattering properties can #e summari1ed in an intensity scattering matri, %nown as
a Mueller matri, M.
! "he scattered wave (as represented #y the scattered Sto%es vector then e-uals the scattering
matri, times the incident wave/s Sto%es vector' S
scat
2 M S
inc
! "he first Sto%es parameter is (ust the overall intensity.
! "he second Sto%es parameter is the difference of the principal components in the linear #asis.
! "he third Sto%es parameter is the diff. of the principal components in the linear #asis rotated
JKL.
206
! "he last Sto%es parameter is the difference of the principal components in the circular #asis.
! "he four Sto%es parameters are not independent. Mou can easily prove s
0
7
2 s
3
7
H s
7
7
H s
>
7
. "he
one missing piece of information, the overall phase of the wave, is not as important in practice
#ecause it is dependent on the origin. Bne can always ma%e it 1ero #y appropriately selecting
the origin.
! Bne can then find the polari1ation state using the Sto%es parameters.
! "he Sto%es parameter approach is used when the phase is hard to measure directly, typically at
high fre-uencies such with visi#le light.
! +t microwave and radio wavelengths, the phase can #e measured directly more easily.
! $n applications that involve these wavelengths, such as in radar imaging, the Nones vector 2 is
used instead of the Sto%es vector to represent the polari1ation state'
2=

E
3
e
i 0
3
E
7
e
i 0
7
|
or 2=

E
3
E
7
|
! +nalogous to the J?J intensity matri, (Mueller matri,, the 7?7 comple, matri, (Nones
matri, sums up the scattering properties of an o#(ect. "he scattered Nones vector e-uals the
o#(ect/s scattering Nones matri, times the incident Nones matri,' 2
scat
2 S 2
inc
>. *eflection and *efraction
! 9ow that we %now what electromagnetic waves loo% li%e in an infinite uniform linear
material, let us stay as simple as possi#le and add one more level of comple,ity.
! &hat if we have two semi!infinite uniform materials that are linear dielectrics and linear
magnetics and meet at a perfectly flat #oundary surface. "here are no sources and no #oundary
conditions at infinity. &hat do the electromagnetic fields loo% li%eO
! "he material is not spatially uniform across the whole pro#lem, so the wave e-uation does not
apply to this pro#lem in a general sense.
! But within each semi!infinite region, the material is uniform. "he wave e-uation with its plane
wave solution as derived a#ove applies within in each region. &e are left needing to (ust apply
the #oundary conditions where the two semi!infinite materials meet.
! Let us set the planar #oundary that is #etween the materials so that it coincides with the x!y
plane at 0 2 0.
! "he material filling 0 C 0 has electric permittivity and magnetic permea#ility 3 and thus
inde, of refraction n=

/
0

0
.
! "he material filling 0 D 0 has electric permittivity / and magnetic permea#ility /3 and thus
inde, of refraction n/ =
.
/ c/ /
0
c
0
.
! "o #e as general as possi#le, #oth indices of refraction (and therefore all corresponding
wavevectors are comple,!valued. "his allows the possi#ility of lossy materials.
! "he incident wave E comes from negative 0 at some angle ,
i
relative to the 0 a,is.
207
! "he transmitted4refracted wave E/ goes towards positive 0 at some angle ,
t
relative to the 0
a,is.
! "he reflected wave E// goes #ac% towards negative 0 at some angle ,
r
relative to the 0 a,is.
! "hese are real geometric angles, not to #e confused with the comple, phase angles of the
waves.
! "he plane waves are la#eled as'
$ncident' E=E
0
e
i (80t)
"ransmitted' E/=E
0
/ e
i (8 /0/ t )
:eflected' E//=E
0
// e
i(8 //I0// t )
! 9ote that there is a comple, con(ugate on the reflected wave!vector. "e,t#oo% derivations
neglect this operation and end up with e-uations which are only valid if the initial material is
non!lossy (in other words, the te,t#oo% e-uations are only valid when 8 is real such that
8I 2 8. <owever, Mae1awa and Miyauci showed (N. Bpt. Soc. +m. +46ol. 7P, 9o. 748e#ruary
700Q that this con(ugation must #e included in order for the final e-uations to o#ey
conservation of energy even when the initial material is lossy. Conceptually, the con(ugation
means that the wave is growing in the H0 direction due to material losses, #ut this ma%es sense
when one remem#ers that the reflected wave is traveling in the !0 direction.
! "he #oundary conditions must hold for all time and all points on the #oundary. "his means
that the e,ponentials must match at 1 2 0, leading to'
=/=//
(80)
0 =0
=(8/0)
0=0
=(8 //I0)
0=0
x
z
k
k''
k'

((
,
r
,
i
,
t
208
! "his immediately tells us that all of the wave vectors lie in the same plane, called the plane of
incidence. Let us loo% at the second e-uation more closely'
("
x
x+"
0
0)
0 =0
=("
x
/ x+"
0
/ 0)
0 =0
=("
x
// I x+"
0
// I 0)
0=0
"
x
="
x
/ ="
x
// I
! "he system is homogenous in the x direction, so the fields cannot depend on the x coordinate.
+s a result, "
x
// must #e real'
"
x
="
x
/ ="
x
//
" sin
i
=" / sin
t
=" // sin
r
! 9ow using the relation found previously we %now "=.cu , " /=. / c / u , and
" //=.c u , thus " 2 "// so that'
0
i
=0
r
'he *aw o! 4e!lection
sin
i
=/ / sin
t
nsin
i
=n/ sin
t
'he *aw o! 4e!raction or Snell(s *aw
! 9ote that this means that waves always #end towards the normal when entering a higher!inde,
material, and away from the normal when leaving a higher!inde, material (at least for
traditional materials. "his #ehavior is essential to the wor%ing of lenses.
! "he four #oundary conditions when no charges or currents are present are'

!
7
n=!
3
n
|
on S
R !/ ;=(!+!// ) ;|
0 =0

'
7
n='
3
n
|
on S
R '/ ;=('+'//);|
0 =0

E
7
n=E
3
n
|
on S
R E/ ;=(E+E// );|
0=0

"
7
n="
3
n
|
on S
R "/ ;=("+"// ) ;|
0=0
! &e put each #oundary condition in terms of the total electric field using ! 2 E, " 2 '? and
8E=u' and reali1e that the time and position dependent parts all cancel out leaving only
the polari1ation vectors'
209
c/ E
0
/;=(c E
0
+c E
0
//);
(8 /E
0
/ );=((8E
0
)+(8 // IE
0
//)) ;
E
0
/ ;=(E
0
+E
0
// );
3
/
(8/ E
0
/) ;=(
3

(8E
0
)+
3

(8 // IE
0
// )) ;
! +s mentioned #efore, the polari1ation vectors E
0
, E
0
/, and E
0
// are comple, num#ers and have
two components. $t is simplest to thin% of a general polari1ation as the sum of two linearly
polari1ed waves that are orthogonal. Let us solve this pro#lem for the two special cases of linear
polari1ation perpendicular and parallel to the plane of incidence, and we can then always find
the general solution through superposition.
! 8or electric fields always perpendicular to the plane of incidence, the #oundary conditions
reduce to'
0=0
/ / sin
t
E
0
/= sin
i
E
0
+( )Isin
i
E
0
//
E
0
/=E
0
+E
0
//
/ / / E
0
/ cos
t
=/ cos
i
E
0
(/)Icos
i
E
0
//
! $t should #e noted that when ta%ing the cross product with the 0 a,is in the second and fourth
e-uation, the answer is a vector e-uation. &e then match up components to get the final scalar
e-uation.
! "he first #oundary condition is not helpful in this polari1ation.
! "he second #oundary condition when com#ined with the third is (ust a restatement of Snell/s
law.
! "he third and fourth #oundary condition can #e com#ined to solve for the fields in terms of
the incident field strength.
E
0
/=
/ cos
i
+(/ )Icos
i

/ / / cos
t
+(

/ )Icos
i
E
0
E
0
//=
/cos
i
/ // cos
t
(

/)Icos
i
+

/ / / cos
t
E
0
! &e use Snell/s Law to transform the un%nown transmitted angle into the %nown incidence
angle and transform to indices of refraction'
210
E
0
/=
7 +(n)cos
i
nIcos
i
+n/

/

3( n/ n/)
7
sin
7

i
E
0
E
0
//=
ncos
i
n/

/

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

i
nIcos
i
+n/

/

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

i
E
0
! Bf considera#le interest is the reflection coefficient 4 which measures the fraction of the
incident power that is reflected, and the transmission coefficient ' which measures the fraction
of the incident power that is transmitted.
4=

E
0
//
E
0

7
and '=
+(n/ )
+( n)

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

i
/ cos
i

E
0
/
E
0

7
("he derivation of these e-uations is part of the Nac%son S.P solution.
4=

ncos
i
n/

/

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

i
nIcos
i
+n/

/

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

7
'=
+(n/ )
+(n)

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

i
/ cos
i

7+(n)cos
i
nIcos
i
+n/

/

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

7
! "hese are %nown as the 8resnel e-uations (often materials are assumed to #e non!magnetic so
that the 4( factor disappears.
! $t is left as an e,ercise for the interested student to derive the reflection and transmission
coefficients for the case of electric field vectors parallel to the plane of incidence. "he results
are'
4=

n/ cos
i
n
/


3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

i
n/ cos
i
+nI
/


3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

7
'=
+(n/ )
+(n)

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

i
/ cos
i

7+(n)cos
i
n/

/
cos
i
+nI

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

7
! 9ote that #ecause of conservation of energy, 4 H ' 2 3. $n order for conservation of energy to
always hold, even for lossy initial material and lossy final material, these e,act forms must #e
/olari0ation /er%endicular
to the /lane o! &ncidence
/olari0ation /arallel to the
/lane o! &ncidence
211
used, and not the appro,imate forms common in te,t#oo%s.
@. 'rewsterAs ,ngle
! 8or non!magnetic material (4( 23, is there an angle of incidence where there is no reflected
wave (when 4 2 0O
! 8or polari1ation perpendicular to the plane of incidence, we set 4 2 0 and try to solve for the
angle of incidence'
0=

ncos
i
n/

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

i
nIcos
i
+n/

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

7
n
7
cos
7
0
i
=n/
7
n
7
sin
7
0
i
n
7
=n/
7
! "herefore, for perpendicular polari1ation there is 1ero reflection only if there is one material
present, which is the trivial case.
! 8or polari1ation parallel to the plane of incidence, we set 4 2 0 and try to solve for the angle
of incidence'
0=

n/ cos
i
n

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

i
n/ cos
i
+nI

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

7
0=n/ cos
i
n

3(n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

i
(n/
7
n
7
) cos
7

i
=(n
7
n
J
/ n/
7
)sin
7

i
=tan
3
(
n/
n
)
$rewster(s 5ngle
! "his is %nown as Brewster/s angle. +t this angle of incidence, parallel polari1ed waves are
completely transmitted.
! +s the refractive inde, of the material #eing penetrated n/ #ecomes much greater than the
outside material n, the Brewster/s angle asymptotically approaches ninety degrees.
! $f an unpolari1ed or mi,ed polari1ation wave is incident at the Brewster/s angle, only waves
perpendicular to the plane of incidence get reflected #ac%, and the rest of the wave is
transmitted through. "his setup can #e used as a polari1er.
! 8or common material com#inations such as air!to!water and air!to!glass, Brewster/s angle is
#etween K0 and P0 degrees.
! &hat we e,perience as )glare* from the sun is typically mostly polari1ed perpendicular to the
plane of incidence. &hen the sun is low, its sunlight stri%es flat water, flat snow, or flat wet
streets near the Brewster/s angle so that only perpendicular!polari1ed light is reflected as glare.
Certain sunglasses ta%e advantage of this fact to #loc% the glare. Such sunglasses contain a
polari1er that only lets in light polari1ed parallel to the plane of incidence.
212
! "he physics of Brewster/s angle is -uite simple. "he dipoles in the material oscillate in
response to the electric fields of the wave, and thus oscillate in the same direction as the electric
field vectors. 5ropagation of a wave in a dielectric material can #e thought of as a continual
a#sorption and re!radiation of the wave #y the dipoles. Bscillating dipoles do not radiate in the
direction of oscillation. "he Brewster/s angle is the configuration where the electric field vector
in the penetrated material, and thus the oscillation direction, points in the same direction as the
potential reflected wave. $n other words, this occurs when the transmitted wave/s propagation
direction is perpendicular to the reflected wave/s propagation direction.
! $n fact we can use this concept to re!derive Brewster/s Law'
0
i
+0
t
=Q0T
(remem#er that the angles are defined relative to the 0 a,is
sin(0
t
)=sin(Q0T0
i
)
sin(0
t
)=cos(0
i
)
! Using Snell/s Law'
n
n/
sin (0
i
)=cos(0
i
)
0
i
=tan
3
(
n/
n
)
1B. Total Internal *eflection
! Let us now as% the opposite -uestion. $s there an angle of incidence where the wave is
completely reflectedO Let us set 4 2 3 and solve for the angle'
3=

ncos
i
n/

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

i
nIcos
i
+n/

3( n/ n/ )
7
sin
7

/
.
n/
7
n
7
sin
7
0
i
=

/
.
n/
7
n
7
sin
7
0
i
n/
7
n
7
sin
7
0
i
=0

i
=sin
3
(
n/
n
)
'otal &nternal 4e!lection Critical 5ngle
! &e note that only for n/ C n do we end up with a valid angle. "hat is why the reflection is
called )internal*. $t only happens when attempting to leave a high inde, material such as glass
or water and enter a low!inde, material such as air.
! +t this angle, the transmitted wave is refracted so much that it essentially propagates along the
#oundary and never penetrates the material. &e could even use this concept to re!derive the
e-uation for total internal reflection'
213
0
t
=Q0T
sin(0
t
)=3
! Using Snell/s Law'
n
n/
sin (0
i
)=3
0
i
=sin
3
(
n/
n
)
! 8or angles of incidence greater than this critical angle, there is still no transmission. "he
transmitted wave #ecomes a wave along the #oundary %nown as an )evanescent wave*.
! "he evanescent wave penetrates slightly into the second region #ut dies off e,ponentially in
this direction.
! $f another piece of high!inde, material is placed near the first piece, #ut a gap remains, the
waves can tunnel through the gap through the mechanism of the evanescent waves.
! "his is the principal mechanism #ehind a #eam!splitter cu#e. "he transmission coefficient can
#e controlled #y varying the spacing of the prisms.
214
Lecture 2 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory II
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Dispersion Introduction
- An electromagnetic wave with an aritrary wave-shape can e thought of as a superposition of
single-fre!uency plane waves.
- "f the dielectric material responds in the e#act same way to plane waves of any fre!uency$ than
each component of the wave-shape will travel at the same speed$ and the overall wave-shape
will e preserved.
- "f the dielectric material responds differently to plane waves of different fre!uencies %i.e. its
dielectric constant is fre!uency dependent&$ then the superposed components of the wave-shape
will travel at different speeds. 'he wave-shape will change in time as it propagates through the
material and in general will spread out.
- 'his wave spreading is (nown as dispersion.
- )e must e#plicitly descrie the ehavior of the fre!uency-dependent permittivity %&$ or in
other words$ the dielectric constant
r
%& * %&+
,
$ efore we can descrie the dispersion in a
detailed way.
- An accurate prediction of a material-s permittivity re!uires !uantum mechanics$ ut we can
find a good appro#imation y uilding a classical model.
2. Classical Harmonic Model
- .ememer that the dielectric constant descries a material-s response to an applied electric
field.
- 'he applied field induces dipoles in the material which then create their own electric fields
that add to the original field.
- So if we find the dipole moment induced in a single atom y an applied field$ we can sum over
all atoms and find the dielectric constant.
- /or simplicity$ we will deal only with non-magnetic dielectric materials$ so that the magnetic
permeaility e!uals the permeaility of free space. )e also ignore magnetic forces.
- Consider a single electron ound to an atomic nucleus pushed y a wave that passes y.
Assume the atomic nucleus is so much heavier than the electron that it stays fi#ed.
- 0ewton-s Law states1
=ma
where is the total force$ m is the electron-s mass
and a is the electron-s acceleration.

wave
+
binding
=m
d
2
!
dt
2
eEk !=m
d
2
!
dt
2
+
-e
F
wave
F
binding
215
where k is the spring constant of the harmonic inding force. /or a harmonic system with a
single mass the spring constant is k * m
,
2
where
,
is the resonant fre!uency of the spring
%which is here caused y the inding force in the atom&.
eEmu
,
2
!=m
d
2
!
dt
2
- "n its current form$ this e!uations descries an electron that would oscillate forever. "n reality$
the oscillating electron interacts with other electrons$ looses energy in the process$ and slows
down.
- "nstead of going into the details of the damping$ we can sum up the process in a
phenomenological damping parameter 1
eEmu
,
2
!=m
d
2
!
dt
2
+my
d !
dt
- Let us investigate the material response to a plane wave at a single fre!uency $ then we can
always super-impose plane waves for more comple# situations1
eE(!) e
i ut
mu
,
2
!=m
d
2
!
dt
2
+my
d !
dt
- )e try a solution of the form !=!
,
e
i t
1
eE(!) e
i ut
mu
,
2
!
,
e
i ut
=u
2
m!
,
e
i ut
i umy !
,
e
i ut
!
,
=
e
m
3
(u
,
2
u
2
i uy)
E( !)
!=
e
m
3
(
,
2

2
i )
E
'he induced dipole moment of this simplified atom then ecomes1
p=e!
p=
e
2
m
3
(
,
2

2
i )
E
Dipole moment of a single electron within the harmonic model
- 'he permittivity is defined y D * E which leads to1
c=
D
E
c=
c
,
E+"
E
216
c
c
,
=3+
3
c
,
"
E
- "f the dielectric material consisted of only this one atom$ the polari4ation " would e!ual p#V$
leading to1

,
=3+
3

,
e
2
V m
3
(
,
2

2
i )
- More realistically$ the material contains N atoms per unit volume %N * n+V&giving a
polari4ation " * Np and a dielectric constant of1
c
c
,
=3+
N e
2
c
,
m
3
(u
,
2
u
2
i uy)
- "f instead of one electron per atom we have f electrons per atom with the same inding state
then the polari4ation is " * N f p and the dielectric constant ecomes1
c
c
,
=3+
N e
2
c
,
m
f
(u
,
2
u
2
i uy)
- 'o e even more general$ in a single atom there may e different electrons in different ound
states$ each contriuting to the material-s response1

,
=3+
N e
2

,
m

j
f
j

j
2

2
i
j
Dielectric Constant in the harmonic model, non-condcting
- 'he resonant fre!uencies
j
of the different atomic ound states j$ the oscillator strengths f
j
%numer of electrons per atom in state j&$ and the damping coefficients
j
must e predicted y
further models$ typically !uantum mechanical$ or found e#perimentally.
$. "lotting Dielectric Constants
- 'he damping coefficients are typically small when compared to the fre!uencies. )ith this in
mind$ we can s(etch what the dielectric constant loo(s li(e.
- At very small fre!uencies$ 55
j
$ the e!uation reduces to1
c
c
,
=c
s
=3+
N e
2
c
,
m

j
f
j
u
j
2
!tatic Dielectric Constant or !tatic "elative #ermittivit$
- 'his is (nown as the static dielectric constant or the static relative permittivity ecause it is
independent of fre!uency. 'ypically$ whenever we choose to ignore the fre!uency ehavior of a
material$ we use the static dielectric constant.
- At larger fre!uencies$ ut not close to a resonant fre!uency$ %
j
%
-

%
& is large so that the
damping coefficient ecomes negligile$ leading to1
217
c
c
,
=3+

j
&
j
3
u
j
2
u
2
where &
j
=
N e
2
f
j
c
,
m
'ar from a resonance
- 6ery close to a resonant fre!uency$ the difference %
j
%
-

%
& ecomes negligile and the
damping term ta(es over. 'his (eeps the dielectric constant from lowing up to infinity at the
resonant fre!uency. )e can s(etch this as1
- "n regions of the function where the dielectric constant is flat$ there is essentially no
dispersion.
- 'here is greater dispersion closer to resonant fre!uencies.
- 7nce the driving fre!uency of the incoming wave is greater than a certain resonant fre!uency$
the oscillating electron in the atom cannot (eep up with the wave. "ts motion gets out of phase
with the wave and the dipole moment starts to oppose the field instead of align with it. 'hat is
why the permittivity dips so drastically.
- At even higher fre!uencies than a certain resonant fre!uency$ that electron is too slow to
respond at all and ma(es no contriution to the dielectric constant.
- "n general$ the dielectric constant of any material decreases and approaches that of vacuum for
higher and higher fre!uencies as fewer and fewer electrons can respond.
- /or most fre!uency ranges$ higher fre!uencies e#perience a higher permittivity and thus move
at a slower velocity. 'his is (nown as normal dispersion.
- /or the fre!uency ranges directly near the resonant fre!uencies$ the opposite is true. 'his is
(nown as anomalous dispersion. 'he group velocity goes faster than the phase velocity for
anomalous dispersion.
%. &esonant '(sorption
- Up until this lecture$ we had only considered real-valued dielectric constants. 'his was not too
ad of an oversight$ ecause the imaginary part of the dielectric constant is usually 4ero e#cept
near a resonant fre!uency.
- )hat does the imaginary part of the dielectric constant mean8
- Let us loo( first at what the imaginary part of the wave numer k means.

Im %(
,
&
Re ((
,
&

2
218
- As found in last lecture$ the general solution for a plane wave in a non-magnetic linear
dielectric material is1
E=E
,
e
i ( k )ut )
where k=!
.
c(u)
,
u
and the )-a#is has een oriented with the wave vector
- .eali4ation that the permittivity is comple# leads us to reali4e that the wave numer must also
e comple#. Let us e#press this e#plicitly$ defining the real part of the wave numer as * and
the imaginary part as %++2& so that k * * 9 i ++2.
E=E
,
e
( o/ 2) )
e
i ( )ut)
- "t ecomes ovious now that the real part of the wave numer serves its usual role$ setting the
spatial scale of the oscillation$ ut the imaginary part of the wave numer serves to
e#ponentially attenuate the wave. As the wave propagates through the material$ the material
resonantly asors energy from the wave and the fields die down. %'here is also the possiility
of the material amplifying the wave$ and therefore having negative +$ such as in a laser. But
such ehavior is rare and perhaps etter descried using a !uantum approach.&
- "f the material is thic( enough$ the wave will e effectively completely asored at some
point.
- 'he intensity of the wave$ which is what is usually measured$ ecomes1
5) :=
3
2 .
c

,
,
2
e
o )
- 'his ma(es it ovious why the imaginary part of the wave numer is defined as it is. 'he
parameter + is (nown as the asorption coefficient$ attenuation constant$ or material loss factor.
A material which gives rise to an imaginary part of the wave numer is (nown as a lossy
material.
- Let us e#plicitly connect the comple# wave numer and the comple# permittivity using the
relationship found originally1
k=
.
c(u)
,
u
+i o/ 2=.c -+i c--
.

,
u where - denotes the real part of $ and -- is the imaginary part of

2
o
2
/ ;+2i o/ 2=(c -+i c-- )
,
u
2
- =

2
/ ;

2
and
--=

2
Comple) #ermittivit$ in -erms of the .ave Nmber
- 'hese e!uations are used e#perimentally. 7ne measures the comple# wave numer of a (nown
fre!uency inside a material and then uses these e!uations to calculate the material-s comple#
permittivity.
- )e can invert these e!uations to understand what gives rise to the imaginary part of the wave
vector and therefore asorption.
219
=2

,
2
-
Comple) .ave Nmber in -erms of the Comple) #ermittivit$
=

,
2
+-
- All of this can e summari4ed1
=(k) 1 .efraction %higher * means slower waves that end more at interfaces&
=2 (k) 1 Attenuation %higher + means waves that die down !uic(er as they travel&
- =() 1 <nergy Storage+.eemission %higher - means energy is stored stronger&
--=() 1 <nergy Loss %higher -- means more energy converted to heat&
- 'he e!uations in o#es aove should ma(e clear that there is not a linear relationship etween
the real part of the permittivity and the real part of the wavenumer. "n other words$ energy
storage does not automatically e!ual refraction. "n the same way$ there is not a linear
relationship etween the imaginary part of the permittivity and the imaginary part of the
wavenumer. As a result$ the loss %asorption& of a material is not the same thing as the wave-s
attenuation. Let us loo( at a special case to ma(e this clear1
- /or a non-lossy material$ --=, $ the e!uations reduce down to1
"f - >, then1 =, and =

,
- 'his is an unattenuated traveling wave.
"f - , then1 =2

,
- and =, 'his is an attenuated standing wave.
- )e see that waves can e attenuated even in a non-lossy material.
- )e can plot these e!uations to understand what they mean1
- 'he ) a#is is the real part of the permittivity$ the $ a#is is the imaginary part of the
permittivity$ and the color is the wave numer. 'he imaginary part of the wave numer$ ++2
%which causes wave attenuation&$ is on the left plot and the real part * %which causes wave
refraction& is on the right plot. Blac( color indicates a value of 4ero and righter colors indicate
A B
C
D
A B
C
D
220
higher values.
- =oints within circle A are decaying standing waves$ such as in plasmas elow the plasma
fre!uency or in dielectrics >ust aove a resonant fre!uency. )aves incident on such a material
would e strongly reflected. 0ote that there is no asorption ecause the imaginary part of the
permittivity is 4ero$ and yet we can still have a decaying wave shape.
- =oints within circle B are non-decaying traveling waves. 'here is no asorption y the
material. 0ote that for everywhere e#cept points in B$ we get a decaying waveshape. )e see
that oth material asorption %non-4ero --& and out-of-phase electrons %negative -& can create a
decaying waveshape.
- =oints within circle C are strongly decaying$ widely-spaced-pea(s traveling waves$ such as in
conductors.
- =oints within circle D are slowly decaying$ closely-spaced-pea(s traveling waves$ such as in
lossy dielectrics.
*. Electric Conducti+ity
- 7ur harmonic model assumed that all of the electrons in the atom %or molecule& are ound.
- )hat if the material also has some electrons that are not ound$ or in other words$ what if the
material has a non-4ero conductivity8
- )e can still use the harmonic model if we reali4e that a free electron is >ust the limiting case
of an infinitely wea(ly ound electron.
- 'he wea(er the inding force$ the lower the resonant fre!uency.
- A free electron can thus e thought of as an oscillating electron that ta(es an infinite amount of
time to cycle$ and therefore has a fre!uency of 4ero.
- Adding the effects of the free electron y using the same model e#cept with
,
* , leads to1
c
c
,
=3+
N e
2
c
,
m

j
f
j
u
j
2
u
2
i uy
j
+
N e
2
f
,
c
,
m(u
2
i uy
,
)

,
=3+
N e
2

,
m

j
f
j

j
2

2
i
j
+i
N e
2
f
,

,
m(
,
i )
Dielectric Constant /eneral 'orm
- 'he first two terms are >ust what we would have if there were no free electrons$ so we can
identify it as the ound dielectric constant
b
+
,
.

,
=

,
+i
N e
2
f
,

,
m(
,
i )
Dielectric Constant /eneral 'orm
- 'he Ma#well-Ampere e!uation is1
H=,+
d D
dt

- 'reating the free electrons as truly free and using 7hm-s law , * 0 E where 0 is the
conductivity$ and D *
b
E1
H=uE+c
b
d E
dt
221
- )e have harmonic time dependence so that1
H=uEi uc
b
E
H=i u
(
c
b
+i
u
u
)
E
- "f we instead treat the free electrons as infinitely wea(ly ound electrons so that , * ,$ the
Ma#well-Ampere e!uation with harmonic time dependence ecomes1
H=i ucE
- Comparing the results of the two different approaches$ we can ma(e the identification1
=
b
+i
o

#ermittivit$ /eneral 'orm


- Comparing this with the results from our model lets us now define the conductivity according
to our model1
o=
N e
2
f
,
m(
,
i )
Condctivit$ according to the harmonic model
-. "lasma re.uency
- )hat if there were a material with no ound electrons$ only free electrons$ and the electrons
were far enough apart that the damping were negligile$ what would the dielectric constant loo(
li(e8
- )e start with the general form for our model1
c
c
,
=3+
N e
2
c
,
m

j
f
j
u
j
2
u
2
i uy
j
+i
N e
2
f
,
c
,
mu(y
,
i u)
and we drop the second term which is for the ound electrons$ and we set
,
* ,1
c
c
,
=3
N e
2
f
,
c
,
mu
2
- )e recogni4e that there is only one state now for the electrons to e in$ free and widely
spaced$ so that the numer of electrons in this state f
,
per atom >ust e!uals the total numer of
ioni4ed electrons 1 per atom1

,
=3
N 1 e
2

,
m
2
Dielectric Constant for #lasmas
- )hen a material only has free electrons that are spaced far apart %or is in this configuration to
222
a good appro#imation&$ it is (nown as a plasma.
- <#amples of plasmas include the ionosphere and electrically-charged gases in the laoratory.
'o some e#tent$ at certain fre!uencies metals and semiconductors can also e treated as
plasmas.
- 'he presentation of the dielectric constant for plasmas is often simplified y defining a plasma
fre!uency1

p
2
=
N 1 e
2

,
m
#lasma fre2enc$
so that we have1

,
=3

p
2

2
Dielectric Constant for #lasmas
- "t is worth noting that there is no imaginary part to the dielectric constant for plasmas.
- 'his means that greater than the plasma fre!uency$ the dielectric constant of a plasma is
always positive and real-valued$ meaning that the wave numer k is purely real. 'here is no loss
and the wave passes through unimpeded.
- Below the plasma fre!uency$ the dielectric constant is always negative and real-valued$
meaning that the wave numer k is purely imaginary. A wave incident on a plasma elow the
plasma fre!uency will e mostly reflected and will penetrate only slightly into the plasma$
dieing off e#ponentially.
- 'his is why radio waves are reflected y the ionosphere and are guided around the world for
low-andwidth world-wide communications$ ut higher-fre!uency microwaves pass through
the ionosphere and must e relayed around the world using satellites for high-andwidth
communications.
- "n a similar way$ elow the plasma fre!uency$ highly doped semiconductors ecome reflective
and can e used as mirrors or waveguides. Doping semiconductors more strongly creates a
higher free charge density$ which leads to a higher plasma fre!uency and ma(es the material
more reflective. 'his has important implications in using doped semiconductors as mirrors in
laser cavities.
- "t should e noted that at high enough fre!uencies % ::
p
&$ all materials ehave li(e
plasmas and waves pass through with no loss.
- Because the plasma fre!uency$ which is the reflectivity threshold$ depends directly on the
charge density$ we can use it to proe charge density. /or instance$ the atmosphere has a charge
density that depends on altitude. 7ne can map out the atmospheric charge density profile y
sending a sweep of fre!uencies into the s(y and determining which fre!uencies get reflected
ac( from which point.
223
Lecture 3 Notes, Electromagnetic Theory II
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Superposition of Waves
- Up till now we have only looked at monochromatic waves and how they behave in materials
and hinted at how a freuency-dependent permittivity would lead to dispersion of a wave
packet made up of many monochromatic waves. Let us look in more detail at what this really
means.
- !here is no such thin" as a truly monochromatic wave.
- # wave cannot always have been "enerated in the infinite past and continue to be "enerated in
the infinite future. $very electroma"netic wave therefore has a definite spatial be"innin" point
and spatial endpoint. # truly monochromatic wave cannot e%ist because it would reuire an
infinite e%tent and infinite e%istence.
- &n this sense' every wave is actually a wave packet or pulse with finite e%tent.
- Many freuencies (or wavenumbers) are reuired in order to build up a wave packet' so every
real wave actually has a ran"e of freuencies present.
- *ave packets that have a very lar"e width reuire a narrower ran"e of superimposed
freuencies to be mathematically constructed' and may be appro%imated as monochromatic
waves.
- +or a nearly monochromatic wave' the width of the wave,s ran"e of freuencies is known as
the -spectral linewidth..
- !he linewidth of a wave may also e%perience broadenin" due to chan"es in the source or due
to propa"ation phenomena.
- Because a dispersive material has a permittivity that depends on freuency' any wave can be
thou"ht of as a superposition of monochromatic plane waves which each interact with the
material independently of the others' dependent on its freuency.
- +or simplicity' we will investi"ate the behavior of one vector component of the electric
field and label it u(x' t) so that for instance E
x
(x' t) / u(x' t). Because the components of a
vector are independent' the end solution is 0ust the sum of each vector component after bein"
solved separately.
- #s found previously' the principal solution of the wave euation is (showin" now only one
component)1
u( x , t )=Ae
i( k xut )
where k=!.(u)c(u)u
- *e will treat the wave number k as the independent variable so that the freuency is a
function of the wave number k accordin" to1 / (k). !his is actually the more common form
of the dispersion relation.
- #ssume for now that and k are real.
- !he "eneral solution is 0ust the superposition of all possible solutions1
u( x ,t )=
2
3

A(k) e
i (k x(k)t )
dk
General solution to the Wave Equation
224
- !he coefficient function A(k) in the "eneral solution is what uniuely determines the solution
to a particular problem.
- !his is 0ust a +ourier transform and we can apply +ourier !heory to find the coefficients.
- Suppose we know the wave shape at some initial time t / 4. *e apply this initial condition1
u( x ,4)=
2
.3

A(k )e
i k x
dk

- Multiply both sides by a comple% e%ponential and inte"rate both sides over x1

u( x , 4) e
i k , x
dx=
2
.3

A( k)

e
i( k k ,) x
dx dk
- Due to the ortho"onality of comple% e%ponentials' the inner inte"ral on the ri"ht will be 5ero
e%cept when k / k, at which it euals 36. !his collapses the outer inte"ral1
A(k)=
2
3

u(x , 4)e
i k x
dx
Coefficients to the General Solution of the Wave Equation
- !he coefficient function A(k) represents the wavenumber spectrum and its plot is referred to as
-the wave in k-space..
- &n non-dispersive materials' the wave number k and freuency are related by a constant so
the terms -the wave in k-space. and -the wave in freuency space. can be used
interchan"eably.
- *ith a proper understandin" of +ourier !ransforms' it now becomes evident that a wave with
a wide wave-shape in coordinate space corresponds to narrow wave-shape in k-space.
- !he velocity at which a sin"le-wavenumber component of the wave travels is known as the
-phase velocity..
- !here are many components in a wave and thus many phase velocities' but we are typically
interested in 0ust the phase velocity of the dominant component.
- !he velocity at which the wave packet moves as a whole is known as the -"roup velocity..
- !he "roup velocity only has meanin" in so far as the wave "enerally keeps the same shape
over time.
- &f there is low dispersion' we can e%pand the dispersion relation in a !aylor series and keep
only the first two terms1
u(k)u( k
4
)+(kk
4
)

d u
d k
|
k =k
4
- Substitute this into the "eneral solution1
u( x ,t )=
2
.3

A( k) e
i ( k xu( k
4
) t ( kk
4
)

d u
d k
|
k=k
4
t )
dk
u( x ,t )=
2
.3
e
i t (u( k
4
)+k
4

d u
d k
|
k=k
4
)

A(k )e
ik( x

d u
d k
|
k=k
4
t)
dk
- &f we make a substitution' we reali5e that the inte"ral is 0ust the initial wave shifted1
225
u( x ,t )=u
(
x

d u
d k
|
k=k
4
t ,4
)
e
i t (u( k
4
)+k
4

d u
d k
|
k=k
4
)
- !hus' e%cept for a phase factor' the wave-shape stays the same and is translated in space1
x-xv
g
t
where
v
g
=

d
d k
|
k=k
4
- &t is worth repeatin" that the "roup velocity v
g
was derived by usin" an appro%imation where
only the first few terms of a series are kept. !he "roup velocity only has meanin" as lon" as this
appro%imation is valid (when there is low dispersion).
- *e can use the definition k=.c(u)u to find the "roup velocity in terms of the permittivity.
- !ake the derivative of the definition on both sides with respect to k.
2=.c(u)
d u
d k
+u(
2
3
2
.
c(u)
d c(u)
d u
d u
d k
)
- 7ow solve for the "roup velocity1
v
g
=
d
d k
=
2
()+

3

()
d ()
d
or
v
g
=
c
n()+
d n()
d
where n(u)=c .c(u)
- !he phase velocity is defined as1
v
p
=
u( k)
k
v
p
=
2
(k)
or
v
p
=
c
n(k)
2. Illustrating ulse Sprea!ing in a "ispersive #e!ium
- Consider a wave packet which is a cosine inside a 8aussian envelope at t / 41
u( x , 4)=e
i x
3
/3 L
3
cos (k
4
x)
where L is the width of the wave packet.
- #s the wave propa"ates throu"h a medium' its form at any later time t is "iven by1
u( x ,t )=
2
.3

A( k) e
i ( k xu( k) t )
dk
where
A( k)=
2
.3

u( x , 4)e
i k x
dx
A( k)=
L
3
e
( L
3
/3) ( kk
4
)
3
+e
( L
3
/ 3) ( k+k
4
)
3
|
226
u( x ,t )=
L
3
2
.3

e
( L
3
/ 3)( kk
4
)
3
+e
( L
3
/3) ( k+k
4
)
3
| e
i ( k xu( k ) t)
dk
- *e must know (k) before we can do the last inte"ral. +or the purpose of the illustration'
assume the dispersion relation is1
u(k)=u
4
(
2+
2
3
a
3
k
3
)
- 9lu""in" this in and doin" the inte"ral "ives a solution of the form1
u( x , t )=u
4
e
i g( x , t )
e%p

( xu
4
a
3
k
4
t )
3
3 L
3
(t )
|
where L(t )=
.
L
3
+( a
3
u
4
t / L)
3
- !he e%act form of the amplitude of the final solution as well as the oscillatin" part are
unimportant to this illustration and have been tucked inside u
4
and g(x' t).
- *hat is important to note is that the envelope of the wave (the last factor) is still a 8aussian'
but a 8aussian that has been shifted in space because it is travelin" at a velocity v
g
/
4
a
3
k
4
.
- #lso of note is that the width of the envelope is increasin" with time' and is dependent on
several factors1 materials with hi"her dispersion factors a and
4
cause the wave to spread out
faster. #lso a narrower initial wave pulse spreads out faster.
3. $ausality
- *hen the permittivity becomes dependent on freuency' there becomes a connection between
" and E that is non-local in time.
- +or a monochromatic component1
"( % ,u)=c(u)E( % ,u)
- +ourier transform both sides to deduce the temporal relationship1
"( % , t )=
2
.3

c(u) E(% , u) e
i ut
d u
- +ourier transform the $lectric field E as well.
"( % , t )=
2
3

c(u)

E(% ,t ,) e
i ut ,
d t , e
i ut
d u
"( % , t )=
2
3

d t ,

d uc(u)e
i u( t ,t )
E(% , t , )
- #dd and Subtract the electric field to "et it in a form where we can identify the polari5ation1
"( % , t )=c
4
E(% , t )c
4
E(% ,t )+
2
3

d t ,

d uc(u)e
i u( t ,t )
E( % , t , )
227
"( % , t )=c
4
E(% , t )c
4
2
3

d t ,

d ue
i u(t ,t )
E(% , t , )+
2
3

d t ,

d uc(u) e
i u(t ,t )
E(% , t , )
"( % , t )=c
4
E(% , t )+c
4
2
3

d t ,

d ue
i u(t ,t )
E(% , t , )

c(u)
c
4
2
|
- Make a chan"e of inte"ration variables1 t, : t ;
"( % , t )=c
4
E(% , t )+c
4
2
3

d f

d ue
i uf
E(% ,t f)

c(u)
c
4
2
|
"( % , t )=c
4
E(% , t )+c
4

G(f)E( % ,t f) d f where
G(f)=
2
3

d ue
i uf

c(u)
c
4
2
|
- <nly electric fields at some prior time can effect the field at the current time t' so we can
make the limit on the lower inte"ration 5ero.
"(% , t )=
4
E(% , t )+
4

G() E(% , t )d
where G()=
2
3

d e
i

()

4
2
|
- !he variable G() is the +ourier !ransform of the susceptibility.
- !he second term on the ri"ht is the polari5ation .
- *e can check this result. +or non-dispersive materials' the permittivity does not depend on
freuency and can come out of the inte"ral' so that G reduces to1
G(f)=
(
c
c
4
2
)
6(f)
- 9lu""in" this into the causality relationship "ives1
"( % , t )=c
4
E(% , t )+c
4
(
c
c
4
2
)
E( % ,t )
"( % , t )=c E(% , t )
- !his is what we e%pect for non-dispersive media.
- +or dispersive media' the causality relationship tells us that polari5ation depends on the
electric field at different points of time wei"hted by the susceptibility of the material at that
point in time.
- Let us invert the kernel euation1
G(f)=
2
3

d ue
i uf

c(u)
c
4
2
|
228

G(f)e
i u, f
d f=
2
3

d fe
i u, f

d ue
i uf

c(u)
c
4
2
|

G(f)e
i u, f
d f, =
2
3

d u

c(u)
c
4
2
|

d fe
i ( u,u) f

G(f)e
i u, f
d f, =

d u

c(u)
c
4
2
|
6(u,u)
()

4
=2+

G() e
i
d ,
- Let us assume for the moment that the freuency could be some comple% number .
- !his relation can be used to show that the permittivity is analytic' and Cauchy,s !heorem can
thus be used.
- Cauchy,s theorem states that a closed line inte"ral in the comple% plane of some function with
a sin"ular point is proportional to the value of the function at that point1

f (u, )
u,
d u,=3i f ( ) Cauch!"s #heore$
- +or our case here' the susceptibility is analytic and becomes the function1 f / %
e
/ &()=&
4
; 2

c(u, )/ c
4
2
u,
d u,=3i (c( )/c
4
2)
c( )/c
4
=2+
2
3i

c(u, )/c
4
2
u,
d u,
- !o match reality' we ali"n the contour inte"ral so that it sweeps the real a%is and then follows
a semi-circle at infinity. !he semi-circle piece can be dropped. *e also brin" to the real a%is'
bein" careful to "o 0ust around the pole1
c(u)/ c
4
=2+
2
3
(c(u)/ c
4
2)+
2
3i
'

c(u, )/c
4
2
u,u
d u,
c(u)/ c
4
=2+
2
i
'

c(u, )/c
4
2
u,u
d u,
- !he operator ' means take the principal part' or in other words' do the inte"ral over all points
e%cept the sin"ular points.
- &f we split this euation into its real and ima"inary components' we "et1
229
(( )/
4
)=2+
2

'

((,)/
4
)
,
d ,
(()/
4
)=
2

'

((, )/
4
)2
,
d ,
- !hese are the >ramers->oni" ?elations. !hey are very useful e%perimentally. !ypically' one
measures the ima"inary part of the permittivity throu"h absorption studies and can than
calculate directly the real part.
230




"#$%&#'(
)*+&%'+
231
Homework 1 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
Problem 1
"ac#son 1.3
Usin$ Dirac delta functions in the appropriate coordinates, e%press the follo!in$ char$e distri&utions as
three'di(ensional char$e densities )x*.
)a* +n spherical coordinates, a char$e Q unifor(ly distri&uted over a spherical shell of radius R.
)&* +n cylindrical coordinates, a char$e per unit len$th unifor(ly distri&uted over a cylindrical surface
of radius b.
)c* +n cylindrical coordinates, a char$e Q spread unifor(ly over a flat circular disc of ne$li$i&le
thic#ness and radius R.
)d* ,he sa(e as part )c*, &ut usin$ spherical coordinates.
SOLUTIO!
,he easiest (ethod to use is to set a Dirac delta for every di(ension that has an infinitely thin
appearance. Multiply this &y so(e ar&itrary para(eter, inte$rate over the !hole o&-ect, set this e.ual to
the total char$e, then solve for the ar&itrary para(eter.
)a* For the spherical shell, the char$e distri&ution is only thin in the radial direction.
(r , , )=A(rR)
/o! inte$rate over all space and set it e.ual to the total char$e Q.
Q=

0
2

(r , , )r
2
sin dr d d
Q=0 A

(rR)r
2
dr
Q=0 R
2
A
A=
Q
0 R
2
p( r ,0 ,)=
Q
0 R
2
6 (rR)
232
,his ans!er should &e o&vious no!. +t is -ust the total char$e divided &y the area of a sphere ti(es the
delta.
)&* For the cylindrical surface1
(r , , z)=A(rb)
=

0
2

( r , , z)r dr d
=A

0
2
d

(rb)r dr
=A2b
A=

2b
p( r ,, z)=
\
2b
6( rb)
2$ain, this should &e o&vious that this is the surface char$e density ti(e the delta, !here the surface
char$e density is the linear char$e density divided &y the circu(ference of the cylinder.
)c* For the flat disc, !e (ust use the step function H in the radial direction.
p( r ,, z)=A6( z) H ( Rr )
Q=

0
2

p(r ,, z) r dr d 0 dz
Q=A

6( z) dz

0
2
d 0

H( Rr) r dr
Q=A2

0
R
r dr
A=
Q
R
2
p( r ,, z )=
Q
R
2
6( z) H ( Rr)
2$ain, it should &e o&vious that this is the deltas ti(es the surface char$e density, !hich is the total
233
char$e divided &y the area of the disc.
)d* For the flat disc in spherical coordinates try1
p( r ,0 ,)=A
6(0/ 2)
r
H ( Rr)
Q=

0
2

p(r , 0 , ) r
2
sin0 dr d 0d
Q=A

0
2
d

6(0/ 2)sin 0 d 0

H( Rr) r dr
A=
Q
R
2
(r , , )=
Q
R
2
( / 2)
r
H(Rr)
Problem "
"ac#son 1.3
Calculate the attractive force &et!een conductors in the parallel plate capacitor )4ro&le( 1.5a1 area A,
separated &y distance d* and the parallel cylinder capacitor )4ro&le( 1.61 radii a
1
and a
2
, separated &y
distance d* for
)a* fi%ed char$es on each conductor
)&* fi%ed potential difference &et!een conductors.
SOLUTIO!
)a* 4arallel 4lates
Because the plates are lar$e, flat, and close, !e can ne$lect frin$e effects. +f one plate has total char$e
7Q and the other plate has total char$e 'Q, then they each have a char$e density
p=
Q
A
6( zd )
and
p=
Q
A
6( z)
for 0 8 x 8 A
192
and 0 8 y 8 A
192
,he total force on the positive plate due to the other plate is the su( of the force on all of its parts,
!hich (athe(atically ta#es the for( of an inte$ral1
#=

p( x) E(x) d x
:ere E is not the total electric field, &ut the electric field due to the ne$ative plate
234
;%pand in Cartesian coordinates1
#=

p( x , y , z ) E( x , y , z) dx dy dz
et us find the force on the positively char$ed plate placed at z < d &y su&stitutin$ in its char$e density1
#=
Q
A

0
. A

0
.A
E( x , y , d ) dx dy
Because !e are ne$lectin$ frin$e effects )in effect !e are assu(in$ that the plates are lar$e enou$h that
they appear infinite !hen co(pared to the rest of the syste(*, the sy((etry of the syste( re.uires that
the electric field can only &e a function of z. ,he re(ainin$ inte$rals thus reduce do!n to the area of
the plate, !hich cancels the area in the deno(inator.
#=Q E( z=d )
,he electric field can &e found &y placin$ a =aussian pill&o% around a section of the each plate, as is
de(onstrated in detail else!here. Because the plate is thin, &oth top and &otto( of the =aussian surface
have electric field lines crossin$ and contri&ute1
2 E
n
=
u
c
0
E
n
=
!Q
2 Ac
0
>e (ust &e careful to reali?e that the nor(al of the inside of the positive plate points to!ards 'z and
the nor(al of the inside of the ne$ative plate points to!ards 7z.
E
pos plate
=
Q
2 Ac
0
( $)
E
ne$ plate
=
(Q)
2 Ac
0
$
Because of the sy((etry, the field is constant and unifor( across that $ap so that
E=E
pos plate
+E
ne$ plate
E=
Q
Ac
0
$
But for the purposes of calculatin$ the force, !e do not use the total field, rather !e use the field due to
to the ne$ative plate &ecause it is !hat acts on the positive plate.
#=Q E
ne$ plate
235
#=
Q
2
2 Ac
0
$
,he ri$ht plate e%periences a force in the '? direction, to!ards the other plate and is therefore attracted
to it, as !e should e%pect &ecause opposites attract.
4arallel Cylinders1
Because the distance &et!een the cylinders is lar$e co(pared to their radii, !e can appro%i(ate the(
as infinitely thin !ires for the purpose of calculatin$ the fields. 4lace cylinder 1 at the ori$in !ith
positive char$e per unit len$th 7 and cylinder 2 at x < d !ith ne$ative char$e per unit len$th '. +f !e
!ant to find the force on cylinder 2, !e only need to find the field due to cylinder 1 &ecause cylinder 2
!ill not e%ert a net force on itself.
,he field due to cylinder 1 can &e found &y placin$ a cylindrical =aussian surface around it and ta#in$
advanta$e of sy((etry1

E nda=
q
enc
c
0
l

E r r d =
q
enc
c
0
E
r
2r=
(
q
enc
l
)
1
c
0
@eco$ni?e q
enc
9l as the char$e per unit len$th 1
E=
\
2r c
0
r
#=

p( x , y , z ) E( x , y , z) dx dy dz
#=

6( y)6( xd )(\) E( x , y , z) dx dy dz
#
l
=\E(d ,0)
#
l
=
\
2
2d c
0
r
Cylinder 2 e%periences a force in the 'r direction, to!ards the ori$in, !here cylinder 1 resides.
)&* 4arallel 4lates1
2 fi%ed potential difference V is (aintained across the capacitor as opposed to fi%ed char$es. 4otential
236
is related to electric field accordin$ to1
E=4
For a one di(ensional field , this &eco(es1
E=
d 4
d z
For a unifor( field this &eco(es1
E=
V
d
!here d is the distance &et!een the t!o points !here the potential is (easured.
,he contri&ution fro( -ust one plate is
E
ne$ plate
=
V
2d
>e found previously the relationship &et!een the total electric field and the char$e on one plate to &e1
E=
Q
Ac
0
so that1
Q=Ac
0
E
Q=
Ac
0
V
d
Finally1
#=QE
ne$ plate
#=
Ac
0
V
2
2d
2
$
4arallel Cylinders1
,he electric field due to cylinder 1 !as found to &e1
E
1
=
\
2r c
0
r
et us restrict ourselves to points alon$ the x a%is.
E
1
=
\
2 xc
0
x
237
,he field due to cylinder 2 is
E
2
=
\
2( xd )c
0
x
,he total field is1
E=
\
2c
0

1
x

1
xd
|
x
,he potential difference &et!een the t!o cylinders can &e found &y inte$ratin$1
V =

a
1
da
2
Ed x
V =
\
2c
0

a
1
da
2

1
x

1
xd
|
d x
V =
\
2c
0
ln

( da
2
)(da
1
)
a
1
a
2
|
>ith d AA a, !e can si(plify this
V =
\
c
0
ln

d
.
a
1
a
2
|
Solve for the line char$e density1
\=
c
0
V
ln

d
.
a
1
a
2
|
#
l
=\E
1
(d , 0)
#
l
=
c
0
V
2
2d

ln
(
d
.
a
1
a
2
)|
2
( x)
238
Problem %
2 lar$e flat plate has ne$ative electric char$e per(anently fi%ed unifor(ly alon$ its surface. 2 s(all,
perfectly conductin$, grounded e.uilateral trian$le is &rou$ht close to the plate !ith one of its vertices
pointin$ ri$ht at the plate. Create a t!o'di(ensional dra!in$ of this pro&le(.
)a* Dra! the induced char$es on the trian$le &y (ar#in$ a collection of plus si$ns or ne$ative si$ns as
needed. Sho! re$ions of hi$her char$e &y dra!in$ (ore sy(&ols there.
)&* Dra! the electric field lines every!here in the pro&le( usin$ solid arro!s, &ein$ careful to denote
field stren$th &y field line density.
)c* Dra! the e.uipotential lines every!here in the pro&le( usin$ dashed lines.
SOLUTIO!
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
'
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
7
'
'
'
239
Problem &
2 solid sphere of electric char$e has a total char$e Q and radius a. ,he char$e is distri&uted unifor(ly
in the a?i(uthal and polar directions, &ut varies in the radial direction accordin$ to r
n
.
)a* Find the uni.ue e%pression for the char$e density B.
)&* Usin$ =aussCs la!, find the electric field inside and outside the sphere.
)c* Find the electric potential inside and outside the sphere, assu(in$ that the potential is ?ero at an
infinite radius.
)d* 4lot the electric field stren$th and potential as a function of radius for the values of n < '1, 0, 1, 2.
SOLUTIO!
)a* +nside the sphere !e (ust first find the full for( of the char$e density. ,he char$e density has the
for(1
p=Ar
n
,o deter(ine the constant A, !e inte$rate the char$e density over the !hole sphere and set it e.ual to
the total char$e1

0
2

0
a
Ar
n
r
2
dr sin 0 d 0d =Q
A=
Q
0

0
a
r
n+2
dr
A=
Q
0

a
n+3
n+3
|
,he char$e density no! has the for(1
=
Q
0

a
n+3
n+3
|
r
n
)&* ,o o&tain the field outside the solid sphere, dra! an inte$ration sphere concentric to the solid
sphere and !ith so(e radius r A a. Due to sy((etry, the electric field is nor(al to the inte$ration
surface, and is thus parallel to the inte$ration surfaceCs nor(al. =aussCs la! &eco(es1

S
E da=
Q
c
0
240
Due to the sy((etry of the conductin$ sphere and inte$ration sphere, the electric field is constant over
the inte$ration surface and can &e re(oved fro( the inte$ral1
E

S
da=
Q
c
0
,he surface inte$ral evaluates to the total area of the inte$ration sphere !ith radius r.
E 0r
2
=
Q
c
0
2fter rearran$in$1
E=
Q
0 c
0
r
2
for r A a
Dra! a spherical inte$ration surface concentric !ith and inside the char$ed sphere, !ith a radius r 8 a.
,he total char$e contained in this inte$ration sphere is o&tained &y inte$ratin$1
q=

0
2

0
r
p(r C ) r C
2
dr C sin 0d 0 d
q=0

0
r
p( r C) r C
2
dr C
q=0

0
r
Q
0

a
n+3
n+3
|
r C
n
r C
2
dr C
q=0
Q
0

a
n+3
n+3
|

0
r
r C
n+2
dr C
q=0
Q
0

a
n+3
n+3
|
r
n+3
n+3
q=Q
r
n+3
a
n+3
Due to parallel vectors and sy((etry, as sho!n a&ove, =aussCs la! &eco(es1
E

S
da=
q
c
0
241
E 0r
2
=
1
c
0
Q
r
n+3
a
n+3
E=
Q
0 c
0
a
2
(
r
a
)
n+1
for r 8 a
)c* ,he potential depends on the electric field accordin$ to1

A
B
Ed l=( d
B
d
A
)

Ed l=( d

d
r
)
Set d=0 1
d=

Ed l
d=

E dr C
Dutside the sphere1
d=
Q
0c
0

1
r C
2
dr C
d=
Q
0c
0

1
r C
|
r

d=
Q
0c
0
r
+nside the sphere1
d=

r
a
E dr C+

E dr C
d=
Q
0c
0
a
n+3

r
a
r C
n+1
dr C+
Q
0 c
0

1
r C
2
dr C
d=
Q
0c
0
a
n+3
(n+2)
r C
n+2
|
r
a

Q
0c
0

1
r C
|
a

242
d=
Q
0c
0
a
n+3
(n+2)
a
n+2
r
n+2
|+
Q
0c
0
a
d=
Q
0c
0
a(n+2)

(n+3)
(
r
a
)
n+2
|
)d* For the different values of n !e have )outside !e have E=
Q
0 c
0
r
2
and d=
Q
0c
0
r
for all cases*1
n < '11
E=
Q
0 c
0
a
2
and
d=
Q
0c
0
a

2
(
r
a
)|
n < 01
E=
Q
0 c
0
a
2
(
r
a
)
and d=
Q
Ec
0
a

3
(
r
a
)
2
|
n < 11
E=
Q
0 c
0
a
2
(
r
a
)
2
and d=
Q
12 c
0
a

0
(
r
a
)
3
|
n < 21
E=
Q
0 c
0
a
2
(
r
a
)
3
and d=
Q
15 c
0
a

F
(
r
a
)
0
|
,he electric field in the plot is in units of
Q
0c
0
a
2
and the electric potential is in units of
Q
0c
0
a
.
+nterestin$ly, the li(it of n approachin$ infinity $ives us a hollo! spherical shell of char$e. oo#in$ at
the $raphs !e see that in that case, the electric field in the shell !ould &e ?ero and the potential !ould
&e constant at the value at its surface.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
Electric Field
n = -1
n = 0
n = 1
n = 2
r/a
E
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
Electric Potential
n = -1
n = 0
n = 1
n = 2
r/a
P
H
I
243
Homework 2 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
Problem 1
"ac#son 1.10
$rove the mean value theorem% For char&e'free space the value of the electrostatic potential at any
point is e(ual to the avera&e of the potential over the surface of any sphere centered on that point.
SOLUTIO!
)he potential is #no!n on the surface, so this pro*le+ can *e for+ulated usin& a Dirichlet ,reen-s
function e(uation%
"=
1
.
0

"G
D
d
3
"-
1
.

d G
D
d n-

da -
!here the Dirichlet ,reen-s function +ust satisfy%
G
D
( " , "- )=
1
""-
+F(" , "- )
!here -
2
F " , "- =0 and G
D
/ 0 on the surface
0n this particular case, there is no free char&e, "=0 , so that the e(uation si+plifies to
( ")=
1
.

d G
D
d n-
)
da-
Because !e are only +easurin& the potential at the center of the sphere !hich is centered on the ori&in,
" / 0 and therefore
1
""-
=
1
x-
, leadin& to%
G
D
(" , "- )=
1
x -
+F(" , "- )
0n order for the &reen function to disappear on the surface, G
D
1x- / R2 / 0, !e +ust have F / '13R. )he
,reen function is no!%
G
D
(" , "- )=
1
x -

1
R
0nsert this into the e(uation%
244
"

4


'

'

'
'
"

4


'

'
'
"

4

'
"

'
4

T t t tt:
"

'

'
T gt b t t g t t t t q t
t t t

T t tt kw g t tk t W t t
g t t t t t tt tt wt G' Lw tg m
w G bx t t tk t k t t w t
t t
!
tt wt G' w tg m:

w G t bx tt t t t tk
t I w k t bx tt t
m m t t t bttm t t
tbt t t tg bm ggb:

bttm

A t t t t tt
tbt m t bttm mt g w
A t jt t t t
w m t t

bttm

bttm
245

top
E da=
q
enc

0
0f !e shrin# the *o5 s+all enou&h, the electric field *eco+es constant across the inte&ration surface
and can *e ta#en out of the inte&ral%
E

top
da=
q
enc

0
E A=
q
enc

0
E=
q
enc
A
0
)he surface char&e enclosed in a s+all *o5 divided *y the surface area enclosed *y the *o5 is !hat !e
+ean *y the surface char&e density .
E=

0
)his e5pression is very useful, *ut !e +ust al!ays re+e+*er that it only applies ri&ht at the surface of
the conductor. 4e can shrin# the pill*o5 !here ever !e !ant, so this e(uation applies at all points of
the surface of an ar*itrarily curved conductor. )his can *e e5pressed *y *ein& +ore specific%
[
E"=
"

0
]
on S
4e no! use the definition of the electric potential to &et this in ter+s of the potential%
E=
E n=

n
E=

n
Su*stitutin& this in and solvin& for the surface char&e density
[
"=
0
"
n
]
on S
)his e(uation can *e very useful. 0f !e have found the potential, !e can i++ediately derive the char&e
density induced on the surface of the conductor *y the potential.
246
Problem #
"ac#son 1.12
$rove Green's reciprocation theorem% 0f 8 is the potential due to a volu+e'char&e density 9 !ithin a
volu+e V and a surface'char&e density : on the conductin& surface S *oundin& the volu+e V, !hile 8-
is the potential due to another char&e distri*ution 9- and :-, then

V
- d
3
x+

S
- da=

V
- d
3
x+

S
- da
SOLUTIO!
Start !ith the ,reen-s theore+%

V
(
2
--
2
) d
3
x=

S (

d -
d n
-
d
d n
)
da
Use the $oisson e(uation%

2
=
1

0
(")
and

2
-=
1

0
- ( ")
%

V
(- - ) d
3
x=

S (

d -
d n
-
d
d n
)
da

V
- d
3
x

V
- d
3
x=

S (

0
d -
d n
-
0
d
d n
)
da
)he nor+al direction n in ,reen-s theore+ points aay fro+ the volu+e of interest, !hich in this case
!ould *e into the conductin& surface. Fro+ a previous pro*le+, !e #no! that the potential on a
conductor and surface char&e density are related accordin& to%
[
=
0

n
]
on S
and
[
- =
0
-
n
]
on S
4e have to reali;e that the nor+als in these e(uations are pointin& out of the conductor, !hereas the
nor+als in ,reen-s theore+ are pointin& into the conductor. 4e reverse the si&n to account for this%
[
=
0

n
in
]
on S
and
[
- =
0
-
n
in
]
on S
<o! su*stitute these into ,reen-s theore+%

V
- d
3
x

V
- d
3
x=

S
( -- ) da
Shuffle around to find%

V
- d
3
x+

S
- da=

V
- d
3
x+

S
- da
247
Problem $
Consider the rela5ation +ethod for solvin& the t!o'di+ensional $oisson e(uation. )he traditional
+ethod, as presented in class, uses a si+ple finite difference e5pansion of the derivative, applied t!ice.
6 *etter e5pansion is d
2
!3dx
2
/ ='!1x
i>2
2 > 1? !1x
i>1
2 ' 30 !1x
i
2 > 1? !1x
i'1
2 ' !1x
i'2
2@3112 h
2
2. Usin& this
e5pansion instead, derive the iteration e(uation and descri*e its +eanin&.
SOLUTIO!

2
(x , y)
x
2
+

2
( x , y)
y
2
=
1

0
(x , y)
( x
i +2
, y
i
)+1?( x
i +1
, y
i
)30(x
i
, y
i
)+1?(x
i1
, y
i
)( x
i2
, y
i
)
( x
i
, y
i +2
)+1?(x
i
, y
i +1
)30(x
i
, y
i
)+1?(x
i
, y
i1
)( x
i
, y
i2
)
=
12h
2

0
(x
i
, y
i
)
( x
i
, y
i
)=
1
?0
(( x
i+2
, y
i
)+(x
i2
, y
i
)+(x
i
, y
i +2
)+(x
i
, y
i 2
))
+[
.
1A
(( x
i +1
, y
i
)+( x
i 1
, y
i
)+(x
i
, y
i +1
)+(x
i
, y
i1
))+
h
2
A
0
( x
i
, y
i
)]
)he set of ter+s in s(uare *rac#ets is close to the four'pi5el3one'step avera&e of the potential as seen in
the ori&inal rela5ation +ethod. )his ne! +ethod essentially ta#es the old +ethod and adds so+e
correction ter+s and factors.
248
Homework 3 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
Problem 1
"ac#son 2.1
$ point char%e q is &rou%ht to a position a distance d a!ay fro' an infinite plane conductor held at
(ero potential. Usin% the 'ethod of i'a%es, find)
*a+ the surface,char%e density induced on the plane, and plot it-
*&+ the force &et!een the plane and the char%e usin% Coulo'&.s la! for the force &et!een the char%e
and its i'a%e-
*c+ the total force actin% on the plane &y inte%ratin% u
2
/ 2c
0
over the !hole plane-
*d+ the !or# necessary to re'ove the char%e q fro' its position to infinity
*e+ the potential ener%y &et!een the char%e q and its i'a%e /co'pare the ans!er to part d and discuss0.
*f+ Find the ans!er to part d in electron volts for an electron ori%inally one an%stro' fro' the surface.
SOLUTIO!
1e place the point char%e q at z 2 d and its i'a%e char%e ,q at z 2 ,d. 3he total potential is then 4ust the
potential due to these t!o point char%es)
4=
q
5c
0

1
.x
2
+y
2
+( zd )
2

1
.x
2
+y
2
+( z+d )
2
|
a+ the surface,char%e density can &e found usin% the relation !e derived in a previous ho'e!or#
pro&le')

u=c
0
4(")
n
|
on S

u=c
0
4(")
z
|
z=0

u=c
0
q
5c
0

( zd )
( x
2
+y
2
+( zd )
2
)
3/ 2
+
( z+d )
( x
2
+y
2
+( z+d )
2
)
3/2
||
z =0
=
1
2
qd
(x
2
+y
2
+d
2
)
3/ 2
249
=
q
2d
2
1
(
1+
(

d
)
2
)
3/2
!here the radial distance in cylindrical coordinates is) 6
2
2 x
2
7 y
2
et us plot this in units of *,q829d
2
+ as a function of 68d.
*&+ the force on the particle due to the i'a%e char%e is)
#=
1
1:c
0
q
2
d
2
$
3he real char%e is attracted do!n to!ards the conductor. 3he force %ets stron%er as it %ets closer.
*c+ the force on the conductor should &e e;ual and opposite to the force on the particle, !hich !e
derived in part &. 1e are supposed to calculate it any!ays. et us calculate the force as the interaction
of the surface char%e and the particle, as opposed to the interaction of the particle !ith its i'a%e.
d #
da
=uE
3he incre'ental force per unit area sho!n on the left is the electrostatic pressure. But the field is also
related to the surface char%e on a thin conductin% plate accordin% to)

E=
u
2c
0
n
so that
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1
1.2
rho/d
i
n
d
u
c
e
d

s
u
r
f
a
c
e

c
h
a
r
g
e

d
e
n
s
i
t
y
250
d #
da
=
u
2
2c
0
n
Electrostatic pressure on the surface of a conductor
3he total force is 4ust the pressure ti'es an incre'ental patch of area, inte%rated over all area patches)
d #=
u
2
2c
0
nda
#=

u
2
2c
0
da n
#=
1
2c
0
q
2
d
2
2

0

pd p
(p
2
+d
2
)
3
$
#= $
1
2c
0
q
2
d
2
<
1
( p
2
+d
2
)
2
|
0

#=
1
1:c
0
q
2
d
2
$
d+ 3he !or# needed to re'ove the char%e to infinity)
W=

F (d . ) d d .
W=
q
2
1:c
0

1
d .
2
d d .
W=
q
2
1:c
0

1
d .
|
d

W=
q
2
1:c
0
d
*e+ 3he potential ener%y &et!een the char%e q and its i'a%e)
W=
q
1
q
2
5c
0
"
1
"
2

W=
q
2
<c
0
d
251
3he potential ener%y is t!ice the !or# re;uired to 'ove the particle to infinity. 3he reason they don.t
'atch is &ecause the i'a%e particle is not a real particle. 1e 'ust re'e'&er that there are actually no
fields !ithin the conductor. 3he potential ener%y calculation a&ove is countin% the ener%y of the fields
in the conductor, !hich don.t actually e=ist.
*f+ 1e no! find the ans!er to part d in electron volts for an electron ori%inally one an%stro' fro' the
surface.
W=
q
2
1:c
0
d
W=
(1e)
2
1:(>.>2:10
?
e8@')(10
10
')
W=3.:e@
Problem %
"ac#son 2.A
$n insulated, spherical, conductin% shell of radius a is in a unifor' electric field E
0
. Bf the sphere is cut
into t!o he'ispheres &y a plane perpendicular to the field, find the force re;uired to prevent the
he'ispheres fro' separatin%
*a+ if the shell is unchar%ed-
*&+ if the total char%e on the shell is Q.
SOLUTIO!
*a+ $li%n the z a=is !ith the direction of the electric field. Find the potential outside a sphere at the
ori%in in a unifor' field &y placin% char%es at z 2 ,R and z 2 7R !ith char%es 7Q and ,Q and lettin% R
and Q approach infinity !ith Q8R
2
constant. 3he response of the sphere can &e represented &y placin%
t!o i'a%e char%es ,Qa8R and 7Qa8R in the sphere at ,a
2
8R and 7a
2
8R. 3he potential outside an
unchar%ed conductor in a unifor' field is therefore the potential of these four char%es)
=
Q
5
0

1
r
2
+R
2
+2r Rcos

1
r
2
+R
2
2 r Rcos
+
a/ R

r
2
+
a
5
R
2
2a
2 r
R
cos

a/ R

r
2
+
a
5
R
2
+2a
2 r
R
cos
|
Bn the li'it R CC r, this &eco'es)
=E
0
r cos+E
0
a
3
r
2
cos !here E
0
!as reco%ni(ed as 2Q859D
0
R
2
3he first ter' is 4ust the potential due to the applied field in spherical coordinates. 3he second ter' is
the potential of a perfect dipole. 3he sphere there has an induced char%e distri&ution that acts as a
252
perfect dipole.
3he electric field is therefore)
E=
E=E
0
cos rsin

+
a
3
r
3
(2cos r+sin

)|
3he electric field at the surface of the sphere is)
E( r=a)=E
0
3cos r
3he char%e distri&ution on the sphere.s surface is found usin%)
=
0
rE(r=a)
=3
0
E
0
cos
Bf the sphere is no! cut into he'ispheres at the polar an%le E 2 982, the &otto' he'isphere !ill feel a
total force)
#=

(")E(")d a
1e have to &e careful and not include the force of the &otto' he'isphere on itself. 1e do this &y usin%
the relation E=

2
0
!hich %ives us 4ust the electric field at the surface of a conductor due to non,self
contri&utions. Usin% this, !e have)
#=
1
2
0

2
r d a
#=

k
a
2
2
0

0
2

/ 2

(3
0
E
0
cos)
2
cossind d
#=

k A
0
E
0
2
a
2

/2

cos
3
sin d
#=
A
5

0
E
0
2
a
2

k
3he force needed to #eep the &otto' he'isphere in place !ould therefore have to &e e;ual and in the
opposite direction)
#=
A
5

0
E
0
2
a
2

k
253
Due the sy''etry, the force needed to #eep the other he'isphere in place !ould &e e;ual and
opposite.
*&+ Bf the sphere has a total char%e of Q, it !ill 4ust spread out unifor'ly on the sphere as an additional
char%e to the induced one.
=3
0
E
0
cos+
Q
5a
2
3he total force on the &otto' he'isphere !ill therefore &e)
#=
1
2
0

2
r d a
#=

k
a
2
2
0

0
2

/ 2

(3
0
E
0
cos+
Q
5a
2
)(3
0
E
0
cos+
Q
5 a
2
)cossin d d
#=
a
2
2
0

0
2

/ 2

(A
0
2
E
0
2
cos
2
+:
0
E
0
cos
Q
5 a
2
+
Q
2
1:
2
a
5
)cos sin d d
3he first ter' represents the force on the induced char%es due the e=ternal field and the field fro' the
induced char%es. 3he second ter' represents the force on the char%e Q due the e=ternal field. 3he third
ter' represent the force Q on itself. Fote that the force of the e=ternal field on the point,char%e,li#e
char%e Q !ill 4ust tend to shift it and not separate it. Because !e 4ust !ant forces that !ill separate the
t!o he'ispheres, !e 'ust drop the 'iddle ter')
#=
a
2
2
0

0
2

/ 2

(A
0
2
E
0
2
cos
2
+
Q
2
1:
2
a
5
)cossin d d
#=

A
5
a
2

0
E
0
2
+
Q
2
32
0
a
2
|
3he force needed to #eep the &otto' he'isphere touchin% the upper sphere is therefore)
#=

A
5
a
2

0
E
0
2
+
Q
2
32
0
a
2
|
254
Problem 3!
$ spherical shell of radius a is centered at the ori%in and held at a fi=ed potential of G 2 V for all polar
an%les less than H and G 2 0 for all polar an%les %reater than H.
*a+ Usin% the Ireen.s function 'ethod, !rite do!n the %eneral inte%ral e=pression for the electrical
potential at all points inside the sphere.
*&+ Find the potential at the ori%in &y evaluatin% the inte%ral at the ori%in.
*c+ Chec# your solution &y evaluatin% it at H 2 0, 982, and 9.
SOLUTIO!
*a+ 3he %eneral Ireen.s function 'ethod solution for Dirichlet &oundary conditions is)
( ")=
1
5
0

(".)G
D
d
3
" .
1
5
|
(

d G
D
d n.
)
da.
3here is no char%e in this pro&le', 6 2 0, so this reduces to)
( ")=
1
5
|
(

d G
D
d n.
)
da.
3he &oundary surface is a sphere, and !e are in spherical coordinates, so that this e;uation &eco'es)
(")=
a
2
5

0
2

d G
D
d n.
)
sin . d . d .
3he Ireen function for a spherical &oundary surface is)
G(" , "' )=
1
r
2
+r '
2
2r r ' cos y

r '
2
a
2
r
2
+a
2
2 r r ' cos y
!here cos y=cos cos.+sinsin . cos( . )
3he inte%ral needs the nor'al derivative of the Ireen.s function. 3he nor'al in the Ireen.s function
'ethod solution al!ays points aay fro' the re%ion of interest. Bn this case, !e !ant the potential
inside the sphere, so the nor'al vector points in the positive radial direction,
d G
D
d n.
=
d G
D
d r .
=
d
d r .

r
2
+r'
2
2 r r ' cos y

r '
2
a
2
r
2
+a
2
2r r' cos y
|
255
d G
D
d n.
=
r cos yr .
(r
2
+r '
2
2 r r ' cos y)
3/ 2

r cos yr
2
r . / a
2
(
r '
2
a
2
r
2
+a
2
2r r ' cos y)
3/2
3he inte%ral is evaluated at the radius a, so that !e 4ust need this e=pression at r. 2 a.

d G
D
d n.
|
r .=a
=
r
2
a
2
a(r
2
+a
2
2 r acos y)
3/ 2
Fo! insert this &ac# into the %eneral solution)
(")=
a
5

0
2

r
2
a
2
(r
2
+a
2
2r a cos y)
3/2
)
sin. d . d .
$pply the specific &oundary condition of this pro&le')
(")=
aV
5

0
2

(
r
2
a
2
( r
2
+a
2
2r a cos y)
3/ 2
)
sin. d . d .
!here cos y=cos cos.+sinsin . cos( . )
*&+ 3o find the potential at the ori%in, si'ply set r 2 0)
( ")=
V
2
(1cos)
*c+
$t H 2 0, G 2 0 as e=pected &ecause the !hole sphere is at (ero potential.
$t H 2 982, G 2 V82 as e=pected fro' sy''etry !here the sphere is half at V and half at 0.
$t H 2 9, G 2 V as e=pected as the entire sphere is at V.
256
Homework 4 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
Problem 1
"ac#son 2.13
$a% &!o halves of a lon' hollo! conductin' cylinder of inner radius b are separated (y s)all
len'th!ise 'aps on each side, and are #ept at different potentials V
1
and V
2
. Sho! that the potential
inside is 'iven (y
4(p, )=
V
1
+V
2
2
+
V
1
V
2

tan
1
(
2bp
b
2
p
2
cos
)
!here is )easured fro) a plane perpendicular to the plane throu'h the 'ap.
$(% Calculate the surface*char'e density on each half of the cylinder.
SOLUTIO!
Due to the sy))etry of the pro(le), it is apparent that the solution !ill (e (est e+pressed in cylindrical
coordinates. ,dditionally, (ecause the solution !ill (e independent of the z coordinate, the pro(le)
reduces to the t!o di)ensions of polar coordinates (p ,) . Because the pro(le) contains no char'e,
the pro(le) si)plifies do!n to solvin' the aplace e-uation
2
4=0 in polar coordinates and
applyin' the (oundary condition 4(p=b , )=V () !here.
V ()=

V
1
if / 2>>3/ 2
V
2
if / 23/ 2

&he aplace e-uation in polar coordinates is.


1
p

p
(
p
4
p
)
+
1
p
2

2
4

2
=0
Separation of varia(les leads to the 'eneral solution.
4(p, )=(a
0
+b
0
ln p)( A
0
+B
0
)+

v ,v0
(a
v
p
v
+b
v
p
v
)( A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)
/e desire a valid solution at the ori'in, !hich is only possi(le if b
0
0 0 and b

0 0 so that the solution
(eco)es.
4(p, )=A
0
+B
0
+

v ,v0
p
v
( A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)
257
/e desire a sin'le, valid solution over the full an'ular ran'e, so the sin'le*value re-uire)ent )eans
4(p, )=4(p ,+2) . /hen !e apply this, !e 'et.
A
0
+B
0
+

v ,v0
p
v
( A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)=A
0
+B
0
(+2)+

v , v0
p
v
( A
v
e
i v( +2)
+B
v
e
i v(+2)
)
/hich leads to B
0
0 0 and 0 n !here n 0 1, 2, ... /e no! have.
4(p, )=A
0
+

n=1

p
n
(
A
n
e
i n
+B
n
e
i n
)
1o! apply the last (oundary condition 4(p=b , )=V ()
V ()=A
0
+

n=1

b
n
(
A
n
e
i n
+B
n
e
i n
) $Eq. 1%
et us first find the A
0
ter). 2nte'rate (oth sides over the full an'ular s!eep.

0
2
V () d =

0
2
A
0
d +

n=1

b
n
(
A
n

0
2
e
i n
d +B
n

0
2
e
i n
d
)

/ 2
/ 2
V
1
d +

/ 2
3/2
V
2
d =A
0
2
V
1
+V
2
=A
0
2
A
0
=
V
1
+V
2
2
et us no! find the A
n
coefficients. Multiply $Eq. 1% on (oth sides (y e
i n3
and inte'rate over all
an'les .

0
2
V () e
i n3
d =A
0

0
2
e
i n3
d +

n=1

b
n
(
A
n

0
2
e
i( nn3 )
d +B
n

0
2
e
i ( n+n3)
d
)
Use the orthonor)ality condition

0
2
e
i ( kk 3) x
dx=26
k , k 3

0
2
d V () e
i n
=2b
n
A
n
A
n
=
1
2b
n

0
2
d V ()e
i n
4lu' in the e+plicit for) of the potential on the (oundary !hich (rea#s the inte'ral into t!o parts.
258
A
n
=
1
2b
n

V
1

/ 2
/ 2
d e
i n
+V
2

/ 2
3/ 2
d e
i n
|
A
n
=
1
2b
n

V
1

e
i n
i n
|
/ 2
/ 2
+V
2

e
i n
i n
|
/2
3/ 2
|
A
n
=
(1)
( n+1)/ 2
nb
n

V
1
V
2
| and
A
n
=0 if n=even
et us no! solve for the B
n
coefficients. &a#e $Eq. 1% a'ain and this ti)e )ultiply (y e
i n3
and inte'rate
over all .

0
2
V () e
i n3
d =A
0

0
2
e
i n3
d +

n=1

b
n
(
A
n

0
2
e
i (n+n3)
d +B
n

0
2
e
i ( n3n)
d
)
Use the orthonor)ality condition

0
2
e
i ( kk 3) x
dx=26
k , k 3

0
2
V () e
i n
d =b
n
B
n
2
B
n
=
1
2b
n

0
2
V ()e
i n
d
4lu' in the e+plicit for) of the potential on the (oundary !hich (rea#s the inte'ral into t!o parts.
B
n
=
1
2b
n

V
1

/ 2
/ 2
d e
i n
+V
2

/ 2
3/ 2
d e
i n
|
B
n
=
1
2b
n

V
1

e
i n
i n
|
/ 2
/ 2
+V
2

e
i n
i n
|
/2
3/2
|
B
n
=
(1)
( n+1)/ 2
nb
n

V
1
V
2
| and
B
n
=0 if n=even
1o! that !e have found all of the coefficients, the solution is deter)ined.
4(p, )=
V
1
+V
2
2
+

n=1, odd

p
n (1)
(n+1) / 2
nb
n

V
1
V
2
|
(e
i n
+e
i n
)
259
4(p, )=
V
1
+V
2
2
+
V
1
V
2
2
5


n=1, odd

(1)
(n+1)/ 2
p
n
nb
n
cos(n)
4(p, )=
V
1
+V
2
2
+
V
1
V
2
2
5



n=1, odd

(1)(1)
( n+1)/ 2
n
(
pe
i
b
)
n
1o! !e reco'ni6e the &aylor e+pansion of the arctan. tan
1
( x)=

n=1,odd

(1)(1)
( n+1)/ 2
n
x
n
4(p, )=
V
1
+V
2
2
+
V
1
V
2
2
5

tan
1
(
pe
i
b
)|
Usin' the identity tan
1
(z)=
i
2
ln (1i z )ln (1+i z)| and e+pandin' the co)ple+ nu)(er z in its
co)ponents, !e can prove the identity.
tan
1
( z)|=
1
2
tan
1
(
2 ( z)
1z
2
)
/e no! use this identity.
4(p, )=
V
1
+V
2
2
+
V
1
V
2

tan
1
(
2bp
b
2
p
2
cos
)
$(% Calculate the surface*char'e density on each half of the cylinder.
,s derived earlier usin' a 7aussian pill(o+ surface, the surface*char'e density on a conductor is related
to the potential accordin' to.
u=

c
0
d 4
dn
|
n=a
/e assu)e that the pro(le) is see#in' the char'e density on the inside surface of the conductor
(ecause that is !here !e #no! the potential. 2n that case, the nor)al to the inside surface of the
conductor points in the opposite direction as the radial di)ension, so that n 0 *.
u=

c
0
d 4
d p
|
p=b
u=

c
0
d
d p(
V
1
+V
2
2
+
V
1
V
2

tan
1
(
2bp
b
2
p
2
cos
))
|
p=b
260
u=

c
0
V
1
V
2

(
1
1+
(
2bp
b
2
p
2
cos
)
2
)
d
d p
(
2bp
b
2
p
2
cos
)
|
p=b
u=

c
0
V
1
V
2
(
2bcos (b
2
+p
2
)
(b
2
p
2
)
2
+( 2bpcos)
2
)
|
p=b
u=c
0
V
1
V
2
bcos
Problem "
"ac#son 2.28 $a% only
&he t!o*di)ensional re'ion, 9 a, 0 : : , is (ounded (y conductin' surfaces at 0 0, 0 a, and
0 held at 6ero potential, as indicated in the s#etch. ,t lar'e the potential is deter)ined (y so)e
confi'uration of char'es and;or conductors at fi+ed potentials.
$a% /rite do!n a solution for the potential 4(p, ) that satisfies the (oundary conditions for finite .
SOLUTIO!
$a% /e can thin# of the char'es a!ay fro) this rounded corner as e+ternal to the pro(le), so that they
si)ply create so)e (oundary condition on the potential at lar'e . &he re'ion near the corner has no
char'es and is descri(ed (y the aplace e-uation.

2
4=0
2n polar coordinates, the aplace e-uation (eco)es.
1
p

p
(
p
4
p
)
+
1
p
2

2
4

2
=0
Usin' the )ethod of separation of varia(les, the 'eneral solution is found to (e
4(p, )=(a
0
+b
0
ln p)( A
0
+B
0
)+

v ,v0
(a
v
p
v
+b
v
p
v
)( A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)
a

261
,pply the (oundary condition 4(p, =0)=0
0=( a
0
+b
0
ln p)( A
0
)+

v ,v0
( a
v
p
v
+b
v
p
v
)( A
v
+B
v
)
&o hold true for all values of !e )ust have
A
0
=0
and B
v
=A
v
. &he solution no! (eco)es.
4(p, )=(a
0
+b
0
ln p)( B
0
)+

v ,v0
(a
v
p
v
+b
v
p
v
) A
v
sin(v )
,pply the (oundary condition 4(p, =)=0
0=( a
0
+b
0
ln p)( B
0
)+

v ,v0
( a
v
p
v
+b
v
p
v
) A
v
sin(v )
&o hold true for all values of !e )ust have
B
0
=0
and v=
n

!here n 0 1, 2, 3... !hich 'ives


4(p, )=

n=1

(
a
n
p
n/
+b
n
p
n/
)
A
n
sin
(
n

)
,pply the (oundary condition 4(p=a ,)=0
0=

n=1

(
a
n
a
n/
+b
n
a
n/
)
A
n
sin
(
n

)
&o hold true for all values of an'les !e )ust have 0=a
n
a
n/
+b
n
a
n/
!hich leads to.
b
n
=a
n
a
2n/
&he solution at this point ta#es the for) $!here several constant factors have (een co)(ined !ith the
last re)ainin' undeter)ined constant%.
4(p, )=

n=1

A
n
((
p
a
)
n/

(
p
a
)
n/
)
sin
(
n

)
262
Problem #
"ac#son 2.2<
, closed volu)e is (ounded (y conductin' surfaces that are the n sides of a re'ular polyhedron
$n 0 5, 8, <, 12, 20%. &he n surfaces are at different potentials V
i
, i 0 1, 2, =, n. 4rove in the si)plest
!ay you can that the potential at the center of the polyhedron is the avera'e potential on the n sides.
&his pro(le) (ears on 4ro(le) 2.23(, and has an interestin' si)ilarity to the result of 4ro(le) 1.10.
SOLUTIO!
Because the potential o(eys the superposition principle, !e can (rea# do!n the total potential at the
center point in the polyhedron due to the n sides at different potentials V
i
as a su) of potentials, each
one due to one side (ein' held at its potential V
i
and all other sides (ein' held at 6ero.
d( V
1,
V
2,
V
3,.
.. , V
n
)=d(V
1,
0,0,. .. ,0)+d( 0,V
2,
0,... , 0)+...+d(0, 0, 0,... , V
n
)
d( V
1,
V
2,
V
3,.
.. , V
n
)=

i =1
n
d(i
th
side at V
i
, all others at 0)
d( V
1,
V
2,
V
3,.
.. , V
n
)=

i =1
n
d
i
!here d
i
=d
i
(i
th
side at V
i
, all others at 0)
1o! consider a special case !here all the !alls are held at the sa)e potential Vi 0 V. 2n this case, the
rela+ation )ethod tells us that the entire interior, includin' the center point )ust also (e at this constant
potential so that d=V . Because the center point is e-ually distant fro) each face and they all have the
sa)e area, the potentials at the center due to each face are all e-ual if all the faces are e-ual.
d
i
=d
0
.
4lu''in' these values into the last e-uation a(ove, for this special case, !e have.
V =

i=1
n
d
0
V =nd
0
d
0
=
V
n
&he contri(ution at the center fro) each face is therefore V;n !here V is the potential of the face. 1o!,
if a face a held at a potential of 6ero, it o(viously contri(utes nothin' in the sense of the superposition
of potentials. $Surfaces at 6ero potential o(viously contri(ute to a pro(le) overall (ecause they provide
(oundary conditions that )ust (e )et. , surface at 6ero potential is very different fro) no surface.%
&his )eans that if all other faces are held at a potential of 6ero e+cept face i !hich is held at potential
V
i
, the potential at the center !ill (e V
i
;n (y the e-uation a(ove.
d
i
=
V
i
n
1ote that this is only true at the center !here all faces are e-ually distant fro) the o(servation point.
,ddin' up all the potential co)ponents $plu''in' this into the 'eneral e-uation at the (e'innin'%, !e
263
have.
d=

i=1
n
(
V
i
n
)
d=

i =1
n
V
i
n
&his is >ust the avera'e over all the potentials of each individual face.
,nother !ay to solve this is in ter)s of the 7reen3s function )ethod. &here is no char'e inside the
polyhedron, so that the 7reen3s function )ethod solution (eco)es.
d( $)=
1
5
|
(
d
d G
D
d n3
)
da 3
&his is >ust an inte'ral over the entire surface, so !e can (rea# it up into an inte'ral over each face.
d($)=
1
5

i=1
n

S
i
(
V
i
d G
D, i
d n3
)
da 3
1o! the potential is constant across an entire 'iven face, so that it can co)e out of the inte'ral.
d($)=
1
5

i=1
n
V
i

S
i
d G
D , i
d n3
da 3
&he inte'ral at this point is entirely 'eo)etrical. &he 7reen3s function depends entirely on the 'eo)etry
of the surface and the distance (et!een o(servation point and the surface. Because each face of a
re'ular polyhedron has the e+act sa)e shape, area, an'le, and distance fro) the center, the inte'ral
)ust (e the sa)e for all surface and can co)e out of the su))ation sy)(ol.
d($)=
1
5

S
i
d G
D ,i
d n3
da 3

i=1
n
V
i
,t this point, !e can suc# everythin' in front into one constant.
d( $)=C

i=1
n
V
i
Si)ilar to as !as done (efore, !e can find the constant C (y ta#in' the special case of all surfaces at
the sa)e potential V leadin' to points inside (ein' at the potential V.
V =C

i =1
n
V
264
V =C nV
1=C n
C=
1
n
So that finally.
d=

i =1
n
V
i
n
Problem 4
, hollo!, rectan'ular (o+ has its (otto) face in the z 0 0 plane, centered at the ori'in, and !ith !idth
and hei'ht 2a so that the (otto) corners of the (o+ are at points $a, a, 0%, $a, *a, 0%, $*a, a, 0%, and
$*a, *a, 0%. &he (o+ is so tall that it effectively stretches out infinitely in the z direction !ith the top face
at z 0 ?. ,ll faces are held at a potential of 6ero e+cept the (otto) face !hich is held at a potential of
V$x, y% 0 V
0
x
2
y
2
;a
5
. Find the electrostatic potential at all points in the (o+ (y solvin' the aplace
e-uation usin' a series solution. Solve the inte'ral ans si)plify as )uch as possi(le.
SOLUTIO!
&here is not char'e in this pro(le), so the electrostatic potential o(eys the aplace e-uation.

2
4=0
2n rectan'ular coordinates, this (eco)es.

2
4
x
2
+

2
4
y
2
+

2
4
z
2
=0
&ryin' a solution of the for) 4( x , y , z)=X ( x)Y ( y) Z ( z) and usin' separation of varia(les leads to
the e-uations
d
2
X ( x)
d x
2
=o
2
X ( x) ,
d
2
Y ( y)
d y
2
=
2
Y ( y) ,
d
2
Z( z)
d z
2
=y
2
Z ( z) !here o
2
+
2
=y
2
&he solution to these e-uation are cosines and sines, co)ple+ e+ponentials, or hyper(olic cosines and
sines dependin' on the (oundary conditions and ho! !e !ant to approach the pro(le). 2n this case,
the sy))etry in the x and y directions )a#es it o(vious that the solutions in this direction !ill (e
cosines.
X ( x)=Acos( ox) , Y ( y)=Bcos( y) , and Z( z)=C e
y z
+De
y z
&he special case solutions !here @ 0 0, A 0 0, and B 0 0 have (een o)itted as it is i))ediately o(vious
265
that those particular solutions do not satisfy the (oundary conditions.
&he 'eneral solution therefore (eco)es.
d=

o0

0
cos(ox)cos( y)(C e
yz
+De
y z
)
,pply the (oundary condition of 6ero potential at x 0 a.
0=

o0

0
cos(oa)cos( y)(C e
yz
+De
y z
)
&his is only true for all y and z if cos(oa)=0 , !hich leads to.
o=
n
2a
!here n is odd
,pplyin' the (oundary condition of 6ero potential at x 0 *a does not 'ive us anythin' ne! as !e have
essentially already used this (oundary conditions !hen !e dropped the sine solutions. ,pplyin' the
(oundary conditions in the y directions 'ives us the sa)e type of solutions, leadin' to.
d=

n=odd

m=odd
cos
(
n
2a
x
)
cos
(
m
2a
y
)
(C e
n
2
+m
2
z / 2a
+De
n
2
+m
2
z / 2a
)

,pply the (oundary condition of 6ero potential at z 0 ?.
0=

n=odd

m=odd
cos
(
n
2a
x
)
cos
(
m
2a
y
)
(C)
C=0
&he solution so far (eco)es.
d=

n=odd

m=odd
D
n, m
cos
(
n
2a
x
)
cos
(
m
2 a
y
)
e
n
2
+m
2
z/ 2a
,pply the final (oundary condition.
V ( x , y)=

n=odd

m=odd
D
n, m
cos
(
n
2a
x
)
cos
(
m
2a
y
)
Multiply (oth sides (y cosines and inte'rate in order to ta#e advanta'e of the ortho'onality condition.
D
n, m
=
1
a
2

a
a

a
a
V ( x , y)cos
(
n
2a
x
)
cos
(
m
2a
y
)
dx dy
266
D
n, m
=
V
0
a
8

a
a

a
a
x
2
y
2
cos
(
n
2a
x
)
cos
(
m
2a
y
)
dx dy
D
n, m
=
V
0
a
8

a
a
x
2
cos
(
n
2a
x
)
dx

a
a
y
2
cos
(
m
2 a
y
)
dy
D
n, m
=5
V
0
a
8

0
a
x
2
cos
(
n
2a
x
)
dx

0
a
y
2
cos
(
m
2a
y
)
dy
D
n, m
=
18
mn
V
0
(
1
<
n
2

2
)(
1
<
m
2

2
)
(1)
n+m
2
&he final solution is.
d=
18V
0


n=1,3,C. ..

m=1,3,C. ..

1
mn(
1
<
n
2

2
)(
1
<
m
2

2
)
(1)
n+m
2
cos
(
n
2 a
x
)
cos
(
m
2a
y
)
e
n
2
+m
2
z /2a
267
Homework 5 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
Problem 1
"ac#son 3.1
$!o concentric spheres have radii a, b %b & a' and each is divided into t!o he(ispheres )y the sa(e
hori*ontal plane. $he upper he(isphere of the inner sphere and the lo!er he(isphere of the outer
sphere are (aintained at potential V. $he other he(ispheres are at *ero potential. Deter(ine the
potential in the re+ion a , r , b as a series in e+endre polyno(ials. -nclude ter(s at least up to l . /.
Chec# your solution a+ainst #no!n results in the li(itin+ case b 0 1, and a 0 0.
SOLUTIO!
$he +eo(etry of the pro)le( can )e s#etched as a cross2section of the spheres3
Because of the spherical +eo(etry of the pro)le( and the a)sence of char+e, !e choose to solve the
aplace e4uation in spherical coordinates3

2
4=0 0
1
r

2
r
2
( r 4)+
1
r
2
sin0

0
(
sin 0
4
0
)
+
1
r
2
sin
2
0

2
4

2
=0
Usin+ the (ethod of separation of varia)les leads to the +eneral solution3
4(r ,0 ,)=

l
( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l 1
)( A
m=0
+B
m=0
) P
l
m=0
(cos0)
+

m0, l
( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l 1
)( A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
) P
l
m
(cos0)
$he )oundaries in this pro)le( are all a*i(uthally sy((etric, so that the solution for the electric
potential !ill not )e a function of . $he only !ay to (a#e the +eneral solution independent of is to
set m . 0 and B
m.0
. 0.
V
V
0
0
x
z
a
b
268
4(r ,0 ,)=

l
( A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l 1
) P
l
m=0
(cos0)
-n other pro)le(s !here !e (ust have a valid solution at the ori+in, B
l
(ust )e *ero to #eep the
solution fro( )lo!in+ up at the ori+in. But in this pro)le(, !e do not see# a valid solution at the
ori+in, so !e cannot use this restriction.
5pply the )oundary condition3
4(r=a)=V
1
!here
V
1
=V if 0/ 2 and V
1
=0 if 0>/ 2
V
1
=

l
( A
l
a
l
+B
l
a
l 1
) P
l
(cos0)
Multiply )oth sides )y
P
l 6
(cos 0)sin0
and inte+rate

V
1
P
l 6
(cos 0)sin0 d 0=

l
( A
l
a
l
+B
l
a
l 1
)

P
l 6
(cos0) P
l
(cos0) sin 0d 0
Use the ortho+onality condition of e+endre polyno(ials3
0

P
l 6
(cos0) P
l
(cos 0)sin0 d 0=
2
2l +1
6
l 6l

V
1
P
l 6
(cos 0)sin0 d 0=

l
( A
l
a
l
+B
l
a
l 1
)
2
2l +1
6
l 6 l
$he 7ronec#er delta (a#es every ter( in the su( collapse to *ero e8cept !hen l . l6

V
1
P
l
(cos0) sin0d 0=( A
l
a
l
+B
l
a
l 1
)
2
2l +1
Flip the e4uation and plu+ in the e8plicit for( of V
1
A
l
a
l
+B
l
a
l1
=
2l +1
2
V

0
/ 2
P
l
(cos0) sin0d 0
Ma#e a chan+e of varia)les3 x=cos 0 , dx=sin 0 d 0
A
l
a
l
+B
l
a
l1
=
2l +1
2
V

0
1
P
l
( x) dx
5pply the )oundary condition3
4(r=b)=V
2
!here
V
2
=0 if 0/ 2 and V
2
=V if 0>/ 2
V
2
=

l
( A
l
b
l
+B
l
b
l 1
) P
l
(cos0)
Multiply )oth sides )y
P
l 6
(cos 0)sin0
and inte+rate
269

V
2
P
l 6
(cos0) sin0d 0=

l
( A
l
b
l
+B
l
b
l 1
)

P
l
(cos 0) P
l 6
(cos0) sin 0d 0
Use the ortho+onality condition of e+endre polyno(ials3
0

P
l 6
(cos0) P
l
(cos 0)sin 0 d 0=
2
2l +1
6
l 6l
A
l
b
l
+B
l
b
l1
=
2l +1
2

0

V
2
P
l
(cos0)sin0 d 0
9lu+ in the e8plicit for( of V
2
A
l
b
l
+B
l
b
l1
=
2l +1
2
V

/ 2

P
l
( cos0)sin 0d 0
Ma#e a chan+e of varia)les3 x=cos 0 , dx=sin 0 d 0
A
l
b
l
+B
l
b
l1
=
2l +1
2
V

1
0
P
l
( x) dx
Ma#e a chan+e of varia)les x 0 2x and use the identity3 P
l
(x)=(1)
l
P
l
( x)
A
l
b
l
+B
l
b
l1
=
2l +1
2
V (1)
l

0
1
P
l
( x) dx
$he t!o e4uations in )o8es for( a syste( of e4uations that !e can solve for A
l
and B
l
.
A
l
=
(a
l +1
+(1)
l
b
l+1
)
(a
2l+1
+b
2l +1
)
(
2l +1
2
)
V

0
1
P
l
( x)dx
B
l
=
a
l +1
b
2l +1
(1)
l
a
2l+1
b
l +1
a
2l +1
+b
2l+1
(
2l +1
2
)
V

0
1
P
l
( x)dx
$he final solution is then3
4(r ,0 ,)=
V
2

l
( 2l +1)

0
1
P
l
( x) dx
(a
l +1
(1)
l
b
l+1
) r
l
a b(a
l
b
2l
(1)
l
a
2l
b
l
) r
l 1
|
a
2l+1
b
2l +1
P
l
(cos0)
:e can do the inte+ral, )ut !e (ust )e careful to do the l . 0 and the l&0 cases separately3
l . 03

0
1
P
0
( x) dx=

0
1
dx=1
270
l & 03

0
1
P
l
( x)dx=
1
2l+1

0
1
d
dx
P
l +1
( x)P
l 1
( x)| dx

0
1
P
l
( x)dx=
1
2l+1
P
l +1
( x)P
l 1
( x)|
0
1

0
1
P
l
( x)dx=
1
2l+1
P
l +1
(1)P
l 1
(1)P
l +1
(0)+P
l 1
(0)|

0
1
P
l
( x)dx=
1
2l+1
P
l 1
(0)P
l+1
(0)|
:hen the l . 0 ter( is ta#en out of the su( and the inte+ral solutions plu++ed in, the final solution
)eco(es3
4(r ,0 ,)=
V
2
+
V
2

l =1

P
l 1
( 0)P
l+1
(0)|
(a
l +1
(1)
l
b
l +1
) r
l
a b( a
l
b
2l
(1)
l
a
2l
b
l
)r
l1
|
a
2l +1
b
2l +1
P
l
(cos0)
-t should )e noted that
P
l 1
(0)P
l+1
(0)|=0
!hen l is even, so that all the even ter(s drop out.
Because l is only odd, then (1)
l
=1
4(r ,0 ,)=
V
2
+
V
2

l=1,odd

P
l1
(0)P
l +1
(0)|
(a
l+1
+b
l +1
) r
l
a
l +1
b
l +1
(b
l
+a
l
)r
l1
|
a
2l +1
b
2l+1
P
l
(cos0)
$his can )e e8pressed e8plicitly as an e8panded su( %up to ter( l . / is sho!n'3
4(r ,0 ,)=
V
2
1+
(
3
2
)
(a
2
+b
2
) ra
2
b
2
(b+a)r
2
|
a
3
b
3
cos 0
+
(
;
1<
)
(a
/
+b
/
)r
3
a
/
b
/
(b
3
+a
3
) r
/
|
a
;
b
;
(=cos
3
03cos 0)+... |
:hen !e (a#e a state(ent a)out the )ehavior of the solution as b 0 1, !e are really (a#in+ a
state(ent a)out b )ein+ very lar+e co(pared to so(ethin+. So !e first +et the solution in a for( !here
b is al!ays the deno(inator of a ratio3
4(r ,0 ,)=
V
2
+
V
2

l=1, odd

P
l1
(0)P
l +1
(0)|
(( a/ b)
l +1
+1)( r/ b)
l
(1+(a/ b)
l
)(a/ r)
l +1
|
( a/b)
2l +1
1
P
l
(cos0)
>o! !e can (a#e the state(ent that as b 0 1, %a?b' 0 0, and %r?b' 0 0 so that3
4(r ,0 ,)=
V
2
+
V
2

l=1, odd

P
l1
(0)P
l +1
(0)|
(
a
r
)
l +1
P
l
(cos 0)
$his can )e e8pressed e8plicitly as an e8panded su( %up to ter( l . / is sho!n'3
271
4(r ,0 ,)=
V
2

1+
(
3
2
)(
a
r
)
2
cos0+
(
;
1<
)(
a
r
)
/
(=cos
3
03cos0)+...
|
:e can chec# this )y solvin+ the pro)le( outri+ht. :ith a*i(uthal sy((etry, the full an+ular ran+e
included, and the condition that the solution does not )lo! up at infinity, the +eneral solution )eco(es3
4(r ,0 ,)=A
0
+

l
B
l
r
l1
P
l
(cos0)
5pply the )oundary condition %derived )y physical ar+u(ents'3 4(r -)=V / 2
V / 2=A
0
5pply the )oundary condition3
4(r=a)=V
1
!here
V
1
=V if 0/ 2 and V
1
=0 if 0>/ 2
V
1
=
V
2
+

l
B
l
a
l 1
P
l
( cos0)
Multiply )oth sides )y
P
l 6
(cos 0)sin0 d 0
!here l6 & 0 and inte+rate.

V
1
P
l
(cos0) sin0d 0=B
l
a
l1 2
2l +1
B
l
=
2l +1
2
a
l+1

V
1
P
l
(cos0) sin0d 0
B
l
=
2l +1
2
V a
l+1

0
1
P
l
( x)dx
B
l
=
V
2
a
l+1
P
l1
(0)P
l +1
(0)|
!here l is odd
4(r ,0 ,)=
V
2
+
V
2

l=1,odd
P
l1
(0)P
l +1
(0)|
(
a
r
)
l+1
P
l
(cos 0)
$his (atches the solution found a)ove.
$he )ehavior of the ori+inal solution as a 0 0 is3
4(r ,0 ,)=
V
2
+
V
2

l=1,odd

P
l1
(0)P
l +1
(0)|
(a
l+1
+b
l +1
) r
l
a
l +1
b
l +1
(b
l
+a
l
)r
l1
|
a
2l +1
b
2l+1
P
l
(cos0)
4(r ,0 ,)=
V
2

V
2

l=1,odd

P
l1
(0)P
l +1
(0)|
(
r
b
)
l
P
l
(cos0)
272
$his can )e e8pressed e8plicitly as an e8panded su( %up to ter( l . / is sho!n'3
4(r ,0 ,)=
V
2

1
(
3
2
)
r
b
cos0
(
;
1<
)(
r
b
)
3
(=cos
3
03cos0)+...
|

:e can chec# this )y solvin+ the pro)le( outri+ht. :ith a*i(uthal sy((etry, the full an+ular ran+e
included, and the condition that the solution does not )lo! up at the ori+in, the +eneral solution
)eco(es3
4(r ,0 ,)=

l
A
l
r
l
P
l
(cos0)
5pply the )oundary condition3
4(r=b)=V
2
!here
V
2
=0 if 0/ 2 and V
2
=V if 0>/ 2
V
2
=

l
A
l
b
l
P
l
( cos0)
Multiply )oth sides )y
P
l 6
(cos 0)sin0 d 0
and inte+rate.

V
2
P
l 6
(cos0) sin0d 0=

l
A
l
b
l

P
l
(cos0) P
l 6
(cos 0)sin0 d 0

V
2
P
l
(cos0)sin0 d 0=A
l
b
l 2
2l +1
A
l
=
2l +1
2
b
l

V
2
P
l
( cos0)sin 0d 0
A
l
=
2l +1
2
V b
l

1
0
P
l
( x) dx
A
l
=
2l +1
2
V b
l
(1)
l

0
1
P
l
( x) dx
A
l
=
V
2
b
l
P
l1
(0)P
l +1
(0)|
!here l is odd, and
A
0
=
V
2
4(r ,0 ,)=
V
2

V
2

l=1,odd
P
l1
(0)P
l +1
(0)|
(
r
b
)
l
P
l
(cos0)
$his (atches the solution found a)ove.
273
Problem "
"ac#son 3.3 %a' and %)' only.
5 thin, flat, conductin+, circular disc of radius R is located in the x2y plane !ith its center at the ori+in,
and is (aintained at a fi8ed potential V. :ith the infor(ation that the char+e density on a disc at fi8ed
potential is proportional to %R
2
@
2
'
21?2
, !here is the distance out fro( the center of the disc,
%a' sho! that for r & R the potential is
(r , , )=
2V

R
r

l =0

(1)
l
2l +1
(
R
r
)
2l
P
2l
( cos)
%)' find the potential for r A R.
SOLUTIO!
#arning$ $he solution that "ac#son +ives is !ron+. et us solve the pro)le( the !ron+ !ay %the !ay
"ac#son e8pects', then sho! !hy this solution is !ron+. $hen let us solve the pro)le( the ri+ht !ay
and fi+ure out !here "ac#son !ent !ron+.
The #rong #ay!
%a' $he surface char+e density !as stated to )e3
u=
S
.R
2
r
2
for r A R and 0 other!ise
$he three2di(ensional char+e density is then3
p=S
1
.R
2
r
2
6 (0/ 2)
r
for r A R and 0 other!ise
$o find out !hat S is in ter(s of the potential V, use Coulo()6s la! !hich inte+rates over all the
char+e density to find the potential at the ori+in and set it e4ual to V3
4=
1
/c
0

p(%6 )
%%6
d %6
V =
1
/c
0

p(% 6)
%6
d %6
V =
1
/c
0

0
2

0
R
S
1
R
2
r 6
2
o(6 / 2)
r 6
1
r 6
r 6
2
sin 6 d r 6 d 6 d 6
V =S
1
2c
0

0
R
1
.R
2
r 6
2
d r 6
274
V =S
1
2c
0

sin
1
(
r 6
R
)
|
0
R
S=
/c
0
V

>o! #no!in+ S, plu++in+ it )ac# in, !e have the final for( of the char+e density3
p=
/c
0
V

1
R
2
r
2
o(/ 2)
r
for r A R and 0 other!ise
>o! apply Coulo()6s a! to find the potential at any point on the z a8is3
4=
1
/c
0

p(%6 )
%%6
d %6
Use
1
rr
0

l =0

r
A
l
r
&
l +1
P
l
(cos 6) to e8pand this %!hich is allo!ed )ecause !e are on the z a8is'.
4=
1
/c
0

0
2

0
R
/c
0
V

1
.R
2
r 6
2
6 (06/ 2)
r 6

l=0

r
A
l
r
&
l+1
P
l
(cos06 ) r 6
2
sin06 d r 6 d 06 d 6
4=
2V


l=0

0
R
1
.R
2
r 6
2
r
A
l
r
&
l+1
P
l
(0) r 6 d r 6
:e have to treat the t!o re+ions separately. et us loo# at the r & R6 re+ion )ecause its inte+ral is
easier. For r & R !e also have r & r6 so that3
4=
2V


l=0

P
l
(0)
r
l +1

0
R
1
.R
2
r 6
2
r 6
l +1
d r 6
Ma#e a chan+e of varia)les
u=.R
2
r 6
2
and udu=r 6 d r 6
4=
2V


l=0

P
l
(0)
r
l +1

0
R
( R
2
u
2
)
l / 2
du
>o! P
l
%0' is *ero for l odd, so only even l ter(s contri)ute. et us rela)el to ta#e account for this fact3
4=
2V


l=0

1
r
2l +1

0
R
P
2l
(0)( R
2
u
2
)
l
du
-f !e do the inte+ral case )y case for l . 0, 1, 2... the inte+ration is trivial and !e soon see a pattern3
275
4(r ,0 ,)=
2V

R
r

l=0

(1)
l
2l +1
(
R
r
)
2l
>o! !e (ust re(e()er that this is only valid on the z a8is. :e can (a#e use of the handy theore(
that for pro)le(s !ith a*i(uthal sy((etry, the +eneral solution is Bust the solution on the *2a8is,
(ultiplied )y P%cos '3
(r , , )=
2V

R
r

l =0

(1)
l
2l +1
(
R
r
)
2l
P
2l
(cos) for r > R
$his is the solution %the !ron+ one "ac#son e8pects' to the potential in the e8terior re+ion.
%)' $o find the potential in the near re+ion %r A R', first note that the pro)le( has a*i(uthal sy((etry
and no char+e in the near re+ion, so the +eneral solution to the aplace e4uation holds3
(r , , )=

l=0

(A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l 1
)P
l
(cos)
:e need a finite solution at the ori+in, so the solution (ust have the for(3
( r , , )=

l=0

A
l
r
l
P
l
(cos)
for r < R
$his solution for the potential in the outer re+ion (ust (atch the solution for the potential in the inner
re+ion at the interface !here they touch, r . R3
2V


l =0, even

(1)
l / 2
l+1
P
l
(cos)=

l =0

A
l
R
l
P
l
(cos)
$he e+endre polyno(ials are ortho+onal, so the coefficients (ust (atch up separately, leadin+ to3
A
l
=
2V

(1)
l /2
l +1
R
l
and A
l
. 0 for l odd
$he solution for the near re+ion is therefore3
( r , , )=
2V


l =0

(1)
l
2l +1
(
r
R
)
2l
P
2l
(cos)
>o!, the plate is held at V, so the solution to the potential should reduce do!n to the constant V for
=/ 2 and r A R, independent of r. -t should )e o)vious that the solution a)ove does not reduce to V
on the disc. $he factor P
l
%0' is *ero only for l odd, )ut this solution only has l even. $he correct solution
!ill have only l odd values.
276
The &orrect #ay!
>ote that there are really four re+ions that !e need to treat,
separately, as indicted in the dia+ra(. -n each re+ion, there is no
char+e, there is a*i(uthal sy((etry, and the poles are included, so
the solution to the potential has the for(3
(r , , )=

l=0

(A
l
r
l
+B
l
r
l 1
)P
l
(cos)
$he inner re+ions include the ori+in, so they (ust have all B
l
*ero
to have a finite solution at the ori+in. Si(ilarly, the outer re+ions
include infinity, !hich !e can assu(e to have *ero potential, leadin+ to all A
l
)ein+ *ero in these
re+ions. Cur solutions in all re+ions therefore )eco(e3

out,up
(r , , )=

l =0

B
l
r
l1
P
l
(cos )
for r & R and D A E?2

out,do!n
(r , , )=

l =0

B
l ,do!n
r
l1
P
l
(cos)
for r > R and D & E?2

in,up
(r , , )=

l=0

A
l
r
l
P
l
(cos)
for r A R and D A E?2

in,do!n
(r , , )=

l=0

A
l , do!n
r
l
P
l
(cos)
for r < R and D & E?2
First, due to sy((etry, the potential at any point in an upper re+ion (ust e4ual the potential at the
(irror point across the x2y plane3
( z)=(z)

in,up
(cos)=
in,do!n
(cos )
and

out,up
(cos )=
out,do!n
(cos)

l=0

A
l
r
l
P
l
(cos)=

l =0

A
l , do!n
r
l
P
l
(cos)
and
l=0

B
l
r
l 1
P
l
(cos)=

l =0

B
l ,do!n
r
l1
P
l
(cos)
A
l , do!n
=A
l
(1)
l
and B
l , do!n
=B
l
(1)
l
:ith these findin+s, our solutions no! )eco(e3

out,up
(r , , )=

l =0

B
l
r
l1
P
l
(cos )
for r & R and D A E?2

out,do!n
(r , , )=

l =0

B
l
(1)
l
r
l1
P
l
(cos)
for r > R and D & E?2

in,up
(r , , )=

l=0

A
l
r
l
P
l
(cos)
for r A R and D A E?2

in,do!n
(r , , )=

l=0

A
l
(1)
l
r
l
P
l
(cos)
for r < R and D & E?2
>ote that )y forcin+ the upper and lo!er re+ion potentials to )e (irror i(a+es, !e auto(atically (ade
the( (atch up at their interface, and have already ta#en care of this )oundary condition.
z
x
R
F
out,up
F
out,do!n
F
in,do!n
F
in,up
V
277
>e8t, the potential in the inner re+ions (ust )eco(e V on the disc.
V =

l =0

A
l
r
l
P
l
(cos(/ 2))
and
V =

l =0

A
l
(1)
l
r
l
P
l
(cos(/ 2))
leadin+ to3
A
0
=V
,
l =1

A
l
r
l
P
l
(0)=0
, and
l =1

A
l
(1)
l
r
l
P
l
(0)=0
>ote that P
l
%0' . 0 for all l odd, in !hich case the last t!o e4uations are auto(atically satisfied. For l
even, P
l
%0' is not *ero, so3
A
l
=0 for l even, l >0
Cur solution so far is3

out,up
(r , , )=

l =0

B
l
r
l1
P
l
(cos )
for r & R and D A E?2

out,do!n
(r , , )=

l =0

B
l
(1)
l
r
l1
P
l
(cos)
for r > R and D & E?2

in,up
(r , , )=V +

l=1,3,=. .

A
l
r
l
P
l
(cos)
for r A R and D A E?2

in,do!n
(r , , )=V +

l=1,3,=. ..

A
l
(1)
l
r
l
P
l
(cos )
for r A R and D > /2
>ote that no! that l is odd, %21'
l
is al!ays Bust 21. $he potential in the inner2do!n re+ion therefore
)eco(es

in,do!n
(r , , )=V

l=1,3,=. ..

A
l
r
l
P
l
(cos)
. $he solutions in the t!o inner re+ions can no! )e
co()ined into

in
(r , , )=V +sn(cos)

l=1,3,=...

A
l
r
l
P
l
(cos )
!here s+n%cos D' is G1 for D A E?2 and
21 for D & E?2. 5lso note that )ecause the potential in the inner re+ions and outer re+ions (ust (atch at
r . R, and due to ortho+onality, only the l . odd ter(s !ill contri)ute in the outer re+ions as !ell. $he
outer re+ion solutions can therefore )e co()ined in the sa(e !ay. Cur solution so far is thus3

out
(r , , )=
B
0
r
+sn(cos)

l =1,3,=...

B
l
r
l1
P
l
(cos)

in
(r , , )=V +sn(cos)

l=1,3,=...

A
l
r
l
P
l
(cos )
>e8t, the potentials of the inner and outer re+ions should (atch at r . R3

in
(R , , )=
out
( R , , )
V +sn(cos )

l =1,3,=...

A
l
R
l
P
l
(cos)=
B
0
R
+sn(cos)

l=1,3,=. .
B
l
R
l1
P
l
(cos )
$he e+endre polyno(ials are ortho+onal, so !e (atch up coefficients. Matchin+ up all coefficients,
278
!e find3
B
0
=V R
and B
l
=A
l
R
2l+1
$he solution so far )eco(es3

out
(r , , )=V
R
r
+sn(cos )

l =1,3,=...

A
l
R
2l+1
r
l 1
P
l
(cos)
for r & R

in
(r , , )=V +sn(cos)

l=1,3,=...

A
l
r
l
P
l
(cos )
for r A R
5ll the A
l
at this point are ar)itrary, so let us redefine A
l
as A
l
?R
l
to (a#e these e4uations sy((etric,
leadin+ to3

out
(r , , )=V
R
r
+sn(cos )

l =1,3,=...

A
l
(
R
r
)
l+1
P
l
(cos ) for r & R

in
(r , , )=V +sn(cos)

l=1,3,=...

A
l
(
r
R
)
l
P
l
(cos) for r A R
$he last set of coefficients can )e found )y relatin+ the electric field across the plate3
(E
2
E
1
)n
12
=
o
c
0
(E
in,do!n
E
in,up
)

=
o
c
0
!here
o=
S
R
2
r
2
for a conductin+ plate
$o find out !hat S is in ter(s of the potential V, use Coulo()6s la! to inte+rate over all the char+e
density and find the potential at the ori+in and set it e4ual to V3
V =
1
/c
0

o(% 6)
% 6
d a
V =
1
/c
0

0
2

0
R
S
1
R
2
r 6
2
1
r 6
r 6 sin 6 d r 6 d 6
V =S
1
2c
0

0
R
1
.R
2
r 6
2
d r 6
V =S
1
2c
0

sin
1
(
r 6
R
)
|
0
R
S=
/c
0
V

Usin+ this value, the )oundary condition on the electric field across the plate no! )eco(es3
279
(
in,do!n
+
in,up
)

=
/V

1
R
2
r
2

1
r

in,do!n

+
1
r

in,up

=
/V

1
R
2
r
2

in,do!n

+

in,up

=
/V

r
R
1
1(r / R)
2
9erfor( a )ino(ial e8pansion on the ri+ht side, usin+
1
1x
2
=1+
1
2
x
2
+
13
2/
x
/
+
13=
2/<
x
<
+...

in,do!n

in,up

=
/V


r
R
+
1
2
(
r
R
)
3
+
13
2/
(
r
R
)
=
+
13=
2/<
(
r
R
)
;
+...
|

in,do!n

in,up

=
/V



l =1,3,=. ..
(l 2)! !
(l 1)! !
(
r
R
)
l
|

in,do!n

in,up

=
/V



l =1,3,=. ..
(1)
l 1
2
P
l 1
(0)
(
r
R
)
l
|
5 e+endre polyno(ial identity !as used in the last step to +et the ri+ht side in a for( that !e
anticipate !ill )e on the left side. >o! evaluate the derivatives3
2

l=1,3,=. ..

A
l
(
r
R
)
l

P
l
(cos)
|
=/ 2
=
/V



l =1,3,=. ..
(1)
l 1
2
P
l 1
(0)
(
r
R
)
l
|
2

l =1,3,=...

A
l
(
r
R
)
l


x
P
l
( x)
|
x=0
=
/V



l =1,3,=...
(1)
l 1
2
P
l 1
(0)
(
r
R
)
l
|
2

l =1,3,=...

A
l
(
r
R
)
l

l x P
l
( x)l P
l 1
( x)
x
2
1
|
x=0
=
/V



l =1,3,=. ..
(1)
l 1
2
P
l 1
(0)
(
r
R
)
l
|
2

l =1,3,=...

A
l
(
r
R
)
l

l P
l 1
(0)
|
=
/V



l =1,3,=...
(1)
l1
2
P
l 1
(0)
(
r
R
)
l
|
A
l
=
2V
l
(1)
l+1
2
Cur final solution is therefore3
280

out
(r , , )=V
R
r
+sn(cos )
2V


l=1,3,=. ..

(1)
l +1
2
l
(
R
r
)
l+1
P
l
(cos )
for r & R

in
(r , , )=V +sn(cos)
2V


l=1,3,=. ..

(1)
l +1
2
l
(
r
R
)
l
P
l
(cos)
for r A R
>ote that this solution o)eys all the )oundary conditions that it should. Cn the plate, P
l
%cos D' )eco(es
P
l
%0', !hich is *ero for l odd, leavin+ Bust the constant V as it should.
So !here did "ac#son +o !ron+H $he sy((etry of the pro)le( re4uires e+endre polyno(ials !ith l
odd, )ut "ac#son6s solution had l even, indicatin+ that he +ot the sy((etry !ron+.
281
Problem '
$!o point char+es, )oth of (a+nitude G", lie on the z a8is. Cne point lies at z . 2a and the other at z .
Ga. $he t!o char+es are positioned inside a +rounded, conductin+ spherical shell of radius b centered at
the ori+in, such that a A b. :e !ish to find the electrostatic potential every!here inside the sphere.
%a' :rite do!n the potential of the t!o char+es !hen the conductin+ sphere is not present. I8pand )oth
ter(s into a series of e+endre polyno(ials and co()ine the t!o ter(s into one. Be careful to treat the
t!o re+ions separately %r A a and r & a'.
%)' 5dd in the effects of the sphere )y addin+ an e8tra ter( to the solution of part a. $he e8tra ter(
should )e a solution to the aplace e4uation in spherical coordinates. 5pply )oundary conditions to
find the uni4ue solution in )oth re+ions.
SOLUTIO!
%a' :e already #no! the potential due to a point char+e. :e Bust add up the potential fro( each point
char+e3
( r)=
"
/c
0
1
ra( ()
+
"
/c
0
1
ra( ()
I8pand each ter( usin+ the +eneral e+endre polyno(ial e8pansions sho!n )elo! in order to +et a
solution in spherical coordinates3
1
rr
0

l =0

r
0
l
r
l +1
P
l
(cos 0) if
r>r
0
1
rr
0

l =0

r
l
r
0
l +1
P
l
(cos 0)
if
rr
0
>ote that for the point char+e at z . 2a, the separation an+le J )et!een the t!o vectors is different than
the polar an+le of spherical coordinates D. -n fact J . E 2 D. $his leads to P
l
%cos J' . P
l
%cos %E @ D'' .
P
l
%2cos D' . %21'
l
P
l
%cos D'. Usin+ this fact, !e proceed3
-f r>a ,
(r)=
"
/c
0

l =0

a
l
r
l +1
P
l
(cos)+
"
/c
0

l =0

(1)
l
a
l
r
l +1
P
l
(cos)
(r)=
"
/c
0

l=0

(1+(1)
l
)
a
l
r
l +1
P
l
( cos)
|
(r)=
2"
/c
0

l =0,2,/,<. ..

a
l
r
l +1
P
l
(cos) %if r>a '
282
-f ra ,
(r)=
"
/c
0

l =0

r
l
a
l +1
P
l
(cos )+
"
/c
0

l=0

(1)
l r
l
a
l+1
P
l
(cos)
(r)=
2"
/c
0

l =0,2,/,<. ..

r
l
a
l +1
P
l
(cos) %if ra '
%)' $he presence of the +rounded sphere of radius b alters the potential. $he direct effect of the char+es
has already )een accounted for, so the effect of the sphere !ill )e the solution to the aplace e4uation
in spherical coordinates. :e already #no! this solution in ter(s of e+endre polyno(ials3
( r)=

l
A
l
r
l
P
l
(cos )+
2"
/c
0

l =0,2,/,<...

a
l
r
l+1
P
l
(cos) if r>a
5pply the )oundary condition 4(r=b)=0
0=

l
A
l
b
l
P
l
(cos)+
2"
/c
0

l =0,2,/,<...

a
l
b
l+1
P
l
(cos)
0=A
l
b
l
+
2"
/ c
0
a
l
b
l+1
and
A
l
=0
for l . odd
A
l
=
2 "
/c
0
a
l
b
2l +1
>ote that this is valid for )oth re+ions )ecause the potential due to the sphere does not depend on the
re+ion.
(r)=

l =0,2,/...

2"
/c
0
b
(
a
b
)
l
(
b
r
)
l+1

(
r
b
)
l
|
P
l
(cos) %if r>a '
-n a si(ilar (anner !e can solve the case of r A a#
(r)=

l =0,2,/,<. ..

2"
/ c
0
b
(
a
b
)
l
(
b
a
)
l+1

(
a
b
)
l
|(
r
a
)
l
P
l
(cos) %if ra '
283
Homework 6 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
Problem 1
"ac#son 3.$ %a&
'he surface of a hollo! conductin( sphere of inner radius a is divided into an even nu)*er of e+ual
se()ents *y a set of planes, their co))on line of intersection is the z a-is and they are distri*uted
unifor)ly in the an(le . %'he se()ents are li#e the s#in on !ed(es of an apple, or the earth.s surface
*et!een successive )eridians of lon(itude.& 'he se()ents are #ept at fi-ed potentials /V, alternately.
%a& Set up a series representation for the potential inside the sphere for the (eneral case of 2n se()ents,
and carry the calculation of the coefficients in the series far enou(h to deter)ine e-actly !hich
coefficients are different fro) 0ero. For the non1vanishin( ter)s, e-hi*it the coefficients as an inte(ral
over cos .
SOLUTIO!
%a& 'here is no char(e present, so !e see# to solve aplace.s e+uation. 2n spherical coordinates this
*eco)es3

2
4=0 -
1
r

2
r
2
(r 4)+
1
r
2
sin0

0
(
sin0
4
0
)
+
1
r
2
sin
2
0

2
4

2
=0
Usin( the )ethod of separation of varia*les, and !hen the full a0i)uthal ran(e needs a valid solution,
the (eneral solution is e-pressed in ter)s of the spherical har)onics Y
lm
3
4(r ,0 ,)=

l =0

m=l
l
( A
l , m
r
l
+B
l ,m
r
l1
)Y
lm
(0 , )
2n this pro*le), !e re+uire a valid solution at the ori(in, so that !e )ust have B
l
4 0 to #eep those
ter)s fro) *lo!in( up. 'he solution no! *eco)es3
4(r ,0 ,)=

l =0

m=l
l
A
l ,m
r
l
Y
lm
(0 , )
'he *oundary condition on the surface of the sphere is descri*ed )athe)atically as3
4(r=a)=V () !here V ()=

+V if
2i
n

(2i+1)
n
V if
( 2i +1)
n

( 2i +2)
n

!here i is any of 0,1,...%n11&
284
5e apply this *oundary condition3
V ()=

l =0

m=l
l
A
l , m
a
l
Y
lm
(0 , )
Multiply *oth sides *y Y
l . m.
6
(0 , ) and inte(rate over the surface of the sphere3

0
2

V ()Y
l . m.
6
(0 , ) sin 0d 0 d =

l =0

m=l
l
A
l , m
a
l

0
2

Y
l . m.
6
(0 , )Y
lm
(0 , )sin0 d 0d
Use the ortho(onality of the spherical har)onics to pic# one ter) fro) the dou*le series3

0
2

V ()Y
l . m.
6
(0 , ) sin 0d 0 d =

l =0

m=l
l
A
l , m
a
l
6
l .l
6
m. m

0
2

V ()Y
l m
6
(0 ,)sin0 d 0 d =A
l ,m
a
l
A
l , m
=a
l

0
2

V ()Y
l m
6
(0 , )sin 0 d 0d
7-pand the definition of the spherical har)onics3
A
l , m
=a
l
.
2l +1
$ .
(l m)!
(l +m)!

0
2
V () e
i m
d

P
l
m
(cos0) sin 0d 0
Brea# the inte(ral over the a0i)uthal an(le into a su) over 2n inte(ral pieces and plu( in the e-plicit
value of the potential on the *oundary3
A
l , m
=a
l
.
2l +1
$
.
(l m)!
(l +m)!

P
l
m
( cos0)sin 0d 0

j =0
2n1

j / n
( j+1) /n
V () e
i m
d
|
A
l , m
=a
l
.
2l +1
$ .
(l m)!
(l +m)!

P
l
m
( cos0)sin 0d 0

j=0
n1
(

2 j / n
( 2 j+1) /n
(+V )e
i m
d +

(2 j +1)/ n
( 2 j+2)/ n
(V ) e
i m
d
)
|
A
l , m
=V a
l
.
2l +1
$ .
(l m)!
(l +m)!

P
l
m
( cos0)sin 0d 0

j=0
n1
(

2 j / n
( 2 j+1) /n
e
i m
d

( 2 j+1) / n
( 2 j+2) /n
e
i m
d
)
|
et us call the part in *rac#ets B
m
and !or# it out separately3
B
m
=

j=0
n1
(

2 j /n
( 2 j +1) / n
e
i m
d

(2 j +1)/ n
( 2 j+2)/ n
e
i m
d
)
285
For m 4 0 this reduces to3
B
0
=

j=0
n1
(

2 j / n
(2 j +1)/ n
d

(2 j +1)/ n
( 2 j+2)/ n
d
)
B
0
=0
and thus
A
l , 0
=0
For m 8 0 !e have3
B
m
=
i
m

j=0
n1
(e
i m( 2 j+1) /n
e
i m2 j /n
e
i m(2 j +2) / n
+e
i m( 2 j+1) /n
)
B
m
=
i
m

j=0
n1
e
i m( 2 j )/ n
( 2e
i m/ n
1e
i m( 2) /n
)
B
m
=
i
m

j=0
n1
e
i m( 2 j) /n
(e
i m/ n
1)
2
Upon close inspection, if
m
2n
=k
!here k is so)e inte(er k 4 ...,12, 11, 0, 1, 2,... then
B
m
=
i
m

j=0
n1
e
i m( 2 j) /n
(e
i 2 k
1)
2
B
m
=
i
m

j=0
n1
( 11)
2
B
m
=0
if
m
2n
=k
'he only ter)s that do not vanish are the ones !here m92n does not e+uate to an inte(er. 'hus the
ter)s that vanish are m=0,!2 n,!$ n, ...
'he final solution *eco)es3
4(r ,0 ,)=

l =0

m=l
l
A
l ,m
(
r
a
)
l
Y
lm
(0 , )
!here A
l , m
=V
.
2l +1
$ .
(l m) !
(l +m) !
i
m
( e
i m/ n
1)
2

j=0
n1
e
i m( 2 j) /n

P
l
m
(cos 0)sin0 d 0
and
A
l , m
=0
for m=0,!2 n,!$ n...
286
Problem "
:n infinite conductin( plane sheet is placed at z 4 0. '!o s)all circular cuts are )ade into the sheet at
a radius a and a radius b such that b > a, dividin( the sheet into three parts. 'he part of the sheet
e-istin( at points !here ; < a is held at a constant potential of 0ero, the part of the sheet at a < ; < b is
held at the constant potential V, and the rest of the sheet %; = b& is held at a potential of 0ero. Find the
electrostatic potential at all points a*ove the sheet usin( cylindrical coordinates. >ote that the volu)e
of interest is co)pletely un*ounded in the cylindrical radial direction, so that the series solution
su))in( over this direction *eco)es an inte(ral as discussed in the *oo#. ?e)e)*er to chec# the
Mathe)atical ?eference handout for useful identities.
SOLUTIO!
'he (eneral solution to the aplace e+uation in cylindrical coordinates is3
( , , z)=( A
0,0
+B
0,0
ln)(C
0,0
+D
0, 0
)( F
0, 0
+G
0, 0
z)
+

=0
(A
, 0

+B
,0

)(C
,0
e
i
+D
,0
e
i
)(F
,0
+G
,0
z)
+

k=0
(A
0, k
J
0
(k )+B
0, k
N
0
(k ))(C
0, k
+D
0, k
)( F
0, k
e
k z
+G
0, k
e
k z
)
+

=0

k=0
( A
, k
J

(k )+B
,k
N

(k ))(C
,k
e
i
+D
, k
e
i
)(F
,k
e
k z
+G
, k
e
k z
)
'he pro*le) has a0i)uthal sy))etry, i))ediately dictatin( that 4 0 and the function *e sin(le1
valued in the a0i)uthal an(le, leadin( to3
( , , z)=( A
0
+B
0
ln )( F
0
+G
0
z)+

k =0
( A
k
J
0
(k )+B
k
N
0
(k ))( F
k
e
k z
+G
k
e
k z
)
'he solution )ust *e finite as z approaches infinity, tellin( us that F
k
4 0 and G
0
40.
:lso, the solution )ust *e finite alon( the z a-is % 4 0&, tellin( us that B
k
4 0 and B
0
4 0. @ur solution
is no!3
( , , z)=

k
A
k
J
0
(k )e
k z
'ypically at this point, !e !ould apply a *oundary condition at a finite radius, *ut there is not one for
this pro*le). 5ith no constraint on the radius, k *eco)es a continuous spectru) and not a discrete set.
( , , z)=

A(k) J
0
(k )e
k z
dk
:pply the last *oundary condition3
( z=0)=V ()
V ()=

A(k) J
0
(k )dk
5e can ta#e advanta(e of the ortho(onality state)ent to solve this3
287

! J
0
(k !) J
0
( k . !)d !=
1
k
o( k .k)
%"ac#son 3.10A&
A(k)=k

V () J
0
(k )d
2nsert the actual *oundary condition in this pro*le)3
A(k)=V k

a
b
J
0
(k )d
A(k)=
V
k

k a
k b
J
0
(!)! d !
A(k)=
V
k

! J
1
(!)
|
k a
k b
A(k)=V

b J
1
(k b)a J
1
(k a)
|
'he final solution is3
( , , z)=V

b J
1
(k b)a J
1
(k a)
|
J
0
(k )e
k z
dk
Problem #
: sphere of radius a is centered at the ori(in and fi-ed at the potential V

sin B sin C, !here B and C are
the usual spherical coordinates. 'he potential at infinity is )aintained at V92. Find the potential at all
points e-ternal to the sphere.
SOLUTIO!
'he (eneral solution to the aplace e+uation in spherical coordinates !hen all an(les are included is3
( r , 0 , )=

l=0

m=l
l
( A
l , m
r
l
+B
l , m
r
l 1
)Y
lm
(0 , )
:pply the *oundary condition at infinity, e-plicitly !ritin( do!n the l 4 0 separately first3
V
2
=( A
0,0
+B
0,0
()
1
)
1
$
+

l=1

m=l
l
( A
l ,m
()
l
+B
l , m
()
l 1
)Y
lm
( 0 , )
V
2
=A
0,0
1
$
+

l =1

m=l
l
(A
l , m
()
l
)Y
lm
(0 ,)
288
A
0,0
=$
V
2
and
A
l , m
=0
for l = 0
'his leads to3
=
V
2
+

l=0

m=l
l
B
l , m
r
l 1
Y
lm
(0 , )
:pply the *oundary condition on the sphere3
V sin0sin =
V
2
+

l =0

m=l
l
B
l ,m
a
l 1
Y
lm
(0 , )
V sin0sin
V
2
=

l =0

m=l
l
B
l ,m
a
l 1
Y
lm
(0 , )
Use the ortho(onality of the spherical har)onics

0
2

V sin 0sin
V
2
|Y
l . m.
6
(0 , )sin 0 d 0 d =

l=0

m=l
l
B
l , m
a
l1

0
2

Y
lm
(0 , )Y
l . m.
6
(0 , )sin 0 d 0 d
B
l , m
=a
l +1

0
2

V sin0sin
V
2
| Y
lm
6
(0 , )sin 0 d 0 d
>o!, !e can use the definitions3 sin0sin=
1
2i
A
3
(Y
1,1
(0 , )+Y
1, 1
(0 , )) and 1=$ Y
00
B
l , m
=a
l +1 V
2i
A
3

0
2

Y
1,1
(0 , )Y
lm
6
(0 , )sin0d 0d
a
l +1 V
2i
A
3

0
2

Y
1,1
(0 , )Y
lm
6
(0 , ) sin0d 0d
a
l +1 V
2
$

0
2

Y
00
Y
lm
6
(0 , )sin 0d 0d
2t should *e clear no! that each inte(ral is a special case of the ortho(onality state)ent, so that3
B
l , m
=a
l +1 V
2i
A
3
o
l , 1
o
m,1
a
l+1 V
2i
A
3
o
l ,1
o
m ,1
a
l+1 V
2
$o
l , 0
o
m, 0
Dlu((in( *ac# in3
=
V
2
a
l +1 V
2i
A
3
r
2
Y
11
(0 , )a
l +1 V
2i
A
3
r
2
Y
11
(0 , )a
l +1 V
2
$ r
1
Y
00
(0 , )
289
=
V
2

1
a
r
|
+V sin 0sin
(
a
r
)
2
290
Homework 7 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
Problem 1
"edo one pro#le$ %any pro#le$, even $ultiple choice& fro$ the $id'ter$ e(a$ination and #e
prepared to present it in class.
SOLUTIO!
)he solution !ill vary dependin* on !hat pro#le$ you choose. See the $id'ter$ e(a$ solutions
docu$ent for full solutions.
291
Homework 8 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
Problem 1
"he four follo!in# point char#es are placed at the points $x, y, z% as indicated&
'q at $d, 0, 0%, (q at $'d, 0, 0%, (q at $0, d, 0%, and 'q at $0, 'd, 0%.
$a% S)etch the field lines for this syste*
$+% Based on only conceptual ar#u*ents, !hich co*ponents of the *onopole, dipole and ,uadrupole
*o*ents of this syste* are -ero.
$c% Based on only conceptual ar#u*ents, far a!ay fro* this syste*, ho! do you e/pect the potential
due to this syste* to depend on distance r.
SOLUTIO!
$a%
$+% "he *onopole *o*ent is related to the total char#e. "he total char#e of this syste* is -ero, so the
*onopole *o*ent is -ero& q
00
0 0. "he dipole *o*ent points fro* the end that is net ne#ative, !hich
is around the point $a, 'a, 0%, to the end that is net positive, !hich is around $'a, a, 0%. "he dipole
*o*ent therefore points in the north'!est direction so that p
x
0 'p
y
, and its z co*ponent is -ero& q
10
0 0,
p
z
00. "he ,uadrupole *o*ent co*ponents are all -ero +ecause of the sy**etry.
$c% "he first non'-ero *ultipole *o*ent is the dipole, therefore the electric potential varies as 11r
2
far
a!ay fro* this syte*.
x
y
(q
(q
-q
-q
292
Problem "
"hree point char#es are placed at the points $x, y, z% as indicated& '2q at $0, 0, d%, '2q at $0, 0, 'd%, and
(q at $0, 0, 0%.
$a% 2rite do!n the e/pression for the volu*e char#e density 3$#% of this syste*.
$+% 4nsert the volu*e char#e density into the #eneral definition of the *ultipole *o*ents and solve the
inte#ral to find the *ultipole *o*ents valid for all l.
$c% Solve for the potential of this syste* as a *ultipole e/pansion and e/plicitly !rite out the first t!o
non'-ero ter*s.
SOLUTIO!
$a%

=
2q
2 r
2
( rd ) (cos 1)+(cos+1)|+
q
5 r
2
(r )
$+% 6lu# this into the *ultipole *o*ents definition and evaluate&
q
lm
=

Y
lm
7
(0 8 , 8 )r 8
l
p(# 8 )d #8
q
lm
=

Y
lm
7
(8 , 8 )r 8
l

2q
2d
2
(r 8d)( cos81)+(cos8 +1)|+
q
5 r 8
2
(r 8 )| d #8
q
lm
=
q

0
2

Y
lm
7
(8 , 8)d
l
(cos 81)+(cos8+1)| sin 8 d 8 d 8
+
q
5

0
2

Y
lm
7
(8 , 8 )r 8
l
(r 8)sin8 d r 8 d 8 d 8
Due to the sy**etry of the pro+le*, it should +e o+vious that this inte#ral vanishes for all m e/cept
m 0 0. 4n the second inte#ral, all ter*s disappear e/cept for l 0 0.
q
lm
=
m,0

q d
l

2l +1

1+(1)
l
|+
l , 0
q

1
5
|
$c% "his +eco*es *ore clear if !e +rea) this into different cases, includin# the si*plest *onopoles
first&
q
00
=
3
2
q
q
10
=q
1,1
=q
11
=0
q
2,0
=2

qd
2
293
q
2,2
=q
2,1
=q
2,1
=q
2,2
=0
q
3,3
=q
3, 2
=q
3,1
=q
3,0
=q
3,1
=q
3,2
=q
3,3
=0
q
50
=2

q d
5
and all hi#her ter*s can +e e/pressed as&
q
lm
=2

2l +1

q d
l
if m 0 0 and l 0 even, q
lm
0 0 other!ise
"he *ultipole e/pansion of the potential is&
4=
1
5c
0

l=0

m=l
l
5
2l +1
q
lm
r
l1
Y
lm
(0 , )
=
1
5
0
q
00
1
r
+
1
20
0

q
20
1
r
3
(3cos
2
1)+
1

0

l=5,;,<. ..

1
2l +1
q
l ,0
r
l 1
Y
l ,0
( , )
=
q
5
0
d

3
(
d
r
)
+2
(
d
r
)
3
(3cos
2
1)+5

l=5,;,<. ..

(
d
r
)
l +1
P
l
(cos)
|
Problem $
=ac)son 5.>
? locali-ed distri+ution of char#e has a char#e density
(r)=
1
;5
r
2
e
r
sin
2

$a% Ma)e a *ultipole e/pansion of the potential due to this char#e density and deter*ine all the non'
vanishin# *ultipole *o*ents. 2rite do!n the potential at lar#e distances as a finite e/pansion in
e#endre polyno*ials.
$+% Deter*ine the potential e/plicitly at any point in space and sho! the solution near the ori#in,
correct to r
2
inclusive,
(r)
1
5
0

1
5

r
2
120
P
2
(cos )
|
$c% 4f there e/ists at the ori#in a nucleus !ith a ,uadrupole *o*ent Q 0 10
'2<
*
2
, deter*ine the
*a#nitude of the interaction ener#y, assu*in# that the unit of char#e in $r% a+ove is the electronic
294
char#e and the unit of len#th is the hydro#en Bohr radius a
0
=5
0

2
/ me
2
=0.92:10
10
m . @/press
your ans!er as a fre,uency +y dividin# +y 6lan)8s constant h.
"he char#e density in this pro+le* is that for the m=!1 states of the 2p level in hydro#en, !hile the
,uadrupole interaction is of the sa*e order as found in *olecules.
SOLUTIO!
$a% "he #eneral solution in ter*s of a *ultipole e/pansion of a locali-ed distri+ution in spherical
har*onics is&
4(r ,0 ,)=
1
5c
0

l =0

m=l
l
5
2l +1
q
l m
Y
lm
(0 , )
r
l+1
!here q
l m
=

Y
l m
7
(08 , 8 )r 8
l
p( #8 )d # 8
For cases !here there is a-i*uthal sy**etry in the char#e distri+ution, this reduces to&
4(r ,0 ,)=
1
5c
0

l =0

.
5
2l +1
q
l
P
l
(cos 0)
r
l +1
!here
q
l
=2
.
2l +1
5

0

P
l
(cos08 ) r 8
l +2
p(r 8 ,0 8 )sin 08 dr 8 d 08
et us no! plu# in the char#e density for this case&
q
l
=
1
;5
2

2l +1
5

1
1
P
l
( x8 )(1x8
2
)dx 8

r 8
l +5
e
r 8
dr 8
Use the identity easily found in an inte#ral ta+le&

x
n
e
x
dx=n!
if n is a positive inte#er, !hich is the
case here.
q
l
=
1
;5
2

2l +1
5
(l +5)!

1
1
P
l
(x 8)(1x 8
2
)dx 8
2e can use the identity&
x 8
2
=
2
3
P
2
( x 8)+
1
3
P
0
(x 8)
!hich is easily derived fro* the definition of the t!o
specific e#endre polyno*ials.
q
l
=
1
;5
2

2l +1
5
(l +5)!

2
3

1
1
P
l
(x 8) P
2
(x 8 )dx8+
2
3

1
1
P
l
( x8 ) P
0
( x8 )dx 8
|
Due to ortho#onality, every q
l
is -ero e/cept !hen l 0 0 or l 0 2&
q
0
=

1
5
295
q
2
=3

2e can no! find the final solution to the potential&


4(r ,0 ,)=
1
5c
0

.5 q
0
1
r
+
.
5
9
q
2
1/ 5+(3/ 5)cos( 20)
r
3
|
( r , , )=
1
5
0

1
r

3/ 2+(:/ 2)cos(2)
r
3
|
or in ter*s of e#endre polyno*ials&
( r , , )=
1
5
0

P
0
(cos )
r
;
P
2
(cos )
r
3
|
Aote that this solution is e/act as lon# as the o+servation point is +eyond the ed#e of the char#e
density. "here is no Bfar'a!ayC li*itation to this solution +ecause all hi#her order ter*s are -ero.
Unfortunately, in this pro+le*, there is no clearly defined Bed#eC to the char#e density. "his solution
+eco*es e/act once e
'r
is so s*all so as to +e ne#li#i+le.
$+% "he *ultipole e/pansion is only valid if the o+servation point is e/ternal to a local char#e
distri+ution. "o find the potential !ithin the char#e distri+ution, !e *ust use Coulo*+8s la!&
4=
1
5c
0

p(#8 )
##8
d #8
=
1
5
0
1
;5

0
2

r 8
2
e
r 8
sin
2
8
## 8
r 8
2
sin 8 dr 8 d 8 d 8
@/pand the deno*inator in spherical har*onics
=
1
5
0
1
;5

0
2

r 8
5
e
r 8
sin
2
8 5

l =0

m=l
l
1
2l +1
r

l
r
>
l +1
Y
l m
7
(8 , 8 )Y
lm
( , )sin 8 dr 8 d 8 d 8
Due to a-i*uthal sy**etry, only the m 0 0 ter*s !ill survive.
=
1
5
0
1
32

l=0

P
l
(cos)

1
1
P
l
(x 8 )(1x 8
2
)d x 8

r 8
5
e
r 8
r

l
r
>
l+1
dr 8
?#ain use the identity&
x 8
2
=
2
3
P
2
( x 8)+
1
3
P
0
(x 8)
296
=
1
5
0
1
32

l=0

P
l
(cos)
2
3

1
1
P
l
(x 8) P
2
(x 8 )d x 8+
2
3

1
1
P
l
( x8 )P
0
( x8 )d x8 |

r 8
5
e
r 8
r

l
r
>
l +1
dr 8
Due to ortho#onality, all ter*s drop out e/cept l 0 0 and l 0 2&
=
1
5
0
1
32
5
3

r 8
5
e
r 8 1
r
>
dr 8
5
19
P
2
(cos)

r 8
5
e
r 8
r

2
r
>
3
dr 8
|
2e *ust +rea) each inte#ral into t!o cases, !hen r8 D r and r8 E r
=
1
5
0
1
32

5
3
1
r

0
r
r 8
5
e
r 8
dr 8+
5
3

r 8
3
e
r 8
dr 8

5
19
P
2
(cos)
1
r
3

0
r
r 8
;
e
r 8
dr 8
5
19
P
2
(cos )r
2

r 8 e
r 8
dr 8 |
=
1
5
0
1
32

5
3
1
r
e
r 8
(r 8
5
5r 8
3
12 r 8
2
25 r 825)|
0
r
+
5
3
e
r 8
(r 8
3
3r 8
2
; r 8;)|
r

5
19
P
2
(cos)
(
1
r
3
e
r 8
(r 8
;
;r 8
9
30r 8
5
120 r 8
3
3;0 r 8
2
>20 r 8>20)|
0
r
+r
2
e
r 8
(r 8+1)|
r

)
|
=
1
5
0

1
25

e
r
(r
2
+; r+1<+
25
r
)+
25
r
|

P
2
(cos)
1
120
e
r
(9r
2
30 r120
3;0
r

>20
r
2

>20
r
3
)+
>20
r
3
|
|
"his solution is e/act and applies every!here.
2e can ta)e the li*it as e
'r
+eco*es -ero to chec) the solution o+tained usin# *ultipole *o*ents. 2e
find&
( r , , )=
1
5
0

P
0
(cos )
r
;
P
2
(cos())
r
3
|
"his *atches the far'a!ay solution found usin# the *ultipole e/pansion.
2e can also ta)e the li*it close to the ori#in. 2e *ust first e/pand the e/ponential into a "aylor series&
e
r
=1r+
1
2
r
2

1
;
r
3
+
1
25
r
5

1
120
r
9
+...
?fter distri+utin# out all ter*s, !e can thro! out ter*s r
3
, r
5
and hi#her +ecause they contri+ute very
little near the ori#in.
297

1
5
0

1
25

r
2
;r1<
25
r
+; r
2
+1<r+25:r
2
12r+5r
2
+
25
r
|

P
2
(cos)
1
120
9r
2
30r+30 r
2
120+120r120
1
2
r
2

3;0
r
+3;01<0r+;0r
2

>20
r
2

+
>20
r
3;0+120r30r
2

>20
r
3
+
>20
r
2

3;0
r
+12030r+;r
2
+
>20
r
3
| |
Most of these ter*s cancel out and the final solution close to the ori#in reduces to&

1
5
0

1
5

r
2
120
P
2
(cos)
|
$c% 2e are to assu*e that the char#e density of the previous parts, and its associated potential, is the
avera#e char#e distri+ution of a sin#le electron +ound to a hydro#en nucleus. "he nucleus of is so s*all
that is can +e considered as contained at the ori#in, so that !e only need to use the e/pression for the
electron8s potential near the ori#in $the last e,uation of part +%. 4f !e convert fro* units of ele*entary
char#e and Bohr radius len#ths to S4 units, the potential of the electron near the ori#in +eco*es&

e
5
0
a
0

1
5

(r / a
0
)
2
120
P
2
(cos)
|
"he interaction ener#y is the total potential ener#y +et!een the interactin# electron8s potential and
nucleus8 char#e&
W=

nucl

elec
d
3
x
W=

nucl
e
5
0
a
0

1
5

(r / a
0
)
2
120
P
2
(cos)
|
d
3
x
W=
e
5
0
a
0

1
5
q
nucl

1
250 a
0
2

nucl
(3z
2
r
2
)d
3
x
|
W=
e
5
0
a
0

1
5
q
nucl

e
250 a
0
2
Q
zz , nucl
|
"he pro+le* does not e/plicitly as) for the *onopole *o*ent interaction of the nucleus. 2e drop the
first ter* and find&
W
h
=
oc Q
zz , nucl
5<0a
0
3
!here the -ero'ener#y fine structure constant is o=
e
2
5
0
c
>.310
3
W
h
1MF-
298
Homework 9 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
Problem 1
Since there are three fields in electrostatics !hen "aterials are included, E, D, and P, and each has
three co"ponents in three#di"ensional space, there are, in principle, nine different $oundary condition
e%uations. Usin& 'aussian pill$o(es and )"perian loops in the usual !ay, derive all nine $oundary
condition e%uations. *ote that so"e are redundant.
SOLTIO!"
Dra! a 'aussian pill$o( straddlin& the interface $et!een t!o "aterials. +ach field#li,e entity o$eys its
o!n version of 'auss-s la!. et us use 'auss-s la! in inte&ral for" over the 'aussian surface for each
entity.

Enda=
1

total
# d
3
#
.n order to derive a $oundary condition, !e consider only surface char&e at the interface/

Enda=
1

total
# d a
.n the usual !ay !e shrin, do!n the 'aussian pill$o( so that only the top and $otto" contri$ute, and
everythin& is constant and can $e ta,en out of the inte&ral/
E
2
E
1
n=
1

total
0his $oundary condition states that the total surface char&e density at the $oundary $et!een t!o
"aterials leads to a discontinuous 1u"p in the nor"al co"ponents of the total electric field.
2hereas the total char&e
total
&ives rise to the total field E, the free char&e &ives rise to the applied
field 3D4
0
5, so that 'auss-s la! in inte&ral for" $eco"es/

Dnda=

# d
3
#
0his leads to the ne(t $oundary condition/
D
2
D
1
n=

3for linear "aterials, D 6 E transfor"s this into/

2
E
2

1
E
1
n=
5
'auss-s la! in inte&ral for" for the induced field 3#P4
0
5 in ter"s of the induced char&e
pol
$eco"es/
299

Pnda=

pol
# d
3
#
0his leads to the $oundary condition/
P
2
P
1
n=
pol
0he irrotational nature of the electrostatic field E=0 leads, throu&h the help of Sto,es-s theore",
to/

Ed l=0
.f !e set the line inte&ral, the )"perian loop, half in one "aterial and half in the other, and shrin, it
do!n, !e are left !ith 1ust the top and $otto" pieces !hich are constant.
E
2, T
=E
1, T
2e should note there are t!o ortho&onal vectors that are $oth tan&ential to a surface, so that this
e%uation actually represents t!o $oundary conditions and can $e used t!ice.
7lu&&in& in the definition of E in turns of D and P leads to/
D
2, T
P
2, T
=D
1, T
P
1, T
0his is actually four e%uations $ecause is lin,s t!o different tan&ential direction possi$ilities for t!o
different fields, D and P$
2e cannot &et "uch farther !ithout ,no!in& so"ethin& a$out the "aterials. )ssu"e the "aterials are
linear, then the last $oundary conditions $eco"e/
D
2, T

2
=
D
1, T

1
and
P
2, T

0
=
P
1, T

0
.f the "aterial-s response is co"pletely ,no!n, then P and D are dependent on E, so that only three of
these nine e%uations are independent. 2e can choose any three of these and that is all !e need to &et a
uni%ue solution. 0he $oundary conditions usually chosen in practice are the si"plest ones/
D
2
D
1
n=
and
E
2, T
=E
1, T
.n su""ary, the $oundary conditions in &eneral are/
300
E D P
nor"al
(E
2
E
1
)n=
1

total
(D
2
D
1
)n= (P
2
P
1
)n=
pol
tan&ential 1
E
2, T
=E
1, T
D
2, T
P
2, T
=D
1, T
P
1, T
D
2, T
P
2, T
=D
1, T
P
1, T
tan&ential 2
E
2, T
=E
1, T
D
2, T
P
2, T
=D
1, T
P
1, T
D
2, T
P
2, T
=D
1, T
P
1, T
For linear "aterials, these $eco"e/
E D P
nor"al
(E
2
E
1
)n=
1

total

2
E
2

1
E
1
n=
(
2

0
) E
2
n
(
1

0
) E
1
n=
pol
tan&ential 1
E
2, T
=E
1, T
D
2,T

2
=
D
1, T

1
P
2, T

0
=
P
1, T

0
tan&ential 2
E
2, T
=E
1, T
D
2,T

2
=
D
1, T

1
P
2, T

0
=
P
1, T

0
Problem %
) solid dielectric sphere of radius a has its core re"oved so that for points a 8 r 8 a42, there is
dielectric "aterial !ith per"ittivity , $ut for points r 9 a42 there is free space. 0his sphere is placed in
an ori&inally unifor" electric field. 0here is no conductin& "aterial any!here. Dra! three dia&ra"s.
:n the first dia&ra", dra! the P field lines and polari;ation char&e. :n the second dia&ra", dra! the D
field lines and the free char&e 3if any5. :n the third dia&ra", dra! the E field lines and total char&e.
SOLTIO!"
First note that $ecause there are no conductors any!here and no applied e(cess char&es, there is no free
char&e. )s a result, the total char&e is 1ust e%ual to the polari;ation char&e. 0his also "eans that the D
field lines "ust $e continuous as there is no free char&e to create or destroy D field lines. )lso, in free
space there is no "aterial, so P 6 0 in free space, and
D=
0
E
in free space, "eanin& that the field line
patterns of D and E are identical in free space. )lso, for linear "aterials, !e have D=E !ith >
0
,
"eanin& that D points in the sa"e direction as E $ut is stron&er. Si"ilarly, for linear "aterials, !e
have
P=(
0
)E
, "eanin& that P also points in the direction of E. astly, all the field line patterns
should visually o$ey E=
D

0
.
301
D
&
&
&
&
'
'
&
&
'
'
'
'
'
&
P
&
&
&
&
'
'
&
&
'
'
'
'
'
&
E
302
Problem (
) solid dielectric sphere of radius a and per"ittivity is centered at the ori&in. ) point char&e q is
located inside the sphere on the z a(is at z 6 d. Find the potential every!here in ter"s of a series of
e&endre polyno"ials. <ou !ill need to find the potential in each re&ion separately usin& the "ethod
of i"a&es and then apply $oundary conditions.
SOLTIO!"
3a5 0he pro$le" has a;i"uthal sy""etry so that m 6 0 and the solution !ill involve only ordinary
e&endre polyno"ials. 0here are t!o re&ions that !e !ill have to solve separately and lin, $y
$oundary conditions/

in
e(ists for r<a !here !e have

out
e(ists for r>a !here !e have
0
et us solve first for the outside re&ion first. 0here is no char&e outside the sphere, so !e can
co"pletely represent the effects of the sphere and char&e as that due to an i"a&e char&e q-- at z 6 d. 0he
potential is therefore

out
=
1
=
0
(
q--
rd )
)
*o! let us solve for the re&ion inside the sphere. 0he effect of the sphere can $e represented as an
i"a&e char&e at q- at z 6 a
2
4d. 30his location is su&&ested to us $y the char&e near a conductin& sphere
pro$le" done earlier.5 0he potential in the inside re&ion due to the point char&e and i"a&e char&e is/

in
=
1
= (
q
rd )
+
q-
r(a
2
/ d ))
)
2e can e(pand each ter" into a series of e&endre polyno"ials and co"$ine, $ein& careful to note that
r 9 d and r 8 d re&ions "ust $e handled separately.
1
rr
0

l =0

r
9
l
r
8
l +1
P
l
(cos ) !here r
9
is the s"aller of 3r, r
0
5

out
=
1
=
0

l=0

q--
d
l
r
l +1
P
l
(cos)

in
=
1
=

l=0

(
q
d
l
r
l+1
+q -
r
l
(a
2
/ d )
l+1
)
P
l
(cos)
if r 8 d

in
=
1
=

l=0

(
q
1
d
l +1
+q-
1
(a
2
/ d)
l +1
)
r
l
P
l
(cos)
if r 9 d
303
)pply the $oundary condition at r 6 a that
(D
2
D
1
)n
12
=
. 0here is no free char&e density on the
sphere-s surface, so this $oundary condition $eco"es/
(
2
E
2

1
E
1
)n
12
=0
(
0
E
out
E
in
) r=0

out
r
=

in
r
q-- (l 1)=q(l 1)+q - l
d
a
)pply the $oundary condition at r 6 a that
(E
2
E
1
)n
12
=0
.
E
in ,
=E
out ,

in

out

q+q-
d
a
=

0
q--
Solve the e%uations in $o(es to find/
q- =
(l +1)(

0
1)
(l +1)+

0
l
q
a
d
q-- =
2l +1
(1+

0
)l +1
q
0he final solution is/

out
=
q
=
0
d

l=0

2l +1
(1+

0
)l +1
(
d
r
)
l+1
P
l
(cos)

in
=
q
= d

l=0

(
(
d
r
)
l +1
+
(l +1)(

0
1)
(l +1)+

0
l
(
d
a
)
l+1
(
r
a
)
l
)
P
l
(cos)
if r 8 d

in
=
q
= d

l=0

(
1+
(l +1)(

0
1)
(l +1)+

0
l
(
d
a
)
2l+1
)
(
r
d
)
l
P
l
(cos)
if r 9 d
304
Homework 10 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
Problem 1
" thin rin# of !ire !ith radius a is placed in the x$y plane, centered on the ori#in, and carries a carries a
fi%ed, current I in the positive a&i'uthal direction (fro' the positive x a%is to!ards the positive y a%is
and on around the circle). "n infinite, strai#ht !ire is placed at x * d, such that d + a, and it carries a
current I in the positive z direction.
(a) Dra! a dia#ra' representin# the 'a#netic field lines created ,y the rin#. Do not dra! the field lines
created ,y the strai#ht !ire.
(,) Usin# only your dia#ra' and conceptual ar#u'ents, descri,e the total force and tor-ue e%erted on
the strai#ht !ire. Do not solve any e-uations.
SOLUTIO!
.ote that the strai#ht !ire co'pletely lies in the x$z plane, so !e only need to consider field lines in
this plane, !hich are sho!n in red. /o find the total force on the strai#ht !ire, !e 0ust ,rea1 the !ire
into s'all se#'ents, calculate the force on each se#'ent, and then add up all the incre'ental forces.
et us conceptually apply the e-uation "=q #$ . For all points on the strai#ht !ire a,ove the x$y
plane, the current (and therefore also #) is in the z direction and and the $ field lines are 'ore or less in
the x direction, ,ut al!ays in the x$z plane. /his 'eans that all of the incre'ental forces for this top
half of the !ire are in the positive y direction (into the pa#e). "t z * 0, the current and $ field are
parallel, so there is &ero force. "s & approaches infinity, the field and therefore the force approaches
&ero. For all points on the strai#ht !ire ,elo! the x$y plane, the field is 'ore or less in the ne#ative x
direction and al!ays in the x$z plane, so that all the incre'ental forces on the ,otto' half point in the
ne#ative y direction (out of the pa#e). /he force at points z alon# the !ire loo1 so'ethin# li1e this2
Further'ore, there is sy''etry so that for every #iven incre'ental force on the top half, there is an
e-ual and opposite force at the 'irror point at the ,otto' half. /here is therefore &ero total linear force
on the !ire. /here is ho!ever a net tor-ue. /he top half is pushed into the pa#e, and the ,otto' half is
pushed out of the pa#e, so there is a net tor-ue tendin# to rotate the !ire a,out the x a%is. /he
correspondin# tor-ue vector therefore points in the ne#ative x direction.
z
F
y
305
x
y
z
I
I
306
Problem %
Consider t!o spherical shells ,oth centered at the ori#in. /he inner shell has radius R
1
and has a total
char#e $Q fixed unifor'ly on its surface. /he outer shell has radius R
2
and has a total char#e 3Q fixed
unifor'ly on its surface. Both spheres are spun around the z a%is at a constant an#ular speed 4 in the
positive a&i'uthal direction. Find the 'a#netic vector potential in the re#ion ,et!een the t!o spheres.
Be careful to note that the a&i'uthal unit vector is not constant and cannot ,e ta1en out of the inte#ral.
"lso note that you !ill need to e%pand into spherical har'onics to evaluate the inte#ral. Find the
'a#netic field ,et!een the spheres fro' the vector potential.
SOLUTIO!
/he char#es are spread unifor'ly on the spheres, so the char#e density on the spheres is2

1
=
Q
5 R
1
2
and

2
=
Q
5 R
2
2
/he tan#ential speed of a patch on the inner sphere is
v=r
a%is
=R
1
sin
and
J = v(rR
1
)
so that2
&
1
=
Q
5 R
1
sin (rR
1
)

and
&
2
=
Q
5 R
2
sin(rR
2
)

/he total current density therefore is2


&=
Q
5
sin
[
1
R
1
( rR
1
)
1
R
2
(rR
2
)
]

.o! use the Biot$Savart la! to find the potential ,et!een the spheres2
'=

0
5

&( 6
((6
d ( 6
'=

0
5
Q
5

sin6
[
1
R
1
(r 6R
1
)
1
R
2
(r 6R
2
)
]

6
((6
d (6
'=

0
5
Q
5

0
2

[
1
R
1
( r 6R
1
)
1
R
2
(r 6R
2
)
]

6
((6
r 6
2
sin
2
6 dr 6 d 6 d 6
7%pand the deno'inator in spherical har'onics.
307
'=

0
5
Q
5

0
2

[
1
R
1
(r 6 R
1
)
1
R
2
(r 6 R
2
)
]

6
5

l=0

m=l
l
1
2l +1
r
<
l
r
>
l+1
Y
l m
8
(6 , 6 )Y
lm
( , ) r 6
2
sin
2
6 dr 6 d 6 d 6
9e 'ust ,e careful and reali&e that

6

,ecause the pri'ed varia,les are ,ein# inte#rated over. /he


,est !ay to handle this is to use the e%pansion2

6=sin6

i +cos6

)
'=

0
5
Q
5

0
2

[
1
R
1
( r 6R
1
)
1
R
2
(r 6R
2
)
]
(sin 6

i +cos 6

))
5

l=0

m=l
l
1
2l +1
r
<
l
r
>
l+1
Y
l m
8
(6 , 6 )Y
lm
( , )r 6
2
sin
2
6 dr 6 d 6 d 6
Bet!een the spheres, our o,servation point is farther than the currents on the inner sphere, ,ut closer
than the currents on the outer sphere. 9e 'ust therefore use a different e%pansion for each on2
'=

0
Q
5 R
1

0
2

[
(r 6R
1
)
]
(sin 6

i +cos6

))

l =0

m=l
l
1
2l +1
r 6
l+2
r
l +1
Y
l m
8
(6 , 6 )Y
lm
( , )sin
2
6 dr 6 d 6 d 6
+

0
Q
5 R
2

0
2

[
(r 6 R
2
)
]
(sin6

i +cos6

))

l=0

m=l
l
1
2l +1
r
l
r 6
l1
Y
l m
8
(6 , 6 )Y
lm
( , )sin
2
6 dr 6 d 6 d 6
.o! evaluate the delta functions and rearran#e2
'=

0
Q
5

l =0

m=l
l
1
2l +1
Y
lm
( , )
[
(
R
1
r
)
l+1

(
r
R
2
)
l
]
I
l ,m
!here I
l ,m
=

0
2

sin6

i cos6

) Y
l m
8
6 ,6 sin
2
6 d 6 d 6
et us focus on the inte#rals ri#ht no!. 7%pand the definition of the spherical har'onics to solve the
inte#rals2
I
l ,m
=

2l 1
5
l m!
l m!

0
2
sin 6

i cos6

) e
i m6
d 6

P
l
m
cos 6 sin
2
6 d 6
Due to the ortho#onality in the first inte#ral, all ter's vanish e%cept m * 1 and m * $1. /he first inte#ral
can then ,e easily calculated to yield2
I
l ,!1
=

2l 1
5

l "1 !
l !1 !
!i

P
l
!1
cos 6 sin
2
6 d 6
Ma1e the su,stitution x=cos , dx=sin d and reco#ni&e sin=1x
2
=P
1
1
x=2 P
1
1
x
308
I
l ,1
=

2l 1
5
l 1 !
l 1 !
i

i

1
1
P
l
1
x P
1
1
x dx
I
l ,1
=

2l 1
5
l 1 !
l 1 !
i

) 2

1
1
P
l
1
x P
1
1
xdx
Due to ortho#onality, only the l * 1 ter' is non&ero, leadin# to2
I
1,!1
=
#
2
3
(i

i !

)) and I
lm
* 0 for all other l and m
Su,stitute ,ac1 in2
'=

0
Q
5
1
3[
(
R
1
r
)
2

(
r
R
2
)]
#
2
3
[ Y
11
( , )(i

i +

))+Y
1,1
( , )(i

))]
'=

0
Q
5
1
3[
(
R
1
r
)
2

(
r
R
2
)]
sin [sin

i +cos

)]
'=

0
Q
12 [
(
R
1
r
)
2

(
r
R
2
)]
sin

/he 'a#netic flu% density then ,eco'es2


$=$'
7%pand in spherical coordinates, 1eepin# only ter's that are non$&ero for this case2
$=r
1
r sin
%
%
sin A

1
r
%
%r
r A

$= r(2cos

0
Q
12 [
(
R
1
2
r
3
)

(
1
R
2
)]
)+

0
Q
12 [

(
R
1
2
r
3
)

(
2
R
2
)]
sin)
$=

0
Q
12 [
(
R
1
2
r
3
)
( *3cos r)+
(
2
R
2
)
*
]
:nterestin#ly, the field due to the outer shell is unifor' in the & direction (,ecause !e are inside it), and
the field due to the inner shell acts li1e a dipole field (,ecause !e are outside it).
309
Problem +
;ac1son <.11 (a)
" circular loop of !ire carryin# a current I is located !ith its center at the ori#in of coordinates and the
nor'al to its plane havin# spherical an#les

0,

0
. /here is an applied 'a#netic field, B
x
* B
0
(1 3 =y)
and B
y
* B
0
(1 3 =x).
(a) Calculate the force actin# on the loop !ithout 'a1in# any appro%i'ations. Co'pare your result
!ith the appro%i'ate result (<.>?). Co''ent.
SOLUTIO!
(a) 9e could ,rute force our !ay throu#h this pro,le' and soon discover that the 'ath #ets very 'essy
very -uic1ly. et us instead apply si'plifications as 'uch as possi,le as !e #o. First of all, ,ased on
the sy''etry, a circular current loop can never feel a net linear force fro' a spatially constant
'a#netic field. /his is ,ecause all the force e%perienced ,y one half is canceled ,y the force on the
other half. :n so far as the linear force is concerned, the nor'ali&ed 'a#netic field $
n
is therefore2
$
n
=y

i +x

)
!here
$
n
=
$
B
0
&
/he force on a !ire is #iven ,y the e-uation2
"=

&$dV
/he current density & has a very si'ple e%pression in a rotated reference fra'e !here the nor'al to the
loop is in the z direction (fra'e R6) and the 'a#netic field $ has a si'ple e%pression in the ori#inal
reference fra'e (fra'e R). :n the rotated fra'e, the current density is 0ust2
&((' )=I (r ' a)
(' ' 2)
r '

'
/he force in the rotated fra'e is therefore2
"((' )=

&((' )$((' )dV


"((' )=

0
2

I (r ' a)
(' ' 2)
r '

' $(( ' )r '
2
sin ' d r ' d ' d '
"((' )=a I
[

0
2

' $((' )d '


]
r ' =a , z ' =0
"((' )=a I B
0
&
[

0
2

' $
n
((' )d '
]
r ' =a, z ' =0
310
"( (' )=a I B
0
&
[

0
2
(sin '

i ' +cos'

) ' )( B
x '
n

i ' +B
y'
n

) ' +B
z '
n

k' ) d '
]
r ' =a , z ' =0
"((' )=a I B
0
&
[

0
2
[sin' B
y '
n

k ' cos ' B
x'
n

k ' +sin ' B
z '
n

) ' +cos ' B
z '
n

i ' ] d '
]
r ' =a , z ' =0
F
x '
=a I B
0
&
[

0
2
cos' B
z '
n
d '
]
r ' =a , z ' =0
F
y'
=a I B
0
&
[

0
2
sin' B
z '
n
d '
]
r ' =a , z ' =0
F
z '
=a I B
0
&
[

0
2
[ sin' B
y'
n
+cos ' B
x'
n
] d '
]
r ' =a , z ' =0
.o! !e need to find the 'a#netic field in the rotated reference fra'e. 9e do this ,y rotatin# an an#le

0
a,out the z a%is to #et the loop nor'al vector into the x$z plane, and then an an#le

0
a,out the y
a%is to #et the loop nor'al ali#ned !ith the z a%is.
[
x'
y '
z '
]
=
[
cos
0
0 sin
0
0 1 0
sin
0
0 cos
0
][
cos
0
sin
0
0
sin
0
cos
0
0
0 0 1
]
[
x
y
z
]
[
x'
y '
z '
]
=
[
cos
0
cos
0
sin
0
cos
0
sin
0
sin
0
cos
0
0
sin
0
cos
0
sin
0
sin
0
cos
0
]
[
x
y
z
]
(1)
Because this 'atri% is ortho#onal, its inverse is its transpose, leadin# to2
[
x
y
z
]
=
[
cos
0
cos
0
sin
0
cos
0
sin
0
sin
0
cos
0
cos
0
sin
0
sin
0
sin
0
0 cos
0
]
[
x '
y'
z '
]

.ote that the only pri'ed varia,le locations !e need are on the loop, !hich are all at z6 * 0. "lso, the
'a#netic field does not have a z co'ponent or z functionality. /he a,ove 'atri% therefore reduces
do!n to2
x=cos
0
cos
0
x ' sin
0
y'
and
y=sin
0
cos
0
x' +cos
0
y '
(2)
.o! transfor' the nor'ali&ed 'a#netic field co'ponents into the pri'ed fra'e usin# the 7-. 12
311
[
B
x'
n
B
y'
n
B
z '
n ]
=
[
cos
0
cos
0
sin
0
cos
0
sin
0
sin
0
cos
0
0
sin
0
cos
0
sin
0
sin
0
cos
0
][
B
x
n
B
y
n
B
z
n]
[
B
x'
n
B
y'
n
B
z '
n ]
=
[
cos
0
cos
0
sin
0
cos
0
sin
0
sin
0
cos
0
0
sin
0
cos
0
sin
0
sin
0
cos
0
]
[
y
x
0
]
B
x '
n
=cos
0
cos
0
y+sin
0
cos
0
x
B
y'
n
=sin
0
y+cos
0
x
B
z '
n
=sin
0
cos
0
y+sin
0
sin
0
x
9e have converted the vector co'ponents, ,ut !e still 'ust convert the coordinate functionality. 9e
use the 7-. 2 a,ove to do this, su,stitutin# the unpri'ed coordinates !ith pri'ed to find2
B
x '
n
=cos
2

0
sin( 2
0
) x' +cos
0
cos(2
0
) y'
B
y'
n
=cos(2
0
)cos
0
x' sin(2
0
) y '
B
z '
n
=
1
2
sin(2
0
)sin (2
0
) x' +cos(2
0
)sin
0
y'
Finally, the inte#ral is over the a&i'uthal an#le, so !e su,stitute2 x ' =a cos' and y' =asin ' 2
B
x '
n
=cos
2

0
sin(2
0
) a cos' +cos
0
cos(2
0
) asin '
B
y'
n
=cos(2
0
)cos
0
acos ' sin(2
0
)asin '
B
z '
n
=
1
2
sin(2
0
)sin(2
0
)acos ' +cos(2
0
)sin
0
asin '
.o! insert these into the force inte#rals2
F
x '
=a
2
I B
0
&
[
1
2
sin (2
0
)sin(2
0
)

0
2
cos
2
' d ' +cos(2
0
)sin
0

0
2
cos' sin ' d '
]
F
y'
=a
2
I B
0
&
[
1
2
sin( 2
0
) sin(2
0
)

0
2
sin' cos ' d ' +cos(2
0
)sin
0

0
2
sin
2
' d '
]
F
z '
=a
2
I B
0
&
[
2cos(2
0
)cos
0

0
2
sin' cos ' d ' sin(2
0
)

0
2
sin
2
' d ' +cos
2

0
sin(2
0
)

0
2
cos
2
' d '
]
Usin#

0
2
cos
2
' d ' = ,

0
2
sin
2
' d ' = , and

0
2
cos' sin ' d ' =0
312
F
x '
=a
2
I B
0
&

2
sin(2
0
)sin( 2
0
)
F
y'
=a
2
I B
0
&cos(2
0
)sin
0
F
z '
=a
2
I B
0
&sin(2
0
)sin
2

0
.o! !e 0ust need to transfor' ,ac1 to the ori#inal coordinate syste'2
[
F
x
F
y
F
z
]
=a
2
I B
0
&
[
cos
0
cos
0
sin
0
cos
0
sin
0
sin
0
cos
0
cos
0
sin
0
sin
0
sin
0
0 cos
0
]
[
1
2
sin(2
0
)sin(2
0
)
cos(2
0
)sin
0
sin(2
0
)sin
2

0
]
[
F
x
F
y
F
z
]
=a
2
I B
0
&
[
cos
0
cos
0
1
2
sin(2
0
)sin(2
0
)sin
0
cos(2
0
)sin
0
+cos
0
sin
0
sin(2
0
)sin
2

0
sin
0
cos
0
1
2
sin(2
0
)sin(2
0
)+cos
0
cos(2
0
)sin
0
+sin
0
sin
0
sin(2
0
)sin
2

0
sin
0
1
2
sin(2
0
)sin(2
0
)+cos
0
sin (2
0
)sin
2

0
]
F
x
=a
2
I B
0
&sin
0
sin
0
F
y
=a
2
I B
0
&sin
0
cos
0
F
z
=0
/he appro%i'ate result is #iven ,y
"=$(m($)
m=I a
2
(sin
0
cos
0

i +sin
0
sin
0

)+cos
0

k)
"=I a
2
B
0
&$((sin
0
cos
0

i +sin
0
sin
0

)+cos
0

k)(( y

i +x

)))
"=I a
2
B
0
&$(sin
0
cos
0
y+sin
0
sin
0
x)
F
x
=a
2
I B
0
&sin
0
sin
0
F
y
=a
2
I B
0
&sin
0
cos
0
F
z
=0
/his is the e%act sa'e result as ,efore.
313
Homework 11 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
Problem 1
" cylindrical per#anent #a$net is %rou$ht close to, %ut not touchin$, a se#i&infinite sla% of
para#a$netic #aterial that e'ists in the re$ion z ( 0. )he per#anent #a$net has its cylinder*s a'is
ali$ned !ith the z a'is and it has a unifor# #a$neti+ation !ith stren$th M
0
pointin$ in the ne$ative z
direction ,to!ards the sla%-. Dra! three dia$ra#s. .n one dia$ra#, dra! the M field lines every!here
they e'ist ,includin$ in the sla%- and all %ound #a$neti+ation currents. .n the ne't dia$ra#, dra! all H
field lines and free currents. .n the last dia$ra#, dra! all B field lines and total currents.
SOLTIO!"
M H B
#
M
#
#
tot
$ $ $ $ $ $ % % % $ $ % % % % $ $ $ $ $ $ % % % $ $ % % % %
$ $
$
$ $ $
$
$
% % % % % %
% %
%
%
%
$ $
$
$ $ $
$
$

0
M/B

0
H/B
M/0
$ $ $ $
%
%
%
%
% %
% %
% %
%
314
Problem &
0ac1son 2.13
" circular loop of !ire of radius a and ne$li$i%le thic1ness carries a current I. )he loop is centered in a
spherical cavity of radius b 4 a in a lar$e %loc1 of soft iron. "ssu#e that the relative per#ea%ility of
the iron is effectively infinite and that of the #ediu# in the cavity, unity.
,a- 5n the appro'i#ation, of b 44 a, sho! that the #a$netic field at the center of the loop is au$#ented
%y a factor ,1 6 a
3
72b
3
- %y the presence of the iron.
,%- 8hat is the radius of the 9i#a$e: current loop ,carryin$ the sa#e current- that si#ulates the effect
of the iron for r ( b;
SOLTIO!"
,a- 8e can find the #a$netic vector potential ' due to the loop %y itself, than add in an e'tra ar%itrary
potential due to iron and apply %oundary conditions to $et the uni<ue solution.
Use the Biot&Savart la! and plu$ in the current density #=

I 6(0/ 2)6(ra)/ a =
'=

0
>

#( (* )
((*
d (*
'=

0
>

0
2


* I 6 (0*/ 2) 6(r * a)/ a
((*
r *
2
sin 0* dr * d 0* d *
?'pand the deno#inator into spherical har#onics.
'=

0
>

0
2

* I 6(0* / 2)6( r *a)/ a >

l=0

m=l
l
1
2l +1
r
(
l
r
4
l+1
Y
l m
@
(0 * , * )Y
lm
(0 , ) r *
2
sin 0 * dr * d 0* d *
?valuate the deltas
'=
0
I a

l =0

m=l
l
1
2l +1
r
(
l
r
4
l +1

0
2

* Y
l m
@
(/ 2,* )Y
lm
(0 , ) d *
!here the s#aller or %i$$er r is no! !ith respect to r and a
?'pand out the a+i#uthal unit vector accordin$ to

* =sin*

i +cos *

) and the spherical har#onics


'=

0
I a
>

l =0

m=l
l
(l m)!
(l +m)!
r
(
l
r
4
l+1
P
l
m
(0) P
l
m
(cos 0) e
i m

0
2
sin *

i +cos*

) | e
i m*
d *
'=

0
I a
>

l =0

m=l
l
(l m)!
(l +m)!
r
(
l
r
4
l+1
P
l
m
(0) P
l
m
(cos 0) e
i m

0
2
sin *

i +cos*

) | cos(m* )i sin(m* )| d *
315
'=

0
I a
>

l =0

m=l
l
(l m)!
(l +m)!
r
(
l
r
4
l +1
P
l
m
(0) P
l
m
(cos 0)e
i m

0
2
sin* cos(m* ) d * +

i i

0
2
sin * sin (m*) d *+

0
2
cos* cos( m* ) d *

) i

0
2
cos * sin( m* ) d *
|
Due to ortho$onality, m #ust e<ual positive or ne$ative one and !e can do the inte$rals
'=

0
I a
>

l =0

r
(
l
r
4
l+1

(l +1)!
(l 1)!
P
l
1
(0) P
l
1
(cos0) e
i

i i +

) |+
(l 1)!
(l +1)!
P
l
1
(0) P
l
1
( cos0) e
i
+

i i +

) | |
Ao! use the relation P
l
1
=
(l 1) !
(l +1) !
P
l
1
'=

0
I a
2

l =0

( l 1) !
( l +1) !
r
(
l
r
4
l +1
P
l
1
(0) P
l
1
(cos0)sin

i +cos

)|
?'pand out the factorials enou$h to reali+e that thin$s cancel out
'=

0
I a
2

l =0

1
l (l +1)
r
(
l
r
4
l +1
P
l
1
( 0) P
l
1
(cos0)

For points inside the loop this %eco#es=


'=

0
I
2

l=0

1
l (l +1)
r
l
a
l
P
l
1
( 0) P
l
1
(cos0)

Ao! if !e put this loop in the #iddle of the cavity in the iron, !e can add in another $eneral potential
to ta1e into account the effects of the iron.
'
iron
=

l =0

A
l
r
l
P
l
1
( cos0)

'=

0
I a
2

l =0

1
l (l +1)
r
(
l
r
4
l +1
P
l
1
( 0) P
l
1
(cos0)

+

l=0

A
l
r
l
P
l
1
(cos0)

Ao! apply the %oundary condition. )he relative per#ea%ility of the iron is effectively infinite so that
the co#ponents of the #a$netic field B that are parallel to the sphere*s surface at r / b #ust vanish=
B
0
(r=b)=0
0=

0B|
r =b
0=

0( ')|
r =b
316
0=

1
r

r
(r A

)
|
r =b
0=

1
r

r
(r (

0
I a
2

l=0

1
l (l +1)
a
l
r
l +1
P
l
1
(0) P
l
1
(cos 0)+

l=0

A
l
r
l
P
l
1
(cos 0)))
|
r =b
0=

l =0

0
I a
2
1
(l +1)
a
l
b
l +2
P
l
1
(0)+A
l
(l +1)b
l1
|
P
l
1
(cos 0)
)he e$endre functions are ortho$onal, so each coefficient #ust vanish separately
A
l
=

0
I a
2
1
(l +1)
2
a
l
b
2l+1
P
l
1
(0)
)he final solution then %eco#es=
'=

0
I a
2

l =0

1
l +1
1
l
r
(
l
r
4
l +1
+
1
l +1
a
l
b
l
r
l
b
l +1
|
P
l
1
(0) P
l
1
(cos0)

For points inside the loop, r ( a this %eco#es


'=

0
I
2

l=0

1
l (l +1)

1+
l
l +1
(
a
b
)
2l+1
|
r
l
a
l
P
l
1
(0) P
l
1
(cos0)

Co#parin$ this to the solution for !hen no iron !as present ,the %o'ed e<uation a%ove- !e see that
each ter# is au$#ented %y a constant factor=
1+
l
l +1
(
a
b
)
2l+1
For b 44 a !e have ,a7b- (( 1 so that hi$her po!ers of ,a7b- are ne$li$i%le. )he l / 1 !ill do#inate
and the au$#entation factor %eco#es=
1+
1
2
(
a
b
)
3
Because this is a constant factor it can %e #oved out of derivatives. )his #eans that the #a$netic field
is au$#ented %y this sa#e factor !ith !hich the vector potential is au$#ented.
,%- 8hat is the radius of the 9i#a$e: current loop ,carryin$ the sa#e current- that si#ulates the effect
of the iron for r ( b;
5f there !ere an i#a$e loop of radius c so that c 4 b and current I, then the total potential inside the rin$
due to this loop and the ori$inal loop %eco#es=
317
'=

0
I
2

l=0

1
l (l +1)

1
a
l
+
1
c
l
|
r
l
P
l
1
(0) P
l
1
(cos 0)

?<uate this to the potential for the rin$ in the iron cavity and e<uate ter#s=
c=

l +1
l
b
2l+1
a
l +1
|
1/ l
"pparently, the radius is a function of l, !hich does not #a1e sense for a constant radius. 8e cannot
e'actly #odel this pro%le# usin$ an i#a$e current. But for the special case of b 44 a, !e re#e#%er
that only the l / 1 ter# contri%utes.
c=2
b
3
a
2
Problem *
" per#anent #a$net has the shape of a solid sphere !ith radius a and is centered at the ori$in. )he top
half of the sphere ,+ 4 0- has a unifor# #a$neti+ation in the positive z direction !ith #a$nitude M
0
!hile the %otto# half of the sphere ,+ ( 0- has a unifor# #a$neti+ation in the ne$ative z direction !ith
#a$nitude M
0
. )here are no other fields or currents e'cept those due to the per#anent #a$net.
,a- Find all #a$neti+ation currents associated !ith this #a$neti+ation.
,%- Find the #a$netic vector potential due to these #a$neti+ation currents for points outside the sphere.
?'pand the deno#inator in spherical har#onics to solve the inte$rals.
,c- Calculate the #a$netic field far a!ay due to this #a$net ,only 1eep the first ter# in '-.
SOLTIO!"
,a- )he #a$neti+ation current and the associated #a$neti+ation are lin1ed accordin$ to=
#
M
=M
.utside he sphere and inside each half, the #a$neti+ation is a constant. )he curl operator contains
derivatives and the derivative of a constant is +ero, so there are no currents inside or outside the each
he#isphere. "lthou$h the plane !here the t!o he#ispheres #eet does not have constant #a$neti+ation
,there is a s!itch in direction-, this plane is perpendicular to the #a$neti+ation, so there is no currents
in this plane. )he currents are only on the surface of the sphere.
et us focus on one spot on the top he#isphere*s surface. 5nte$rate the a%ove e<uation over a s#all
s<uare da that is half in the o%Bect and half out.

#
M
d a=

(M)d a
Use Sto1e*s theore# to convert the surface inte$ral of a curl to a line inte$ral alon$ the %oundary of da.

#
M
d a=

Md l
318
Shrin1 the rectan$ular loop until the sides $ive no contri%ution to the inte$ral and the M field and
current are constant over the top and %otto# line inte$ral portions. )he nor#al to the area inte$ral
ele#ent points in a direction t tan$ent to the o%Bect surface.
#
M
t L
1
L
2
=M
2
l
top
L
1
M
1
l
top
L
1
M
2
is the M field at the o%Bect*s surface Bust outside the o%Bect and M
1
is the M field Bust inside the
o%Bect. Cere !e have used the fact that
l
bottom
=l
top
%ecause the direction of inte$ration on the top
portion of the loop is in the opposite direction fro# the %otto# portion. 5f !e define the direction
nor#al to the o%Bect*s surface as n, then
l
top
=tn
, leadin$ to=
#
M
t L
2
=(M
2
M
1
)(t n)
)he current density contained in the t!o&di#ensional %oundary surface ti#es a unit len$th is 1no!n as
the surface current density
+
M
=#
M
L
2
so that !e no! have=
+
M
t=(M
2
M
1
)(tn)
Use of a vector identity $ives=
+
M
t=(n(M
2
M
1
))t
)he vector t nor#al to the inte$ration surface is ar%itrary and can %e oriented in any direction !ithin
the surface plane. )his e<uation #ust therefore hold for all possi%le directions=
+
M
=n(M
2
M
1
)
Conceptually this #eans that the #a$neti+ation current $ives rise to a Bu#p in the tan$ential co#ponent
of the M field across the #aterial*s %oundary.
5n this pro%le#, the outside #aterial is free space, !hich can have no #a$neti+ation, so that M
2
/ 0
+
M
=nM
1
Ao! su%stitute in the #a$neti+ation for the top he#isphere,
M=M
0
,
=
+
M
=M
0
r ,
+
M
=M
0
r(cos rsin

)
+
M
=M
0
sin

for D ( E72
For the %otto# half, !e have=
+
M
=M
0
r(,)
319
+
M
=M
0
sin

for D 4 E72
?ffectively, the #a$net acts li1e an upper %undle of circular !ires carryin$ current in the positive
a+i#uthal direction and a lo!er %undle of circular !ires carryin$ current in the opposite direction. 8e
e'pect such a confi$uration to have a stron$ <uadrupole %ehavior. )he $eneral, three&di#ensional
current density can %e e'pressed as=
#
M
=M
0
sgn(cos) sin

( ra)
,%- )he #a$netic vector potential in $eneral is=
'=

0
>

#(( *)+#
M
((*)
((*
d (*
)here are no free currents # in this pro%le#, so that !e have=
'=

0
>

M
0
sgn(cos' )sin '

' (r ' a)|
((*
d (*
'=

0
M
0
a
2
>

0
2

0
/ 2
sin'

'
(a r*
sin* d * d *

0
2

/ 2

sin '

'
(a r*
sin * d * d *
|
?'pandin$ the deno#inators into a su# over spherical har#onics, !e find=
'=
0
M
0
a
2

l =0

m=l
l
a
l
2l +1
1
r
l+1
Y
l m
( , )

0
2

0
/ 2

* Y
l m
@
(* , * )sin
2
* d * d *

0
2

/ 2

* Y
l m
@
(* , * )sin
2
* d * d *
|
8e can co#%ined the t!o inte$rals %y #a1in$ a chan$e of varia%les in the inte$ral on the ri$ht of
* -* , d * -d * and usin$ Y
lm
@
(* )=(1)
l+m
Y
lm
@
(* ) =
'=
0
M
0
a
2

l =0

m=l
l
a
l
2l +1
1
r
l+1
Y
l m
( , ) 1(1)
l +m
|

0
2

0
/ 2

* Y
l m
@
(* , * )sin
2
* d * d *
8e i##ediately see that all coefficients !ill vanish for ,l 6 m- even. .ur solution no! %eco#es=
'=2
0
M
0
a
2

l =0

m=l
l
a
l
2l +1
1
r
l +1
Y
l m
( , )

0
2

0
/2

* Y
l m
@
(* , *)sin
2
* d * d * !here l 6 m is odd
)he a+i#uthal unit vector cannot co#e out the inte$ral %ecause it is not constant. et us instead e'pand
it into rectan$ular coordinates=
320
'=2
0
M
0
a
2

l =0

m=l
l
a
l
2l +1
1
r
l +1
Y
l m
( , )

0
2

0
/2
(sin* (+cos* y)Y
l m
@
(* , * )sin
2
* d * d *
'=2
0
M
0
a
2

l =0

m=l
l
a
l
2l +1
1
r
l+1
Y
l m
(, )

1
>
(l m)!
(l +m)!

0
1
P
l
m
(x)1x
2
dx (

0
2
sin * (cos(m*)i sin (m* ))d *+ y

0
2
cos * (cos(m* )i sin(m*))d * |
Due to ortho$onality, only the m / 1 and m / &1 ter#s in the su# are non&+ero. )his #eans that l #ust
%e 2, >, 3,... to 1eep l 6 m odd. "fter evaluatin$ the a+i#uthal inte$rals for %oth the m / 1 and the m /
&1 cases, and then usin$ identities to co#%ine the t!o, !e find=
'=

0
M
0
a

l =2,>,3...

(
a
r
)
l +1
(l 1)!
(l +1)!
P
l
1
(cos)

0
1
P
l
1
(x)1x
2
dx
Unfortunately, !e cannot ta1e advanta$e of the ortho$onality state#ent for associated e$endre
functions %ecause the inte$ral is not over the ri$ht li#its. 8e can ho!ever use several identities and
use inte$ration %y parts to solve the inte$ral.

0
1
P
l
1
(x)1x
2
dx=

0
1
((1x
2
)
d
dx
P
l
(x))dx ,usin$ Fodri$ues* for#ula-
Use inte$ration %y parts on the ri$ht side=

0
1
P
l
1
(x)1x
2
dx=

P
l
( x)(1x
2
)
|
0
1
2

0
1
P
l
( x) x dx

0
1
P
l
1
(x)1x
2
dx=P
l
(0)2

0
1
P
l
( x) x dx
Use the identity
(l +1)P
l +1
(x)(2l +1) x P
l
(x)+l P
l1
(x)=0

0
1
P
l
1
(x)1x
2
dx=P
l
(0)2
1
2l +1

0
1
((l +1) P
l+1
(x)+l P
l1
(x)) dx
Use the identity=
P
l
( x)=
1
2l +1
d
dx

P
l +1
(x)P
l1
( x)
|

0
1
P
l
1
(x)1x
2
dx=P
l
(0)2
1
2l +1

l +1
2l +3
(P
l +2
(0)+P
l
(0))+
l
2l 1
(P
l
(0)+P
l2
(0))|
Use
P
l
(0)P
l+2
(0)=P
l
(0)
(
2l +3
l +2
)
for l even
321
"fter #uch al$e%ra, !e find=

0
1
P
l
1
(x)1x
2
dx=(1)
l / 2
(l +1)! !
(l +2)! !
l
(l 1)
if l is even
So that the solution is=
'=

0
M
0
a

l =2,>,3...

(1)
l / 2
(
a
r
)
l +1
(l 3)!!
(l +2)! !
P
l
1
(cos)
,c- 5f !e only 1eep the first ter# in ', our solution is=
'=

0
M
0
a

3
G
(
a
r
)
3
cossin
|
)he #a$netic field is therefore=
B='
)he curl in spherical coordinates is very involved. Fortunately #any of the ter#s drop out, leavin$=
B= r
1
r sin

(sin A

)
|

1
r

r
(r A

)
|
B= r
0
M
0
3
G
(
a
r
)
>
(3cos
2
1)+

0
M
0
3
>
(
a
r
)
>
cos sin
Usin$ $raphin$ soft!are !e can create a plot of this e'pression, and the result is sho!n %elo!. )his
#a$net is do#inantly <uadrupole in nature as !e e'pected. Because the sphere does not have unifor#
#a$neti+ation, %ut flips at its e<uator, it acts li1e t!o per#anent #a$net he#ispheres stuc1 to$ether
!ith their south ends touchin$.
322
323
Homework 12 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
Problem 1
"n infinite re#ion is filled !ith unifor$ linear $a#netic $aterial of per$ea%ility . Cut into this
$aterial is a vacuu$ cavity that is in the shape of a circular cylinder !ith radius a and infinite len#th.
Before the cavity !as created, there !as ori#inally an e&ternal unifor$ $a#netic field that pointed in a
direction perpendicular to the cylinder's a&is. Usin# a $a#netic scalar potential, find the B field in all
re#ions.
SOLTIO!
"li#n the a&is of the cylindrical cavity !ith the z(a&is and orient the ori#inal field to point in the
positive x direction)
B( p-)=B
0
"
Since there is only linear $aterial and no free currents, !e can solve for the $a#netic potential

2
1
M
=0 !here
B=1
M
and the potential far a!ay %eco$es
1
M
=B
0
pcos
*his is si$ply the aplace e+uation in polar coordinates, for !hich !e already ,no! the #eneral
solution to %e)
1
M
(p , )=

m=

p
m
(
A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
-utside the cylinder, apply the %oundary condition at lar#e
B
0
pcos=

m=1

p
m
(
A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
Due to ortho#onality)
A
1
=B
1
=B
0
/ 2
and
A
m
=B
m
=0
for m . 1
So that
1
M ,out
(p ,)=B
0
pcos+

m=
1
p
m
( A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
1
M ,out
(p ,)=B
0
pcos+

m=1

p
m
(
A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
/nside the cylinder, the solution $ust %e finite at the ori#in so that
324
1
M ,in
(p , )=

m=1

p
m
(
C
m
e
i m
+D
m
e
i m
)
*here are no free currents and all $aterials are linear, so the %oundary conditions %eco$e)
(B
out
B
in
) p=0 and
(
1

B
out

0
B
in
)

=0 at 0 a
"pplyin# the first %oundary condition #ives)
1
M
out
p
=
1
M
in
p
at 0 a
B
0
cos+

m=1

(m) a
m1
(
A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
=

m=1

ma
m1
(
C
m
e
i m
+D
m
e
i m
)
C
1
=B
0
/ 2a
2
A
1
and B
1
0 A
1
, D
1
0 C
1
C
m
=a
2m
A
m
for m . 1
D
m
=a
2m
B
m
*he solutions thus far %eco$e)
1
M ,out
(p ,)=B
0
pcos+A
1
1
p
2cos+

m=2

p
m
(
A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
1
M ,in
(p , )=(B
0
2a
2
A
1
)pcos+

m=2

p
m
(a
2 m
)
(
A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
"pply the last %oundary condition)
1


M
out

=
1

M
in

at 0 a
1

B
0
a sinA
1
1
a
2sin +

m=2

a
m
(
A
m
i me
i m
i m B
m
e
i m
)
|
=
1

0
( B
0
+2a
2
A
1
)a sin +

m=2

a
m
(a
2m
)( A
m
i me
i m
i mB
m
e
i m
)|
A
1
=
(

0
+
0
)
a
2
B
0
/ 2
A
m
=B
m
=0
for m . 1
325

M ,out
(, )=B
0
x
(

0
+
0
)
B
0
a
2
x
2
+y
2
x

M ,in
(, )=
(
2
0
+
0
)
B
0
x
B=1
M
B=

"
1
M
x
+ y
1
M
y
|
B
in
=B
0
(
2
0
+
0
)
" and B
out
=B
0
"B
0
(
a

)
2
(

0
+
0
)
2cos "|
*he field inside the cavity is unifor$, and the field outside is the ori#inal unifor$ field plus a dipole
field. /f the $aterial is para$a#netic, !e see that the field inside the cavity is !ea,er than the ori#inal
field.
Problem 2
1ac,son 2.13 4a5. Solve usin# effective $a#netic char#es and a $a#netic scalar potential.
" $a#netically 6hard7 $aterial is in the shape of a ri#ht circular cylinder of len#th L and radius a. *he
cylinder has a per$anent $a#neti8ation M
0
, unifor$ throu#h(out its volu$e and parallel to its a&is.
4a5 Deter$ine the $a#netic field H and $a#netic induction B at all points on the a&is of the cylinder,
%oth inside and outside.
SOLTIO!#
et us place the center of the cylinder at the ori#in and its a&is ali#ned !ith the z a&is. *hen it is natural
to use cylindrical coordinates. et us state everythin# !e ,no! a%out this pro%le$ outri#ht. *here are
no free currents present, so there cannot %e any curl to the H field.
H=0
*his is valid inside and out. *he curl of the #radient of any function is al!ays 8ero, so !e can define a
$a#netic scalar potential
H=4
M
-utside the o%9ect, there is no $aterial, so that the $a#neti8ation outside $ust %e 8ero and the total
field B depends only on the H field.
B=
0
H
and $ 0 0 outside
326
:e should also note that there are no applied e&ternal fields, only the fields created %y the shape. *his
$eans that all fields should die do!n to 8ero infinitely a!ay fro$ the shape.
/nside, the $a#neti8ation is a ,no!n)
$=M
0
%
inside
;enerally spea,in#, the e+uation that says there are no $a#netic $onopoles can %e cast as a
relationship %et!een $ and H#
B=0 - (
0
H+
0
$)=0 - H=$
*his is a totally #eneral result, applica%le every!here, no $atter !hat $aterial is present. /t $eans that
!hatever diver#ence that $ay e&ist in the $a#neti8ation $ust %e perfectly canceled %y the diver#ence
in the H field in order to ,eep the actual, real total field B diver#ence(less. :e no! su%stitute in the
definition of H in ter$s of the $a#netic scalar potential and reco#ni8e an entity that acts li,e a
$a#netic char#e density)

2
4
M
=p
M
!here
p
M
=$
Because the $a#neti8ation is constant inside the cylinder, its diver#ence is 8ero there. *he $a#netic
char#e density $ust reside on the surface. Dra!in# a closed surface around the surface char#e density
and shrin,in# it do!n leads to
($
2
$
1
)n=u
M
. -utside there is no $a#neti8ation $
2
0 0 and
inside !e ,no!
$
1
=M
0
%
so that !e have)
u
M
=M
0
%n
*his $eans that
u
M
=M
0
on the top of the cylinder,
u
M
=M
0
on the %otto$ of the cylinder, and
u
M
=0
on the sides.
*his is %est su$$ed up as)
p
M
=M
0
(6( zL/ 2)6( z+L/ 2)) for < a, and
M
0 0 for . a.
*he =oisson e+uation for the $a#netic scalar potential has the #eneral solution)
4
M
=
1
>
|
p
M
""'
d " '
4
M
=
1
>
|

|
0
2
|
0

p
M
.p
2
+p'
2
2pp' cos(' )+( zz ' )
2
p' d p' d ' d z '
4
M
=
1
>
|

|
0
2
|
0
a
( M
0
(6( z 'L/ 2)6 ( z '+L/ 2)))
.p
2
+p'
2
2pp' cos(' )+( zz ' )
2
p' d p' d ' d z '
4
M
=
M
0
>
|
0
2
|
0
a
p' d p' d '
.p
2
+p'
2
2pp' cos(' )+( zL/ 2)
2

|
0
2
|
0
a
p' d p' d '
.p
2
+p'
2
2pp' cos(' )+( z+L/ 2)
2
|
327
*he pro%le$ only as,s for the solution on the a&is of the cylinder, so !e can safely set 0 0.
4
M
=
M
0
>
|
0
2
|
0
a
p' d p' d '
.p'
2
+( zL/ 2)
2

|
0
2
|
0
a
p' d p' d '
.p'
2
+( z+L/ 2)
2
|
4
M
=
M
0
2
|
0
a
p' d p'
.p'
2
+( zL/ 2)
2

|
0
a
p' d p'
.p'
2
+( z+L/ 2)
2
|
4
M
=
M
0
2
.p'
2
+( zL/ 2)
2
|
0
a
.p'
2
+( z+L/ 2)
2
|
0
a
|
4
M
=
M
0
2
.a
2
+( zL/ 2)
2
.a
2
+( z+L/ 2)
2
zL/ 2+z+L/ 2|
H=4
M
H=
4
M
z
%
H=
M
0
2
zL/ 2
.a
2
+( zL/ 2)
2

z+L/ 2
.a
2
+( z+L/ 2)
2

zL/ 2
zL/ 2
+
z+L/ 2
z+L/ 2|
%
" careful evaluation of the a%solute value in the different re#ions leads to)
H
out
=
M
0
2
zL/ 2
.a
2
+( zL/ 2)
2

z+L/ 2
.a
2
+( z+L/ 2)
2
|
%
on a&is
H
in
=
M
0
2
zL/ 2
.a
2
+( zL/ 2)
2

z+L/ 2
.a
2
+( z+L/ 2)
2
+2
|
%
on a&is
Usin# B=
0
H+
0
$, $ 0 0 outside, and $=M
0
% inside
B=

0
M
0
2
zL/ 2
.a
2
+( zL/ 2)
2

z+L/ 2
.a
2
+( z+L/ 2)
2
|
%
on a&is
*he total fields inside and outside end up havin# the sa$e for$. :e can plot these e+uations. For L 0 2a, !e
have)
328
-1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
-0.6
-0.4
-0.2
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
z/L
H

s
c
a
l
e
d
-1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0
0.0
0.2
0.4
0.6
0.8
1.0
z/L
B

s
c
a
l
e
d
329
Problem &
1ac,son 2.22
Sho! that in #eneral a lon#, strai#ht %ar of unifor$ cross(sectional area A !ith unifor$ len#th!ise
$a#neti8ation M, !hen placed !ith its flat end a#ainst an infinitely per$ea%le flat surface, adheres
!ith a force #iven appro&i$ately %y
F-

0
2
AM
2
?elate your discussion to the electrostatic considerations in Section 1.11.
SOLTIO!#
First note that the pro%le$ does not say the %ar is a circular cylinder. :e can't 9ust use the fields due to
a circular cylinder to solve this pro%le$. *he %ar has ar%itrary cross(sectional shape.
"ssu$e the $a#neti8ation is a!ay fro$ the plate, in the positive z direction, $=M % , and the plate
lies in the x(y plane. "n infinitely per$ea%le flat surface acts 9ust li,e a perfect $irror, so !e can 9ust
represent its effects %y a second i$a#e %ar !ith the e&act sa$e shape and $a#neti8ation placed 9ust
%elo! the first. *he $a#neti8ation of each %ar can %e represented as due to an effective $a#netic
char#e distri%ution. Because the $a#neti8ation is unifor$, the $a#netic char#es $ust %e on the surface
and not inside. Further$ore, the sides of the %ar are parallel to the $a#neti8ation, so it has no char#e.
"lso, the %ars are lon#, so !e can assu$e the top face of the real %ar and the %otto$ face of the i$a#e
%ar are so far a!ay as to have no effect.
-n the %otto$ face of the real %ar there is a $a#neti8ation surface char#e density)
o
M
=n$
o
M
=(%)(M %)
o
M
=M
!hich e&ists at z 0 0 !ithin the circu$ference of the real %ar.
@ote that %ecause the $a#neti8ation is constant across the %otto$ face, so is the surface char#e. *he
i$a#e %ar has an e+ual and opposite char#e distri%ution)
o
M
' =M
!hich e&ists at z 0 0 !ithin the circu$ference of the i$a#e %ar
*he force that the real %ar feels is due to the $a#netic field created %y the i$a#e %ar. Because the %ars
are lon#, !e can assu$e the fields 9ust outside the ends of the %ar are unifor$ and e+ual to the fields
ri#ht at the %ar's surface. /n #eneral
B=
0
H+
0
$
. /nside an infinitely lon# $a#neti8ed %ar, H 0 0, so
that
B
in
=
0
$
. Since all the fields are nor$al to the end faces near the faces, and %ecause the nor$al
co$ponent of B is al!ays continuous, !e have
B
out
=B
in
=
0
$
9ust outside the face of each lon# %ar.
@ear the top face of the i$a#e %ar, the $a#netic force created %y the %ar is therefore)
B
out
=
0
M %
Si$ilar to electrostatics, the force on an effective $a#netic char#e is 9ust)
330
'=q
M
B
*he total force over a surface char#e is therefore)
'=
|
S
o
M
Bda
For our case, this %eco$es)
'=
|
S
(M)(
0
M %)da
Averythin# is constant and can co$e out of the inte#ral.
'=%
0
AM
2
@ote that %y usin# an i$a#e %ar, !e have in effect dou%le(counted. /n reality, there are no fields in the
re#ion z < 0. :e can account for this %y $ultiplyin# %y one half)
'=%

0
2
AM
2
331
Homework 13 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
Problem 1
Start !ith Ma"!ell#s e$uations in ter%s of the fields. &ssu%e that all space is filled !ith a unifor%,
isotropic, linear dielectric'%a(netic %aterial and apply this fact. )e"t, ta*e the standard definitions of
the dyna%ic fields in ter%s of the scalar and vector potentials and insert these definitions into
Ma"!ell#s e$uations. )e"t, choose the oren+ ,au(e. )e"t, assu%e the potentials vary har%onically in
ti%e at so%e an(ular fre$uency - and si%plify Ma"!ell#s e$uations for this special case.
SOLUTIO!
Ma"!ell#s e$uations are.
"= , #=0

E=
#
t
,
H=$
"
t
For linear, isotropic, unifor% %aterial, !e have "=E and #= H leadin( to.
E=

, #=0

E=
#
t
,
#= $+
E
t
/he standard potential definitions are.
#=% and
E=
%
t
0nsertin( these, !e find.

2
+

t
%=

and (%)= $

t


2
%
t
2
Use a vector identity on the ter% on the ri(ht of the second e$uation to find.

2
+

t
%=

and (%)
2
%= $

t


2
%
t
2
0n the oren+e ,au(e, !here
%=

t
, these e$uations reduce to.
332

t
2
=

and
2
%

2
%
t
2
= $
For 1ar%onic ti%e dependence, !e have.

2
+
2
=

and
2
%+
2
%= $
333
Practice Final Exam Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
Part I: Multiple Choice
Circle only one answer to each question. In cases where many answers may seem true, choose the one
best answer.
1. "hen all fields are static, !hat does the D field descri#e$
%a& the applied electric field after 'aterial interactions occur and the syste' reaches e(uili#riu'
%#& the total electric field in re)ions !here there is no dielectric 'aterial
%c& all electric fields in a )iven re)ion e*cept the field directly attri#uta#le to a 'aterial+s polari,ation in
that re)ion
%d& all of the a#ove
2. -he current I runs throu)h an ar#itrarily.shaped loop of thin !ire. /o! does the 'a)netic field
stren)th B produced #y this syste' depend on I$
%a& B is proportional to I
2
%#& B is proportional to I
%c& B does not depend on I
%d& B is proportional to cos%I&
3. "hat does the surface of a paramagnetic 'aterial tend to do to a pre.e*istin) e*ternal 'a)netic
field$
%a& nothin)
%#& repels and dilutes 'a)netic field lines
%c& attracts and concentrates 'a)netic field lines
%d& 0nots up the field lines
1. 2n electric char)e distri#ution is )iven #y3
=
Q
4 R
3
cos
(
r
R
)
e
( 3r / R)
2
cos
1

!here R is so'e constant radius, Q is so'e constant char)e, r is the radial di'ension of spherical
coordinates and is the polar an)le of spherical coordinates. 5f !e !ere to solve for the electrostatic
potential created #y this char)e distri#ution, !hat 0ind of functions !ould the final solution involve$
%a& co'ple* e*ponentials
%#& Bessel functions
%c& ordinary e)endre polyno'ials
%d& spherical har'onics
6. 5n 'a)netostatics, !hich one of the potential definitions is valid,
B=A or B=
M
$
%a& only B=A
%#& only
B=
M
%c& Both
B=A and B=
M
are valid all the ti'e
%d& B=A is valid all the ti'e, #ut
B=
M
is only valid !hen there is no total current
334
7. "hich e*pression descri#es electro'a)netic field ener)y flow$
%a& 8%E 9 D : B 9 &
%#& E ;
%c& E ; D
%d& ! 9 E
<. "hen !e solved for the potential of a point char)e outside a conductin) sphere usin) the 'ethod of
i'a)es, !here did !e place the i'a)e char)e%s&$
%a& one i'a)e char)e !as placed in the sphere on the line connectin) the real char)e !ith the sphere+s
center
%#& one i'a)e char)e !as placed in the sphere at a co'pletely ar#itrary location
%c& t!o i'a)e char)es !ere placed in the sphere on either side of the sphere+s center
%d& one i'a)e char)e !as placed e*ternal to the sphere on the other side fro' the real char)e
4. 5n the process of solvin) for the electrostatic potential inside an infinite hollo! cylinder that is
unifor' alon) its a*is, a #oundary condition is applied of a finite potential on its a*is. "hich ter'%s& in
the )eneral solution )oes a!ay !hen this #oundary condition is applied$
%a& e
-im
%#& !
m
%c& !
-m
%d& !
-m
and ln%!&
=. "hat does >)au)e invariance? 'ean in electrodyna'ics$
%a& the electric and 'a)netic fields stay the sa'e !hen the potentials are transfor'ed a certain !ay
%#& the electric and 'a)netic fields chan)e !hen the potentials are transfor'ed in a certain !ay
%c& the potentials stay the sa'e !hen certain transfor'ations are 'ade
%d& the electro'a)netics fields produced #y a coa*ial ca#le are independent of its thic0ness
10. "hen a per'anent 'a)net is placed a)ainst a steel refri)erator, it stic0s. "hat is the #est
e*planation of the physics involved$
%a& -he 'a)netic field fro' the 'a)net induces a 'a)neti,ation in the steel, !hich then creates a
'a)netic field #ac0 to!ards the 'a)net, attractin) it to the frid)e.
%#& -he 'a)netic field fro' the 'a)net e*erts a tor(ue on the 'a)netic dipoles in the steel so that they
end up perpendicular to the 'a)net+s field lines, thus creatin) a field that curls around the 'a)net and
repels it.
%c& -he 'a)netic field fro' the 'a)net induces effective currents in the steel that run in strai)ht lines
deep into the steel. -hese currents create electric fields that e*ert a tor(ue on the 'a)net.
%d& -he 'a)netic field fro' the 'a)net attracts electric char)e to the surface of the steel, !hich then
e*erts a force #ac0 on the 'a)net.
335
Part II: Diagram Pro"lem #$% Points&
2 positively.char)ed electric point char)e :q and a ne)atively.char)ed electric point char)e -q are
placed in free space near the surface of a flat, se'i.infinite sla# of dielectric 'aterial, as sho!n in the
dia)ra's on the ne*t pa)e. -he outside re)ion is free space %"
0
& and the inside re)ion is a unifor',
isotropic, linear dielectric 'aterial !ith per'ittivity " @ "
0
. "e !ill solve for the fields dia)ra'atically
usin) the 'ethod of i'a)es, reali,in) that each re)ion 'ust #e solved separately usin) its o!n set of
i'a)e char)es. "hen dra!in) field lines, do not !orry a#out !hich fields are, or are not, continuous or
s'ooth at the 'aterial surface.
1. An dia)ra' 5, 'ar0 the location and si)n of the i'a)e char)e%s& needed to find the fields in the
outside re)ion.
2. An dia)ra' 5, dra! the E field lines created in the outsi#e region only #y the real and i'a)e char)es.
3. An dia)ra' 55, dra! the location and si)n of the i'a)e char)e%s& needed to find the fields in the
inside re)ion.
1. An dia)ra' 55, dra! the E field lines created in the insi#e region only #y the i'a)e char)es.
6. An dia)ra' 555, dra! all real E field lines every!here they e*ist. -his should #e the su' of the
'ethod.of.i'a)es re)ion solutions in dia)ra's 5 and 55.
7. An dia)ra' 5B, dra! all real D field lines every!here they e*ist.
<. An dia)ra' B, dra! all real P field lines every!here they e*ist.
4. Far a!ay fro' this syste', in the free space re)ion, ho! does the total electric field stren)th $
depend on the distance r fro' the center of the syste'$ Mar0 your ans!er in the for' $r
1<
on
dia)ra' 555 in the outside re)ion.
=. Far a!ay fro' this syste', in the dielectric 'aterial, ho! does the total electric field stren)th $
depend on the distance r fro' the center of the syste'$ Mar0 your ans!er in the for'
$r
1<
on
dia)ra' 555 in the inside re)ion.
336
I' II'
III'
I('
('
%q -q
E
%q -q
D
%q -q
P
%q -q
E
%q&& -q&&
E
-q&
%q&
$r
3
or $r
1
$r
3
337
Part III: )or* Pro"lems #+% Points&
Cou 'ay directly use any e(uation on your e(uations sheet !ithout e*planation or Dustification.
1. 5f there !ere real 'a)netic char)es and real 'a)netic currents, !hat !ould Ma*!ell+s e(uations
#eco'e$ Start !ith the continuity e(uation to for' your ans!er.
S,-.TI,/:
5f there !ere 'a)netic char)es and 'a)netic char)e currents, they !ould have to o#ey a 'a)netic
char)e continuity e(uation3

total,'a)netic
t
=!
total,'a)netic
Ma)netic char)es !ould than )ive rise to diver)in) total 'a)netic B fields in the sa'e !ay that total
electric char)es )ive rise to diver)in) electric fields3
B=
total,'a)netic
Elu))in) this into the continuity e(uation !ould yield3

B
t
=!
total,'a)netic
"e can al!ays add ,ero to an e(uation. et us add the 'athe'atical state'ent E=0 3

B
t
(E)=!
total,'a)netic
"e inte)rate a!ay the diver)ence operator on #oth sides of the e(uation and rearran)e3
E=!
total,'a)netic

B
t
5n su''ary, if there !ere 'a)netic 'onopoles, Ma*!ell+s e(uations !ould #eco'e3
E=

total,electric

0
,
B=
total,'a)netic

E=!
total,'a)netic

B
t
,
B=
0
!
total,electric

0
E
t
338
2. -!o concentric conductin) spheres of inner and outer radii a and b, respectively, carry char)es FQ.
-he e'pty space #et!een the spheres is half.filled #y a he'ispherical shell of dielectric %of dielectric
constant "G"
0
&, as sho!n in the fi)ure. Due to sy''etry, the D and E fields have the for'3
D
left
='
1
r
2
r
,
D
ri)ht
=B
1
r
2
r
,
E
ri)ht
=E
left
=
'

0
1
r
2
r
!here r is the radial di'ension of spherical coordinates, and '
and B are constants.
Find the D fields #y applyin) the D.field version of Hauss+ la! in
inte)ral for'.
S,-.TI,/
"e dra! an inte)ration sphere !ith radius r !here a I r I b so that it co'pletely encloses the free
char)e Q and use Hauss+s la! in inte)ral for'.

(
Dr#
3
x=Q
"e 'ust #e careful here. -he D field is not the sa'e over this inte)ration sphere, so !e 'ust split the
inte)ral into t!o pieces3

0
2

0
/ 2
(D
ri)ht
r)r
2
sin # # +

0
2

/ 2

(D
left
r)r
2
sin # # =Q
'

0
2

0
/ 2
sin # # +B

0
2

/2

sin # # =Q
'+B=
Q
2
2lso,
D
ri)ht
=E
ri)ht
!hich leads to3
B
1
r
2
r=
'

0
1
r
2
r
B=

0
'
Solvin) this syste' of e(uations, !e find3 '=
Q
0
2(
0
+)
and
B=
Q
2(
0
+)
so that3
D
left
=
Q
0
2(
0
+)
1
r
2
r ,
D
ri)ht
=
Q
2(
0
+)
1
r
2
r
,
E
ri)ht
=E
left
=
Q
2(
0
+)
1
r
2
r
a
b
:Q
-Q
left ri)ht
339
3. 2 per'anent 'a)net is shaped into a solid ri)ht circular cone !ith a round #otto' as sho!n in the
fi)ure. -he center of curvature of the #otto' face is the cone+s tip, so that its radius of curvature is R.
-he cone has a side len)th of R, an e*ternal cone an)le of ) and a unifor'
'a)neti,ation
M=M
0
0
.
a& Find the effective 'a)netic char)e density associated !ith M %surface
density andGor volu'e density&. Jote that if the cone+s tip is at the ori)in,
the #otto' face is a surface of constant radius and the top face is a surface
of constant polar an)le. 2lso note that3

=coscos x+cos sin ysin 0


r=sincos x+sinsin y+cos 0
#& "rite do!n the inte)ral solution to the 'a)netic scalar potential K
M
%defined #y
=
M
&!ith the effective 'a)netic char)e density
inserted. Si'plify this as 'uch as possi#le !ithout solvin) the inte)ral or
e*pandin) the deno'inator.
S,-.TI,/:
5nside the cone3

M
=M=( M
0
0)=

*
(M
0
)=0
For the #otto' face3

M
=nM
,

M
=( r)(M
0
0)
,

M
=M
0
cos
For the top face3

M
=nM
,
M
=(

)(M
0
0) ,

M
=M
0
sin
#ut = every!here on this surface, so3

M
=M
0
sin
-he 'a)netic potential inte)ral solution is3

M
=
1
1

M
( x+ )
xx+
#a

M
=
1
1

0
2


M , #otto'
(x+ )
xx+
R
2
sin+ # + # + +
1
1

0
2

0
R

M , top
(x+)
xx+
r + sin # r + # +

M
=
R
2
M
0
1

0
2

1
xx+
cos+ sin+ # + # + +
M
0
sin
2

1

0
2

0
R
1
xx+
r + # r + # +
*
R
)
340
Homework 1 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory II
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Spring 2013
University of Massachusetts Loe!!
Problem 1
Starting ith a negative"va!ued dispersion re!ation for the #eta"#ateria!, derive Sne!!$s !a for the
interface %eteen a standard #ateria! and a #eta"#ateria!. S&etch the incident, ref!ected, and
trans#itted rays in this case.
SOLUTION
'!ugging a p!ane ave so!ution into the ave e(uation !ed to the dispersion re!ation)
k
2
(u)c(u) u
2
=0
hich hen so!ved for the ave nu#%er k gives)
k=!.(u)c(u)u
*or #eta"#ateria!s e &eep the negative"va!ued so!ution)
k=.(u)c(u)u
+e previous!y p!ugged the p!ane ave so!ution into *araday$s !a to find that the fie!ds are
perpendicu!ar)
kE
0
=u!
0
,f e use the dispersion re!ation, e can si#p!ify this)

kE
0
=
1
.(u)c(u)
!
0

kE
0
=
c
n
!
0
,n #eta#ateria!s, the e!ectric fie!d E, the #agnetic fie!d !, and the propagation vector k are sti!! a!!
perpendicu!ar to each other, %ut they no for# a !eft"handed trip!e instead of a right"handed trip!e as
shon in the diagra#. -hat is hy #eta"#ateria!s are a!so &non as .!eft"handed/ #ateria!s.
341
+e can ca!cu!ate the 'oynting vector to get a sense of here the energy is going. +e #ust re#e#%er
to use the rea! parts of the fie!ds)
S=EH
S=(E
0
cos(k"ut ))(H
0
cos(k"ut ))
Use H=
1

!
S=
1

E
0
!
0
cos
2
(k"ut )
Use the re!ation a%ove)
S=
.
c

E
0

kE
0
cos
2
(k"ut )
S=
.
c

E
0
2
cos
2
(k"ut )

k
-o find the ti#e"averaged energy f!o, e integrate over so#e ti#e T in the usua! ay and !et T
%eco#e !arge, !eading to)
0S 1=
1
2 .
c

E
0
2

k
,n #eta#ateria!s, the energy f!os at the sa#e rate as in standard #ateria!s, %ut in the opposite
direction as the ave vector. -his see#s counter"intuitive that the energy ou!d f!o in the opposite
direction as the ave"fronts are trave!ing, %ut this has %een verified e2peri#enta!!y.
,n deriving the !a of refraction, e #atched up the incident ave k and trans#itted ave k$ at the
%oundary to find)
(k")
z=0
=(k $")
z =0
k
E
!
Standard Materia!s)
3ight"4anded Syste#
k
E
!
Meta#ateria!s)
Left"4anded Syste#
342
Carrying through the dot"products ith the understanding that the x vector at the %oundary is a!ays in
the z p!ane gives us)
k sin 0
i
=k $ sin 0
t
Suppose the region of the incident ave is fi!!ed ith standard #ateria! and the region of the
trans#itted ave is fi!!ed ith #eta"#ateria!. Using the respective dispersion re!ations gives us)
.(u)c(u) sin 0
i
=. $ (u) c$ (u)sin 0
t
nsin 0
i
=n$ sin 0
t
here n' 0 0
-herefore, Sne!!$s !a sti!! ho!ds for #eta"#ateria!s, as !ong as e redefine the inde2 of refraction of
the second #ateria! to %e negative. ,t #eans that aves entering #eta"#ateria!s fro# free space i!! %e
refracted on the opposite side of the normal, %ut i!! sti!! toards the nor#a!.
5atura! Materia! Meta"#ateria!
-his !eads to interesting effects such as #a&ing !enses out of f!at s!a%s of #eta"#ateria!s, as e!! as
%ui!ding c!oa&ing devices here the !ight is %ent around an o%6ect.
,n the sa#e ay, Brester$s ang!e 0
i
=tan
1
(
n$
n
)
and tota! interna! ref!ection
0
i
=sin
1
(
n$
n
)
are sti!! the
sa#e as !ong as e rea!i7e no that the incident ave vector and trans#itted ave vector are on
opposite sides of the nor#a!.
343
Problem #
8ac&son 9.1
*or each set of Sto&es para#eters given %e!o deduce the a#p!itude of the e!ectric fie!d, up to an
overa!! phase, in %oth !inear po!ari7ation and circu!ar po!ari7ation %ases and #a&e an accurate draing
si#i!ar to *ig. 9.: shoing the !engths of the a2es of one of the e!!ipses and its orientation.
;a< s
0
= 3, s
1
= "1, s
2
= 2, s
3
= "2
;%< s
0
= 2>, s
1
= 0, s
2
= 2:, s
3
= 9
SOLUTION
?s discussed in the notes, the Sto&es para#eters are defined in a !inear po!ari7ation %asis according to)
s
0
=

E
1

2
+

E
2

2
s
1
=

E
1

E
2

2
s
2
=2 ( E
1
@
E
2
)
s
3
=2 ( E
1
@
E
2
)
-he 8ones vector e!e#ents are 6ust the #agnitude and phase of each co#ponent, so !et us rerite these
definitions e2p!icit!y)
s
0
=

E
1

2
+

E
2

2
s
1
=

E
1

E
2

2
s
2
=2

E
1

E
2

cos(0
2
0
1
)
s
3
=2

E
1

E
2

sin(0
2
0
1
)
5o invert these e(uations to so!ve for the 8ones vector e!e#ents)

E
1

=
.
s
0
+s
1
2

E
2

=
.
s
0
s
1
2
0
2
0
1
=cos
1

s
2
.
s
0
2
s
1
2
|
or
0
2
0
1
=sin
1

s
3
.
s
0
2
s
1
2
|
5ote that the four Sto&es para#eters are not independent, so that e can on!y &no the difference of
the phase factors. -he !ast piece of infor#ation, the overa!! phase factor of the ho!e syste#, is
typica!!y not as i#portant %ecause it depends on the choice of origin hich can %e anything)
344
E
0
=

E
1
e
i
1
E
2
e
i
2
|
=e
i
1

E
1

E
2
e
i (
2

1
)
|
Si#i!ar!y, the Sto&es para#eters are defined in a circu!ar po!ari7ation %asis according to)
s
0
=

E
A

2
+

E
"

2
s
1
=2

E
A

E
"

cos(
"

A
)
s
2
=2

E
A

E
"

sin(
"

A
)
s
3
=

E
A

E
"

2
5o invert these e(uations)

E
A

s
0
+s
3
2

E
"

s
0
s
3
2

"

A
=cos
1

s
1

s
0
2
s
3
2
|
or

"

A
=sin
1

s
2

s
0
2
s
3
2
|
,n Su##ary)
E
0, !in
=
1
2

s
0
+s
1
s
2
+i s
3

s
0
+s
1
|
and S=


E
1

2
+

E
2

2
E
1

2
E
2

2
2

E
1

E
2

cos(
2

1
)
2E
1
E
2
sin(
2

1
)
|
E
0, circ
=
1
2

s
0
+s
3
s
1
+i s
2

s
0
+s
3
|
and S=


E
A

2
+

E
"

2
2E
A
E
"
cos(
"

A
)
2

E
A

E
"

sin(
"

A
)
E
A

2
E
"

2 |
;a< E
0, !in
=

1
1i
|
and E
0, circ
=
1
2

1
1+2i
|
or E
0, !in
=

1
2e
i 9/ :
|
and E
0, circ
=

1/ 2
>/ 2e
i (+tan
1
(2))
|
345
;%< E
0, !in
=
1
2

>
2:+i 9
>
|
and E
0, circ
=

:
3i
|
or E
0, !in
=

>/ 2
>/ 2e
i tan
1
(9/ 2:)
|
and E
0, circ
=

:
3e
i / 2
|
-1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5
-2
-1.5
-1
-0.5
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
E1
E
2
-4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4
-4
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
4
E1
E
2
346
Problem $
8ac&son 9.3
-o p!ane se#i"infinite s!a%s of the sa#e unifor#, isotropic, nonper#ea%!e, !oss!ess die!ectric ith
inde2 of refraction n are para!!e! and separated %y an air gap ;n = 1< of idth d. ? p!ane
e!ectro#agnetic ave of fre(uency B in free space is incident on the gap fro# one of the s!a%s ith
ang!e of incidence i. *or !inear po!ari7ation both para!!e! to and perpendicu!ar to the p!ane of incidence,
;a< ca!cu!ate the ratio of poer trans#itted into the second s!a% to the incident poer and the ratio of
ref!ected to incident poerC
;%< for i greater than the critica! ang!e for tota! interna! ref!ection, s&etch the ratio of trans#itted poer
to incident poer as a function of d #easured in units of ave!ength in the gap.
SOLUTION
-his pro%!e# is very interesting %ecause it contains the funda#enta! physics %ehind eta!ons,
interfero#eters, and *a%ry"'erot cavities. -here are three separate regions of unifor# #ateria!, so e
set up different e!ectric fie!ds in each and then re!ate the# using %oundary conditions. Because the
incident ave is a p!ane ave, and the interfaces are f!at, e assu#e the fie!ds in a!! regions ta&e on the
for# of p!ane aves. Let us ca!! the incident #ateria! region .inc/, the air gap region .gap/, and the
!ast s!a% region .trans/. '!ace the interface %eteen the incident s!a% and the gap at z = 0 and the other
interface at z = d. ,n the incident s!a%, there is a forard"going ave ;the incident ave< and a
%ac&ard"going ave ;the su# of a!! ref!ected aves<. ,n the gap there is a!so a forard"going ave
;the su# of a!! forard"ref!ected aves< and a %ac&ard"going ave ;the su# of a!! %ac&ard"
ref!ected aves<. ,n the trans#itted s!a% there is on!y a forard"going ave ;the su# of a!! trans#itted
aves<. 5ote that a!! #ateria!s are !oss!ess so that n and k are rea!"va!ued. -he aves are a!! assu#ed to
have !inear po!ari7ation)
E
inc
=
0
E
0
e
i (
n
c


k"t )
+
1
E
1
e
i (
n
c

1

k
1
"
1
t )
E
gap
=
2
E
2
e
i (
1
c

2

k
#
"
2
t )
+
3
E
3
e
i (
1
c

3

k
3
"
3
t)
E
trans
=
:
E
:
e
i (
n
c

:

k
:
("%)
:
t )
5ote that the trans#itted fie!d in the !ast s!a% as
shifted a distance d in the z direction to account for
the fact that it is created at z = d and not z = 0,
despite %eing defined as re!ative to z = 0.
-he %oundary conditions #ust ho!d for a!! ti#e and a!! points on the %oundary. -his #eans that the
e2ponentia!s #ust #atch at z = 0 and z = d, !eading to)
inc trans gap
n
n n=1
z
x
k
k
1
k
2
k
3
k
:
347

e
i (
n
c


k"t )
=e
i (
n
c

1

k
1
"
1
t )
=e
i (
1
c

2

k
#
"
2
t )
=e
i (
1
c

3

k
3
"
3
t )
|
z=0
and

e
i (
1
c

2

k
#
"
2
t )
=e
i (
1
c

3

k
3
"
3
t)
=e
i(
n
c

:

k
:
("%)
:
t)
|
z=d
-hese to sets of e(uations #ust %e true for a!! ti#es t, so that the coefficients of t #ust #atch
independent!y, !eading to)
=
1
=
2
=
3
=
:
. +ith the ti#e co#ponents a!! cance!ed out, these to
sets of e(uations no %eco#e)

n

k"=n

k
1
"=

k
#
"=

k
3
"
|
z=0
and

k
#
"=

k
3
"=n

k
:
("%)
|
z =d
?!! the ave vectors !ie in the sa#e p!ane ca!!ed the p!ane of incidence. +e can assu#e e have
a!igned the p!ane of incidence ith the x"z p!ane. ?s a resu!t, none of the ave vectors have any y
co#ponents. D2pand the vectors into x and z co#ponents and define these co#ponents in ter#s of the
ang!es fro# the z a2is ;for e2a#p!e
k
x
=k sin
i
, k
z
=k cos
i
<. Dva!uate at z = 0 and z = d. 5ote that
eva!uating at specific z !ocations reduces the z"co#ponent e(uations don to 6ust a %unch of constants.
-hey have no #eaning at this point %ecause e can a!ays suc& a constant phase factor into the
re#aining undeter#ined coefficients E
0
, E
1
, etc. Because of the !ac& of #eaningfu! infor#ation, e
co#p!ete!y drop the z co#ponents. ?!! that re#ains is the x co#ponents)
nsin
i
=nsin
r
=sin
g ,i
=sin
g ,r
and
sin
g ,i
=sin
g , r
=nsin
t ,i
-his !eads to)

i
=
r
,

g ,i
=
g , r
,

i
=
t ,i
,
nsin
i
=sin
g , i
,
sin
g ,i
=nsin
t , i
,
-hese are 6ust the !a of ref!ection and Sne!!$s !a app!ied at %oth interfaces. +ith these app!ied, our
fie!ds %eco#e)
E
inc
=
0
E
0
e
i (
n
c
(sin
i
x+cos
i
z)t )
+
1
E
1
e
i(
n
c
(sin
i
xcos
i
z )t)
E
gap
=
2
E
2
e
i (
1
c
(nsin
i
x+1n
2
sin
2

i
z )t )
+
3
E
3
e
i (
1
c
(nsin
i
x1n
2
sin
2

i
z )t)
E
trans
=
:
E
:
e
i (
n
c
(sin
i
x+cos
i
(z d))t )
-hese are the #ost e2p!icit for#s of these e(uations. ?side fro# the current!y un&non fie!d strengths,
E
1
, E
2
, etc, everything is defined in ter#s of the &non inde2 of refraction n and ang!e of incidence
i
.
*or ease of future ca!cu!ations, hoever, !et us si#p!ify these e(uations. 5ote that %ecause e are
dea!ing ith p!ane aves and f!at interfaces, e can or& ith a!! these fie!ds at the !atera! position
x = 0 ithout any !oss of genera!ity. ,n addition, e can eva!uate the fie!ds at ti#e t = 0 ithout any
!oss of genera!ity. Last!y, e use the shorthand notation cos
g , i
=

1n
2
sin
2

i
. +ith these
si#p!ifications, the fie!ds %eco#e)
348
E
inc
=
0
E
0
e
i
n
c
cos
i
z
+
1
E
1
e
i
n
c
cos
i
z
E
gap
=
2
E
2
e
i
1
c
cos
g , i
z
+
3
E
3
e
i
1
c
cos
g , i
z

E
trans
=
:
E
:
e
i
n
c
cos
i
(zd )
here cos
g , i
=

1n
2
sin
2

i
?!! that is !eft is to find the fie!d #agnitudes %y app!ying %oundary conditions. -o do this, e need to
approach %oth possi%!e po!ari7ation cases separate!y.
*or po!ari7ation perpendicular to the p!ane of incidence, a!! the po!ari7ation vectors point in the
positive y direction. Because of !=(n/ c)

kE , this te!!s us that a!! of the forard going aves have !
fie!ds pointing in the negative"xEpositive"z direction and a!! the %ac&ards going aves have ! pointing
in the positive"xEpositive"z direction ;of course, they rea!!y osci!!ate %ac& and forth, %ut at points of
7ero tota! phase they point in this direction<. *or this po!ari7ation, the fie!ds %eco#e)
E
inc
= y E
0
e
i
n
c
cos
i
z
+ y E
1
e
i
n
c
cos
i
z
E
gap
= y E
2
e
i
1
c
cos
g , i
z
+ y E
3
e
i
1
c
cos
g , i
z
E
trans
= y E
:
e
i
n
c
cos
i
(z d)
!
inc
=
n
c
(sin
i
&cos
i
")E
0
e
i
n
c
cos
i
z
+
n
c
(sin
i
&+cos
i
") E
1
e
i
n
c
cos
i
z
!
gap
=
1
c
(nsin
i
&cos
g ,i
") E
2
e
i
1
c
cos
g , i
z
+
1
c
(nsin
i
&+cos
g ,i
") E
3
e
i
1
c
cos
g , i
z
!
trans
=
n
c
(sin
i
&cos
i
")E
:
e
i
n
c
cos
i
( zd)
here cos
g , i
=

1n
2
sin
2

i
-he four genera! %oundary conditions hen no charges or currents are present are)

2
E
2
n=
1
E
1
n
|
on S
,
E
2
n=E
1
n
|
on S
,
!
2
n=!
1
n
|
on S
,

2
!
2
n=
1

1
!
1
n
|
on S
+e have to %oundaries, so e have eight %oundary conditions tota!. -he #ateria!s are a!! non"
#agnetic so that F
2
= F
1
= F
0
,
=
0
in the gap and =n
2

0
outside the gap. -he %oundary conditions at
%oth interfaces %eco#e)
349
;1< E
gap
&=n
2
E
inc
&|
z=0
;2<
E
gap
&=E
inc
&
|
z =0
;3<
!
gap
&=!
inc
&
|
z =0
;:<
!
gap
&=!
inc
&
|
z=0
;>< n
2
E
trans
&=E
gap
&|
z=d
;G<
E
trans
&=E
gap
&
|
z =d
;9<
!
trans
&=!
gap
&
|
z =d
;H<
!
trans
&=!
gap
&
|
z=d
'!ugging in the fie!ds into these %oundary conditions, e find)
0 = 0 fro# e(uations ;1< and ;><
E
2
+E
3
=E
0
+E
1
fro# e(uations ;2< and ;3<
E
2
E
3
=b( E
0
E
1
)
fro# e(uation ;:<
E
:
=E
2
e
i a
+E
3
e
i a
fro# e(uations ;G< and ;9<
b E
:
=E
2
e
i a
E
3
e
i a
fro# e(uation ;H<
here
b=
ncos
i

1n
2
sin
2

i
and
a=
1
c
d

1n
2
sin
2

i
Considering that the incident strength E
0
is ta&en to %e a &non, e have four independent e(uations
a%ove in four un&nons and can therefore so!ve uni(ue!y for the different fie!d strengths. ?fter #uch
a!ge%ra, e so!ve this syste# of e(uations to find)
E
1
E
0
=
(1b
2
)i sin a
2bcosa(1+b
2
)i sina
E
2
E
0
=
b(1+b)(cosai sin a)
2bcosai (1+b
2
)sina
E
3
E
0
=
b(1b)(cosa+i sina)
2bcosai (1+b
2
)sina
E
:
E
0
=
2b
2bcos ai (1+b
2
)sin a
here
a=
1
c
d

1n
2
sin
2

i
and
b=
ncos
i

1n
2
sin
2

i
+e no see& to find the fraction of ref!ected and trans#itted poer %y ta&ing the #agnitude s(uared of
the first and !ast e(uation. +e have to %e carefu! %ecause %eyond the critica! ang!e of tota! interna!
ref!ection, a and b %eco#e pure!y i#aginary, %ut e can sti!! have va!id trans#ission via the
evanescent #odes. Let us approach the to cases separate!y. Be!o the critica! ang!e, a and b are
pure!y rea!"va!ued, !eading to)
350
R=

E
1
E
0

2
=
(1b
2
)
2
sin
2
a
:b
2
cos
2
a+(1+b
2
)
2
sin
2
a

Perpendicular polarization, belo the critical angle
T=

E
:
E
0

2
=
:b
2
:b
2
cos
2
a+(1+b
2
)
2
sin
2
a
here
a=
1
c
d

1n
2
sin
2

i
and
b=
ncos
i

1n
2
sin
2

i
Ireater than the critica! ang!e, a and b %eco#e pure!y i#aginary. Let us e2p!icit!y factor out this
i#aginary nature) a=i =i
(
1
c
d

1n
2
sin
2

)
and b=i =i
(
ncos
i

1n
2
sin
2

)
. +ith these
definitions inserted %efore ta&ing the #agnitude s(uared, and then #agnitude s(uaring, e find)
R=

E
1
E
0

2
=
(1+
2
)
2
sinh
2
()
:
2
cosh
2
()+(1
2
)
2
sinh
2
( )
Perpendicular polarization, abo!e the critical angle
T=

E
:
E
0

2
=
:
2
:
2
cosh
2
()+(1
2
)
2
sinh
2
()
here
=
1
c
d

1n
2
sin
2

i
and
=
ncos
i
1n
2
sin
2

Let us no do the sa#e thing for the po!ari7ation here the e!ectric fie!ds are a!! in the p!ane of
incidence. ?!! of the forard going aves have E fie!ds pointing in the negative"xEpositive"z direction
and a!! the %ac&ards going aves have E pointing in the positive"xEpositive"z direction. Using
!=( n/ c)

kE , e find the fie!ds for para!!e! po!ari7ation are)
E
inc
=(cos
i
"+sin
i
&) E
0
e
i
n
c
cos
i
z
+(cos
i
"+sin
i
&) E
1
e
i
n
c
cos
i
z
E
gap
=(cos
g , i
"+nsin
i
&) E
2
e
i
1
c
cos
g , i
z
+(cos
g ,i
"+nsin
i
&) E
3
e
i
1
c
cos
g , i
z

E
trans
=(cos
i
"+sin
i
&)E
:
e
i
n
c
cos
i
( zd)


!
inc
= y(n/ c)(E
0
e
i
n
c
cos
i
z
+E
1
e
i
n
c
cos
i
z
)

!
gap
= y(1/ c)( E
2
e
i
1
c
cos
g , i
z
+E
3
e
i
1
c
cos
g , i
z
)

!
trans
= y(n/ c) E
:
e
i
n
c
cos
i
(z d)
here cos
g , i
=

1n
2
sin
2

i
351
'!ugging these fie!ds into the %oundary conditions shon in D(uations ;1<";H<, e find)
E
2
+E
3
=n E
0
+n E
1
fro# e(uations ;1< and ;:<
n E
2
n E
3
=b E
0
b E
1
fro# e(uation ;2<
0 = 0 fro# e(uations ;3< and ;9<
n E
:
=E
2
e
ia
+E
3
e
i a
fro# e(uation ;>< and ;H<
b E
:
=n E
2
e
i a
n E
3
e
i a
fro# e(uation ;G<
here as usua!
b=
ncos
i

1n
2
sin
2

i
a=
1
c
d

1n
2
sin
2

i
+e can no so!ve uni(ue!y for the undeter#ined coefficients. ?fter #uch a!ge%ra, e find)
E
1
E
0
=
(n
:
b
2
)i sin a
2n
2
bcos ai (n
:
+b
2
)sin a
E
2
E
0
=
b n(n
2
+b)( cosai sina)
2n
2
bcos ai ( n
:
+b
2
)sin a
E
3
E
0
=
bn(n
2
b)(cos a+i sin a)
2n
2
bcos ai (n
:
+b
2
)sin a
E
:
E
0
=
2n
2
b
2n
2
bcos ai (n
:
+b
2
)sin a
here
a=
1
c
d

1n
2
sin
2

i
and
b=
ncos
i

1n
2
sin
2

i
*or ang!es !ess than the critica! ang!e e find)
R=

E
1
E
0

2
=
(n
:
b
2
)
2
sin
2
a
: n
:
b
2
cos
2
a+(n
:
+b
2
)
2
sin
2
a
Parallel polarization, belo the critical angle
T=

E
:
E
0

2
=
:n
:
b
2
: n
:
b
2
cos
2
a+(n
:
+b
2
)
2
sin
2
a
here
a=
1
c
d

1n
2
sin
2

i
and
b=
ncos
i

1n
2
sin
2

i
352
*or ang!es greater than the critica! ang!e e find)
R=

E
1
E
0

2
=
(n
:
+
2
)
2
sinh
2
()
: n
:

2
cosh
2
()+(n
:

2
)
2
sinh
2
()
Parallel polarization, abo!e the critical angle
T=

E
:
E
0

2
=
: n
:

2
: n
:

2
cosh
2
( )+(n
:

2
)
2
sinh
2
( )
here
=
1
c
d

1n
2
sin
2

i
and
=
ncos
i
1n
2
sin
2

Let us p!ot a!! these e(uations to understand hat they #ean. +e on!y need to p!ot the trans#ission
coefficients T %ecause the ref!ection coefficients are trivia!!y re!ated %y R = 1 J T" -he trans#ission
coefficient represents the fraction of the incident poer that #a&es it a!! the ay through the syste#
and trave!s out the other side. ?t nor#a! incidence, hich is a!ays %e!o the critica! ang!e, T depends
on the gap space d and the inde2 of refraction n as shon %e!o.
353
5ote that due to the sy##etry hen e are at nor#a! incidence, %oth po!ari7ations give the sa#e
trends. -he trends are periodic. +hen the gap spacing is c!ose to a ha!f"integer #u!tip!e of the
ave!ength of the !ight in the gap ;hen dEK = nE2, n = 0,1,2...< then the trans#ission is high. -his is
%ecause the forard ref!ected aves in the gap and the %ac&ard ref!ected ave !ine up so that they
constructive!y interfere. ?ay fro# these resonance points, the %ac&ard and forard aves %eco#e
una!igned and destructive!y interfere. ?s a resu!t, the trans#ission drops for gap idths aay fro#
ha!f"integer #u!tip!es of the ave!ength. ?!so note that a higher inde2 of refraction n !eads to !oer
drops in trans#ission. -his is %ecause a higher inde2 #ateria! in the s!a%s !eads to greater ref!ection at
the interfaces. ?s a resu!t, the aves spend !onger in the gap and participate #ore in destructive
interference. ,n the !i#it that n approaches infinity, this device %eco#es a perfect #onochro#atic fi!ter,
on!y !etting through one ave!ength per period.
,f e #ove aay fro# nor#a! incidence, the sa#e genera! trends ho!d, %ut the to different
po!ari7ations %ehave different!y no. ?!so, the resonance points are no not e2act!y at ha!f"integer
#u!tip!es of the ave!ength. -his is %ecause the ave is trave!ing at a diagona!, so that the interference
effects %eco#e #ore co#p!e2.
354
*or ang!es of incidence greater than the critica! ang!e of tota! interna! ref!ection, trans#ission is on!y
via evanescent aves in the gap, hich die out e2ponentia!!y. ?s a resu!t, the trans#ission is on!y high
for s#a!! gap idths, as shon %e!o. -he higher the inde2 of refraction, the #ore strong!y the
incident ave is ref!ected, and the (uic&er the evanescent ave dies out. -his princip!e is used to create
tuna%!e %ea# sp!itters. ?ny desired trans#ission coefficient can %e rea!i7ed %y ad6usting the gap idth
appropriate!y.
5e2t, e can p!ot #any trends as a function of ang!e of incidence and not inde2 of refraction to get a
fee! for ho the trans#ission depends on incidence ang!e. -he resu!ts are shon %e!o for n = 2,
p!otted in >L incre#ents starting fro# 0L in red to M0L for the !ast %!ac& curve. ?s these p!ots sho, the
critica! ang!e of tota! interna! ref!ection divides the periodic curves fro# the da#ped curves. ?!so note
that as the ang!e of incidence increases, the resonant gap idths increase. *ina!!y note that for para!!e!
po!ari7ation, the trans#ission reaches 100N for a!! gap idths d at a certain ang!e. -his is Brester$s
ang!e, as discussed in c!ass.
355
'erhaps Brester$s ang!e is #ost visi%!e if e #a&e an intensity p!ot so that the trans#ission can %e a
s#ooth function of %oth the ang!e of incidence and the gap idth. -he resu!ts are shon %e!o. Lighter
co!ors represent higher trans#ission. +hite represents 100N trans#ission and %!ac& represents 0N
trans#ission. -he x a2is is the gap idth dE# and the y a2is is the ang!e of incidence
i
. -he hite
strea&s occur at the resonant ave!engths of the syste#. -he resonant ave!engths start at ha!f"integer
#u!tip!es of the gap idth for nor#a! incidence, and then %end toards higher va!ues as the ang!e of
incidence increases. ?fter the critica! ang!e of tota! interna! ref!ection is reached, the p!ot %eco#es
%!ac& e2cept for at very s#a!! gaps idths here tunne!ing is supported. Co#paring the resu!ts for the
perpendicu!ar po!ari7ation and the para!!e! po!ari7ation, e see a %right %ar of strong trans#ission right
%efore the critica! ang!e in the para!!e! po!ari7ation. -his is Brester$s ang!e. -ota! trans#ission is
encouraged at Brester$s ang!e independent of gap idth, %ut it on!y occurs in one po!ari7ation. -he
p!ots %e!o sho the cases of n = 2 and n = :. *ro# these e see that changing the inde2 of refraction
of the #ateria!s does not change the overa!! pattern, %ut si#p!y !oers Brester$s ang!e and the critica!
ang!e, as e!! as increasing the contrast %eteen highs and !os.
356
357
Homework 2 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory II
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Spring 2013
University of Massachusetts Loe!!
Problem 1
Consider a p!ane, "onochro"atic e!ectro"agnetic ave inside an infinite, pure p!as"a ith its ave
vector in the x direction.
#a$ Derive the co"p!e% ave vector of this ave in ter"s of the p!as"a fre&uency
p
and ave
fre&uency for the cases of '
p
and (
p
.
#)$ *rite don the e!ectric fie!d of this ave as e%p!icit!y as possi)!e for )oth cases.
#c$ *hat does the e!ectric fie!d reduce don to for the cases of +
p
, + 3
p
, and + #1,3$
p
-
Descri)e the type of ave in each case.
SOLUTIO!
#a$ .he die!ectric constant for a pure p!as"a is/

0
=1

p
2

2
here
p
is the p!as"a fre&uency.
0or a non1"agnetic "ateria! #such as a pure p!as"a$, the ave nu")er is re!ated to the per"ittivity
according to/
k=

0or a p!as"a, this )eco"es/


k=

c

1

p
2

2
k=
1
c

p
2
2f the fre&uency is greater than the p!as"a fre&uency, '
p
, then the ave nu")er is a!ays positive
and rea!. 2f the fre&uency is !ess than the p!as"a fre&uency, then the ave nu")er is pure!y i"aginary
and positive/
k=
1
c

p
2
if '
p
k=i
1
c

p
2
if (
p
#)$ .he e!ectric fie!d of a p!ane ave has the for" E=E
0
e
i k xt
. 2nside a p!as"a, this )eco"es/
358
E=E
0
e
i
1
c

p
2
xi t
E=E
0
e

1
c

p
2
x
e
i t
#c$
2f +
p
this )eco"es/ E=E
0
e
i
p
t
. .his is a standing ave.
2f + 3
p
this )eco"es/ E=E
0
e
i
p
3x /c3
p
t
. .his is a trave!ing ave.
2f + #1,3$
p
this )eco"es/ E=E
0
e

p
3/ 4x /c
e
i
p
t / 3
. .his is a standing ave that spatia!!y decays
e%ponentia!!y. Because there is no "ateria! !oss, the ave "ust decay )ecause it is )eing ref!ected,
"uch !i5e the evanescent ave does in the tota! interna! ref!ection of die!ectric "ateria!s.
Problem 2
6 p!ane, "onochro"atic trave!ing e!ectro"agnetic ave is incident nor"a!!y fro" free space on a
se"i1infinite p!anar s!a) of "ateria! ith rea!1va!ued per"ea)i!ity , per"ittivity and conductivity ,
all greater than the corresponding free space va!ues.
#a$ 0ind the phase shift that the ave ac&uires upon ref!ection. Ma5e sure your anser ends up in the
right &uadrant
#)$ 2f e ant the phase shift to a!ays )e 130 degrees, hat does this te!! us a)out the conductivity-
SOLUTIO!
#a$ Because the ave is nor"a! to the "ateria!7s surface, the "athe"atics si"p!ifies considera)!y. 6!!
aves trave! in the positive or negative nor"a! direction. 6!so, sy""etry dictates that a!! po!ari8ations
!ead to e%act!y the sa"e resu!ts. 2f e set up the pro)!e" in the usua! ay ith the incident ave E
trave!ing in the positive z direction, the trans"itted ave E7 trave!ing in the positive z direction, and the
ref!ected ave E77 trave!ing in the negative z direction, e get fro" the )oundary conditions/
E
0
7=E
0
E
0
77
k 7 E
0
7 =k E
0
k E
0
77
*e can use )oth of these to so!ve for the ref!ected ave in ter"s of the incident ave/
E
0
77 =
k
k 7
E
0

k
k 7
E
0
77E
0
E
0
77=
kk 7
kk 7
E
0
E
0
77
E
0
=
kk 7
k+k 7
359
.he ave nu")er in free space is 9ust k=

c
.
.he ave nu")er in the other "ateria! o)eys k 7=()
0or a conducting "ateria! e can use =i

so that e have
k 7=

+i

:!ugging these in a)ove !eads to/


E
0
77
E
0
=
1

c
2
+i

c
2
1+

c
2
+i

c
2
.he phase shift that the ave gains upon ref!ection is 9ust the phase difference )eteen the incident and
ref!ected ave at the interface. .his is 9ust the argu"ent of the a)ove e%pression. .he phase of a
co"p!e% nu")er is
Arg (z)=tan
1
(
i
zz ;
z+z ;
)
+( if (z)<0)
so that e find after "uch a!ge)ra/
Arg
(
E
0
77
E
0
)
=+tan
1
(
i

c
2
i

c
2

c
2
+i

c
2
1

2
c
<
+

2
c
<
)
=ote that the > is there to "a5e sure the ang!e ends up in the right &uadrant )ecause the arctan function
destroys so"e &uadrant infor"ation. 2f the per"ittivity, per"ea)i!ity, and conductivity are a!! rea!1
va!ued, you can sho that the rea! part of E
0
77,E
0
is a!ays negative so that the phase is a!ays in the
second and third &uadrant.
Using z=
1
2
[
z+(z )+sgn( (z))i

z( z)] e find/
Arg
(
E
0
77
E
0
)
=+tan
1
(
2

0
)
2
+
(

0
)
2

0
)
2
+
(

0
)
2
1 )
#)$ 2f the ref!ection phase shift is to )e 130 degrees, this puts the fo!!oing constraint on the
conductivity/
360
=+tan
1
(
2

0
)
2
+
(

0
)
2

0
)
2
+
(

0
)
2
1 )
=0 or
*e have therefore shon that a!! non1conductors and perfect conductors shift a ave7s phase )y 130
degrees upon ref!ection #if the e%terna! "ateria! is free space$. 0urther"ore, e have shon that non1
perfect conductors can never shift a ave7s phase )y e%act!y 130 degrees upon ref!ection. .o sho this
)etter, !et us p!ot the phase shift. .he resu!t is shon )e!o as a function of the nor"a!i8ed
conductivity for a handfu! or representative per"ittivities and per"ea)i!ities. .his p!ot shos that non1
conductors and very good conductors !ead to a 130 degrees phase shift. *e a!so see that no "atter the
"ateria! #as !ong as its unifor" and se"i1infinite$, the phase shift a!ays fa!!s so"e here )eteen 130
and 2?0 degrees. .he higher the per"ittivity or per"ea)i!ity, the "ore the "ateria! acts !i5e a non1
conductor, and the "ore the curve )eco"es a f!at !ine at 130 degrees.
361
Problem "
@ac5son ?.12
.he ti"e dependence of e!ectrica! distur)ances in good conductors is governed )y the fre&uency1
dependent conductivity #?.A3$. Consider !ongitudina! e!ectric fie!ds in a conductor, using Bh"7s !a,
the continuity e&uation, and the differentia! for" of Cou!o")7s !a.
#a$ Sho that the ti"e10ourier1transfor"ed charge density satisfies the e&uation
[ ()i
0
](# ,)=0
#)$ Using the representation
()=
0
/(1i )
, here
0
=
0

p
2
and is a da"ping ti"e, sho that
in the appro%i"ation
p
'' 1 any initia! distur)ance i!! osci!!ate ith the p!as"a fre&uency and
decay in a"p!itude ith a decay constant + 1,2. =ote that if you use #$ + #0$ +
0
in part a, you
i!! find no osci!!ations and e%tre"e!y rapid da"ping ith the #rong$ decay constant
w
+
0
,
0
.
SOLUTIO!
#a$ *e are assu"ing that the conductivity do"inates so that
=
0
and therefore
$=
0
E
. .he ti"e
0ourier transfor"s are defined according to/
()=
1
2

( t )e
i t
dt
here
(t )=
1
2

()e
i t
d
%( )=
1
2

%(t )e
i t
dt
here
%(t )=
1
2

%( )e
i t
d
E()=
1
2

E(t ) e
i t
dt
here
E(t )=
1
2

E()e
i t
d
.he charge continuity e&uation states that/ %=
!
!t
0ourier transfor" the continuity e&uation to get it into fre&uency space/
%()=i ()
Bh"7s !a states that %( )=( )E() . 2nserting Bh"7s !a into the continuity e&uation in fre&uency
space, e find/
( )E()=i ()
*e have assu"ed the conductor "ateria! is spatia!!y unifor" in order to ta5e C out of the divergence
operator. =o on the right e have the divergence of the e!ectric fie!d, hich re"inds us of Cou!o")7s
!a in differentia! for"/
E( )=( ) /
0
. #Because
=
0
, and there are no ti"e operators,
Cou!o")7s !a !oo5s the sa"e in fre&uency space and ti"e space.$ 2nsert Cou!o")7s !a in the
e&uation a)ove to find/
[ ()i
0
] ()=0
362
#)$ =o use the representation
( )=
0
/(1i )
, here
0
=
0

p
2
and is a da"ping ti"e.
[ ()i
0
] ()=0
[

p
2

1i
i
]
()=0
2f the charge density is to e%ist #)e non18ero$, then the factor in )rac5ets "ust vanish.
[

p
2

1i
i
]
=0

2
+i
p
2
=0
=
i"

<
2

p
2
1
2
2n the appro%i"ation
p
'' 1
="
p
i
1
2
.his te!!s us that ()=
[

0, D
if =+
p
i / 2

0, 1
if =
p
i / 2
0 for a!! other fre&uencies
]
:!ugging this into the definition of the charge density/
(t )=
1
2

()e
i t
d
(t )=
0, D
e
i(
p
i/ 2)t
+
0, 1
e
i(
p
i / 2)t
(t )=[
0, D
e
i
p
t
+
0, 1
e
i
p
t
] e
t / 2
.his te!!s us that an initia! charge distri)ution i!! osci!!ate at the p!as"a fre&uency and decay ith
decay constant 1,2.
363
Homework 3 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory II
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Spring 2013
University of Massachusetts Loe!!
Problem 1
Consider a pure p!as"a #
0
$ 0 and
0
$ 0% ith p!as"a fre&uency
p
. Using the si"p!e har"onic
"ode!, derive e'pressions for the group ve!ocity v
g
and phase ve!ocity v
p
of a ave pac(et trave!ing in
this "ateria!. )!ot the re!ative per"ittivity, the ave nu"*er, the phase ve!ocity, and the group ve!ocity
a!! as a function of fre&uency #nor"a!i+e everything appropriate!y so that a!! p!ot do"ains and ranges
are unit!ess%.
SOLUTIO!
,he si"p!e har"onic "ode! of the co"p!e' die!ectric constant for one resonant fre&uency is-

0
=1+
N e
2

0
m
1
(
0
2

2
i
0
)
.or a pure p!as"a, this *eco"es-

0
=1

p
2

2
)!ugging this into the dispersion re!ation-
k=

()
0

k=
1
c

p
2
,he phase ve!ocity is-
v
p
=

k
v
p
c
=
1

1
p
2
/
2
,he group ve!ocity is-
v
g
=
[
d
d k
]
=
c
,o find this, e ta(e the derivative of the dispersion re!ation ith respect to k on *oth sides to find-
364
v
g
c
=

1
p
2
/
2
/e can p!ot a!! these resu!ts.
0ote that *e!o the p!as"a fre&uency, a p!as"a does not support trave!ing aves. 1s a resu!t, the
ve!ocities end up i"aginary at these fre&uencies. 1t very high fre&uencies, *oth ve!ocities approach the
speed of !ight as if the p!as"a is not there. 1t the p!as"a fre&uency, the group ve!ocity *eco"es +ero
and the phase ve!ocity is infinite. ,his is the description of a standing ave. ,he group ve!ocity is
a!ays !ess than the speed of !ight in (eeping ith re!ativity. ,he phase ve!ocity is greater than the
speed of !ight, *ut this is not pro*!e"atic as the phase ve!ocity does not carry infor"ation.
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
Dispersion in a Pure Plasma
permittivity (/0)
wavenumber (k/!p)
p"ase veloity (vp/)
#roup veloity (v#/)
!/!p
365
Problem "
Use the 2ra"ers32ronig re!ation to ca!cu!ate the rea! part of the die!ectric constant if the i"aginary
part as found e'peri"enta!!y to *e A hen #
0
4 d% 5 5 #
0
6 d% and +ero otherise. )!ot the rea!
and i"aginary part of the die!ectric constant as a function of fre&uency. Be carefu! to "a(e sure you
don7t ta(e the !ogarith" of a negative nu"*er
SOLUTIO!
(()/
0
)=1+
2

((7 )/
0
)7
7
2

2
d 7
(()/
0
)=1+A
2

0
d

0
+d
7
7
2

2
d 7
/e have to *e carefu! *ecause this integra! can on!y *e done for certain ranges. .or instance, if the
fre&uency of interest 8 is outside the resonant region, there is no singu!arity in the integra! and it can *e
direct!y. 9therise, e "ust ta(e the principa! part to avoid the singu!arity.
.or fre&uencies outside the resonant region, if < #
0
4 d% or > #
0
6 d%, e do the integra! direct!y
to find-
(( )/
0
)=1+
A

[ !n( 7
2

2
)]

0
d

0
+d
(( )/
0
)=1+
A

!n
[
(
0
+d )
2

2
(
0
d )
2

2
]
9n the other hand, inside the resonant region, e "ust ta(e the principa! part to avoid the singu!arity.
,his is done *y *rea(ing up the integra! at the po!e.
:f #
0
4 d% 5 5 #
0
6 d%-
(()/
0
)=1+!i"
0
A
2
[

0
d

7
7
2

2
d 7+

0
+d
7
7
2

2
d 7
]
(( )/
0
)=1+!i"
0
A
2

[
[
1
2
!n(
2
7
2
)
]

0
d

+
[
1
2
!n( 7
2

2
)
]
+

0
+d
]
(()/
0
)=1+
A

!n
[

(
0
+d )
2

2
(
0
d )
2

2
]
+!i"
0
!n
(
2
2+
)
,he !ast ter" goes aay in the !i"it, !eaving-
(( )/
0
)=1+
A

!n
[

(
0
+d )
2

2
(
0
d )
2

2
]
366
/e can no co"*ine *oth cases into-
(( )/
0
)=1+
A

!n
[

(
0
+d )
2

2
(
0
d )
2

]
0 0.2 0.$ 0.% 0.& 1 1.2 1.$ 1.% 1.& 2
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
$
5
%
'ma#inary Part o( t"e Dieletri )onstant
!/!0
'
m
(

0
)
0 0.2 0.$ 0.% 0.& 1 1.2 1.$ 1.% 1.& 2
-3
-2
-1
0
1
2
3
$
5
%
*eal Part o( t"e Dieletri )onstant
!/!0
*
e
(

0
)
367
Problem 3
;ac(son <.1=
1n appro'i"ate!y "onochro"atic p!ane ave pac(et in one di"ension has the instantaneous for",
u(x ,0)=f (x)e
i k
0
x
, ith f#x% the "odu!ation enve!ope. .or each of the for"s f#x% *e!o, ca!cu!ate the
ave3nu"*er spectru" >A#k%>
2
of the pac(et, s(etch >u#x, 0%>
2
and >A#k%>
2
, eva!uate e'p!icit!y the r"s
deviations fro" the "eans ?x and ?k #defined in ter"s of the intensities >u#x, 0%>
2
and >A#k%>
2
%, and test
ine&ua!ity #<.@2%.
#a% f ( x)=N e
x/ 2
#*%
f (x)=N e

2
x
2
/ A
#c% f (x)=
[
N (1x) for x<1
0 for x>1
]
#d%
f (x)=
[
N for x<a
0 for x>a
]
SOLUTIO!
.irst note the definition of r"s for a ave pac(et-
x=

x
2
[ f (x)]
2
dx

[ f (x)]
2
dx
#a% .or u(x ,0)=N e
i k
0
xx/2
the ave3nu"*er spectru" is-
A( k)=
1
2

u( x , 0)e
i k x
dx
A(k)=
1
2
N

e
i k x+i k
0
xx/ 2
dx
A( k)=
1
2
2 N
[

cos((kk
0
) x) e
x/ 2
dx
]
A(k)=
1
2
2 N
[
e
x /2

2
cos((kk
0
) x)+(kk
0
)sin((kk
0
) x)

2
/ A+(kk
0
)
2
]
0

A(k)=
1
2 [
N

2
/ A+( kk
0
)
2
]
,he "odu!us s&uared is therefore found #in a for" nor"a!i+ed for p!otting%-
368
A(k )
2

2
N
2
=
1
2
[
1
1
A
+
(
k

k
0

)
2
]
2
,his is the ave3nu"*er spectru" of-
u( x , 0)
2
N
2
=e
x
/e can p!ot this spectru" #ith k
0
$ 2% and its corresponding ave pac(et-
,he spread of the ave pac(et and its spectru" can no *e found-
x=

x
2
e
x
dx

e
x
dx
x=
2

k=

k
2
[
1

2
/ A+k
2
]
2
dk

[
1

2
/ A+k
2
]
2
dk
k=

2
x k=
2
2
for this case, hich o*eys
x k
1
2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 $
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
2.5
3
k/
+
,
(
k
)
-
a
l
p
"
a
+
.
2
/
/
.
2
-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2
0
0.2
0.$
0.%
0.&
1
x
+
u
(
0
1
0
)
+
.
2
/
/
.
2
369
#*% .or u(x ,0)=N e
i k
0
x
2
x
2
/ A
the ave3nu"*er spectru" is-
A(k)=
1
2

u( x , 0)e
i k x
dx
A( k)=
1
2
N

e
i k
0
xi k x
2
x
2
/ A
dx
A(k)=
2
2
N

cos((kk
0
) x)e

2
x
2
/ A
dx
A(k)=N

2
e
(k k
0
)
2
/
2
,he "odu!us s&uared is therefore found #in a for" nor"a!i+ed for p!otting%-
A(k )
2

2
N
2
=2e
2
(
k

k
0

)
2
,his is the ave3nu"*er spectru" of-
u( x , 0)
2
N
2
=e
( x)
2
/ 2
/e can p!ot this spectru" #ith k
0
$ 2% and its corresponding ave pac(et-
,he spread of the ave pac(et and its spectru" can no *e found-
x=

x
2
e

2
x
2
/ 2
dx

2
x
2
/ 2
dx
x=
1

-2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2


0
0.2
0.$
0.%
0.&
1
x
+
u
(
0
1
0
)
+
.
2
/
/
.
2
0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5 $
0
0.5
1
1.5
2
k/
+
,
(
k
)
-
a
l
p
"
a
+
.
2
/
/
.
2
370
k=

k
2
e
2k
2
/
2
dk

e
2k
2
/
2
dk
k=

2
x k=
1
2
for this case, hich sti!! o*eys
x k
1
2
0ote that this ave pac(et reaches the "ini"u" uncertainty possi*!e. ,his "eans that this ave pac(et
has "a'i"u" s"oothness.
#c% .or the case of u(x ,0)=N (1x)e
i k
0
x
for x<1, 0 otherise , the ave3nu"*er spectru" is-
A(k)=
1
2

u( x , 0)e
i k x
dx
A(k)=
2 N
2

0
1/
(1 x)cos((kk
0
)x)dx
A(k)=
2 N
2
1
(k /k
0
/ )
2
[ 2(k / k
0
/ ) sin(k / k
0
/ )+1cos(k / k
0
/ )]
,he "odu!us s&uared is therefore found #in a for" nor"a!i+ed for p!otting%-
A(k )
2

2
N
2
=
2

1
(
k

k
0

)
A
[
2
(
k

k
0

)
sin
(
k

k
0

)
+1cos
(
k

k
0

)]
2
,his is the ave3nu"*er spectru" of-
u( x , 0)
2
N
2
=(1 x)
2
for x<1, 0 otherise
/e can p!ot this spectru" #ith k
0
$ 2% and its corresponding ave pac(et-
371
0ote that the discontinuous nature of the s!ope of the avefor" in coordinate space !eads to ringing in
avenu"*er space. ,he spread of the ave pac(et and its spectru" can no *e found-
x=
1

0
1
x
2
(1x)
2
dx

0
1
(1x)
2
dx
x=
1
10
k=

1
k
2
[ 2 k sin k+1cos k]
2
dk

1
k
A
[ 2 k sin k+1cos k]
2
dk
0ote that the highest poer ter" in the nu"erator is A

sin
2
k dk hich o*vious!y diverges, so that-
k=
x k=for this case, hich certain!y o*eys
x k
1
2
-% -$ -2 0 2 $ % & 10
0
1
2
3
$
k/
+
,
(
k
)
-
a
l
p
"
a
+
.
2
/
/
.
2
-& -% -$ -2 0 2 $ % &
0
0.2
0.$
0.%
0.&
1
x
+
u
(
0
1
0
)
+
.
2
/
/
.
2
372
#d% .or u(x ,0)=N e
i k
0
x
for x<a , 0 otherise , the ave3nu"*er spectru" is-
A(k)=
1
2

u( x , 0)e
i k x
dx
A(k)=
1
2
N

a
a
e
i (kk
0
)x
dx
A(k)=
2
2
N
sin((kk
0
)a)
(kk
0
)
,he "odu!us s&uared is therefore found #in a for" nor"a!i+ed for p!otting%-
A(k )
2
N
2
a
2
=
2

sin
2
(k ak
0
a)
(k ak
0
a)
2
,his is the ave3nu"*er spectru" of-
u( x , 0)
2
N
2
=1 for x/ a<1, 0 otherise
/e can p!ot this spectru" #ith k
0
$ 2/a% and its corresponding ave pac(et-
,he avefor" itse!f is discontinuous, so there is significant ringing in avenu"*er space. ,he spread
of the ave pac(et and its spectru" can no *e found-
x=

a
a
x
2
dx

a
a
dx
x=
a
3
-% -$ -2 0 2 $ % & 10
0
0.2
0.$
0.%
0.&
ka
+
,
(
k
)
+
.
2
/
(
/
.
2

a
.
2
)
-& -% -$ -2 0 2 $ % &
0
0.2
0.$
0.%
0.&
1
x/a
+
u
(
0
1
0
)
+
.
2
/
/
.
2
373
k=

sin
2
(k a)dk

sin
2
(k a)
k
2
dk
k=
x k=for this case, hich certain!y o*eys
x k
1
2
374




"#$%
&'()*+',-
375
Mid-Term Exam, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
PART I: Multiple Choice (3 point!"#
Circle the one best answer to each question.
1. "hat is the advanta#e of representin# the $reen function for spherical %oundaries as a series of
spherical har&onics Y
lm
'
(a) *he spherical har&onics series is &ore co&pact.
(%) *he spherical har&onics series is finite.
(c) Spherical har&onics do not for& an orthonor&al set of functions, so there is &ore freedo&.
(d) +nte#rals that arise are &ore solva%le usin# the spherical har&onics representation.
2. +f a locali,ed char#e distri%ution is placed near an infinite, #rounded, conductin# plane sheet, !hat
can !e say a%out the i&a#e char#e distri%ution - that represents the effects on the sheet'
(a) - has the sa&e total char#e as and has the sa&e si#n.
(%) - has the sa&e total char#e as and has the opposite si#n.
(c) - al!ays has less total char#e than .
(d) - al!ays has &ore total char#e than .
3. Consider an infinitely lon# cylinder of radius a !ith the potential V ( ) on its surface. "e desire to
find the electric potential every!here inside the cylinder. "hat are the %oundary conditions in the
radial direction'
(a) =V () only
(%) =V () at . a and =finite at . 0
(c) =V () at . a and =0 at . /
(d) =V () at . 0 and =0 at . a
0. 1 non2unifor& line char#e 3(z) e4tends infinitely in the z direction. *he line char#e is located in
polar coordinates at the point
(
0,

0
)
. "hat is the e4pression for the volu&e char#e density

ch
(x)
of
this distri%ution in ter&s of cylindrical coordinates'
(a)

ch
(x)=( zz
0
) (
0
)(
0
)
(%)

ch
(x)=(z) (
0
)(
0
)
(c)
ch
(x)=(z) (
0
)
(
0
)

(d)
ch
(x)=q(
0
)
(
0
)
sin
376
5. 1 hollo! cu%e is located !ith one corner at the ori#in and the other corner at the point
(x, y, z) . (a, a, a). 1ll faces of the cu%e are held at a potential of ,ero, e4cept for the top face (at z . a)
!hich is held at a potential of V sin(6x7a) sin(6y7a). "hat is the %est description of the solution for the
potential every!here inside the cu%e'
(a) an infinite series of ter&s that includes e#endre polyno&ials.
(%) an infinite series of ter&s that includes cosine and cosh functions.
(c) a sin#le ter& that includes cosine and cosh functions.
(d) a sin#le ter& that includes sine and sinh functions.
8. Consider these o%9ects: a sharp conical point, a deep conical hole in a solid %loc;, a flat plate, and a
solid sphere. <ach o%9ect is a%out the sa&e si,e, is a conductor, and has a%out the sa&e a&ount of total
char#e. "hich re#ion in space has the hi#hest ener#y density W'
(a) *he re#ion close to the tip of the sharp conical point.
(%) *he re#ion deep in the conical hole.
(c) *he re#ion 9ust a%ove the center of the flat plate.
(d) *he re#ion close to the surface of the sphere.
=. 1 hollo! circular cylinder !ith radius R and hei#ht h has its %otto& face centered on the ori#in and
its top face at , . h. *he top face and %otto& face of the cylinder are held at the potential V and the
entire round side is held at a potential of ,ero. 1 s&all, positively2char#ed particle >q (s&all enou#h
that is does not effect the total electric field) is %rou#ht directly fro& a point on the cylinder-s side to a
point on the cylinder-s a4is. ?o! did the potential energy of the particle chan#e !hen &a;in# this
&ove'
(a) *he particle-s potential ener#y did not chan#e.
(%) *he particle-s potential ener#y decreased.
(c) *he particle-s potential ener#y increased.
(d) *he particle-s potential ener#y %eca&e e4actly ,ero.
377
PART II: $iagram Pro%lem (&' point!"
Consider a #rounded, conductin# sphere. 1 positively2char#ed, unifor& line char#e >3 is shaped into a
rin# and is centered on the sphere, as sho!n in the dia#ra&.
1. +f !e !ere to use the &ethod of i&a#es to solve for the potential outside the sphere, dra! the i&a#e
char#e confi#uration !e !ould need and la%el it as 3-.
2. Dra! the electric field lines. Do not dra! all field lines in three2di&ensional space. +nstead 9ust dra!
the field lines that are in the cross2sectional plane that is parallel to the paper and cuts throu#h the
sphere-s center.
3. 1 s&all, negatively-charged particle is placed at the location of the red dot. Dra! a s&all, thic;
arro! attached to this dot to indicate the direction that the particle accelerates. (*his char#e is so s&all
that it does not effect the rest of the syste&.)
>3
V . 0
378
PART III: (or) Pro%lem! (** Point!"
1. 1 hollo! sphere of radius a is centered at the ori#in and held at the
potential:
=
{
V
cos
sin
if (/ 2)<<(/ 2+)
0 if <(/ 2) or >(/ 2+)
}
"e !ant to find the potential every!here inside the sphere.
@ou !ill need to use these eAuations:
Y
lm
( )=

2l +1
0
(l m)!
(l +m)!
e
i m
"
l
m
(cos) 2cos=e
i
+e
i
"
l
1
(cos )=
1
l (l +1)
"
l
1
(cos)
cos(/ 2#)=sin #
"
l
1
(cos)=
d
d
"
l
(cos)

"
l
(1)=1
"
l
(x)=(1)
l
"
l
( x)
(a) Start !ith the #eneral solution to the aplace eAuation in spherical coordinates (!hen all an#les are
involved), and solve for the potential inside a sphere !ith the #eneral %oundary condition: V ( ) .
(%) +nsert the specific %oundary condition of this pro%le&, e4pand out the spherical har&onics in full
for&, and separate out the t!o inte#rals !ithout solvin# the&.
(c) Bo! solve 9ust the inte#ral over the a,i&uth an#le and si&plify #
lm
as &uch as possi%le.
(d) Bo! solve the other inte#ral and si&plify #
lm
as &uch as possi%le.
(e) +nsert all the pieces into the #eneral solution and !rite out the final solution, si&plifyin# as &uch as
possi%le. *here should %e no spherical har&onics in your final ans!er.
C
C
z
x
D . 0
D . 0
D . cosE7sinF
379
$%& '( $)#*
380
Mid-Term Exam Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
PART I: Multiple Choice !" points#$
Circle the one best answer to each question.
1. "hat is the advanta#e of representin# the $reen function for spherical %oundaries as a series of
spherical har&onics Y
lm
'
(a) *he spherical har&onics series is &ore co&pact.
(%) *he spherical har&onics series is finite.
(c) Spherical har&onics do not for& an orthonor&al set of functions, so there is &ore freedo&.
(d) +nte#rals that arise are &ore solva%le usin# the spherical har&onics representation.
2. +f a locali,ed char#e distri%ution is placed near an infinite, #rounded, conductin# plane sheet, !hat
can !e say a%out the i&a#e char#e distri%ution - that represents the effects on the sheet'
(a) - has the sa&e total char#e as and has the sa&e si#n.
(%) - has the sa&e total char#e as and has the opposite si#n.
(c) - al!ays has less total char#e than .
(d) - al!ays has &ore total char#e than .
3. Consider an infinitely lon# cylinder of radius a !ith the potential V ( ) on its surface. "e desire to
find the electric potential every!here inside the cylinder. "hat are the %oundary conditions in the
radial direction'
(a) =V () only
(%) =V () at . a and =finite at . 0
(c) =V () at . a and =0 at . /
(d) =V () at . 0 and =0 at . a
0. 1 non2unifor& line char#e 3(z) e4tends infinitely in the z direction. *he line char#e is located in
polar coordinates at the point
(
0,

0
)
. "hat is the e4pression for the volu&e char#e density

ch
(x)
of
this distri%ution in ter&s of cylindrical coordinates'
(a)

ch
(x)=( zz
0
) (
0
)(
0
)
(%)

ch
(x)=(z) (
0
)(
0
)
(c)
ch
(x)=(z) (
0
)
(
0
)

(d)
ch
(x)=q(
0
)
(
0
)
sin
381
5. 1 hollo! cu%e is located !ith one corner at the ori#in and the other corner at the point
(x, y, z) . (a, a, a). 1ll faces of the cu%e are held at a potential of ,ero, e4cept for the top face (at z . a)
!hich is held at a potential of V sin(6x7a) sin(6y7a). "hat is the %est description of the solution for the
potential every!here inside the cu%e'
(a) an infinite series of ter&s that includes e#endre polyno&ials.
(%) an infinite series of ter&s that includes cosine and cosh functions.
(c) a sin#le ter& that includes cosine and cosh functions.
(d) a sin#le ter& that includes sine and sinh functions.
8. Consider these o%9ects: a sharp conical point, a deep conical hole in a solid %loc;, a flat plate, and a
solid sphere. <ach o%9ect is a%out the sa&e si,e, is a conductor, and has a%out the sa&e a&ount of total
char#e. "hich re#ion in space has the hi#hest ener#y density W'
(a) *he re#ion close to the tip of the sharp conical point.
(%) *he re#ion deep in the conical hole.
(c) *he re#ion 9ust a%ove the center of the flat plate.
(d) *he re#ion close to the surface of the sphere.
=. 1 hollo! circular cylinder !ith radius R and hei#ht h has its %otto& face centered on the ori#in and
its top face at , . h. *he top face and %otto& face of the cylinder are held at the potential V and the
entire round side is held at a potential of ,ero. 1 s&all, positively2char#ed particle >q (s&all enou#h
that is does not effect the total electric field) is %rou#ht directly fro& a point on the cylinder-s side to a
point on the cylinder-s a4is. ?o! did the potential energy of the particle chan#e !hen &a;in# this
&ove'
(a) *he particle-s potential ener#y did not chan#e.
(%) *he particle-s potential ener#y decreased.
(c) *he particle-s potential ener#y increased.
(d) *he particle-s potential ener#y %eca&e e4actly ,ero.
382
PART II: %iagram Pro&lem '( points#
Consider a #rounded, conductin# sphere. 1 positively2char#ed, unifor& line char#e >3 is shaped into a
rin# and is centered on the sphere, as sho!n in the dia#ra&.
1. +f !e !ere to use the &ethod of i&a#es to solve for the potential outside the sphere, dra! the i&a#e
char#e confi#uration !e !ould need and la%el it as 3-.
2. Dra! the electric field lines. Do not dra! all field lines in three2di&ensional space. +nstead 9ust dra!
the field lines that are in the cross2sectional plane that is parallel to the paper and cuts throu#h the
sphere-s center.
3. 1 s&all, negatively-charged particle is placed at the location of the red dot. Dra! a s&all, thic;
arro! attached to this dot to indicate the direction that the particle accelerates. (*his char#e is so s&all
that it does not effect the rest of the syste&.)
>3
V . 0
3-
E
383
PART III: )or* Pro&lems ++ Points#
1. 1 hollo! sphere of radius a is centered at the ori#in and held at the
potential:
=
{
V
cos
sin
if (/ 2)<<(/ 2+)
0 if <(/ 2) or >(/ 2+)
}
"e !ant to find the potential every!here inside the sphere.
@ou !ill need to use these eAuations:
Y
lm
( )=

2l +1
0
(l m)!
(l +m)!
e
i m
"
l
m
(cos) 2cos=e
i
+e
i
"
l
1
(cos )=
1
l (l +1)
"
l
1
(cos)
cos(/ 2#)=sin #
"
l
1
(cos)=
d
d
"
l
(cos)

"
l
(1)=1
"
l
(x)=(1)
l
"
l
( x)
(a) Start !ith the #eneral solution to the aplace eAuation in spherical coordinates (!hen all an#les are
involved), and solve for the potential inside a sphere !ith the #eneral %oundary condition: V ( ) .
*he #eneral solution to the aplace eAuation in spherical coordinates is (!hen all an#les are
involved):
(r )=

l=0

m=l
l
( #
l m
r
l
+$
l m
r
l 1
)Y
lm
( )
"e need a finite solution at the ori#in, so all $
l

m
&ust %e ,ero, leadin# to:
(r )=

l=0

m=l
l
#
l m
r
l
Y
lm
( )
1pply the %oundary condition at the sphere-s surface:
V ( )=

l=0

m=l
l
#
l m
a
l
Y
lm
( )
*he ortho#onality state&ent for the spherical har&onics is:

0
2

Y
l - m-
B
( )Y
l m
( )sin d d =
l - l

m- m
So if !e &ultiply %oth sides of the solution %y the appropriate factors and inte#rate, !e use the
ortho#onality state&ent to pic; out one ter& in the dou%le series, leadin# to:
C
C
z
x
D . 0
D . 0
D . cosE7sinF
384
#
l m
=a
l

0
2

V ( )Y
l m
B
( )sin d d
(%) +nsert the specific %oundary condition of this pro%le&, e4pand out the spherical har&onics in full
for&, and separate out the t!o inte#rals !ithout solvin# the&.
#
l m
=V a
l

2l +1
0
(l m)!
(l +m)!

0
2
cos e
i m
d

/ 2
/ 2+
"
l
m
(cos )d
(c) Go! solve 9ust the inte#ral over the a,i&uth an#le and si&plify #
lm
as &uch as possi%le.
#
l m
=
1
2
V a
l

2l+1
0
(l m)!
(l +m)!
(

0
2
e
i
e
i m
d +

0
2
e
i
e
i m
d )

/ 2
/ 2+
"
l
m
(cos )d
Due to ortho#onality, the inte#rals over the a,i&uthal an#le are ,ero e4cept for the m . 21 and
m . 1 cases:
#
l 1
=V a
l

2l +1
0l (l +1)

/ 2
/ 2+
"
l
1
(cos)d
and
#
l 1
=V a
l

2l +1
0
(l +1)!
(l 1)!

/2
/2+
"
l
1
(cos )d
#
l 1
=V a
l

2l +1
0 l (l +1)

/2
/2+
"
l
1
(cos)d
#
l 1
=#
l 1
#
l m
=0 for all other m
(d) Go! solve the other inte#ral and si&plify #
lm
as &uch as possi%le.

/ 2
/ 2+
"
l
1
(cos)d =

/ 2
/ 2+
d
d
"
l
(cos ) d

/ 2
/ 2+
"
l
1
(cos)d ="
l
(cos(/ 2+))"
l
(cos(/ 2))

/ 2
/ 2+
"
l
1
(cos)d ="
l
(sin)"
l
(sin )
385

/ 2
/ 2+
"
l
1
(cos)d =[ (1)
l
1] "
l
(sin )

/ 2
/ 2+
"
l
1
(cos) d =2 "
l
(sin) if l is odd and 0 if l is even
#
l 1
=2V a
l

2l +1
0l (l +1)
"
l
(sin ) if l is odd and 0 if l is even
(e) +nsert all the pieces into the #eneral solution and !rite out the final solution, si&plifyin# as &uch as
possi%le. *here should %e no spherical har&onics in your final ans!er.
(r )=

l=0

m=l
l
#
l m
r
l
Y
lm
( )
(r )=

l =1,3,5...

[
#
l 1
Y
l 1
( )+#
l 1
Y
l 1
( )
]
r
l
(r )=

l =1,3,5...

#
l 1
[
Y
l 1
( )Y
l 1
( )
]
r
l
(r )=

l =1,3,5...

#
l 1
[
Y
l 1
( )+Y
l 1
B
( )
]
r
l
(r )=

l =1,3,5...

#
l 1

2l +1
0l (l +1)
"
l
1
(cos)[ e
i
+e
i
] r
l
(r )=

l =1,3,5...

2 #
l 1

2l +1
0l (l +1)
"
l
1
(cos)cos r
l
(r )=V cos

l=1,3,5. ..

2l +1
l (l +1)
"
l
(sin)
(
r
a
)
l
"
l
1
(cos)
386
Final Exam, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
PART I: Multiple Choice (45 point!"
Circle the one best answer to each question.
1. "n #eneral, !hat does the $a#netic vector potential A loo% li%e in relation to the
static free current # that creates it&
'a( A points rou#hly in the sa$e direction as # and usually fills all the space near #.
')( A points rou#hly in the sa$e direction as # )ut e*ists only at locations !here # e*ists.
'c( A points rou#hly in the directions perpendicular to #.
'd( A points rou#hly in paths curlin# around #.
2. "n electrodyna$ics, !hat can #ive rise to a diver#in# $a#netic field $&
'a( a ti$e+varyin# % field.
')( effective $a#netic char#es.
'c( a free current density #"
'd( nothin#.
3. , point char#e -q is placed a distance d.2 fro$ a lar#e flat, #rounded conductor. /o! does the force
on the char#e vary !ith d&
'a( 1.d
0
')( 1.d
3
'c( 1.d
2
'd( 1.d
0. "n $a#neto+1uasi+statics 'M2S(, !hat appro*i$ation is $ade to si$plify Ma*!ell3s e1uations&
'a( ,ll $a#netic fields are assu$ed to )e co$pletely static.
')( 4he $a#netic field varies so slo!ly !ith respect to ti$e that
&
t
is dropped.
'c( 4he electric field varies so slo!ly !ith respect to ti$e that
E
t
is dropped.
'd( 4he $a#netic field is assu$ed to )e non+curlin# so & is dropped.
387
5. Consider a point char#e -q at the location 'x 6 a, y 6 a(, a point char#e -q at the location
'x = -a, y 6 a( and a se$i+infinite linear dielectric sla) e*istin# in the re#ion
y 7 0. "f !e used the $ethod of i$a#es to represent the electric potential in the
y 8 0 re#ion, !here should !e place the i$a#e char#e's(&
'a( put a char#e q' at 'x 6 a, y 6 +a( and a char#e q' at 'x 6 -a, y 6 +a(.
')( you cannot solve this pro)le$ usin# the $ethod of i$a#es.
'c( put a char#e q' at 'x 6 a, y 6 0( and a char#e q'' at 'x 6 -a, y 6 0(.
'd( put a char#e q' at the ori#in.
9. For the previous pro)le$, !hat does the polari:ation char#e distri)ution loo% li%e& ';ositive
polari:ation char#e is $ar%ed red, ne#ative polari:ation char#e is $ar%ed #reen.(
'a( ')( 'c(
<. For pro)le$ 5, far a!ay fro$ the ori#in, and outside the material, ho! do you e*pect the electric
field to do$inantly )ehave 'assu$e the $aterial3s per$ittivity is infinite(&
'a( li%e an electric $onopole field.
')( li%e an electric dipole field.
'c( li%e an electric 1uadrupole field.
'd( li%e an electric octupole field.
=. For pro)le$ 5, far a!ay fro$ the ori#in, and inside the material, ho! do you e*pect the electric field
to do$inantly )ehave&
'a( li%e an electric $onopole field.
')( li%e an electric dipole field.
'c( li%e an electric 1uadrupole field.
'd( li%e an electric octupole field.
>. "n #eneral, !here is the field M :ero&
'a( in free space 'vacuu$( and in $aterials that are perfectly non+$a#netic.
')( no!here? M is never :ero.
'c( in hard ferro$a#nets.
'd( only in re#ions !here there is no free current density #.
x
y
-q +q
a a
a a
y
-q
+q
x
y
-q
+q
x
y
-q
+q
388
10. @hich e*pression represents electro$a#netic field ener#y density&
'a( # A E
')( B'E A % - & A $(
'c( E C $
'd( E C %
11. @hen a per$anent )ar $a#net is placed a#ainst a steel door, it stic%s and does not fall. @hat is the
)est e*planation of the physics involved&
'a( 4he $a#netic field fro$ the $a#net e*erts a tor1ue on the $a#netic 1uadrupoles in the steel so that
they end up perpendicular to the $a#net3s field lines, thus creatin# a field that curls around the $a#net
and attracts it.
')( 4he $a#netic field fro$ the $a#net induces electric currents in the steel that run in strai#ht lines
deep into the steel. 4hese currents create electric fields that e*ert a tor1ue on the $a#net.
'c( 4he $a#netic field fro$ the $a#net attracts electric char#e to the surface of the steel, !hich then
e*erts a force )ac% on the $a#net.
'd( 4he $a#netic field fro$ the $a#net induces a $a#neti:ation in the steel, !hich then creates a
$a#netic field )ac% to!ards the $a#net, attractin# it to the door.
12. @hat e1uations $ust )e used to completely specify the electric and $a#netic fields #enerated )y a
har$onically oscillatin# char#e distri)ution&
'a( Ma*!ell3s e1uations, the orent: force la!, and De!ton3s second la!.
')( only the orent: force la!, and De!ton3s second la!.
'c( only the aplace e1uation.
'd( only Ma*!ell3s e1uations.
13. @hat type of $a#netic field in a certain re#ion repels a s$all $a#netic dipole fro$ that re#ion&
'a( none, $a#netic dipoles are never repelled.
')( a very stron# unifor$ $a#netic field pointed alon# the a*is of the dipole.
'c( a very stron# unifor$ $a#netic field pointed perpendicular to the a*is of the dipole.
'd( a non+unifor$ $a#netic field !ith hi#h flu* density in the re#ion.
10. @hat piece did Ma*!ell add to ,$pere3s a! to $a%e it consistent !ith the char#e continuity
e1uation&
'a( the rate of chan#e in ti$e of a varyin# electric field
')( the rate of chan#e in ti$e of a varyin# $a#netic field
'c( $a#netic $onopoles
'd( the constant c
15. "n #eneral, linear dia$a#netic $aterials tend to do !hat to the $a#netic fields penetratin# the$&
'a( t!ist the$ in spirals
')( stren#then the$
'c( !ea%en the$
'd( nothin#
389
PART II: 'or( Pro)lem (55 Point!
;ro)le$ 1. '15 points(
Startin# !ith Ma*!ell3s e1uations in ter$s of total fields, derive these e1uations in ter$s of the
standard potentials in the Coulo$) Eau#e.
390
;ro)le$ 2. '20 points(
, per$anent $a#net has the shape of a solid sphere !ith radius a and is centered at the ori#in. 4he
entire sphere has a unifor$ $a#neti:ation M in the positive z direction !ith $a#nitude
0
. 4here are
no other fields or currents e*cept those due to the per$anent $a#net.
'a( Find all $a#neti:ation currents associated !ith this $a#neti:ation.
')( Find the $a#netic vector potential A due to these $a#neti:ation currents for points outside the
sphere. F*pand the deno$inator in spherical har$onics and solve the inte#rals. Si$plify so that there
are no spherical har$onics or inte#rals in your final ans!er.
Gou $ay need to useH
*=cos rsin

,

=sin x+cos y , 2cos =e


i
+e
i
, 2i sin=e
i
e
i
sin3 sin3 =i

2
3
(!
1,1
(3 , 3 )+!
1,1
(3 , 3 )) , sin3 cos3=

2
3
(!
1,1
(3 , 3 )!
1,1
( 3 , 3))
391
;ro)le$ 3. '20 points(
, thin, strai#ht !ire placed at x 6 0, y 6 d carries a unifor$ current " in the positive z direction. 4he
se$i+infinite re#ion consistin# of all points !here y 7 0 is filled !ith $a#netic $aterial !ith
per$ittivity I. @e !ish to find the force per unit len#th that the !ire e*periences.
'a( Usin# ,$pere3s a! in inte#ral for$, find the #eneral $a#netic field produced )y a sin#le, strai#ht,
current+carryin# !ire alon# the z a*is.
')( Usin# the results of part a, and usin# the fact that a current #'x, y, z( in free space ne*t to a $a#netic
$aterial occupyin# the space y 7 0 induces an i$a#e current #3H
#
x
3=
(

0
+
0
)
#
x
( x ,y , z) , #
y
3 =
(

0
+
0
)
#
y
(x ,y , z) , #
z
3 =
(

0
+
0
)
#
z
(x ,y , z) ,
find the $a#netic field in the y 8 0 re#ion as the su$ of the field fro$ the real current and the field
fro$ the i$a#e current.
'c( Find the force the !ire e*periences.
'd( Descri)e this force in !ords if the $aterial is para$a#netic and if it is dia$a#netic.
DoteH

=
y x+x y
x
2
+y
2
392
JFDD KF FL,MM
393
Final Exam Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013
University of Massachusetts o!ell
PART I: Multiple Choice (! points"#
Circle the one best answer to each question.
1. "n #eneral, !hat does the $a#netic vector potential A loo% li%e in relation to the
static free current $ that creates it&
'a( A points rou#hly in the sa$e direction as $ and usually fills all the space near $.
')( A points rou#hly in the sa$e direction as $ )ut e*ists only at locations !here $ e*ists.
'c( A points rou#hly in the directions perpendicular to $.
'd( A points rou#hly in paths curlin# around $.
2. "n electrodyna$ics, !hat can #ive rise to a diver#in# $a#netic field %&
'a( a ti$e+varyin# & field.
')( effective $a#netic char#es.
'c( a free current density $#
'd( nothin#.
3. , point char#e -q is placed a distance d.2 fro$ a lar#e flat, #rounded conductor. /o! does the force
on the char#e vary !ith d&
'a( 1.d
0
')( 1.d
3
'c( 1.d
2
'd( 1.d
0. "n $a#neto+1uasi+statics 'M2S(, !hat appro*i$ation is $ade to si$plify Ma*!ell3s e1uations&
'a( ,ll $a#netic fields are assu$ed to )e co$pletely static.
')( 4he $a#netic field varies so slo!ly !ith respect to ti$e that
'
t
is dropped.
'c( 4he electric field varies so slo!ly !ith respect to ti$e that
E
t
is dropped.
'd( 4he $a#netic field is assu$ed to )e non+curlin# so ' is dropped.
394
5. Consider a point char#e -q at the location 'x 6 a, y 6 a(, a point char#e -q at the location
'x = -a, y 6 a( and a se$i+infinite linear dielectric sla) e*istin# in the re#ion
y 7 0. "f !e used the $ethod of i$a#es to represent the electric potential in the
y 8 0 re#ion, !here should !e place the i$a#e char#e's(&
'a( put a char#e q' at 'x 6 a, y 6 +a( and a char#e q' at 'x 6 -a, y 6 +a(.
')( you cannot solve this pro)le$ usin# the $ethod of i$a#es.
'c( put a char#e q' at 'x 6 a, y 6 0( and a char#e q'' at 'x 6 -a, y 6 0(.
'd( put a char#e q' at the ori#in.
9. For the previous pro)le$, !hat does the polari:ation char#e distri)ution loo% li%e& ';ositive
polari:ation char#e is $ar%ed red, ne#ative polari:ation char#e is $ar%ed #reen.(
'a( ')( 'c(
<. For pro)le$ 5, far a!ay fro$ the ori#in, and outside the material, ho! do you e*pect the electric
field to do$inantly )ehave 'assu$e the $aterial3s per$ittivity is infinite(&
'a( li%e an electric $onopole field.
')( li%e an electric dipole field.
'c( li%e an electric 1uadrupole field.
'd( li%e an electric octupole field.
=. For pro)le$ 5, far a!ay fro$ the ori#in, and inside the material, ho! do you e*pect the electric field
to do$inantly )ehave&
'a( li%e an electric $onopole field.
')( li%e an electric dipole field.
'c( li%e an electric 1uadrupole field.
'd( li%e an electric octupole field.
>. "n #eneral, !here is the field M :ero&
'a( in free space 'vacuu$( and in $aterials that are perfectly non+$a#netic.
')( no!here? M is never :ero.
'c( in hard ferro$a#nets.
'd( only in re#ions !here there is no free current density $.
x
y
-q +q
a a
a a
y
-q
+q
x
y
-q
+q
x
y
-q
+q
395
10. @hich e*pression represents electro$a#netic field ener#y density&
'a( $ A E
')( B'E A & - ' A %(
'c( E C %
'd( E C &
11. @hen a per$anent )ar $a#net is placed a#ainst a steel door, it stic%s and does not fall. @hat is the
)est e*planation of the physics involved&
'a( 4he $a#netic field fro$ the $a#net e*erts a tor1ue on the $a#netic 1uadrupoles in the steel so that
they end up perpendicular to the $a#net3s field lines, thus creatin# a field that curls around the $a#net
and attracts it.
')( 4he $a#netic field fro$ the $a#net induces electric currents in the steel that run in strai#ht lines
deep into the steel. 4hese currents create electric fields that e*ert a tor1ue on the $a#net.
'c( 4he $a#netic field fro$ the $a#net attracts electric char#e to the surface of the steel, !hich then
e*erts a force )ac% on the $a#net.
'd( 4he $a#netic field fro$ the $a#net induces a $a#neti:ation in the steel, !hich then creates a
$a#netic field )ac% to!ards the $a#net, attractin# it to the door.
12. @hat e1uations $ust )e used to completely specify the electric and $a#netic fields #enerated )y a
har$onically oscillatin# char#e distri)ution&
'a( Ma*!ell3s e1uations, the orent: force la!, and De!ton3s second la!.
')( only the orent: force la!, and De!ton3s second la!.
'c( only the aplace e1uation.
'd( only Ma*!ell3s e1uations.
13. @hat type of $a#netic field in a certain re#ion repels a s$all $a#netic dipole fro$ that re#ion&
'a( none, $a#netic dipoles are never repelled.
')( a very stron# unifor$ $a#netic field pointed alon# the a*is of the dipole.
'c( a very stron# unifor$ $a#netic field pointed perpendicular to the a*is of the dipole.
'd( a non+unifor$ $a#netic field !ith hi#h flu* density in the re#ion.
10. @hat piece did Ma*!ell add to ,$pere3s a! to $a%e it consistent !ith the char#e continuity
e1uation&
'a( the rate of chan#e in ti$e of a varyin# electric field
')( the rate of chan#e in ti$e of a varyin# $a#netic field
'c( $a#netic $onopoles
'd( the constant c
15. "n #eneral, linear dia$a#netic $aterials tend to do !hat to the $a#netic fields penetratin# the$&
'a( t!ist the$ in spirals
')( stren#then the$
'c( !ea%en the$
'd( nothin#
396
PART II: (or) Pro*lems (!! Points"
;ro)le$ 1. '15 points(
Startin# !ith Ma*!ell3s e1uations in ter$s of total fields, derive these e1uations in ter$s of the
standard potentials in the Coulo$) Eau#e.
S+,-TI+.:
Ma*!ell3s e1uations in ter$s of total fields areF
E=
total
, '=0

E=
'
t
,
'=
0
$
total
+
0

0
E
t
Usin# the standard potential definition '=A and
E=
A
t
Ma*!ell3s e1uations
)eco$eF

2
+

t
A=
total
and (A)=
0
$
total


t

0

2
A
t
2
G*pand the curl of the curl usin# an identityF

2
+

t
A=
total
and (A)
2
A=
0
$
total


t

0

2
A
t
2
"n the Coulo$) Eau#e, A=0 , !e haveF

2
=
total
and
2
A
0

2
A
t
2
=
0
$
total
+
0


t
397
;ro)le$ 2. '20 points(
, per$anent $a#net has the shape of a solid sphere !ith radius a and is centered at the ori#in. 4he
entire sphere has a unifor$ $a#neti:ation M in the positive z direction !ith $a#nitude
0
. 4here are
no other fields or currents e*cept those due to the per$anent $a#net.
'a( Find all $a#neti:ation currents associated !ith this $a#neti:ation.
')( Find the $a#netic vector potential A due to these $a#neti:ation currents for points outside the
sphere. G*pand the deno$inator in spherical har$onics and solve the inte#rals. Si$plify so that there
are no spherical har$onics or inte#rals in your final ans!er.
Hou $ay need to useF
/=cos rsin

,

=sin x+cos y , 2cos =e


i
+e
i
, 2i sin=e
i
e
i
sin3 sin3 =i

2
3
(!
1,1
(3 , 3 )+!
1,1
(3 , 3 )) , sin3 cos3=

2
3
(!
1,1
(3 , 3 )!
1,1
( 3 , 3))
S+,-TI+.:
'a( 4he $a#neti:ation current and the associated $a#neti:ation are lin%ed accordin# toF
$

=M
"nside the sphere the $a#neti:ation is a constant, and the curl of a constant is :ero, so there are no
volu$e currents. 4he currents are only on the surface of the sphereF
0

=Mn
0

=
0
/ r
0

=
0
(cos rsin

) r
0

=
0
sin


$

=
0
sin

(ra)
')( 4he $a#netic vector potential in #eneral isF
A=

0
0

(x 3)
xx3
d x3
4here are no free currents $ in this pro)le$, so that !e haveF
A=

0
0

[
0
sin'

' (r ' a)]
xx 3
d x3
398
A=

0
a
2
0

0
2

'
xa r3
sin
2
3 d 3 d 3
G*pandin# the deno$inator into a su$ over spherical har$onics, !e findF
A=
0

0
a
2

l =0

m=l
l
a
l
2l +1
1
r
l+1
!
l m
( , )

0
2

3 !
l m
I
(3 , 3 )sin
2
3 d 3 d 3
4he a:i$uthal unit vector cannot co$e out the inte#ral )ecause it is not constant. et us instead
e*pand it into rectan#ular coordinatesF
A=
0

0
a
2

l =0

m=l
l
a
l
2l +1
1
r
l+1
!
l m
(, )

0
2

(sin 3 x+cos 3 y)!


l m
I
(3 , 3)sin
2
3 d 3 d 3
Usin#F
sin3 sin 3 =i

2
3
(!
1,1
+!
1,1
) and sin3 cos3=

2
3
(!
1,1
!
1,1
)
A=

2
3

0

0
a
2

l=0

m=l
l
a
l
2l +1
1
r
l +1
!
l m
( , )

0
2

(i !
1,1
(3 , 3 ) xi !
1,1
(3 , 3 ) x+!
1,1
(3 , 3 ) y!
1,1
(3 ,3 ) y)!
l m
I
(3 , 3 )sin 3 d 3 d 3
Due to ortho#onality, all the inte#rals reduce do!n to Jronec%er deltasF
A=

2
3

0

0
a
2

l=0

m=l
l
a
l
2l +1
1
r
l +1
!
l m
( , )((i x y)
1,1
+(i x+ y)
1,1
)
4he Jronec%er deltas no! collapse the su$$ationsF
A=

2
2<

0

0
a
(
a
r
)
2
[
!
1,1
( , )(i x y)+!
1,1
( , )(i x+ y)
]
A=

2
2<

0

0
a
(
a
r
)
2
[

3
=
sin e
i
(i x y)+

3
=
sine
i
(i x+ y)
]
A=
1
3

0
asin
(
a
r
)
2
[ sin x+cos y]
A=
1
3

0
asin
(
a
r
)
2

399
;ro)le$ 3. '20 points(
, thin, strai#ht !ire placed at x 6 0, y 6 d carries a unifor$ current " in the positive z direction. 4he
se$i+infinite re#ion consistin# of all points !here y 7 0 is filled !ith $a#netic $aterial !ith
per$ittivity K. @e !ish to find the force per unit len#th that the !ire e*periences.
'a( Usin# ,$pere3s a! in inte#ral for$, find the #eneral $a#netic field produced )y a sin#le, strai#ht,
current+carryin# !ire alon# the z a*is.
')( Usin# the results of part a, and usin# the fact that a current $'x, y, z( in free space ne*t to a $a#netic
$aterial occupyin# the space y 7 0 induces an i$a#e current $3F
#
x
3=
(

0
+
0
)
#
x
( x ,y , z) , #
y
3 =
(

0
+
0
)
#
y
(x ,y , z) , #
z
3 =
(

0
+
0
)
#
z
(x ,y , z) ,
find the $a#netic field in the y 8 0 re#ion as the su$ of the field fro$ the real current and the field
fro$ the i$a#e current.
'c( Find the force the !ire e*periences.
'd( Descri)e this force in !ords if the $aterial is para$a#netic and if it is dia$a#netic.
DoteF

=
y x+x y
x
2
+y
2
S+,-TI+.:
'a( ,$pere3s la! in inte#ral for$ statesF

C
'd l =
0
"
enc
;ut a current #oin# alon# the z a*is and inte#rate over a circle !ith radius $ centered on the ori#in
and in the x+z plane. 4he $a#netic field is constant alon# this circle and can co$e outF
%2=
0
"
'=

0
"
2

'=

0
"
2(x
2
+y
2
)
(y x+x y)
')( 4he i$a#e current is a line current at the location x 6 0, y 6 +d travelin# in the positive z
direction and !ith $a#nitude
(

0
+
0
)
" . 4he total field is thereforeF
400
'=

0
"
2(x
2
+( yd )
2
)
(( yd) x+x y)+
(

0
+
0
)

0
"
2(x
2
+( y+d )
2
)
(( y+d) x+x y)
'c( 4he force that the !ire e*periences is
F=

$'d&
F=

0
'

" ( x) ( yd )/'dx dy dz
F
'
=" /'( x=0, y=d )
F
'
=

0
"
2
0 d
(

0
+
0
)
y !here !e have dropped the ter$ that !as an infinite self+force.
'd( "f the $aterial is para$a#netic,
>
0
, then the force is in the ne#ative y direction so that the
!ire is attracted to the sla). "f the $aterial is dia$a#netic,
<
0
, then the force is in the positive y
direction so that the !ire is repelled fro$ the sla).
401
Mid-Term Exam, Electromagnetic Theory II
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Spring 2013
University of Massachusetts Loe!!
Part I: Multiple Choice (24 Points
Circle the one best answer to each question.
1. " ave of fre#uency $
1
is sent through a certain die!ectric %ateria!. &nside the %ateria!, the ave is
%easured to have a spatia! fre#uency 'the rea! part of its avenu%(er) ith a va!ue*
=k
1
, and an
attenuation 'the i%aginary part of its avenu%(er) ith a va!ue*
/ 2=2k
1
. "t this fre#uency, hat is
the rea! part and i%aginary part of the per%ittivity of the %ateria!+
'a) ()=
k
1
2

1
2
and ()=
, k
1
2

1
2
'() ()=
3k
1
2

1
2
and ()=
, k
1
2

1
2
'c) ()=
k
1
2

1
2
and ()=0
'd) ()=0 and ()=
-k
1
2

1
2
2. " !inear dipo!e antenna is centered on the origin, a!igned so that it runs a!ong the z a.is, and is driven
(y a har%onic current. &f the x/y p!ane is ta0en to (e the so!id ground of earth, hat is the best
description of the po!ari1ation of the aves e%itted (y this antenna, re!ative to the ground p!ane+
'a) !eft circu!ar!y po!ari1ed
'() right circu!ar!y po!ari1ed
'c) hori1onta!!y po!ari1ed
'd) vertica!!y po!ari1ed
3. 2o does the %ass/spring 'har%onic) %ode! of e!ectrons (ound to ato%s !ead to an e#uation for the
e!ectrodyna%ic per%ittivity of a %ateria!+
'a) Cou!o%(3s !a is app!ied to a grid of %asses and springs and so!ved for the per%ittivity
'() the divergence of the osci!!ating e!ectrica! current is found and p!ugged into the continuity e#uation
'c) the induced %agnetic dipo!e %o%ent m of one e!ectron is found, and then the %agneti1ation M of
the %ateria! is found (y su%%ing over the ato%s in a given vo!u%e.
'd) the induced e!ectric dipo!e %o%ent p of one e!ectron is found, and then the po!ari1ation P of the
%ateria! is found (y su%%ing over the ato%s in a given vo!u%e.
402
,. 4hat is the e#uation for the %ost genera! instantaneous e!ectrodyna%ic energy f!u. vector, in its
%ost e.p!icit for%+
'a) !=E" here E and " are in fu!!, co%p!e./va!ued for%
'() !=(E)(")
'c)
!=
1
2
(E"5)
'd) !=

0
c
2
E
2
-. " resonant cavity has a long !ifeti%e 6 to its decaying e!ectro%agnetic ave that is (ound inside the
cavity, as co%pared to other si%i!ar cavities. 4hat is the #ua!ity 'Q factor) of this cavity, and the
fre#uency !ineidth 7$ of its ave, co%pared to the other cavities+
'a) high #ua!ity, s%a!! !ineidth
'() !o #ua!ity, s%a!! !ineidth
'c) high #ua!ity, !arge !ineidth
'd) !o #ua!ity, !arge !ineidth
8. Consider a fi.ed vo!u%e of pure p!as%a, of hich e have tota! contro! over a!! of its properties. 4e
are trans%itting %onochro%atic p!ane aves through the p!as%a, (ut on!y aves ith fre#uencies
a(ove a certain thresho!d are trans%itted. 4aves ith fre#uencies (e!o this thresho!d are co%p!ete!y
ref!ected (y the p!as%a. 4hat shou!d e do to the p!as%a if e ant to lower this thresho!d+
'a) reduce the te%perature of the p!as%a
'() increase the angu!ar %o%entu% of the p!as%a
'c) reduce the nu%(er of free e!ectrons in the vo!u%e of p!as%a
'd) increase the nu%(er of free e!ectrons in the vo!u%e of p!as%a
9. 4hat is the (est description of hat a %onochro%atic p!ane ave e.periences that is incident on a
(oundary (eteen to different die!ectric %ateria!s exactly at Brewster's angle+
'a) one po!ari1ation is tota!!y ref!ected, the other po!ari1ation is partia!!y ref!ected
'() one po!ari1ation is tota!!y trans%itted, the other po!ari1ation is partia!!y trans%itted
'c) (oth po!ari1ations are tota!!y ref!ected
'd) (oth po!ari1ations are tota!!y trans%itted
403
:. " p!ane, %onochro%atic ave is incident at so%e non/nor%a! ang!e on a very good, (ut not perfect,
conductor. 4hat is the nature of the fie!ds inside the conductor+
'a) there are 1ero fie!ds inside a good conductor
'() there are a.ia! standing aves e.tending nor%a! to the conductor3s surface into the conductor a(out
the distance of its s0in depth.
'c) there are transverse trave!ing aves propagating nor%a! to the conductor3s surface into the
conductor a(out the distance of its s0in depth.
'd) there are transverse trave!ing aves propagating at the ang!e of incidence end!ess!y through the
conductor ith no attenuation.
;. 4hen is the group ve!ocity of an e!ectro%agnetic ave physica!!y %eaningfu!+
'a) it is a!ays physica!!y %eaningfu!
'() on!y hen the group ve!ocity is greater than the speed of !ight in vacuu%
'c) on!y at fre#uencies of ano%a!ous dispersion
'd) on!y hen the ave pac0et3s enve!ope retains its (asic shape as it trave!s, and aay fro% regions of
ano%a!ous dispersion
10. Consider a !oca!i1ed, osci!!ating current distri(ution sitting in free space, creating e!ectro%agnetic
fie!ds. 4hy is the e!ectric fie!d in the radiation 1one a!ays in the for% of transverse trave!ing aves+
'a) Because transverse trave!ing aves are the on!y 0ind of self-propagating e!ectro%agnetic
configuration in free space. "!! other fie!ds die off (efore reaching the radiation 1one (ecause they are
not se!f/propagating.
'() Because transverse trave!ing aves are very strong c!ose to the source, co%pared to a!! other fie!d
configurations, despite that they do not propagate as far as the other fie!d configurations.
'c) Because the te%perature of radiation is very high.
'd) <he e!ectric fie!d in the radiation 1one never ta0es the for% of transverse trave!ing aves.
11. Consider the tota! interna! ref!ection a ave e.periences hen hitting the (oundary (eteen a
standard die!ectric %ateria! and free space. 2o ou!d e reduce the critica! ang!e '%ove it c!oser to
the interface nor%a!)+
'a) increase the inde. of refraction of the %ateria!
'() decrease the inde. of refraction of the %ateria!
'c) change the po!ari1ation of the incident ave
'd) increase the te%perature of the %ateria!
12. &f e e.cite (oth <M and <= %odes at the same time inside a rectangu!ar aveguide, hat can e
say a(out the a.ia! co%ponents of the tota! fie!ds 'the co%ponents a!ong the aveguide a.is, in the z
direction)+
'a) E
z
> 0 and B
z
> 0
'() E
z
? 0 and B
z
? 0
'c) E
z
? 0 and B
z
> 0
'd) E
z
> 0 and B
z
? 0
404
Part II: #iagram Pro$lem (24 Points
" !arge vo!u%e is fi!!ed ith !inear, dispersive, !ossy 'a(sorptive) die!ectric %ateria!. <his %ateria! is
represented (y the gray areas on the diagra%s. @or si%p!icity, this %ateria! fo!!os the si%p!e
har%onic %ode! 'e!ectrons as %asses on springs) for the induced %ateria! osci!!ations. <his %ateria!
on!y has one resonant osci!!ation, hich has a resonant fre#uency
0
and a p!as%a fre#uency
p
. "
ave pac0et ith a certain carrier fre#uency is incident fro% free space on this %ateria!. Do not ta0e
ti%e to dra the ref!ections fro% the free/spaceA%ateria! interface.
1) Bn the appropriate diagra% on the ne.t page, s0etch the rea! part of the relati!e per%ittivity "
r
of this
%ateria!.
2) Bn the appropriate diagra% on the ne.t page, s0etch the i%aginary part of the relati!e per%ittivity "
r
of this %ateria!.
3) &n the red (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the %ateria!, if
its carrier fre#uency is far (e!o the resonant fre#uency, CC
0
, as shon (y the red !ine.
,) &n the orange (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the
%ateria!, if its carrier fre#uency is s!ight!y (e!o the resonant fre#uency, C
0
, as shon (y the
orange !ine.
-) &n the green (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the %ateria!,
if its carrier fre#uency is (eteen the resonant fre#uency and the p!as%a fre#uency,
0
C C
p
, as
shon (y the green !ine.
8) &n the (!ue (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the %ateria!,
if its carrier fre#uency is a(ove the p!as%a fre#uency, D
p
, as shon (y the (!ue !ine.
405
$
Ee'"
r
)
$
&%'"
r
)
1
$
0
$
0
$
p
406
Part II: %or& Pro$lems ('2 Points
#how all your work an$ explain each ma%or step to recei!e full cre$it.
Pro$lem ()
" %onochro%atic p!ane ave trave!ing in free space in the z direction is %easured and found to have
the fo!!oing Sto0es para%eters* s
0
> b, s
1
> /b, s
2
> 0, s
3
> 0.
'a) Ca!cu!ate the Fones para%eters for this ave 'the %agnitudes and phases of the po!ari1ation vector3s
co%ponents).
'() 4rite don the e!ectric fie!d E for this ave in its %ost co%p!ete for%, shoing e.p!icit!y its
dependence on space, ti%e, and its po!ari1ation co%ponents.
'c) Descri(e in ords hat 0ind of ave this is 'unpo!ari1ed, !eft/circu!ar!y po!ari1ed, etc.).
407
Pro$lem 2)
<he e!ectro%agnetic a(sorption of a certain %ateria! is %easured and found to have strong a(sorption
pea0s at fre#uencies
1
and
2
. <o a very good appro.i%ation, this %ateria! has 1ero a(sorption at a!!
other fre#uencies, so that the a(sorption can (e %ode!ed as a Dirac de!ta at
1
ith a%p!itude

0
&
1
2
1
and a Dirac de!ta at
'
ith a%p!itude

0
&
2
2
2
.
'a) Using the Gra%ers/Gronig re!ations, find the rea! part of the per%ittivity of this %ateria!.
'() @ind the static inde. of refraction, n
s
=

( =0)

0
, for this %ateria!.
408
Pro$lem *)
" ho!!o, %eta! aveguide consists of perfect!y conducting a!!s surrounding free space. <he
aveguide is unifor% in the z direction, and has a s#uare cross/sectiona! shape ith one corner at
x > 0, y > 0 and the opposite corner at x > a, y > a. <he source of the aves de!ivered to the aveguide
can on!y e.cite <= aves 'E
z
> 0) in the aveguide, and can a!so on!y e.cite aves here a!! e!ectric
and %agnetic fie!d co%ponents are independent of the di%ension y .
'a) @ind the genera! so!ution to the transverse ave e#uation for B
z
ith the independence fro% y
app!ied.
'() "pp!y (oundary conditions to find the uni#ue so!utions to B
z
.4rite don the dispersion re!ation for
aves in the aveguide, ith the transverse avenu%(er H e.p!icit!y e.panded.
'c) "pp!y the genera! aveguide e#uations to your so!ution to B
z
in order to find the transverse
co%ponents of the e!ectric and %agnetic fie!ds. 4rite your fina! so!utions out in fu!! for%, inc!uding
the dependence on z and ti%e.
'd) @ind the cutoff fre#uency of the <=
1
%ode.
409
Mid-Term Exam Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory II
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Spring 2013
University of Massachusetts Loe!!
Part I: Multiple Choice (2 Points!
Circle the one best answer to each question.
1. " ave of fre#uency $
1
is sent through a certain die!ectric %ateria!. &nside the %ateria!, the ave is
%easured to have a spatia! fre#uency 'the rea! part of its avenu%(er) ith a va!ue*
=k
1
, and an
attenuation 'the i%aginary part of its avenu%(er) ith a va!ue*
/ 2=2k
1
. "t this fre#uency, hat is
the rea! part and i%aginary part of the per%ittivity of the %ateria!+
'a) ()=
k
1
2

1
2
and ()=
, k
1
2

1
2
'() ()=
3k
1
2

1
2
and ()=
, k
1
2

1
2
'c) ()=
k
1
2

1
2
and ()=0
'd) ()=0 and ()=
-k
1
2

1
2
2. " !inear dipo!e antenna is centered on the origin, a!igned so that it runs a!ong the z a.is, and is driven
(y a har%onic current. &f the x/y p!ane is ta0en to (e the so!id ground of earth, hat is the best
description of the po!ari1ation of the aves e%itted (y this antenna, re!ative to the ground p!ane+
'a) !eft circu!ar!y po!ari1ed
'() right circu!ar!y po!ari1ed
'c) hori1onta!!y po!ari1ed
'd) vertica!!y po!ari1ed
3. 2o does the %ass/spring 'har%onic) %ode! of e!ectrons (ound to ato%s !ead to an e#uation for the
e!ectrodyna%ic per%ittivity of a %ateria!+
'a) Cou!o%(3s !a is app!ied to a grid of %asses and springs and so!ved for the per%ittivity
'() the divergence of the osci!!ating e!ectrica! current is found and p!ugged into the continuity e#uation
'c) the induced %agnetic dipo!e %o%ent m of one e!ectron is found, and then the %agneti1ation M of
the %ateria! is found (y su%%ing over the ato%s in a given vo!u%e.
'd) the induced e!ectric dipo!e %o%ent p of one e!ectron is found, and then the po!ari1ation P of the
%ateria! is found (y su%%ing over the ato%s in a given vo!u%e.
410
,. 4hat is the e#uation for the %ost genera! instantaneous e!ectrodyna%ic energy f!u. vector, in its
%ost e.p!icit for%+
'a) S=E" here E and " are in fu!!, co%p!e./va!ued for%
'() S=(E)(")
'c)
S=
1
2
(E"5)
'd) S=

0
c
2
E
2
-. " resonant cavity has a long !ifeti%e 6 to its decaying e!ectro%agnetic ave that is (ound inside the
cavity, as co%pared to other si%i!ar cavities. 4hat is the #ua!ity 'Q factor) of this cavity, and the
fre#uency !ineidth 7$ of its ave, co%pared to the other cavities+
'a) high #ua!ity, s%a!! !ineidth
'() !o #ua!ity, s%a!! !ineidth
'c) high #ua!ity, !arge !ineidth
'd) !o #ua!ity, !arge !ineidth
8. Consider a fi.ed vo!u%e of pure p!as%a, of hich e have tota! contro! over a!! of its properties. 4e
are trans%itting %onochro%atic p!ane aves through the p!as%a, (ut on!y aves ith fre#uencies
a(ove a certain thresho!d are trans%itted. 4aves ith fre#uencies (e!o this thresho!d are co%p!ete!y
ref!ected (y the p!as%a. 4hat shou!d e do to the p!as%a if e ant to lower this thresho!d+
'a) reduce the te%perature of the p!as%a
'() increase the angu!ar %o%entu% of the p!as%a
'c) reduce the nu%(er of free e!ectrons in the vo!u%e of p!as%a
'd) increase the nu%(er of free e!ectrons in the vo!u%e of p!as%a
9. 4hat is the (est description of hat a %onochro%atic p!ane ave e.periences that is incident on a
(oundary (eteen to different die!ectric %ateria!s exactly at Brewster's angle+
'a) one po!ari1ation is tota!!y ref!ected, the other po!ari1ation is partia!!y ref!ected
'() one po!ari1ation is tota!!y trans%itted, the other po!ari1ation is partia!!y trans%itted
'c) (oth po!ari1ations are tota!!y ref!ected
'd) (oth po!ari1ations are tota!!y trans%itted
411
:. " p!ane, %onochro%atic ave is incident at so%e non/nor%a! ang!e on a very good, (ut not perfect,
conductor. 4hat is the nature of the fie!ds inside the conductor+
'a) there are 1ero fie!ds inside a good conductor
'() there are a.ia! standing aves e.tending nor%a! to the conductor3s surface into the conductor a(out
the distance of its s0in depth.
'c) there are transverse trave!ing aves propagating nor%a! to the conductor3s surface into the
conductor a(out the distance of its s0in depth.
'd) there are transverse trave!ing aves propagating at the ang!e of incidence end!ess!y through the
conductor ith no attenuation.
;. 4hen is the group ve!ocity of an e!ectro%agnetic ave physica!!y %eaningfu!+
'a) it is a!ays physica!!y %eaningfu!
'() on!y hen the group ve!ocity is greater than the speed of !ight in vacuu%
'c) on!y at fre#uencies of ano%a!ous dispersion
'd) on!y hen the ave pac0et3s enve!ope retains its (asic shape as it trave!s, and aay fro% regions of
ano%a!ous dispersion
10. Consider a !oca!i1ed, osci!!ating current distri(ution sitting in free space, creating e!ectro%agnetic
fie!ds. 4hy is the e!ectric fie!d in the radiation 1one a!ays in the for% of transverse trave!ing aves+
'a) Because transverse trave!ing aves are the on!y 0ind of self-propagating e!ectro%agnetic
configuration in free space. "!! other fie!ds die off (efore reaching the radiation 1one (ecause they are
not se!f/propagating.
'() Because transverse trave!ing aves are very strong c!ose to the source, co%pared to a!! other fie!d
configurations, despite that they do not propagate as far as the other fie!d configurations.
'c) Because the te%perature of radiation is very high.
'd) <he e!ectric fie!d in the radiation 1one never ta0es the for% of transverse trave!ing aves.
11. Consider the tota! interna! ref!ection a ave e.periences hen hitting the (oundary (eteen a
standard die!ectric %ateria! and free space. 2o ou!d e reduce the critica! ang!e '%ove it c!oser to
the interface nor%a!)+
'a) increase the inde. of refraction of the %ateria!
'() decrease the inde. of refraction of the %ateria!
'c) change the po!ari1ation of the incident ave
'd) increase the te%perature of the %ateria!
12. &f e e.cite (oth <M and <= %odes at the same time inside a rectangu!ar aveguide, hat can e
say a(out the a.ia! co%ponents of the tota! fie!ds 'the co%ponents a!ong the aveguide a.is, in the z
direction)+
'a) E
z
> 0 and B
z
> 0
'() E
z
? 0 and B
z
? 0
'c) E
z
? 0 and B
z
> 0
'd) E
z
> 0 and B
z
? 0
412
Part II: #iagram Pro$lem (2 Points!
" !arge vo!u%e is fi!!ed ith !inear, dispersive, !ossy 'a(sorptive) die!ectric %ateria!. <his %ateria! is
represented (y the gray areas on the diagra%s. @or si%p!icity, this %ateria! fo!!os the si%p!e
har%onic %ode! 'e!ectrons as %asses on springs) for the induced %ateria! osci!!ations. <his %ateria!
on!y has one resonant osci!!ation, hich has a resonant fre#uency
0
and a p!as%a fre#uency
p
. "
ave pac0et ith a certain carrier fre#uency is incident fro% free space on this %ateria!. Do not ta0e
ti%e to dra the ref!ections fro% the free/spaceA%ateria! interface.
1) Bn the appropriate diagra% on the ne.t page, s0etch the rea! part of the relati!e per%ittivity "
r
of this
%ateria!.
2) Bn the appropriate diagra% on the ne.t page, s0etch the i%aginary part of the relati!e per%ittivity "
r
of this %ateria!.
3) &n the red (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the %ateria!, if
its carrier fre#uency is far (e!o the resonant fre#uency, CC
0
, as shon (y the red !ine.
,) &n the orange (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the
%ateria!, if its carrier fre#uency is s!ight!y (e!o the resonant fre#uency, C
0
, as shon (y the
orange !ine.
-) &n the green (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the %ateria!,
if its carrier fre#uency is (eteen the resonant fre#uency and the p!as%a fre#uency,
0
C C
p
, as
shon (y the green !ine.
8) &n the (!ue (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the %ateria!,
if its carrier fre#uency is a(ove the p!as%a fre#uency, D
p
, as shon (y the (!ue !ine.
413
$
Ee'"
r
)
$
&%'"
r
)
1
$
0
$
0
$
p
414
Part II: %or& Pro$lems ('2 Points!
#how all your work an$ explain each ma%or step to recei!e full cre$it.
Pro$lem ()
" %onochro%atic p!ane ave trave!ing in free space in the z direction is %easured and found to have
the fo!!oing Sto0es para%eters* s
0
> b, s
1
> /b, s
2
> 0, s
3
> 0.
'a) Ca!cu!ate the Fones para%eters for this ave 'the %agnitudes and phases of the po!ari1ation vector3s
co%ponents).
'() 4rite don the e!ectric fie!d E for this ave in its %ost co%p!ete for%, shoing e.p!icit!y its
dependence on space, ti%e, and its po!ari1ation co%ponents.
'c) Descri(e in ords hat 0ind of ave this is 'unpo!ari1ed, !eft/circu!ar!y po!ari1ed, etc.).
S*+,TI*-:
'a) <he Sto0es para%eters are defined according to*
s
0
=

E
x

2
+

E
y

2
s
1
=

E
x

E
y

2
s
2
=2 (E
x
5
E
y
)
s
3
=2 ( E
x
5
E
y
)
Co%parison ith the nu%(er va!ues given a(ove i%%ediate!y revea!s that e %ust have*
E
x
=0 and E
y
=b
Because there is on!y one co%ponent to the po!ari1ation vector, the phases are %eaning!ess and can (e
set to 1ero* "rg'E
x
) > "rg'E
y
) > 0
'() <he e!ectric fie!d of a po!ari1ed p!ane ave in its %ost e.p!icit for% is*
E= xE
x
e
i (k z t +&rg( E
x
))
+ yE
y
e
i(k zt +&rg (E
y
))
@or the case in this pro(!e%, this (eco%es*
E= y b e
i (k zt)
'c) <his is a !inear!y po!ari1ed ave, po!ari1ed in the vertica! direction.
415
Pro$lem 2)
<he e!ectro%agnetic a(sorption of a certain %ateria! is %easured and found to have strong a(sorption
pea0s at fre#uencies
1
and
2
. <o a very good appro.i%ation, this %ateria! has 1ero a(sorption at a!!
other fre#uencies, so that the a(sorption can (e %ode!ed as a Dirac de!ta at
1
ith a%p!itude

0
&
1
2
1
and a Dirac de!ta at
'
ith a%p!itude

0
&
2
2
2
.
'a) Using the Gra%ers/Gronig re!ations, find the rea! part of the per%ittivity of this %ateria!.
'() @ind the static inde. of refraction, n
s
=

( =0)

0
, for this %ateria!.
S*+,TI*-:
'a) "(sorption is descri(ed (y the i%aginary part of the per%ittivity, so that e can rite don*
()=

0
2
[
&
1

1
(
1
)+
&
2

2
(
2
)
]
Bne of the Gra%ers/Gronig re!ations gives the rea! part in ter%s of the i%aginary part*
(()/
0
)=1+
2

((3 )/
0
)3
3
2

2
$ 3
H!ugging in our va!ue for the i%aginary part, e find*
(())=
0
+
0
(

(
&
1

1
(3
1
)+
&
2

2
(3
2
))3
3
2

2
$ 3
(( ))=
0
+

0
&
1

1
(

(3
1
) 3
3
2

2
$ 3 +

0
&
2

2
(

(3
2
) 3
3
2

2
$ 3
(( ))=
0
[
1+
&
1

1
2

2
+
&
2

2
2

2
]
'() <he static inde. of refraction is*
n
s
=

1+
&
1

1
2
+
&
2

2
2
416
Pro$lem .)
" ho!!o, %eta! aveguide consists of perfect!y conducting a!!s surrounding free space. <he
aveguide is unifor% in the z direction, and has a s#uare cross/sectiona! shape ith one corner at
x > 0, y > 0 and the opposite corner at x > a, y > a. <he source of the aves de!ivered to the aveguide
can on!y e.cite <= aves 'E
z
> 0) in the aveguide, and can a!so on!y e.cite aves here a!! e!ectric
and %agnetic fie!d co%ponents are independent of the di%ension y .
'a) @ind the genera! so!ution to the transverse ave e#uation for B
z
ith the independence fro% y
app!ied.
'() "pp!y (oundary conditions to find the uni#ue so!utions to B
z
.4rite don the dispersion re!ation for
aves in the aveguide, ith the transverse avenu%(er I e.p!icit!y e.panded.
'c) "pp!y the genera! aveguide e#uations to your so!ution to B
z
in order to find the transverse
co%ponents of the e!ectric and %agnetic fie!ds. 4rite your fina! so!utions out in fu!! for%, inc!uding
the dependence on z and ti%e.
'd) @ind the cutoff fre#uency of the <=
1
%ode.
S*+,TI*-:
'a) 4e need to so!ve
t
2
B
z
=
2
B
z
here
2
=
0

2
k
2
. &n rectangu!ar coordinates, this (eco%es*

2
B
z
x
2
+

2
B
z
y
2
=
2
B
z
But none of the fie!d co%ponents depend on y, so this reduces don to*

2
B
z
x
2
=
2
B
z
<he genera! so!ution is*
B
z
=B
0
cos( x)+B
0
3 sin( x)
'the second ter% %ay (e o%itted in vie of the (oundary conditions)
'() <he (oundary condition to app!y at each a!! is
B
z
n
=0 . <he so!ution a!ready %eets this (oundary
condition for the a!!s at y > 0 and at y > a. "pp!ying this (oundary condition at the x > 0 a!!s !eads
to B
0
3 > 0. "pp!ying it at the x > a a!! !eads to I > mJAa here m > 1, 2... so that*
B
z
=B
0
cos
(
m x
a
)
e
i k zi t
here k=

2
c
2

2
m
2
a
2
and m > 1, 2...
'c) <he aveguide e#uations for <= aves are*
E
t
=
i

2
(
/
t
B
z
) and
0
t
=
i k

2
(

t
B
z
)
417
@irst ca!cu!ate

t
B
z
= x

x
(
B
0
cos
(
m x
a
))
= x B
0
m
a
sin
(
m x
a
)
so that*
E
t
= y
i a
m
B
0
sin
(
m x
a
)
e
i k z i t
and 0
t
= x
i k a
m
B
0
sin
(
m x
a
)
e
i k zi t
here k=

2
c
2

2
m
2
a
2
and m > 0, 1, 2...
'd) @or the <=
1
the dispersion re!ation (eco%es*
k=

2
c
2

2
a
2
<he cutoff fre#uency occurs at k > 0*

c )1
=
c
a
418
Final Exam Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory II
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Spring 2013
University of Massachusetts Loe!!
Part I: Multiple Choice (45 Points
Circle the one best answer to each question.
1. "ccording to the genera! aveguide e#uations, hat entities are coup!ed inside aveguides$
%a& the poer trans'itted is coup!ed to static e!ectro'agnetic fie!ds.
%(& circu!ar!y)po!ari*ed aves are coup!ed to !inear!y)po!ari*ed aves.
%c& the transverse e!ectro'agnetic fie!d co'ponents are coup!ed to the a+ia! co'ponents.
%d& the tota! e!ectric fie!d is coup!ed to the te'perature of the aveguide.
2. " 'eta'ateria! %negative inde+ of refraction 'ateria!& is p!aced ne+t to another 'eta'ateria! having
a different inde+ of refraction so that there is a p!anar interface (eteen the to. "n e!ectro'agnetic
p!ane ave is incident on this 'ateria! interface and !eads to a ref!ected p!ane ave and a refracted
p!ane ave. ,o do the directions of the aves for this 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! interface differ
fro' that for a standard)'ateria!-standard)'ateria! interface$ %" standard 'ateria! has positive inde+ of
refraction&.
%a& there is *ero ref!ected ave off of the 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! interface.
%(& the refracted avevector for the 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! case is c!oser to the nor'a! than for the
standard)'ateria!-standard)'ateria! case.
%c& the refracted avevector for the 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! interface is on the opposite side of the
nor'a! fro' the standard)'ateria!-standard)'ateria! case.
%d& the directions are the sa'e for (oth situations.
3. .hat is the 'ain 'echanis' at or/ for e!ectro'agnetic scattering (y a pure!y dielectric sphere if
the ave!ength of the incident ave is very !arge co'pared to the sphere$
%a& the incident aves (ounce off the front surface of the sphere !i/e (a!!s.
%(& e!ectric currents are induced on the sphere0s front surface that radiate.
%c& an osci!!ating 'agnetic dipo!e is induced in the sphere that radiates.
%d& an osci!!ating e!ectric dipo!e is induced in the sphere that radiates.
1. .hat is represented (y the e#uation

=
1
c
J

$
%a& to of Ma+e!!0s e#uations !in/ing the e!ectro'agnetic fie!ds to the currents and charges.
%(& Ma+e!!0s stress tensor !in/ing the e!ectro'agnetic force to the currents and charges.
%c& on!y "'pere0s !a !in/ing the current to static 'agnetic fie!ds.
%d& the continuity e#uation !in/ing current to charge.
2. .hat is the difference (eteen a contravariant four)vector A

and a covariant four)vector A

$
%a& the order of the co'ponents is sitched.
%(& they are e+act!y the sa'e.
%c& an overa!! negative sign on the spatia! co'ponents of one of the four)vectors.
%d& an overa!! negative sign on a!! four co'ponents of one of the four)vectors.
419
3. "s the speed v of an o(4ect re!ative to the ground reaches the speed of !ight in vacuu' c, hat
happens to the 'o'entu' p of the o(4ect re!ative to the ground according to specia! re!ativity$
%a& the 'o'entu' approaches the universa! !i'it mc.
%(& the 'o'entu' is un(ounded and approaches infinity.
%c& the 'o'entu' approaches *ero.
%d& the 'o'entu' stays constant for a!! speeds.
5. .hy does a conducting sphere in the !ong)ave!ength appro+i'ation scatter 'ore strong!y in the
(ac/)scattering direction than in the forard)scattering direction$
%a& (ecause of a shado effect here the sphere (!oc/s aves fro' trave!ing forard.
%(& (ecause of interference effects (eteen the radiating e!ectric and 'agnetic dipo!es.
%c& (ecause the induced currents are *ero.
%d& (ecause the sphere is too s'a!! to (e 6visi(!e7 to the incident aves.
8. .hat is the significance of the cutoff frequency of a aveguide$
%a& (e!o the cutoff fre#uency, aves cannot trave! a!ong the aveguide.
%(& a(ove the cutoff fre#uency, aves cannot trave! a!ong the aveguide.
%c& (e!o the cutoff fre#uency, aves trave! faster than the speed of !ight c in the aveguide.
%d& the cutoff fre#uency 'ar/s the point here the avenu'(er (eco'es infinite.
9. .hat is the po!ari*ation pattern of earth0s day)ti'e s/y according to an earth)(ound o(server$
%a& the s/y patches c!ose to the sun are unpo!ari*ed: the s/y patches approaching a 90 degree vieing
ang!e aay fro' the sun are !inear!y po!ari*ed in a circu!ar pattern.
%(& a!! points in the s/y are unpo!ari*ed.
%c& the s/y patches c!ose to the sun are circu!ar!y)po!ari*ed: a!! other s/y patches are unpo!ari*ed.
%d& a!! points in the s/y are circu!ar!y)po!ari*ed.
10. .hat is the (est conceptua! su''ary of !inear Lorent* transfor'ations$
%a& !ength e+pansion and ti'e contraction.
%(& !ength e+pansion, ti'e contraction, and origin shifting.
%c& !ength contraction, ti'e di!ation, and origin shifting.
%d& origin shifting on!y.
11. .hy as the !u'iniferous ether c!ai'ed to e+ist (y physicists in the 18000s$
%a& in order to reso!ve the contradictions (eteen ;eton0s !as and Ma+e!!0s e#uations (y
constructing a specia! fra'e of reference through hich !ight trave!s.
%(& in order to rep!ace Ma+e!!0s e#uations ith a ne theory that (etter 'atched e+peri'ents.
%c& in order to prove that ;eton0s !as ere rong.
%d& in order to e+p!ain the tin/!ing of stars.
12. <f the effective height of the earth0s at'osphere ere increased ten ti'es and everything e!se ere
/ept the sa'e, ho ou!d the overa!! (rightness and co!or of the s/y change according to the 'ode!
used in c!ass$
%a& the s/y ou!d (e (righter and vio!et)shifted
%(& the s/y ou!d (e (righter and red)shifted
%c& the s/y ou!d (e dar/er and vio!et)shifted
%d& the s/y ou!d (e dar/er and red)shifted
420
13. Horizontally po!ari*ed !ight passes through an e!e'ent ith scattering =ones 'atri+ J
1
=
1
2
[
1 1
1 1
]
and then through another e!e'ent ith scattering =ones 'atri+ J
2
=
[
0 0
0 1
]
. .hat is the fina! state of
the e!ectro'agnetic ave after passing though these to e!e'ent$
%a& hori*onta!!y po!ari*ed.
%(& vertica!!y po!ari*ed.
%c& circu!ar!y po!ari*ed.
%d& there is no ave that 'a/es it co'p!ete!y through this syste'.
11. .hat i!! happen if an e!ectro'agnetic ave is incident on a s!a( of conducting 'ateria! hose
s!a( idth is thinner than its e!ectro'agnetic s/in depth$
%a& a!! of the incident ave0s energy i!! (eco'e a(sor(ed (y the s!a( so that there is no ref!ected ave
and no trans'itted ave.
%(& a!! of the incident ave i!! ref!ect off the s!a( and there i!! (e no trans'itted ave.
%c& a significant portion of the incident ave0s energy i!! tunne! through the conducting s!a( and
generate a trans'itted ave on the other side.
%d& part of the incident ave i!! (e ref!ected, none of it i!! (e trans'itted, and part of it i!! (e
eterna!!y trapped inside the s!a(.
12. .hat is a good general description for the vector potentia! ! created (y an osci!!ating current
distri(ution$
%a& ! is a!ays *ero.
%(& ! is a transverse trave!ing ave so!ution in a!! *ones, fro' near)fie!d to far)fie!d.
%c& ! is the static so!ution ith no changes, va!id for a!! *ones, fro' near)fie!d to far)fie!d.
%d& ! is the static so!ution ith the various contri(utions to the so!ution retarded appropriate!y to
account for signa! trave! ti'e.
421
Part II: "or# Pro$lems (55 Points
how all your wor! and e"plain each ma#or step to receive full credit.
Pro$lem %& >he four)avevector ? of a p!ane ave in free space has $-c as its ti'e co'ponent and
the traditiona! three)di'ensiona! avevector # as its space co'ponent. >he four)position @ is defined
in the usua! ay. Aind the fo!!oing ite's and rite in ords hat each resu!t 'eans physica!!y
/eeping in 'ind the invariant nature of four)vector productsB
%a& @
%(& ?
%c& ?@
S'()TI'*
%a& @=@@=

"
0
2
"
2
=c
2
t
2
"
2
= s
2
=s
Because the dot product of to four)vectors is a Lorent* invariant, i.e. a sca!ar that is the sa'e
in a!! fra'es, this te!!s us that the space)ti'e interva! s is the sa'e in a!! fra'es.
%(& ?=??=

2
c
2
!
2
=0
>his te!!s us that the four)avevector has a !ength of *ero in a!! fra'es.
%c& ?@=t #x=
>his te!!s us that the phase of a p!ane ave is the sa'e in a!! fra'es.
Pro$lem +& "n e!ectron is shot out of a gun at speed u0 =
3
1
c in the positive " direction re!ative to the
gun. >he gun is trave!ing at speed v=
1
2
c in the positive " direction re!ative to the ground. .hat is the
re!ativistic tota! energy of the e!ectron as 'easured (y an o(server that is stationary on the ground$
S'()TI'*:
Airst e i!! find the e!ectron0s speed re!ative to the ground, then p!ug this speed into the
standard energy e#uation. >he speed re!ative to the ground is found using the ve!ocity addition
for'u!aB
u=
u0 +v
1+u 0 v/ c
2
u=
3
1
c+
1
2
c
1+
(
3
1
c
)(
1
2
c
)
/ c
2
422
u=
10
11
c
>he re!ativistic tota! energy is thereforeB
%=
m
e
c
2
1u
2
/ c
2
%=
11
21
m
e
c
2
Pro$lem ,& " !oca!i*ed charge distri(ution is osci!!ating har'onica!!y so that its charge density isB
=
&
2a
2
r
2
cose
i t
for a!! radii r C a, and D E 0 for r F a, here r and G are the radia! and po!ar
ang!e coordinates of spherica! coordinates.
%a& Aind the pseudo)static e!ectric dipo!e 'o'ent p of this charge distri(ution.
%(& Aind the tota! poer radiated (y this charge distri(ution if on!y dipo!e radiation is considered.
S'()TI'*:
%a& >he pseudo)static e!ectric dipo!e 'o'ent p is the dipo!e 'o'ent at an instant of ti'eB
p=

x(x)d
3
x
Aro' the sy''etry of the pro(!e', e i''ediate!y /no that the dipo!e 'o'ent i!! point in
the z direction.
p= -

z(x)d
3
x
p= -

0
2

0
a
z(r ' ' ) r
2
sin dr d d
p= -

0
2

0
a
r cos(r ' ' )r
2
sin dr d d
p= -

0
2

0
a
r cos
[
&
2a
2
r
2
cos
]
r
2
sin dr d d
p=
&
a
2
-

cos
2
sind

0
a
r
2
dr
p=
&a
3
-

cos
2
sin d
423
p=
& a
3
-

1
1
u
2
du
p=
1
9
&a -
%d& >he tota! poer radiated (y an osci!!ating dipo!e isB
(=
c
2
)
0
!
1
12
p
2
(=
c
2
)
0
!
1
12

1
9
&a

2
(=
c
2
)
0
!
1
&
2
a
2
81(12)
(=
c
2
)
0
!
1
&
2
a
2
952
Pro$lem 4& Derive the scattering properties of a s'a!! sphere 'ade of non)conducting, non)die!ectric,
'agnetica!!y)per'ea(!e 'ateria! in the !ong)ave!ength, far)fie!d appro+i'ation. ;ote that an incident
p!ane ave induces in a s'a!! 'agnetic sphere the pseudo)static 'agnetic dipo!e 'o'ent m:
m=1
0
a
3
c
(

0
+2
0
)
%
0

#
0

0
here

#
0
is the direction of propagation of the incident ave,

0
is the po!ari*ation unit vector of the
incident ave, a is the sphere radius, and is the sphere0s 'agnetic per'ea(i!ity.
%a& Derive the po!ari*ation)specific differentia! scattering cross sections.
%(& Derive the average po!ari*ation H%G& of the aves scattered (y this 'agnetic sphere.
%c& <f the earth0s s/y as co'posed of s'a!! 'agnetic spheres instead of s'a!! die!ectric spheres, hat
ou!d the po!ari*ation pattern of the s/y !oo/ !i/e$ S/etch the po!ari*ation pattern of this s/y around
the sun as seen (y a ground o(server !oo/ing up, si'i!ar to the s/etch 'ade in c!ass.
S'()TI'*:
%a& >he differentia! scattering cross section in the !ong)ave!ength, far)fie!d !i'it can (e
e+pressed in ter's of the induced 'agnetic and e!ectric dipo!e 'o'entsB
d
d
=
!
1
1
0
%
0

I
p
1
c

#
I
m

2
424
J!ug in p E 0 and the 'agnetic dipo!e 'o'ent shon a(oveB
d !
d "
=
!
1
(1
0
%
0
)
2

1
c
(

#
I
)(1
0
a
3
c
(

0
+2
0
)
%
0
(

#
0

0
))

2
d !
d "
=!
1
a
3
(

0
+2
0
)
2
(

#
I
)(

#
0

0
)
2
<f e no define the scattering ang!e and the scattering p!ane in the usua! ay, and !a(e! the
po!ari*ation perpendicu!ar to the scattering p!ane as , and the po!ari*ation para!!e! to the
scattering p!ane as K, the po!ari*ation)specific scattering cross sections (eco'eB
d !
,,
d "
=!
1
a
3
(

0
+2
0
)
2
cos
2

d !
,K
d "
=0
d !
K,
d "
=0
d !
KK
d "
=!
1
a
3
(

0
+2
0
)
2
%(& >he average po!ari*ation is defined asB
#()=
d !
,,
d "
+
d !
K,
d "

d !
,K
d "

d !
KK
d "
d !
,,
d "
+
d !
K,
d "
+
d !
,K
d "
+
d !
KK
d "
#()=
sin
2

cos
2
+1
%c& >he average po!ari*ation found a(ove is identica! to hat as found for scattering (y a
die!ectric sphere, e+cept ith opposite sign. >his 'eans that at a vieing ang!e of 90L the
scattered aves (eco'e co'p!ete!y po!ari*ed para!!e! to the scattering p!ane as opposed to
perpendicu!ar to the scattering p!ane as as the case for the die!ectric sphere. >he s/y ou!d
appear as s/etched (e!oB
425
426
Final Exam, Electromagnetic Theory II
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Spring 2013
University of Massachusetts Loe!!
Part I: Multiple Choice (45 Points)
Circle the one best answer to each question.
1. "ccording to the genera! aveguide e#uations, hat entities are coup!ed inside aveguides$
%a& the poer trans'itted is coup!ed to static e!ectro'agnetic fie!ds.
%(& circu!ar!y)po!ari*ed aves are coup!ed to !inear!y)po!ari*ed aves.
%c& the transverse e!ectro'agnetic fie!d co'ponents are coup!ed to the a+ia! co'ponents.
%d& the tota! e!ectric fie!d is coup!ed to the te'perature of the aveguide.
2. " 'eta'ateria! %negative inde+ of refraction 'ateria!& is p!aced ne+t to another 'eta'ateria! having
a different inde+ of refraction so that there is a p!anar interface (eteen the to. "n e!ectro'agnetic
p!ane ave is incident on this 'ateria! interface and !eads to a ref!ected p!ane ave and a refracted
p!ane ave. ,o do the directions of the aves for this 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! interface differ
fro' that for a standard)'ateria!-standard)'ateria! interface$ %" standard 'ateria! has positive inde+ of
refraction&.
%a& there is *ero ref!ected ave off of the 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! interface.
%(& the refracted avevector for the 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! case is c!oser to the nor'a! than for the
standard)'ateria!-standard)'ateria! case.
%c& the refracted avevector for the 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! interface is on the opposite side of the
nor'a! fro' the standard)'ateria!-standard)'ateria! case.
%d& the directions are the sa'e for (oth situations.
3. .hat is the 'ain 'echanis' at or/ for e!ectro'agnetic scattering (y a pure!y dielectric sphere if
the ave!ength of the incident ave is very !arge co'pared to the sphere$
%a& the incident aves (ounce off the front surface of the sphere !i/e (a!!s.
%(& e!ectric currents are induced on the sphere0s front surface that radiate.
%c& an osci!!ating 'agnetic dipo!e is induced in the sphere that radiates.
%d& an osci!!ating e!ectric dipo!e is induced in the sphere that radiates.
1. .hat is represented (y the e#uation

=
1
c
J

$
%a& to of Ma+e!!0s e#uations !in/ing the e!ectro'agnetic fie!ds to the currents and charges.
%(& Ma+e!!0s stress tensor !in/ing the e!ectro'agnetic force to the currents and charges.
%c& on!y "'pere0s !a !in/ing the current to static 'agnetic fie!ds.
%d& the continuity e#uation !in/ing current to charge.
2. .hat is the difference (eteen a contravariant four)vector A

and a covariant four)vector A

$
%a& the order of the co'ponents is sitched.
%(& they are e+act!y the sa'e.
%c& an overa!! negative sign on the spatia! co'ponents of one of the four)vectors.
%d& an overa!! negative sign on a!! four co'ponents of one of the four)vectors.
427
3. "s the speed v of an o(4ect re!ative to the ground reaches the speed of !ight in vacuu' c, hat
happens to the 'o'entu' p of the o(4ect re!ative to the ground according to specia! re!ativity$
%a& the 'o'entu' approaches the universa! !i'it mc.
%(& the 'o'entu' is un(ounded and approaches infinity.
%c& the 'o'entu' approaches *ero.
%d& the 'o'entu' stays constant for a!! speeds.
5. .hy does a conducting sphere in the !ong)ave!ength appro+i'ation scatter 'ore strong!y in the
(ac/)scattering direction than in the forard)scattering direction$
%a& (ecause of a shado effect here the sphere (!oc/s aves fro' trave!ing forard.
%(& (ecause of interference effects (eteen the radiating e!ectric and 'agnetic dipo!es.
%c& (ecause the induced currents are *ero.
%d& (ecause the sphere is too s'a!! to (e 6visi(!e7 to the incident aves.
8. .hat is the significance of the cutoff frequency of a aveguide$
%a& (e!o the cutoff fre#uency, aves cannot trave! a!ong the aveguide.
%(& a(ove the cutoff fre#uency, aves cannot trave! a!ong the aveguide.
%c& (e!o the cutoff fre#uency, aves trave! faster than the speed of !ight c in the aveguide.
%d& the cutoff fre#uency 'ar/s the point here the avenu'(er (eco'es infinite.
9. .hat is the po!ari*ation pattern of earth0s day)ti'e s/y according to an earth)(ound o(server$
%a& the s/y patches c!ose to the sun are unpo!ari*ed: the s/y patches approaching a 90 degree vieing
ang!e aay fro' the sun are !inear!y po!ari*ed in a circu!ar pattern.
%(& a!! points in the s/y are unpo!ari*ed.
%c& the s/y patches c!ose to the sun are circu!ar!y)po!ari*ed: a!! other s/y patches are unpo!ari*ed.
%d& a!! points in the s/y are circu!ar!y)po!ari*ed.
10. .hat is the (est conceptua! su''ary of !inear Lorent* transfor'ations$
%a& !ength e+pansion and ti'e contraction.
%(& !ength e+pansion, ti'e contraction, and origin shifting.
%c& !ength contraction, ti'e di!ation, and origin shifting.
%d& origin shifting on!y.
11. .hy as the !u'iniferous ether c!ai'ed to e+ist (y physicists in the 18000s$
%a& in order to reso!ve the contradictions (eteen ;eton0s !as and Ma+e!!0s e#uations (y
constructing a specia! fra'e of reference through hich !ight trave!s.
%(& in order to rep!ace Ma+e!!0s e#uations ith a ne theory that (etter 'atched e+peri'ents.
%c& in order to prove that ;eton0s !as ere rong.
%d& in order to e+p!ain the tin/!ing of stars.
12. <f the effective height of the earth0s at'osphere ere increased ten ti'es and everything e!se ere
/ept the sa'e, ho ou!d the overa!! (rightness and co!or of the s/y change according to the 'ode!
used in c!ass$
%a& the s/y ou!d (e (righter and vio!et)shifted
%(& the s/y ou!d (e (righter and red)shifted
%c& the s/y ou!d (e dar/er and vio!et)shifted
%d& the s/y ou!d (e dar/er and red)shifted
428
13. Horizontally po!ari*ed !ight passes through an e!e'ent ith scattering =ones 'atri+ J
1
=
1
2
[
1 1
1 1
]
and then through another e!e'ent ith scattering =ones 'atri+ J
2
=
[
0 0
0 1
]
. .hat is the fina! state of
the e!ectro'agnetic ave after passing though these to e!e'ent$
%a& hori*onta!!y po!ari*ed.
%(& vertica!!y po!ari*ed.
%c& circu!ar!y po!ari*ed.
%d& there is no ave that 'a/es it co'p!ete!y through this syste'.
11. .hat i!! happen if an e!ectro'agnetic ave is incident on a s!a( of conducting 'ateria! hose
s!a( idth is thinner than its e!ectro'agnetic s/in depth$
%a& a!! of the incident ave0s energy i!! (eco'e a(sor(ed (y the s!a( so that there is no ref!ected ave
and no trans'itted ave.
%(& a!! of the incident ave i!! ref!ect off the s!a( and there i!! (e no trans'itted ave.
%c& a significant portion of the incident ave0s energy i!! tunne! through the conducting s!a( and
generate a trans'itted ave on the other side.
%d& part of the incident ave i!! (e ref!ected, none of it i!! (e trans'itted, and part of it i!! (e
eterna!!y trapped inside the s!a(.
12. .hat is a good general description for the vector potentia! created (y an osci!!ating current
distri(ution$
%a& is a!ays *ero.
%(& is a transverse trave!ing ave so!ution in a!! *ones, fro' near)fie!d to far)fie!d.
%c& is the static so!ution ith no changes, va!id for a!! *ones, fro' near)fie!d to far)fie!d.
%d& is the static so!ution ith the various contri(utions to the so!ution retarded appropriate!y to
account for signa! trave! ti'e.
429
Part II: !or" Pro#lems (55 Points)
how all your wor! and e"plain each ma#or step to receive full credit.
Pro#lem $% >he four)avevector ? of a p!ane ave in free space has $-c as its ti'e co'ponent and
the traditiona! three)di'ensiona! avevector " as its space co'ponent. >he four)position @ is defined
in the usua! ay. Aind the fo!!oing ite's and rite in ords hat each resu!t 'eans physica!!y
/eeping in 'ind the invariant nature of four)vector productsB
%a& @
%(& ?
%c& ?@
Pro#lem &% "n e!ectron is shot out of a gun at speed u0 =
3
1
c in the positive " direction re!ative to the
gun. >he gun is trave!ing at speed v=
1
2
c in the positive " direction re!ative to the ground. .hat is the
re!ativistic tota! energy of the e!ectron as 'easured (y an o(server that is stationary on the ground$
430
Pro#lem '% " !oca!i*ed charge distri(ution is osci!!ating har'onica!!y so that its charge density isB
=
%
2a
2
r
2
cose
i t
for a!! radii r C a, and D E 0 for r F a, here r and G are the radia! and po!ar
ang!e coordinates of spherica! coordinates.
%a& Aind the pseudo)static e!ectric dipo!e 'o'ent p of this charge distri(ution.
%(& Aind the tota! poer radiated (y this charge distri(ution if on!y dipo!e radiation is considered.
431
Pro#lem 4% Derive the scattering properties of a s'a!! sphere 'ade of non)conducting, non)die!ectric,
'agnetica!!y)per'ea(!e 'ateria! in the !ong)ave!ength, far)fie!d appro+i'ation. ;ote that an incident
p!ane ave induces in a s'a!! 'agnetic sphere the pseudo)static 'agnetic dipo!e 'o'ent m:
m=1
0
a
3
c
(

0
+2
0
)
&
0

"
0

0
here

"
0
is the direction of propagation of the incident ave,

0
is the po!ari*ation unit vector of the
incident ave, a is the sphere radius, and is the sphere0s 'agnetic per'ea(i!ity.
%a& Derive the po!ari*ation)specific differentia! scattering cross sections.
%(& Derive the average po!ari*ation H%G& of the aves scattered (y this 'agnetic sphere.
%c& <f the earth0s s/y as co'posed of s'a!! 'agnetic spheres instead of s'a!! die!ectric spheres, hat
ou!d the po!ari*ation pattern of the s/y !oo/ !i/e$ S/etch the po!ari*ation pattern of this s/y around
the sun as seen (y a ground o(server !oo/ing up, si'i!ar to the s/etch 'ade in c!ass.
432




"#$%&'(
)'*+,-'(&
433




"#$%&'(
)
434
Jackson 1.1 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Use Gauss's theorem
S
Enda=
q

0
and

Ed l=0 to prove the followin!


a" #ny e$cess chare placed on a conductor must lie entirely on its surface. %# conductor &y definition
contains chares capa&le of movin freely under the action of applied electric fields."
&" # closed' hollow conductor shields its interior from fields due to chares outside' &ut does not shield
its e$terior from fields due to chares placed inside it.
c" (he electric field at the surface of the conductor is normal to the surface and has a manitude
/
0
'
where is the chare density per unit area on the surface.
SOLUTO!:
a" )irst' the pro&lem contains the unstated assumption that what is wanted is the location of the chares
in static equilibrium. (his assumption is valid &ecause this pro&lem is found in the chapter on
electrostatics. Static e*uili&rium %the lac+ of movement" can only e$ist when free chares are present if
there are no electric fields. Therefore the electric field inside a conductor is zero. ,ne can draw any
ar&itrary' closed surface completely inside the conductor and it will always have -ero electric field at
every point on the surface. (he interal of the electric field over this surface is -ero and &y Gauss's law'
the total chare is therefore -ero. Because the surface is ar&itrary' it can &e chosen to &e infinitesimally
small or &e chosen to o throuh any point in the conductor's interior. (herefore every point inside a
conductor has -ero chare' and all the chare must then reside on the surface.
&" #ssume for the moment that the electric field e$ternal to the conductor is perpendicular to the
conductor's surface at the surface %the proof is left to part c". Because the conductor is hollow' the
interior reion of the conductor has &y definition no free chares. .f we choose a closed mathematical
surface /ust inside and parallel to the inner surface of the hollow conductor' it therefore contains a total
chare of -ero. Gauss's Law then &ecomes!

S
Enda=0
Because the mathematical surface of the interal is parallel to the surface of the conductor' and the
electric field is perpendicular to the surface of the conductor' the electric field must &e parallel to the
normal!
435

(his simplifies Gauss's law to!

S
E da=0
(he manitude of a vector' in this case E' is always positive. (here is no way to et the interal of a
permanently positive function to e*ual -ero e$cept if the function itself is -ero at every point. (hus the
electric field is -ero at every point on the mathematical surface. (he surface can &e chosen to show that
all points in the hollow reion have -ero electric fields.
#nother way of provin this is to consider a hollow conductor with no chares e$ternal to it. #ccordin
to part a' there are no electric fields in the hollow reion. 0ow &rin chares in from infinity and place
them /ust e$ternal to the conductor. (heir electric fields can never penetrate the interior of the
conductor accordin to part a' and thus can never reach the hollow reion &eyond the conductin shell.
(he fields in the hollow reion remain -ero. 0ote' this is true only for perfect conductors. .n practice' if
a conductor is thin enouh and non1perfect enouh' the fields actually do penetrate throuh a
conductin shell.
,n the other hand' a chare inside the hollow reion of a closed conductor induces a chare on the
conductor that creates an e$ternal field. .f the chare free reion is now the infinite reion e$ternal to
the conductor' we can never draw a closed surface around infinity' and can thus never use Gauss's law
to prove there is -ero field.
#nother way of doin this is to draw a Gaussian interation surface outside and around the entire
conductor. (he surface now encloses the internal chares and &y Gauss's law there must therefore &e
non1-ero fields outside the conductor.
c" .nside the conductor there are no electric fields. ,utside the conductor' there are no free chares' and
therefore there can &e electric fields. 2hat happens at the surface of the conductor3 .f there is a
component of the electric field tanential to the conductor's surface' it would accelerate chares alon
the surface' and there would &e no static e*uili&rium. (here is therefore no tanential component' and
electric fields are always normal to the conductor's surface.
Draw a pill&o$ surface half1in and half1out of the surface of the conductor and let us interate the
electric field over the surface. (here is no electric field tanential to the conductor's surface' thus the
sides of the pill&o$ contri&utes nothin to the interal. #lso' the electric field is -ero inside the
E
n
436
conductor' thus the &ottom of the pill&o$ contri&utes nothin to the interal. #ll that is left is the top of
the pill&o$. .f the pill&o$ is small enouh' the surface normal of its top and the electric field are parallel
so that Gauss's law &ecomes!

top
E da=
q

0
where q is the chare contained inside the pill&o$. 0ow shrin+ the pill&o$ until it is infinitesimally
small. (he electric field is constant over an infinitesimally small surface and can &e ta+en out of the
interal' so that the interal is evaluated to /ust &e the total area of the pill&o$ top!
E A
top
=
q

0
4earranin!
E=
q
A
top
5

0
Define as the chare per unit area
q/ A
top
and the e*uation &ecomes!
E=

0
437
Jackson 1.2 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
The Dirac delta function in three dimensions can be taken as the improper limit as ! of the
"aussian function
D(o ; x , y , z)=(#)
$/ #
o
$
e%p

&
#o
#
( x
#
+y
#
+z
#
)
|
Consider a 'eneral ortho'onal coordinate system specified by the surfaces u ( constant) v ( constant)
w ( constant) with len'th elements du/U) dv/V) dw/W in the three perpendicular directions. Show that
6( xx* )=6( uu* )6(vv* )6 (ww *)UVW
by considerin' the limit of the "aussian above. +ote that as ! only the infinitesimal len'th
element need be used for the distance between the points in the e%ponent.
SOL!"O#:
Start with the 'eneral property of a Dirac delta,

6 ( x)6( y)6 ( z)dx dy dz =&


Substitute in our representation,

lim
o-!
D(o; x , y , z) dx dy dz=&
+ow transform the volume element into the new coordinate system

lim
o-!
D(o; x , y , z)
du
U
dv
V
dw
W
=&
-e do not know e%actly how the one system of coordinates transforms into the other) so we cannot
transform D in a direct manner. Let us instead define an intermediate variable function F accordin' to,
F (u , v , w)=lim
o-!
D(o; x , y , z-u , v , w)
&
U V W
-ith this definition our inte'ral becomes

F( u , v , w) du dv dw=&
438
Because we are inte'ratin' over all space) we are free to make a chan'e of variables which .ust shifts
the ori'in.

F( uu* , vv * , ww* ) dudv dw=&


Comparin' this to the very first e/uation we see that it is identical e%cept with different inte'ration
labels and therefore,
F (uu * , vv* , ww *)=6 (uu *) 6(vv * )6( ww* )
so that) after plu''in' back in) we have
6(uu* )6( vv * )6 (ww* )=lim
o-!
D(o; x , y , z -u , v , w)
&
U V W
Solve for D,
lim
o-!
D(o; x , y , z-u , v , w)=6(uu * )6( vv * )6( ww* )U V W
The entity on the left) no matter what coordinate system it is represented in) is .ust what we mean by
the 'eneral three0dimensional Dirac delta,
6( xx* )=6( uu* )6(vv* )6 (ww *)UVW
+ow note that we never used the e%plicit form of D) so we have solved the problem in a way that the
book did not intend. Let us try solvin' the problem usin' a method that uses the e%plicit form of D.
D(o ; x , y , z)=(#)
$/ #
o
$
e%p

&
#o
#
( x
#
+y
#
+z
#
)
|
Make a chan'e of variables x x 1 x*) etc. 23therwise we will not end up with the most 'eneral case.4
D(o ; xx * , yy * , z z * )=( #)
$/ #
o
$
e%p

&
#o
#
(( xx* )
#
+( yy* )
#
+( zz *)
#
)
|
5s !) D will become 6ero unless x 1 x* approaches 6ero as well. 7n calculus) we remember that
x 1 x* approachin' 6ero becomes dx. Therefore we have,
D(o ; xx * , yy * , z z * )=( #)
$/ #
o
$
e%p

&
#o
#
((dx)
#
+(dy)
#
+( dz)
#
)
|
-e reco'ni6e the last part in parentheses as the incremental arc len'th element ds s/uared,
D(o ; xx * , yy * , z z * )=( #)
$/ #
o
$
e%p

&
#o
#
ds
#
|
439
8%pand the arc len'th in the new coordinate system,
D=( #)
$/ #
o
$
e%p

&
#o
#
(
du
#
U
#
+
dv
#
V
#
+
dw
#
W
#
)|
+ote that dxdu/U and we are not makin' that claim here. 9ather) the entire three0dimensional
incremental arc len'th ds is the same in all ortho'onal coordinate systems. +ow e%pand the increments
back into differences,
D=( #)
$/ #
o
$
e%p

&
#o
#
(
( uu* )
#
U
#
+
(vv* )
#
V
#
+
( ww* )
#
W
#
)
|
D=

e
( uu*)
#
/ #o
#
U
#
.#o
|
e
(vv *)
#
/ #o
#
V
#
.#o
|
e
( ww*)
#
/ #o
#
W
#
.#o
|
+ow make the substitution
&
:U in the first bracket)
#
:V in the second bracket) and

$
:W in the last bracket. -e can do this as lon' as we let
&
)
#
) and
$
'o to 6ero .ust like we were
lettin' 'o to 6ero.
D=

e
( uu*)
#
/ #o
&
#
.#o
&
|
e
(vv *)
#
/#o
#
#
.#o
#
|
e
( ww*)
#
/#o
$
#
.#o
$
|
U V W
-e now let the alpha*s approach 6ero. 8ach term in brackets on the ri'ht side becomes a one0
dimensional linear Dirac delta. The left side becomes the 'eneral e%pression for the three0dimensional
Dirac delta,
6( xx* )=6( uu* )6(vv* )6 (ww *)UVW
+ow this is a very useful result. Suppose we have a point char'e. 7n spherical coordinates) we can find
the representation of its Dirac delta usin' the above e%pression. ;or spherical coordinates
u=r , v=0 , w= and the len'th elements are dr , r d 0 , rsin 0d so that U=&) V=
&
r
, W=
&
r sin
and
6( xx* )=6( rr * )6(00 *) 6(* )
&
r
#
sin 0
2Spherical Coordinates4
+ote that it is fairly strai'ht0forward to prove usin' Dirac delta properties that
6(00 *)/ sin0=6( cos0cos0 *) so that the three0dimensional Dirac delta in spherical coordinates is
often written
6( xx* )=6( rr * )6(cos 0cos0* )6(* )
&
r
#
as it is on p. &#! in Jackson.
Similarly in cylindrical coordinates) u=r , v=0 , w=z and the len'th elements are dr , r d 0 , dz so that
440
U=&) V=
&
r
, W=&
and
6( xx* )=6( rr * )6(00 *) 6( zz * )
&
r
2Cylindrical Coordinates4
5ssume that instead of a point char'e) we have a line char'e shaped into a rin') centered on the z a%is)
located at some radius r* and polar an'le *. The char'e is distributed alon' the rin' accordin' to the
line char'e density \() . The total char'e density in this case would be,
p=6(uu * )6( vv * )U V \(w) 2Spherical Coordinates4
p=
6(rr * )6(00* ) \()
r
2Spherical Coordinates4
441
Jackson 1.3 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Using Dirac delta functions in the appropriate coordinates, express the following charge distributions as
threedi!ensional charge densities "x#.
"a# $n spherical coordinates, a charge Q unifor!ly distributed over a spherical shell of radius R.
"b# $n cylindrical coordinates, a charge per unit length unifor!ly distributed over a cylindrical surface
of radius b.
"c# $n cylindrical coordinates, a charge Q spread unifor!ly over a flat circular disc of negligible
thic%ness and radius R.
"d# &he sa!e as part "c#, but using spherical coordinates.
SOL!"O#:
&he easiest !ethod to use is to set a Dirac delta for every di!ension that has an infinitely thin
appearance. Multiply this by so!e arbitrary para!eter, integrate over the whole ob'ect, set this e(ual to
the total charge, then solve for the arbitrary para!eter.
"a# )or the spherical shell, the charge distribution is only thin in the radial direction.
(r , , )=A(rR)
*ow integrate over all space and set it e(ual to the total charge Q.
Q=

+
,

(r , , )r
,
sin dr d d
Q=- A

(rR)r
,
dr
Q=- R
,
A
A=
Q
- R
,
r , ,=
Q
- R
,
rR
442
&his answer should be obvious now. $t is 'ust the total charge divided by the area of a sphere ti!es the
delta.
"b# )or the cylindrical surface.
(r , , z)=A(rb)
=

+
,

( r , , z)r dr d
=A

+
,
d

(rb)r dr
=A,b
A=

,b
r ,, z=

,b
rb
/gain, this should be obvious that this is the surface charge density ti!e the delta, where the surface
charge density is the linear charge density divided by the circu!ference of the cylinder.
"c# )or the flat disc, we !ust use the step function H in the radial direction.
r ,, z=A z H Rr
Q=

+
,

r ,, z r dr d dz
Q=A

z dz

+
,
d

H Rr r dr
Q=A,

+
R
r dr
A=
Q
R
,
r ,, z =
Q
R
,
z H Rr
/gain, it should be obvious that this is the deltas ti!es the surface charge density, which is the total
charge divided by the area of the disc.
443
"d# )or the flat disc in spherical coordinates try.
r , ,=A
/ ,
r
H Rr
Q=

+
,

r , , r
,
sin dr d d
Q=A

+
,
d

/ ,sin d

H Rr r dr
A=
Q
R
,
(r , , )=
Q
R
,
( / ,)
r
H(Rr)
444
Jackson 1.4 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Each of three charged spheres of radius a, one conducting, one having a uniform charge density within
its volume, and one having a spherically symmetric charge density that varies radially as r
n
n ! "#$, has
a total charge Q. Use %auss&s theorem to o'tain the electric fields 'oth inside and outside each sphere.
S(etch the 'ehavior of the fields as a function of radius for the first two spheres, and for the third with
n ) "*, n ) +*.
SOLU!O":
a$ ,he first sphere is conducting. -s shown in .ro'lem /./, the electric field inside the sphere is 0ero.
,o o'tain the field outside the field, draw an integration sphere concentric to the conducting sphere and
with some radius r. -s shown in .ro'lem /.1, the electric field is normal to the conducting sphere, is
thus normal to the integration surface, and is thus parallel to the integration surface&s normal. %auss&s
law 'ecomes2

S
E da=
Q

3
Due to the symmetry of the conducting sphere and integration sphere, the electric field is constant over
the integration surface and can 'e removed from the integral2
E

S
da=
Q

3
,he surface integral evaluates to the total area of the integration sphere with radius r.
E 1r
*
=
Q

3
-fter rearranging2
E=
Q
1
3
r
*
4t should 'e noted that according to Coulom'&s law, this is the same field as that created 'y a point
charge Q at the origin. ,he sphere acts as if all of its charge where concentrated at its center even
though it is actually spread uniformly over its surface.
445
'$ ,he second sphere has a uniform charge density. 5utside the sphere, the surface integration used in
%auss&s law contains the same amount of charge as for the conducting sphere a'ove and thus has the
same solution2
E=
Q
1
3
r
*
4nside the sphere there is a uniform charge density2
=
Q
1
#
a
#
Draw a spherical integration surface concentric with and inside the charged sphere, with a radius r. ,he
total charge contained in this integration sphere is2
q=

Q
1
#
a
#

1
#
r
#

q=Q
r
#
a
#
Due to parallel vectors and symmetry, as shown a'ove, %auss&s law 'ecomes2
E

S
da=
q

3
E 1r
*
=
/

3
Q
r
#
a
#
E=
Qr
1
3
a
#
c$ ,he third sphere has a spherically symmetric charge density that varies radially as r
n
. 5utside the
sphere, the surface integration used in %auss&s law contains the same amount of charge as for the
conducting sphere a'ove and thus has the same solution2
E=
Q
1
3
r
*
446
4nside the sphere we must first find the full form of the charge density. ,he charge density has the
form2
=Ar
n
,o determine the constant A, we integrate the charge density over the whole sphere and set it e6ual to
the total charge2

3
*

3
a
Ar
n
r
*
dr sin d d =Q
A=
Q
1

3
a
r
n*
dr
A=
Q
1
[
a
n#
n#
]
,he charge density now has the form2
=
Q
1
[
a
n#
n#
]
r
n
Draw a spherical integration surface concentric with and inside the charged sphere, with a radius r. ,he
total charge contained in this integration sphere is o'tained 'y integrating2
q=

3
*

3
r
r & r &
*
dr & sin d d
q=1

3
r
r & r &
*
dr &
q=1

3
r
Q
1
[
a
n#
n#
]
r &
n
r &
*
dr &
q=1
Q
1
[
a
n#
n#
]

3
r
r &
n*
dr &
447
q=1
Q
1
[
a
n#
n#
]
r
n#
n#
q=Q
r
n#
a
n#
Due to parallel vectors and symmetry, as shown a'ove, %auss&s law 'ecomes2
E

S
da=
q

3
E 1r
*
=
/

3
Q
r
n#
a
n#
E=
Q
1
3
r
*

r
n#
a
n#

7or n ) "*2
E=
Q
1
3
r a
7or n ) *2
E=
Qr
#
1
3
a
8
448
Jackson 1.5 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
The time-averaged potential of a neutral hydrogen atom is given y
4=
q
!c
"
e
o r
r
(
#+
or
$
)
where q is the magnitude of the electronic charge% and
-#
& a
"
'$% a
"
eing the Bohr radius. (ind the
distriution of charge )oth continuous and discrete* that will give this potential and interpret your
result physically.
SOLU!O":
The +oisson e,uation lin-s charge densities and the electric scalar potential that they create. .e use it
here to find the charge density. .e must perform a straight-forward differentiation in spherical
coordinates.

$
4=
p
c
"
/0pand this in spherical coordinates1
#
r
$

r
(
r
$ 4
r
)
+
#
r
$
sin 0

0
(
sin0
4
0
)
+
#
r
$
sin
$
0

$
4

$
=
p
c
"
The potential is spherically symmetric% so that the potential depends only on the radial coordinate - the
partial derivatives of the potential are all 2ero% e0cept for the one with respect to the radial component.
#
r
$

r
(
r
$ 4
r
)
=
p
c
"
/valuate the e,uation e0plicitly1
#
r
$

r (
r
$
r

q
!c
"
e
or
r
(
#+
#
$
or
)
|)
=
p
c
"
q
!c
"
#
r
$

r
(
r
$
r

e
or
r
|
+r
$
r

o
$
e
or
|)
=
p
c
"
449
q
!c
"
#
r
$

r
(
r
$

#
r

r
e
or
+e
or

r
#
r
|

o
$
$
r
$
e
or
)
=
p
c
"
q
!c
"
#
r
$

r
(
or e
or
+r
$
e
o r
r
#
r

o
$
$
r
$
e
or
)
=
p
c
"
q
!c
"
(
o
r
$
e
or
+
o
3
$
e
or
)
+
q
!c
"
#
r
$

r
(
r
$
e
or

r
#
r
)
=
p
c
"
p=
qo
3
4
e
o r
e
o r q
!
#
r
$

r
(
r
$
r
#
r
)
5ow we must e careful ecause #'r lows up at the origin. Split the last term into two cases1
p=
qo
3
4
e
o r
e
o r q
!
#
r
$

r
(
r
$
r
#
r
)
if r 6 "
p=
qo
3
4
e
o r
e
o r q
!
#
r
$

r
(
r
$
r
#
r
)
if r 7 "
8way from the origin% #'r does not low up and the derivatives can e evaluated normally. The last
term ends up e,uating to 2ero% so that our e,uations now ecomes1
p=
qo
3
4
e
o r
e
o r q
!
#
r
$

r
(
r
$
r
#
r
)
if r 6 "
p=
qo
3
4
e
o r
if r 7 "
8t r "% we have e
or
=# so that the two cases ecome1
p=
qo
3
4

q
!
#
r
$

r
(
r
$
r
#
r
)
if r 6 "
p=
qo
3
4
e
o r
if r 7 "
5ow use the relation1

$
(
#
r
)
=!6( r)
which when evaluated e0plicitly ecomes1
450
#
r
$

r
(
r
$
r
(
#
r
))
=!6(r)
+lug this into the aove set of e,uations1
p=
qo
3
4
+q6(r) if r 6 "
p=
qo
3
4
e
or
if r 7 "
Because the delta function is 2ero everywhere e0cept at the origin% and ecause the first term of the first
e,uation is 9ust the specific r & " form of the first term of the second e,uation% the two cases can e
comined into one case1
p=
qo
3
4
e
or
+q6( r) for all r
This corresponds physically to a positive point charge at the origin with one unit of elementary charge%
and a finite cloud of negative charge that decays e0ponentially% ut contains a total charge of one unit
of elementary charge.
(rom a time-averaged perspective then% hydrogen in the ground state contains a positive point charge
at the center and a circular cloud of negative charge. This is of course only useful for conceptuali2ation
purposes% ecause at atomic si2es the system ehaves ,uantum mechanically% not classically.
451
Jackson 1.6 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
A simple capacitor is a device formed by two insulated conductors adjacent to each other. f e!ual and
opposite char"es are placed on the conductors# there will be a certain difference of potential between
them. $he ratio of the ma"nitude of the char"e on one conductor to the ma"nitude of the potential
difference is called the capacitance %in S units it is measured in farads&. Usin" 'auss(s law# calculate
the capacitance of
%a& two lar"e# flat# conductin" sheets of area A# separated by a small distance d)
%b& two concentric sphere with radii a# b %b * a&
%c& two concentric conductin" cylinders of len"th L# lar"e compared to their radii a# b %b * a&.
%d& +hat is the inner diameter of the outer conductor in an air,filled coa-ial cable whose center
conductor is a cylindrical wire of diameter . mm and whose capacitance is / - .0
,..
12m3 / - .0
,.4
12m3
SOLU!O":
n each case# the dimensions are such that we can ne"lect frin"e effects and therefore can ta5e
advanta"e of symmetry.
%a& 6arallel 6lates
f we place a char"e of ,Q on a plate at z 7 0 and a char"e of 8Q on a plate at z 7 d# then a constant
volta"e difference V is established between the two plates. $he relationship between potential and
electric field is9
E=
1or a one,dimensional system %as this one is because the sheets are lar"e enou"h to be appro-imated as
infinite&# the ma"nitude reduces to9
E=
d
dz
1or a uniform electric field %as this must be because of the symmetry& this becomes9
E=

z
$he potential difference between the two plates is then9
452
E=
V
d
f we draw a 'aussian pillbo- around a section of the positive plate# we will contain part of its char"e.
Apply 'auss(s law in inte"ral form over the surface of the 'aussian pillbo-9

Enda=
q
enc

0
f we shrin5 the bo- properly# the part of the inte"ral due to the sides of the pillbo- surface become
ne"li"ible# and we are left with the top and bottom of the pillbo-. f we shrin5 the bo- small enou"h#
the electric field becomes constant across the surface
and can be ta5en out of the inte"ral# so that9
E
top
n
top

daE
bottom
n
bottom

da=
q
enc

0
n this particular case# the fields and normals point in
the same direction %see dia"ram& and thus reduce down
to a simple scalar product.
E
pos plate
=
q
enc
4 a
0
E
pos plate
=

4
0
E
pos plate
=
Q
4 A
0
$his is the field due to the positive plate. t should be obvious from the "eometry that the field
ma"nitude due to the ne"ative plate is the same so that the total field is9
E=
Q
A
0
Substitute in the relationship between electric field and potential difference V found above and solve
for Q2V which is capacitance9
Q
V
=
A
0
d
C=

0
A
d
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
#
E
top
n
top
n
bottom
E
bottom
453
%b& Concentric Spheres9
6lace a char"e 8Q on the sphere at r 7 a and ,Q on the sphere at r 7 b. f we draw a spherical 'aussian
surface around the inner sphere such that a : r : b# apply 'auss(s law in inte"ral form# and use
symmetry# it is easy to show that between the spheres the electric field is9
E=
.
;
0
Q
r
4
r
$he electric potential is than
=
.
;
0
Q
r
4
r
Dot both sides by the radial unit vector and inte"rate with respect to r to "et the potential difference
between the spheres9
d
d r
=
.
;
0
Q
r
4

b
a
d =

b
a
.
;
0
Q
r
4
d r
V =
Q
;
0

.
a

.
b

Q
V
=
;
0

.
a

.
b

C=
;
0
ab
ba
%c& Concentric Cylinders9
6lace a char"e 8Q on the cylinder at r 7 a and ,Q on the cylinder at r 7 b. f we draw a cylindrical
'aussian surface around the inner cylinder such that a : r : b# apply 'auss(s law in inte"ral form# and
use symmetry# it is easy to show that between the cylinders the electric field is9
E=
Q
4r
0
L
r
<ow find the potential difference9
d =
Q
4r
0
L
dr
454
V =

b
a
Q
4r
0
L
dr
V =
Q
4
0
L
ln

b
a

Q
V
=
4
0
L
lnb/ a
C=
4
0
L
ln b/ a
%d& Solve for b9
b=a e
4
0
L/C
b=.mme
4 0.=>.0
..
12m / /.0
..
12m
b=?mm
Also9
b=.mme
4=.>.0
.4
12m / /.0
.4
12m
b=.0
=
mm or .005m
455
Jackson 1.7 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Two long, cylindrical conductors of radii a
1
and a

are parallel and separated !y a distance d, which is


large co"pared with either radius. Show that the capacitance per unit length is given appro#i"ately !y
C
$
(
ln
d
a
)
1
where a is the geo"etrical "ean of the two radii. %ppro#i"ately what gauge wire &state dia"eter in
"illi"eters' would !e necessary to "a(e a two)wire trans"ission line with a capacitance of 1. # 1$
)11
*+" if the separation of the wires was $., c"- 1., c"- ,.$ c"-
SOLU!O":
.lace the center of cylinder 1 at the origin and the center of cylinder at x / d. .lace a total charge per
unit length )Q+L on cylinder 1 and 0Q+L on cylinder . 1e first pretend cylinder is not present and
solve !y superposition. 1ithout cylinder , the field lines fro" cylinder 1 are radially outwards. This
sy""etry allows us to use 2auss3s law in integral for". Draw a cylindrical 2aussian surface centered
on cylinder 1 and enclosing it.

E
1
n da=
q
enc

$
E
1
=
Q
r L
$
r
The second cylinder !y itself will create a si"ilar field, only shifted to the right4
E

=
Q
#d

i

L
$
(#d

i )
So that the total field is4
E=
Q
(x

+y

) L
$
( x

i +y

$)+
Q
(( xd )

+y

) L
$
(( xd )

i +y

$)
The potential is then4
=
Q
(x

+y

) L
$
( x

i +y

$)
Q
(( xd )

+y

) L
$
(( xd )

i +y

$)
456
To calculate conductance, we don3t need to (now the potential everywhere, only the potential
difference !etween the two conductors. %lso, the conductor surfaces are e5uipotentials, so we only
need to (now the potential at one point on the surface to (now it everywhere. Let us calculate the
potential difference !etween the points &x / a
1
, y / $' and &x / d ) a

, y / $'. Dot the a!ove e5uation


with

i .
d
d x
=
Q
( x

+y

) L
$
x
Q
((xd)

+y

) L
$
( xd )
6ntegrate !etween our two points4
d =
Q
( x

+y

)L
$
x
Q
((xd)

+y

) L
$
( xd )d x
V =

a
1
da

d =

a
1
d a

[
Q
x L
$

Q
(xd )L
$
d x
]
V =
Q

$
L[

a
1
da

1
x
d x

a
1
da

1
xd
d x
]
V =
Q

$
L[
ln
(
da

a
1
)
ln
(
a

a
1
d
)
]
V =
Q

$
L[
ln
(
(
da
1
a

)(
da

a
1
)
)
]
C L=
Q
V
C=
$
[
ln
(
(
da
1
a

)(
da

a
1
)
)]
1
*or d 77 a
1
, a

C
$
[
ln
(
d

a
1
a

)]
1
C
$
(
ln
d
a
)
1
where a=

a
1
a

ad e

$
C
457
*or a two)wire trans"ission line with a capacitance of 1. # 1$
)11
*+", this !eco"es4
a($.1)d
or in ter"s of the dia"eter4
diameter( $.)d
6f the separation of the wires was $., c", 1., c", or ,.$ c", the gauge should !e4
1 "", 8 "", or 1$ ""
458
Jackson 1.8 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
(a) For the three capacitor geoetries in !ro"le #.$ calculate the total electrostatic energy and e%press
it alternatively in ters of the e&ual and opposite charges Q and 'Q placed on the conductors and the
potential difference "etween the.
(") S(etch the energy density of the electrostatic field in each case as a function of the appropriate
linear coordinate.
SOLU!O":
(a) For a siple capacitor) the total energy is given "y W * +QV. ,n pro"le #.$) we found the
following results.
!arallel plates capacitor-
V =
Qd
A
.
and
E=
Q
A
.
Concentric spheres capacitor-
V =
Q
/
.
(
#
a

#
b
)
and
E=
#
/
.
Q
r
0
Concentric cylinders capacitor-
V =
Q
0
.
L
ln
(
b
a
)
and
E=
Q
0 r
.
L
,t is straight'forward to su"stitute these e&uations into the energy e&uation and find the following-
!arallel plates capacitor- W=
Q
0
d
0 A
.
and W=
V
0
A
.
0d
Concentric spheres capacitor- W=
Q
0
1
.
(
#
a

#
b
)
and W=
V
0
0
.
ab
ba
Concentric cylinders capacitor- W=
Q
0
/
.
L
ln
(
b
a
)
and W=
V
0

.
L
ln ( b/ a)
459
(") 2he energy density is defined as w=

.
0
E
0
. 3 siple su"stitution of the fields found in pro"le #.$
reveals-
!arallel plates capacitor-
w=
Q
0
0
.
A
0

Concentric spheres capacitor-
w=
Q
0
40
0

.
r
/
Concentric cylinders capacitor-
w=
Q
0
1
0

.
L
0
r
0
z
w
.
.
d
Q
0
506
.
A
0
z
w
.
.
a
Q
0
5407
0
6
.
a
/
b
Q
0
5407
0
6
.
b
/
z
w
.
.
a
Q
0
517
0
6
.
L
0
a
0
b
Q
0
517
0
6
.
L
0
b
0
460
Jackson 1.9 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Calculate the attractive force between conductors in the parallel plate capacitor (Problem .!a" area A#
separated by distance d$ and the parallel cylinder capacitor (Problem .%" radii a

and a
&
# separated by
distance d$ for
(a$ fi'ed char(es on each conductor
(b$ fi'ed potential difference between conductors.
SOLU!O":
(a$ Parallel Plates
Because the plates are lar(e# flat# and close# we can ne(lect frin(e effects. )f one plate has total char(e
*Q and the other plate has total char(e +Q# then they each have a char(e density
p=
Q
A
6( zd )
and
p=
Q
A
6( z)
for , - x - A
.&
and , - y - A
.&
/he total force on the positive plate due to the other plate is the sum of the force on all of its parts#
which mathematically ta0es the form of an inte(ral"
#=

p( $) E($) d $
1ere E is not the total electric field# but the electric field due to the ne(ative plate
2'pand in Cartesian coordinates"
#=

p( x , y , z ) E( x , y , z) dx dy dz
Let us find the force on the positively char(ed plate placed at z 3 d by substitutin( in its char(e density"
#=
Q
A

,
. A

,
.A
E( x , y , d ) dx dy
Because we are ne(lectin( frin(e effects (in effect we are assumin( that the plates are lar(e enou(h that
they appear infinite when compared to the rest of the system$# the symmetry of the system re4uires that
the electric field can only be a function of z. /he remainin( inte(rals thus reduce down to the area of
the plate# which cancels the area in the denominator.
461
#=Q E( z=d )
/he electric field can be found by placin( a 5aussian pillbo' around a section of the each plate# as is
demonstrated in detail elsewhere. Because the plate is thin# both top and bottom of the 5aussian surface
have electric field lines crossin( and contribute"
& E
n
=
u
c
,
E
n
=
!Q
& Ac
,
6e must be careful to reali7e that the normal of the inside of the positive plate points towards +z and
the normal of the inside of the ne(ative plate points towards *z.
E
pos plate
=
Q
& Ac
,
( %)
E
ne( plate
=
(Q)
& Ac
,
%
Because of the symmetry# the field is constant and uniform across that (ap so that
E=E
pos plate
+E
ne( plate
E=
Q
Ac
,
%
But for the purposes of calculatin( the force# we do not use the total field# rather we use the field due to
to the ne(ative plate because it is what acts on the positive plate.
#=Q E
ne( plate
#=
Q
&
& Ac
,
%
/he ri(ht plate e'periences a force in the +7 direction# towards the other plate and is therefore attracted
to it# as we should e'pect because opposites attract.
Parallel Cylinders"
Because the distance between the cylinders is lar(e compared to their radii# we can appro'imate them
as infinitely thin wires for the purpose of calculatin( the fields. Place cylinder at the ori(in with
positive char(e per unit len(th * and cylinder & at x 3 d with ne(ative char(e per unit len(th +. )f we
want to find the force on cylinder &# we only need to find the field due to cylinder because cylinder &
will not e'ert a net force on itself.
/he field due to cylinder can be found by placin( a cylindrical 5aussian surface around it and ta0in(
462
advanta(e of symmetry"

E nda=
q
enc
c
,
l

E r r d =
q
enc
c
,
E
r
&r=
(
q
enc
l
)

c
,
8eco(ni7e q
enc
.l as the char(e per unit len(th "
E=
\
&r c
,
r
#=

p( x , y , z ) E( x , y , z) dx dy dz
#=

6( y)6( xd )(\) E( x , y , z) dx dy dz
#
l
=\E(d ,,)
#
l
=
\
&
&d c
,
r
Cylinder & e'periences a force in the +r direction# towards the ori(in# where cylinder resides.
(b$ Parallel Plates"
9 fi'ed potential difference V is maintained across the capacitor as opposed to fi'ed char(es. Potential
is related to electric field accordin( to"
E=4
:or a one dimensional field # this becomes"
E=
d 4
d z
:or a uniform field this becomes"
E=
V
d
where d is the distance between the two points where the potential is measured.
463
/he contribution from ;ust one plate is
E
ne( plate
=
V
&d
6e found previously the relationship between the total electric field and the char(e on one plate to be"
E=
Q
Ac
,
so that"
Q=Ac
,
E
Q=
Ac
,
V
d
:inally"
#=QE
ne( plate
#=
Ac
,
V
&
&d
&
%
Parallel Cylinders"
/he electric field due to cylinder was found to be"
E

=
\
&r c
,
r
Let us restrict ourselves to points alon( the x a'is.
E

=
\
& xc
,
$
/he field due to cylinder & is
E
&
=
\
&( xd )c
,
$
/he total field is"
E=
\
&c
,

xd
|
$
/he potential difference between the two cylinders can be found by inte(ratin("
464
V =

da
&
Ed $
V =
\
&c
,

a

da
&

xd
|
d x
V =
\
&c
,
ln

( da
&
)(da

)
a

a
&
|
6ith d << a# we can simplify this
V =
\
c
,
ln

d
.
a

a
&
|
Solve for the line char(e density"
\=
c
,
V
ln

d
.
a

a
&
|
#
l
=\E

(d , ,)
#
l
=
c
,
V
&
&d

ln
(
d
.
a

a
&
)|
&
( $)
465
Jackson 1.10 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Prove the mean value theorem: For chargefree space the value of the electrostatic potential at any
point is e!ual to the average of the potential over the surface of any sphere centered on that point.
SOLU!O":
"he potential is #nown on the surface$ so this pro%le& can %e for&ulated using a Dirichlet 'reen(s
function e!uation:
#=
)
*
+

#G
D
d
,
#(
)
*

d G
D
d n(

da (
where the Dirichlet 'reen(s function &ust satisfy:
G
D
( # , #( )=
)
##(
+F(# , #( )
where (
-
F # , #( =+ and G
D
. + on the surface
/n this particular case$ there is no free charge$ #=+ $ so that the e!uation si&plifies to
( #)=
)
*

d G
D
d n(
)
da(
Because we are only &easuring the potential at the center of the sphere which is centered on the origin$
# . + and therefore
)
##(
=
)
x(
$ leading to:
G
D
(# , #( )=
)
x (
+F(# , #( )
/n order for the green function to disappear on the surface$ G
D
0x( . R1 . +$ we &ust have F . )2R. "he
'reen function is now:
G
D
(# , #( )=
)
x (

)
R
/nsert this into the e!uation:
( #)=
)
*

d
d x(
[
)
x(

)
R
])
x (=R
da (
466
(#)=
)
*

[
)
x (
-
])
x(=R
da(
(#)=
)
*

[
)
R
-
]
da(
#=

da (
*R
-
"he divisor is the surface area of the sphere so that:
#=

da (

da(
"he right side is %y definition the average value of the function over the surface and thus e!uals the
value at its center.
467
Jackson 1.11 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Use Gauss's theorem to prove that at the surface of a curved charged conductor the normal derivative
of the electric field is given !y
"
E
E
n
=
(
"
R
"
+
"
R
#
)
where R
"
and R
#
are the principal radii of curvature of the surface.
SOLUTO!:
$e will find the normal derivative of the electric field !y ta%ing the limit of the finite difference&
E
n
=lim
r '
E("+r n)E(")
r
where (r is a small length increment in the normal direction. )his is the definition of a derivative
according to fundamental theorem of calculus.
$e set a s*uare Gaussian pill!o+ ,ust a!ove the surface of a point on the curved charges conductor -not
straddling. and use Gauss's theorem to integrate over the pill!o+. Ma%e the upper and lower surfaces
curved so that their curvature matches the conductor's surface. Set the location of the center of the
lower surface at " and the center of the upper surface at "+r n . Set the sides of the pill!o+ normal to
the conductor's surface so they do not contri!ute. )he pill!o+ is a!ove the surface and therefore
contains no charge.

S
Enda='

top
En da+

!ottom
En da='
Shrin% the pill!o+ down in the usual way so that the electric field
!ecomes constant across its surface and comes out of the integral. Be
careful and remem!er that the normal to the !ottom Gaussian surface is
in the opposite direction as the conductor's normal so we need a negative
sign to account for this.
E
top
top
daE
!ottom
!ottom
da='
E("+r n)( R
"
+r)(R
#
+r)

d
"
d
#
=E(") R
"
R
#
d
"
d
#
R
"
R
2
n
(r
468
E("+r n)=
E(") R
"
R
#
(R
"
+r)(R
#
+r)
/lug this into the normal derivative definition&
E
n
=lim
r '
R
"
R
#
( R
"
+r)(R
#
+r)
"
r
E
E
n
=lim
r '
R
"
R
#
r
(R
"
+r)( R
#
+r)
E
"
E
E
n
=
(
"
R
"
+
"
R
#
)
0or very small curvatures of radius such as the tip of a pointed conductor or the edge of a conducting
cu!e the derivative !ecomes very large. )his means that the field is changing very *uic%ly so that the
field lines are diverging away from the point or edge. 0or very large curvatures of radius such as
approaching a flat surface this e*uation tells us the derivative approaches 1ero. )his means that the
electric field is appro+imately constant outside near2flat conducting surfaces.
469
Jackson 1.12 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Prove Green's reciprocation theorem: If is the potential due to a volue!char"e density # within a
volue V and a surface!char"e density $ on the conductin" surface S %oundin" the volue V& while '
is the potential due to another char"e distri%ution #' and $'& then

V
' d
(
x+

S
' da=

V
' d
(
x+

S
' da
SOLU!O":
Start with the )reen's theore:

V
(
*
''
*
) d
(
x=

S (

d '
d n
'
d
d n
)
da
Use the Poisson e+uation:

*
=
,

-
(#)
and

*
'=
,

-
' ( #)
:

V
(' ' ) d
(
x=

S (

d '
d n
'
d
d n
)
da

V
' d
(
x

V
' d
(
x=

S (

-
d '
d n
'
-
d
d n
)
da
.he noral direction n in )reen's theore points away fro the volue of interest& which in this case
would %e into the conductin" surface. /ro a previous pro%le& we 0now that the potential on a
conductor and surface char"e density are related accordin" to:
[
=
-

n
]
on S
and
[
' =
-
'
n
]
on S
1e have to reali2e that the norals in these e+uations are pointin" out of the conductor& whereas the
norals in )reen's theore are pointin" into the conductor. 1e reverse the si"n to account for this:
[
=
-

n
in
]
on S
and
[
' =
-
'
n
in
]
on S
470
3ow su%stitute these into )reen's theore:

V
' d
(
x

V
' d
(
x=

S
( '' ) da
Shuffle around to find:

V
' d
(
x+

S
' da=

V
' d
(
x+

S
' da
471
Jackson 1.14 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Consider the electrostatic Green functions of Section 1.10 for Dirichlet and Neuann !oundary
conditions on the surface S !oundin" the volue V. #pply Green$s theore %1.&'( with inte"ration
varia!les y and =G( , y) and =G( $ , y) ) with
y
*
G( ! , y)=+6(y!) . ,ind an e-pression for
the difference .G%) $( / G%$) (0 in ters of an inte"ral over the !oundary surface S.
%a( ,or Dirichlet !oundary conditions on the potential and the associated !oundary condition on the
Green function) show that G
D
%) $( ust !e syetric in and $.
%!( ,or Neuann !oundary conditions) use the !oundary condition %1.+'( for G
N
%) $( to show that
G
N
%) $( is not syetric in "eneral) !ut that G
N
%) $( / F%( is syetric in and $) where
F ()=
1
S

S
G
N
( , y) da
y
%c( Show that the addition of F%( to the Green function does not affect the potential %(. See pro!le
*.&1 for an e-aple of the Neuann Green function.
SOL"#$O%:
2he electrostatic Green function for Dirichlet and Neuann !oundary conditions is3
4()=
1
+c
0

V
p( $ )Gd
&
$+
1
+

S (
G
d 4
d n$
4
d G
d n$
)
da$
Green$s theore %1.&'( is3

V
(
*

*
) d
&
x=


n
|
da
4ith inte"ration varia!les y and =G( , y) and =G( $ , y) ) and with
y
*
G( ! , y)=+6( y!) )
this e5uation !ecoes3
+

V
(G( , y)6( y$ )G( $ , y)6( y)) d
&
y=

S
G( , y)
G( $ , y)
n
G( $ , y)
G( , y)
n
|
da
y
G( , $)G( $ , )|=
1
+

S
G( , y)
G( $ , y)
n
G( $ , y)
G( , y)
n
|
da
y
472
%a( ,or Dirichlet !oundary conditions on the potential) is 6nown on the surface and F can !e chosen
to a6e G
D
7 0 on the surface. 2he electrostatic Green function !ecoes3
4()=
1
+c
0

V
p( $ )G
D
d
&
$
1
+

S
4
d G
D
d n$
da $
2he "reen function G
D
in this case can !e shown to !e syetric in and $ !y usin" the "eneral for
fro a!ove3
G( , $)G( $ , )|=
1
+

S
G( , y)
G( $ , y)
n
G( $ , y)
G( , y)
n
|
da
y
,or Dirichlet !oundary conditions) as stated a!ove) G
D
7 0 on the surface. 2he leads to3
G( , $)G( $ , )|=
1
+

S
(0)
(0)
n
(0)
(0)
n
|
da
y
G( , $)G( $ , )|=0
G( , $ )=G($ , )
%!( ,or Neuann !oundary conditions) F can !e chosen so that the siplest !oundary condition %1.+'(
for G
N
%) $( is3
G
N
n$
( , $ )=
+
S
where S is the total surface area of the !oundary.
2he electrostatic Green function !ecoes3
4()=
1
+c
0

V
p( $ )G
N
d
&
$+
1
+

S (
G
N
d 4
d n$
)
da$ +4
S
2he "reen function G
N
in this case is not syetric in "eneral) shown !y usin" the "eneral for fro
a!ove3
G( , $)G( $ , )|=
1
+

S
G( , y)
G( $ , y)
n
G( $ , y)
G( , y)
n
|
da
y
,or Neuann !oundary conditions) as stated a!ove)
G
N
n$
=
+
S
on the surface. 2he leads to3

G
N
( , $ )G
N
( $ , )
|
=
1
S

S
G
N
( , y) da
y

1
S

S
G
N
($ , y)da
y
G
N
( , $ )
1
S

S
G
N
( , y) da
y
=G
N
( $ , )
1
S

S
G
N
($ , y)da
y
473
2his is o!viously not syetric in "eneral) !ut G
N
%) $( / F%( is syetric in and $) where
F ()=
1
S

S
G
N
( , y) da
y
.
%c( Start with the Neuann Green$s function solution3
4()=
1
+c
0

V
p( $ )G
N
d
&
$+
1
+

S (
G
N
d 4
d n$
)
da$ +4
S
Now add to the Green function F%( and find its affect.
4$ ( )=
1
+c
0

V
p( $ )(G
N
+F( ))d
&
$ +
1
+

S (
(G
N
+F ())
d 4
d n$
)
da$+ 4
S
4$ ( )= 4
S
+
1
+c
0

V
p( $ )G
N
d
&
$+
1
+

S (
G
N
d 4
d n$
)
da$
+
1
+c
0

V
p( $) F () d
&
$+
1
+

S (
F ()
d 4
d n$
)
da $
4$ ( )=4()+
1
+c
0

V
p( $ ) F ()d
&
$+
1
+

S (
F ()
d 4
d n$
)
da $
4$ ( )=4()+
1
+
F ()

1
c
0

V
p($ ) d
&
$+

S (
d 4
d n$
)
da $
|
Use Gauss$s Law in inte"ral for in ters of a char"e distri!ution %where all of the inte"ration
varia!les are pried to 6eep the notation consistent(3

S
En$ da$=
1

V
( $ )d
&
$
4$ ( )=4()+
1
+
F ()

S
En$ da$ +

S (
d 4
d n$
)
da $
|
Use the definition of the scalar potential) E=
$
4 ) and reco"ni8e that

$
4n$ =
d 4
dn$
4$ ( )=4()+
1
+
F ()

S (
d 4
dn$
)
da$+

S (
d 4
d n$
)
da $
|
2he last two ters now cancel so that
4$ ( )=4()
2he addition of F%( to the Green function does not affect the potential %(.
474




"#$%&'(
)
475
Jackson 2.1 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an infinite plane conductor held at
ero potential. Using the method of images! find"
#a$ the surface%charge density induced on the plane! and plot it&
#b$ the force between the plane and the charge using Coulomb's law for the force between the charge
and its image&
#c$ the total force acting on the plane by integrating u
(
/ (c
)
over the whole plane&
#d$ the wor* necessary to remove the charge q from its position to infinity
#e$ the potential energy between the charge q and its image +compare the answer to part d and discuss,.
#f$ -ind the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.
SOLU!O":
.e place the point charge q at z / d and its image charge %q at z / %d. 0he total potential is then 1ust the
potential due to these two point charges"
4=
q
2c
)

3
.x
(
+y
(
+( zd )
(

3
.x
(
+y
(
+( z+d )
(
|
a$ the surface%charge density can be found using the relation we derived in a previous homewor*
problem"

u=c
)
4(#)
n
|
on S

u=c
)
4(#)
z
|
z=)

u=c
)
q
2c
)

( zd )
( x
(
+y
(
+( zd )
(
)
4/ (
+
( z+d )
( x
(
+y
(
+( z+d )
(
)
4/(
||
z =)
u=
3
(
q d
( x
(
+y
(
+d
(
)
4/ (
#b$ the force on the particle due to the image charge is"
$=
3
35c
)
q
(
d
(
%
476
0he real charge is attracted down towards the conductor. 0he force gets stronger as it gets closer.
#c$ the force on the conductor should be e6ual and opposite to the force on the particle! which we
derived in part b. .e are supposed to calculate it anyways. Let us calculate the force as the interaction
of the surface charge and the particle! as opposed to the interaction of the particle with its image.
d $
da
=uE
0he incremental force per unit area shown on the left is the electrostatic pressure. But the field is also
related to the surface charge on a thin conductor according to"

E=
u
(c
)
n
so that
d $
da
=
u
(
(c
)
n
Electrostatic pressure on the surface of a conductor
0he total force is 1ust the pressure times an incremental patch of area! integrated over all area patches"
d $=
u
(
(c
)
nda
$=

u
(
(c
)
da n
$=
3
(c
)
q
(
d
(
(

)

pd p
(p
(
+d
(
)
4
%
$= %
3
(c
)
q
(
d
(
7
3
( p
(
+d
(
)
(
|
)

$=
3
35c
)
q
(
d
(
%
d$ 0he wor* needed to remove the charge to infinity"
W=

F (d ' ) d d '
W=
q
(
35c
)

3
d '
(
d d '
477
W=
q
(
35c
)

3
d '
|
d

W=
q
(
35c
)
d
#e$ 0he potential energy between the charge q and its image"
W=
q
3
q
(
2c
)
#
3
#
(

W=
q
(
7c
)
d
0he potential energy is twice the wor* re6uired to move the particle to infinity. 0he reason they don't
match is because the image particle is not a real particle. .e must remember that there are actually no
fields within the conductor. 0he potential energy calculation above is counting the energy of the fields
in the conductor! which don't actually e8ist.
#f$ .e now find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the
surface.
W=
q
(
35c
)
d
W=
(3e)
(
35(9.9(53)
:
e;<m)(3)
3)
m)
W=4.5e<
478
Jackson 2.2 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded,
conducting sphere of inner radius a. ind
!a" the potential inside the sphere#
!b" the induced surface$charge density#
!c" the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q.
!d" %s there any change in the solution if the sphere is &ept at a fi'ed potential V( %f the sphere has a
total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces(
SOLUTO!:
%n class, we already solved the problem of a point charge outside a conducting sphere. )his problem is
identical e'cept that we switch the position of the image charge and real charge.
!a" Because of the symmetry, the potential will still be the same*
4(")=
q
+ c
,

-
"#

y
a
"
a
y
#

|
!b" )he surface charge density will evaluate to the same value, e'cept that the normal is now pointing
in the opposite direction, so we must add a negative sign*
u=
q
+a
.
(
a
y
)
-
a
.
y
.
(
-+
a
.
y
.
.
a
y
cos 0
)
// .
0ote that for a real charge inside the sphere, y 1 a, so that the numerator ends up negative, so that the
overall charge is still the opposite charge of q as it was for the case of the real charge outside the
sphere.
479
!c" )he force is the same as before but is directed in the opposite direction*
$=
-
+c
,
q
.
a
.
(
a
y
)
/
(
-
a
.
y
.
)
.
#
!d" 0othing changes. %f the charge Q is added to the sphere, the induced charge on the inside surface of
the sphere must still be $q, leaving a charge Q $ q on the outside surface of the sphere.
480
Jackson 2.3 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
A straight-line charge with constant linear charge is located perpendicular to the x-y plane in the first
quadrant at x
!
" y
!
#. $he intersecting planes at x % !" y & ! and y % !" x & ! are conducting 'oundary
surfaces held at (ero potential. Consider the potential" fields" and surface charges in the first quadrant.
a# $he well-)nown potential for an isolated line charge at x
!
" y
!
# is *x" y# % +,-
!
#lnR
.
,r
.
#"
where r
.
% x - x
!
#
.
/ y - y
!
#
.
and R is a constant. Deter0ine the e1pression for the potential of the line
charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. 2erify e1plicitly that the potential and the tangential
electric field vanish at the 'oundary surfaces.
'# Deter0ine the surface charge density on the plane y % !" x & !. 3lot , versus x for
x
!
% ." y
!
% 4#" x
!
% 4" y
!
% 4#" x
!
% 4" y
!
% .#.
c# Show that the total charge per unit length in z# on the plane y % !" x & ! is
Q
x
=
.

\tan
4
(
x
!
y
!
)
5hat is the total charge on the plane x % !6
d# Show that far fro0 the origin 7 88
!
" where %
.x
.
+y
.
and
!
%
.
x
!
.
+y
!
.
9 the leading ter0 in the
potential is
4-4
asy0
=
-\
c
!
( x
!
y
!
)( xy)
p
-
:nterpret.
SOLU!O":
Using the 0ethod of i0ages" let us put an i0age line charge ; at -x
!
" y
!
#" an i0age line charge ;; at
x
!
" -y
!
#" and an i0age line charge ;;; at -x
!
" -y
!
# and conceptually re0ove the conducting surface.
481
$he solution to the potential for the four line charges is<
4( x , y)=
4
-c
!
\ln
(
R
.
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
+
4
-c
!
\; ln
(
R
.
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)

+
4
-c
!
\;; ln
(
R
.
( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)
+
4
-c
!
\;;; ln
(
R
.
( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)
Apply the 'oundary condition 4( x=!" y)=!
!=\ln
(
R
.
x
!
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
+\; ln
(
R
.
x
!
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
+\;; ln
(
R
.
x
!
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)
+\;;; ln
(
R
.
x
!
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)
!=ln

(
R
.
x
!
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
\
(
R
.
x
!
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
\;
(
R
.
x
!
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)
\;;
(
R
.
x
!
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)
\;;;
|
4=
(
R
.
x
!
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
\+\;
(
R
.
x
!
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)
\ ;;+\ ;;;
$his can only 'e true for all y if \+\;=! and \;;+\;;;=!
Apply the 'oundary condition 4( x , y=!)=!
!=\ln
(
R
.
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.
)
+\; ln
(
R
.
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.
)
+\;; ln
(
R
.
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.
)
+\;;; ln
(
R
.
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.
)
4=
(
R
.
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.
)
\+\ ;;
(
R
.
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.
)
\ ;+\;;;

$his can only 'e true for all x if \+\;;=! and \;+\;;;=!
x
y
x
!
" y
!
#

x
y
x
!
" y
!
#

x
!
" -y
!
#
;;
-x
!
" y
!
#
;
-x
!
" -y
!
#
;;;
482
Using the four equations in 'o1es" we now have four equations and three un)nowns. 5e solve for
each<
\;=\ " \;;=\ " \;;;=\
$he final solution is then<
4( x , y)=
4
-c
!
\ln
(
R
.
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)

4
-c
!
\ln
(
R
.
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)

4
-c
!
\ln
(
R
.
( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)
+
4
-c
!
\ln
(
R
.
( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
ln
(
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln
(
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln (( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)+ln (( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
) |
$o e1plicitly verify that the potential disappears at the 'oundary" we chec) the potential at x % !
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
ln
(
( x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln
(
( x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln
(
( x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)
+ln
(
( x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)
|

4( x=!" y)=!
and chec) the potential at y % !

4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
ln
(
( xx
!
)
.
+( y
!
)
.
)
ln
(
( x+x
!
)
.
+( y
!
)
.
)
ln
(
( xx
!
)
.
+( y
!
)
.
)
+ln
(
( x+x
!
)
.
+( y
!
)
.
)
|

4( x , y=!)=!
$he tangential electric field along the x-a1is 'oundary is =ust E
x
<
E
x
=
4
x
at y % !
E
x
=
\
-c
!

x
ln
(
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln
(
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln(( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)+ln (( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
) |
E
x
=
\
-c
!

.( xx
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.

.( x+x
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.

.( xx
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
+
.( x+x
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
|
483
At y % !<
E
x
=
\
-c
!

.( xx
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.

.( x+x
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.

.( xx
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.
+
.( x+x
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.
|
E
x
=!
at y % !<

$he tangential electric field along the y-a1is 'oundary is =ust E
y
<
E
y
=
4
y
at x % !

E
y
=
\
-c
!

y
ln
(
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln
(
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln (( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)+ln (( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
) |

E
y
=
\
-c
!

.( yy
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.

.( yy
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.

.( y+y
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
+
.( y+y
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
|
At x % !<
E
y
=
\
-c
!

.( yy
!
)
x
!
.
+( yy
!
)
.

.( yy
!
)
x
!
.
+( yy
!
)
.

.( y+y
!
)
x
!
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
+
.( y+y
!
)
x
!
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
|
E
y
=!
at x % !
'# Deter0ine the surface charge density on the plane y % !" x & !. 3lot , versus x for
x
!
% ." y
!
% 4#" x
!
% 4" y
!
% 4#" x
!
% 4" y
!
% .#.
$he surface charge density on an ar'itrary surface creates an electric field discontinuity according to<

(E
.
E
4
)n=
4
c
!
u
|
n=n
!
>or a conductor" the electric field 'elow the surface is (ero" E
4
% !" and the electric field is nor0al to
the conductor;s surface" and thus parallel to the conductor;s nor0al" so that<

E
n
=
4
c
!
u
|
n=n
!
>or this particular pro'le0" the surface is the x-a1is so that the nor0al is in the y direction
u=

c
!
E
y
|
y=!
484
5e have already derived E
y
a'ove and plug it directly in<
u=

\
-
.( yy
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.

.( yy
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.

.( y+y
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
+
.( y+y
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
|
|
y=!
u=
\
-

-( y
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.
+
-( y
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.
|
u=
\ y
!

4
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.

4
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.
|
>or x
!
% ." y
!
% 4#
u
\
=
4

4
( x.)
.
+4

4
( x+.)
.
+4
|
>or x
!
% 4" y
!
% 4#
u
\
=
4

4
( x4)
.
+4

4
( x+4)
.
+4
|
485
>or x
!
% 4" y
!
% .#
u
\
=
.

4
( x4)
.
+-

4
( x+4)
.
+-
|
c# Show that the total charge per unit length in z# on the plane y % !" x & ! is
Q
x
=
.

\tan
4
(
x
!
y
!
)
5hat is the total charge on the plane x % !6
$o get the total charge on the plane y % ! we =ust integrate over the charge density on the plane<
Q
x
=

u( x) dx
Q
x
=
\ y
!

4
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.
dx

4
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.
dx
|
Q
x
=
\ y
!

x
!

4
x
.
+y
!
.
dx

x
!

4
x
.
+y
!
.
dx
|
Q
x
=
\ y
!

4
y
!
tan
4
(
x
y
!
)
|
x
!

4
y
!
tan
4
(
x
y
!
)
|
x
!

|
Q
x
=
\ y
!


. y
!

4
y
!
tan
4
(
x
!
y
!
)


. y
!
+
4
y
!
tan
4
(
x
!
y
!
)
|
Q
x
=
.

\tan
4
(
x
!
y
!
)
486
Due to the total sy00etry 'etween the x and y a1es" the total charge on the x % ! plane is<
Q
x
=
.

\tan
4
(
y
!
x
!
)
d# Show that far fro0 the origin 7 88
!
" where %
.x
.
+y
.
and
!
%
.
x
!
.
+y
!
.
9 the leading ter0 in the
potential is
4-4
asy0
=
-\
c
!
( x
!
y
!
)( xy)
p
-
:nterpret.
$he potential was found a'ove to 'e<
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
ln
(
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln
(
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln (( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)+ln (( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
) |
3ut this potential in cylindrical coordinates " " z#<
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
ln
(
p
.
+p
!
.
.pp
!
cos(00
!
)
)
ln
(
p
.
+p
!
.
+.pp
!
cos(0+0
!
)
)
ln( p
.
+p
!
.
. pp
!
cos(0+0
!
))+ln( p
.
+p
!
.
+.pp
!
cos(00
!
)) |
Divide everything 'y
.
so that we can get everything in ter0s of
!
, and then we are a'le to 0a)e a
state0ent a'out 'eing far away fro0 the origin<
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
ln( p
.
)+ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
.
p
!
p
cos(00
!
)
)
ln(p
.
)ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
+.
p
!
p
cos(0+0
!
)
)

ln(p
.
)ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
.
p
!
p
cos(0+0
!
)
)
+ln (p
.
)+ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
+.
p
!
p
cos(00
!
)
)
|
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
.
p
!
p
cos(00
!
)
)
ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
+.
p
!
p
cos(0+0
!
)
)

ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
.
p
!
p
cos(0+0
!
)
)
+ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
+.
p
!
p
cos(00
!
)
)
|
?1pand each ter0 in a $aylor series using ln (4+x)=xx
.
/ .+x
@
/ @+...
487
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!

(
p
!
p
)
.
.
p
!
p
cos(00
!
)
|
(4/ .)
(
p
!
p
)
.
.
p
!
p
cos(00
!
)
|
.
+F
4
( x
@
, x
-
,...)

(
p
!
p
)
.
+.
p
!
p
cos(0+0
!
)
|
+(4/ .)
(
p
!
p
)
.
+.
p
!
p
cos(0+0
!
)
|
.
+F
.
( x
@
, x
-
,...)

(
p
!
p
)
.
.
p
!
p
cos(0+0
!
)
|
+(4/ .)
(
p
!
p
)
.
.
p
!
p
cos(0+0
!
)
|
.
+F
@
( x
@
, x
-
,...)
+
(
p
!
p
)
.
+.
p
!
p
cos(00
!
)
|
(4/ .)
(
p
!
p
)
.
+.
p
!
p
cos(00
!
)
|
.
+F
-
( x
@
, x
-
,...) |
Most of the first few ter0s cancel out when e1panded<
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
-
(
p
!
p
)
.
(cos
.
(0+0
!
)cos
.
(00
!
))
+F
4
( x
@
, x
-
, ...)+F
.
( x
@
, x
-
,...)+F
@
( x
@
, x
-
, ...)+F
-
( x
@
, x
-
,...)|

>ar away fro0 the origin we have 88
!
and therefore
!
,AA4. $his 0eans that
!
,#
@
and
!
,#
-
etc.
are negligi'le co0pared to
!
,#
.
and they can all 'e dropped.
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
-
(
p
!
p
)
.
(cos
.
(0+0
!
)cos
.
(00
!
))
4( x , y)=
\
c
!
(
p
!
p
)
.
(- cos0cos0
!
sin0sin0
!
)
4( x , y)=
-\
c
!
( x
!
y
!
)( x y)
p
-

$his is the quadrupole ter0" which 0a)es sense 'ecause there are four line charges.
488
Jackson 2.4 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an eually charged! isolated! conducting
sphere or radius R.
"a# $nside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than
repelled %y the charged sphere&
"%# 'hat is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance
a "( d ) R# from the surface of the sphere! if a ** R&
"c# 'hat are the results for parts a and % if the charge on the sphere is twice "half# as large as the point
charge! %ut still the same sign&
SOLU!O":
'e can treat the final solution as the sum of a grounded conducting sphere plus the remaining charge
on the sphere which spreads out uniformly. Call the total charge on the point charge q and the total
charge on the sphere Q. $f the sphere were grounded! it would have a total charge induced on it eual to
the image charge q+. ,he remaining charge Q ) q+ spreads out uniformly and creates a potential
euivalent to a point charge at its center. ,he total potential is then the sum of that due to the original
charge! the image charge! and the remaining charge "note that
d =

#
-
designates the position of the
point charge#.
=
/
0
-
[
q
##
-

Rq
d

#
R
1
d
1
#
-

+
Q+
R
d
q
#
]
"a# ,his potential is valid at all points in space. Because all we care a%out is the potential which leads to
a force on the point charge! we can constrain our points of interest to the a2is of the charge3sphere
system!
#= #
-
! and also drop the first term %ecause the particle does not e2ert a total force on itself.
"4ote that r=# #.
=
/
0
-
[
Rq
r dR
1
+
Q
r
+
Rq
r d ]
,he force the point charge e2periences is.
$=q E(r=d )
489
$=[q ]
r =d
$= r
[
q

r
]
r=d
$= r
q
0
-
[
Rq d
(r dR
1
)
1

Q
r
1

Rq
r
1
d
]
r=d
$= r
q
1
0
-
d
1
[

(
d
R
)
5
((
d
R
)
1
/
)
1
+Q/ q+
R
d
]
,he point of turning from %eing repelled to attracted occurs when the force euals 6ero.
-=

(
d
R
)
5
((
d
R
)
1
/
)
1
+Q/ q+
R
d
(
d
R
)
5
=(Q/ q+
R
d
)
((
d
R
)
1
/
)
1
(Q/ q)
(
d
R
)
7
1(Q/ q)
(
d
R
)
5
1
(
d
R
)
1
+
(
d
R
)
(Q/ q)+/=-
8or Q ( q.
(
d
R
)
7
1
(
d
R
)
5
1
(
d
R
)
1
+
(
d
R
)
+/=-
,his is solved numerically to give.
d
R
=/.9/:-5
"%# 'hen the point charge is close to the surface! d ( R ; a and a ** R.
$= r
q
1
0
-
(R+a)
1
[

(
( R+a)
R
)
5
((
( R+a)
R
)
1
/
)
1
+Q/ q+
R
(R+a)
]
490
$= r
q
1
0
-
[
R(R+a)
0
+a
1
(R a
1
+0 R
5
+0a R
1
+Q/ q(7Ra
1
+0 R
5
+:a R
1
+a
5
))
a
1
( a
1
+0 R
1
+0a R)( R+a)
5
]
4ow apply a ** R.
$= r
q
1
0
-
[
R
7
a
1
(0 R
7
)
]
$=r
q
1
/9
-
a
1
,his is the force %etween a point charge and its image in an infinite plane. ,his means that very close to
the sphere! it loo<s li<e a plane! and the e2cess charge is far away enough to have no effect.
"c# ,he results for part "%# are general and will still %e the same no matter what the total charge on the
sphere is. ,he turning point of part "a# will however change.
8or Q ( 1q we must solve.
1
(
d
R
)
7
0
(
d
R
)
5
1
(
d
R
)
1
+1
(
d
R
)
+/=-
Using a numerical solver! we find.
d
R
=/.01=79
8or Q ( q>1 we must solve.
// 1
(
d
R
)
7

(
d
R
)
5
1
(
d
R
)
1
+
(
d
R
)
// 1+/=-
Using a numerical solver! we find.
d
R
=/.::11=
491
Jackson 2.5 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
(a) Show that the work done to remove the chare q from a distance r ! a to infinity aainst the force"
#$. (%.&)" of a rounded conductin sphere is
W=
q
%
a
'
(
(r
%
a
%
)
)elate this result to the electrostatic potential" #$. (%.*)" and the enery discussion of Section +.++.
(,) )epeat the calculation of the work done to remove the chare q aainst the force" #$. (%.-)" of an
isolated chared conductin sphere. Show that the work done is
W=
+
.
(
[
q
%
a
%(r
%
a
%
)

q
%
a
%r
%

qQ
r
]
)elate the work to the electrostatic potential" #$. (%.')" and the enery discussion of Section +.++.
SOLU!O":
(a) / chare q near a rounded conducin sphere feels an attractive force0
F=
+
.
(
q
%
a
%
(
a
y
)
*
(
+
a
%
y
%
)
%
1he work done to remove it to infinity is0
W=

A
B
#d l
W=

+
.
(
q
%
a
%
(
a
y
)
*
(
+
a
%
y
%
)
%
dy
W=
+
.
(
q
%
a

y
( y
%
a
%
)
%
dy
Use u=y
%
a
%
" d u=% y dy
W=
+
'
(
q
%
a

r
%
a
%

du
u
%
492
W=
q
%
a
'
(
(r
%
a
%
)
1he work is the chare times potential difference" or 2ust the potential if we have a 3ero4potential
reference point at infinity" as we do here. 5e found the potential to ,e0
$=
q
.
(
[
+
$%

y
a
$
a
y
%

]
6n this case" the chare helpin to create the potential is the same one we are doin work on" so that
$ 7 % 7 r. (1he infinite self4enery of the first term is non4physical and is dropped).
q($)=
q
%
.
(
a
(r
%
a
%
)
Comparin this e8pression to the work e8pression" we see they are identical e8cept for a few features.
9irst" the sin difference accounts for the fact that we have removed the particle aainst a force. /lso"
the missin factor of one half is accounted ,y the fact that we have dou,le counted when the chare
helpin to the create the potential is the same one that is havin work done on it aainst the potential.
(,) 1o remove a chare from near an isolated" chared" conductin sphere" we do the same type of
calculation0
F=
+
.
(
q
y
%
[
Q
qa
*
(% y
%
a
%
)
y( y
%
a
%
)
%
]
W=
q
.
(

+
y
%
[
Q
qa
*
(% y
%
a
%
)
y( y
%
a
%
)
%
]
dy
W=
q
.
(
[
Q
r
q a
*

(% y
%
a
%
)
y
*
( y
%
a
%
)
%
dy
]
Use u=y
%
a
%
" d u=% y dy " y
%
=u+a
%
and separate into partial fractions0
W=
q
.
(
[
Q
r

qa
% [


r
%
a
%

+
( u+a
%
)
%
du+

r
%
a
%

+
u
%
du
]]
W=
+
.
(
[
q
%
a
%(r
%
a
%
)

q
%
a
%r
%

qQ
r
]
493
1he potential when $ 7 % 7 r is0
q=
+
.
(
[
q
%
a
(r
%
a
%
)

q
%
a
r
%

qQ
r
]
Comparin this e8pression to the work e8pression" we see that they match apart from the overall sin
and a factor of one half. :otice that the factor of one half only e8ists on the pieces related to the
oriinal chare" ,ecause this is the only one that ets dou,le4counted.
494
Jackson 2.7 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Consider a potential problem in the half-space defined by z ! with Dirichlet boundary conditions on
the plane z " #and at infinity$.
#a$ %rite down the appropriate &reen function &#x! x'$
#b$ (f the potential on the plane z " is specified to be " V inside a circle of radius a centered on the
ori)in! and " outside that circle! find an inte)ral e*pression for the potential at the point P specified
in terms of cylindrical coordinates (p ,, z) .
#c$ Show that! alon) the a*is of the circle # " $! the potential is )iven by
4=V
(
+
z
.a
,
+z
,
)
#d$ Show that at lar)e distances #
,
- z
,
.. a
,
$ the potential can be e*panded in a power series in
#
,
- z
,
$
-+
! and that the leadin) terms are
4=
V a
,
,
z
(p
,
+z
,
)
// ,

+
/a
,
0(p
,
+z
,
)
+
1(/p
,
a
,
+a
0
)
2(p
,
+z
,
)
,
+...
|
3erify that the results of parts c and d are consistent with each other in their common ran)e of validity.
SOL!"O#:
#a$ 4he &reen function solution to the potential problem with this boundary for Dirichlet boundary
conditions re5uires that G
D
" on the surface and that G
D
obeys
=G( x , x' )=
+
xx'
+F (x , x' )
everywhere else. 4he problem of findin) the &reen function amounts to findin) the proper function F
above so that the &reen function G disappears on the boundary. 4his problem is e*actly e5uivalent to a
the situation where we have a unit point char)e at x'! which creates the potential +67x-x'7! in the presence
of a flat conductor runnin) alon) the z " plane. 4he solution for the potential of the e5uivalent
problem will then be identical to the &reen function for the ori)inal problem.
4o solve the problem of the char)e q at x' in the presence of a conductin) sheet at the z " plane! we
use the method of ima)es. %e place an ima)e char)e q' at #x'! y'! -z'$ so that the potential is 8ust the sum
of the two point char)es9
495
4=
+
0c

q
.( xx' )
,
+( yy' )
,
+( zz' )
,
+
+
0c

q'
.( xx' )
,
+( yy ' )
,
+( z+z ' )
,
:pply the boundary condition of a conductor at the z " plane9 4( x , y , z=)=
=
+
0c

q
.( xx' )
,
+( yy ' )
,
+( z ' )
,
+
+
0c

q'
.( xx' )
,
+( yy ' )
,
+( z ' )
,
q' =q
4he ima)e char)e is 8ust the perfect mirror ima)e in location and in char)e! which ma;es sense because
a perfectly conductin) surface that is perfectly flat is 8ust a perfect mirror. 4he potential is then9

4=
q
0c

+
.( xx ')
,
+( yy ' )
,
+( zz ' )
,

+
.( xx' )
,
+( yy ')
,
+( z+z ' )
,
|
<ow )o bac; to the ori)inal problem without the conductor and point! but some potentially comple*
char)e distribution in the presence of some potentially comple* boundary condition alon) the z "
plane. 4he solution to this ori)inal problem is! accordin) to the &reen function method9
4(x)=
+
0c

p(x ') G
D
d
/
x'
+
0

(
4
d G
D
d n'
)
da '
where we now ;now the &reen function used by this e5uation. (t is 8ust the solution to the e5uivalent
problem with unit char)e #q " 0

$9
G
D
( x , x' )=
+
.( xx' )
,
+( yy ' )
,
+( zz ' )
,

+
.( xx' )
,
+( yy' )
,
+( z+z ')
,
#b$ (f the potential on the plane z " is specified to be " V inside a circle of radius a centered on the
ori)in! and " outside that circle! find an inte)ral e*pression for the potential at the point P specified
in terms of cylindrical coordinates (p ,, z) .
:lthou)h not stated! it can be assumed that there is no char)e present anywhere in this problem. when
that is the case! then the &reen function solution for Dirichlet boundary conditions becomes9
4(x)=
+
0

S (
4
d G
D
d n'
)
da'
4he enclosin) surface S in this case is a bo* with one side on the plane z " and the other sides at
infinity. 4he potential dies off to =ero at infinity! so the sides at infinity ma;e no contribution to the
inte)ral. 4he potential is also =ero everywhere on the plane z " outside the circle! so that those
locations ma;e no contribution to the inte)ral. 4he only piece of the inte)ral left is inside the circle! so
that9
496
4(x)=
+
0

,
(
4
d G
D
d n'
)
p' d ' d p'
4(x)=
V
0

,
d G
D
d n'
p' d ' d p'
4he normal n' is defined as pointin) out of the volume enclosed so that for this problem n' " -z'
4(x)=
V
0

,
d G
D
d z '
p' d ' d p'
>lu))in) in the &reen function we found above9
4(x)=
V
0

,
d
d z '
+
.( xx ' )
,
+( yy' )
,
+( zz' )
,

+
.( xx ')
,
+( yy ' )
,
+( z+z ' )
,
|
p' d ' d p'
>uttin) everythin) in cylindrical coordinates9
4(x)=
V
0

,
d
d z '

+
.p
,
+p'
,
,pp' cos(' )+( zz ' )
,

+
.p
,
+p'
,
,pp' cos (' )+( z+z ' )
,
| p' d ' d p'
4(x)=
V
0

,
(+/ ,)
,( zz ')(+)
(p
,
+p'
,
, pp' cos(' )+( zz ' )
,
)
//,

(+/ ,)
,( z+z ' )
( p
,
+p'
,
,pp' cos(')+( z+z ' )
,
)
// ,
| p' d ' d p'
%e now evaluate everythin) at z' " because our inte)ration surface #the primed system$ is completely
contained in this plane.
4(x)=
z V
,

,
p' d ' d p'
( p
,
+p'
,
,pp' cos(')+z
,
)
//,
4he problem is a=imuthally symmetric! so that we are free to ma;e a chan)e of variables9
' -'+
4(x)=
z V
,

,
p' d ' d p'
( p
,
+p'
,
,pp' cos(')+z
,
)
// ,
497
#c$ Show that! alon) the a*is of the circle # " $! the potential is )iven by
4=V
(
+
z
.a
,
+z
,
)
4a;e the )eneral solution found above and plu) in # " $ to )et the on-a*is solution9
4(x)=
z V
,

,
p' d ' d p'
(p'
,
+z
,
)
//,
4(x)=
z V
,

,
d '

a
p' d p'
(p'
,
+z
,
)
// ,
4(x)=z V

a
p' d p'
(p'
,
+z
,
)
// ,
Ma;e a chan)e of variables u=p'
,
+z
,
! d u=,p' d p'
4(x)=
z V
,

z
,
a
,
+z
,
du
u
//,
4(x)=z V

+
.u
|
z
,
a
,
+z
,
4(x)=V

+
z
.a
,
+z
,
|
#d$ Show that at lar)e distances #
,
- z
,
.. a
,
$ the potential can be e*panded in a power series in
#
,
- z
,
$
-+
! and that the leadin) terms are
4=
V a
,
,
z
(p
,
+z
,
)
// ,

+
/a
,
0(p
,
+z
,
)
+
1(/p
,
a
,
+a
0
)
2(p
,
+z
,
)
,
+...
|
3erify that the results of parts c and d are consistent with each other in their common ran)e of validity.
4he )eneral solution found above was9
4(x)=
z V
,

,
p' d ' d p'
( p
,
+p'
,
,pp' cos(')+z
,
)
// ,
Divide top and bottom by (p
,
+z
,
)
// ,
498
4(x)=
z V
,
+
(p
,
+z
,
)
//,

,
d '

a
d p' p'
(
++
p'
,
,pp' cos(' )
p
,
+z
,
)
// ,
?*pand the last factor usin) the Binomial series9 (++x)
n
=++n x+
n(n+)
,
x
,
+...
4(x)=
z V
,
+
(p
,
+z
,
)
//,

,
d '

a
d p' p' +
/
,
(p
,
+z
,
)
+
(p'
,
,pp' cos(' ))

+
+1
2
(p
,
+z
,
)
,
(p'
,
,pp' cos(' ))
,
+... |
%e can now inte)rate term by term
4(x)=
z V
,
+
(p
,
+z
,
)
//,

,
d '

a
d p' p'
|

/
,
(p
,
+z
,
)
+

,
d '

a
d p' p' p'
,
,pp' cos(' )|
+
+1
2
(p
,
+z
,
)
,

,
d '

a
d p' p' (p'
,
,pp' cos(' ))
,
|+... |
4(x)=
z V
,
+
(p
,
+z
,
)
//,
a
,

/
,
(p
,
+z
,
)
+

,
d '

a
d p' p' p'
,
|,

,
d '

a
d p' p' pp' cos(' )|
|
+
+1
2
(p
,
+z
,
)
,

,
d '

a
d p' p' p'
0
+0 p
,
p'
,
cos
,
(')0pp'
/
cos(')|+... |
4(x)=
z V
,
+
(p
,
+z
,
)
//,
a
,

/
,
(p
,
+z
,
)
+

,
a
0
|
+
+1
2
(p
,
+z
,
)
,

,
a
@
@
+0p
,
a
0
0

|
+... |
4(x)=
V a
,
,
z
( p
,
+z
,
)
//,

+
/a
,
0(p
,
+z
,
)
+
1(/p
,
a
,
+a
0
)
2( p
,
+z
,
)
,
+...
|
:lon) the a*is this becomes
4(x)=
V a
,
,
+
z
,

+
/a
,
0 z
,
+
1a
0
2 z
0
+...
|
4(x)=V

a
,
, z
,

/a
0
2 z
0
+
1a
@
+@ z
@
+...
|
4(x)=V

+
(
+
a
,
, z
,
+
/a
0
2 z
0

1a
@
+@ z
@
+...
)|

<ow we reco)ni=e the e*pansion9
(++x)
+/ ,
=+
+
,
x+
/
2
x
,

1
+@
x
/
499
4(x)=V

+
(
++
a
,
z
,
)
+/,
|
4(x)=V

+
z
.a
,
+z
,
|
4his matches part c.
500
Jackson 2.9 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
An insulated, spherical, conducting shell of radius a is in a uniform electric field E

. !f the sphere is cut


into two hemispheres "y a plane perpendicular to the field, find the force re#uired to prevent the
hemispheres from separating
$a% if the shell is uncharged&
$"% if the total charge on the shell is Q.
SOLU!O":
$a% Align the z a'is with the direction of the electric field. (ind the potential outside a sphere at the
origin in a uniform field "y placing charges at z ) *R and z ) +R with charges +Q and *Q and letting R
and Q approach infinity with Q,R
-
constant. .he response of the sphere can "e represented "y placing
two image charges *Qa,R and +Qa,R in the sphere at *a
-
,R and +a
-
,R. .he potential outside an
uncharged conductor in a uniform field is therefore the potential of these four charges/
=
Q
0

[
1
r
-
+R
-
+-r Rcos

1
r
-
+R
-
- r Rcos
+
a/ R

r
-
+
a
0
R
-
-a
- r
R
cos

a/ R

r
-
+
a
0
R
-
+-a
- r
R
cos
]
!n the limit R 22 r, this "ecomes/
=E

r cos+E

a
3
r
-
cos where E

was recogni4ed as -Q,056

R
-
.he first term is 7ust the potential due to the applied field in spherical coordinates. .he second term is
the potential of a perfect dipole. .he sphere there has an induced charge distri"ution that acts as a
perfect dipole.
.he electric field is therefore/
E=
E=E

[ cos rsin

+
a
3
r
3
(-cos r+sin

)]
.he electric field at the surface of the sphere is/
E( r=a)=E

3cos r
501
.he charge distri"ution on the sphere8s surface is found using/
=

rE(r=a)
=3

cos
!f the sphere is now cut into hemispheres at the polar angle 9 ) 5,-, the "ottom hemisphere will feel a
total force/
#=

($)E($)d a
:e have to "e careful and not include the force of the "ottom hemisphere on itself. :e do this "y using
the relation E=

-

which gives us 7ust the electric field at the surface of a conductor due to non*self
contri"utions. Using this, we have/
#=
1
-

-
r d a
#=

k
a
-
-

/ -

(3

cos)
-
cossind d
#=

k ;

-
a
-

/-

cos
3
sin d
#=
;
0

-
a
-

k
.he force needed to <eep the "ottom hemisphere in place would therefore have to "e e#ual and in the
opposite direction/
#=
;
0

-
a
-

k
Due the symmetry, the force needed to <eep the other hemisphere in place would "e e#ual and
opposite.
$"% !f the sphere has a total charge of Q, it will 7ust spread out uniformly on the sphere as an additional
charge to the induced one.
=3

cos+
Q
0a
-
.he total force on the "ottom hemisphere will therefore "e/
#=
1
-

-
r d a
502
#=

k
a
-
-

/ -

(3

cos+
Q
0a
-
)(3

cos+
Q
0 a
-
)cossin d d
#=
a
-
-

/ -

(;

-
E

-
cos
-
+=

cos
Q
0 a
-
+
Q
-
1=
-
a
0
)cos sin d d
.he first term represents the force on the induced charges due the e'ternal field and the field from the
induced charges. .he second term represents the force on the charge Q due the e'ternal field. .he third
term represent the force Q on itself. >ote that the force of the e'ternal field on the point*charge*li<e
charge Q will 7ust tend to shift it and not separate it. Because we 7ust want forces that will separate the
two hemispheres, we must drop the middle term/
#=
a
-
-

/ -

(;

-
E

-
cos
-
+
Q
-
1=
-
a
0
)cossin d d
#=

k
[
;
0
a
-

-
+
Q
-
3-

a
-
]
.he force needed to <eep the "ottom hemisphere touching the upper sphere is therefore/
#=

k
[
;
0
a
-

-
+
Q
-
3-

a
-
]
503
Jackson 2.11 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
A line charge with linear charge density is placed parallel to, and a distance R away from, the ais of
a conducting cylinder of radius b held at fied voltage such that the potential vanishes at infinity. !ind
"a# the magnitude and position of the image charge"s#$
"%# the potential at any point "epressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the ais of the cylinder
and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x ais#, including the asymptotic form far
from the cylinder$
"c# the induced surface&charge density, and plot it as a function of angle for R'b ( ), * in units of ')+b
"d# the force per unit length on the line charge
SOLU!O":
,his pro%lem is similar to a point charge net to sphere. Let us place an image line charge - inside the
cylinder at R- as shown in the diagram %elow.
,he electric field surrounding one wire without anything else present is found %y drawing a cylindrical
.aussian surface around the line charge and using .auss-s Law. Due to the symmetry, the electric field
is parallel to the surface normal and constant over the .aussian surface. /t can thus %e ta0en out of the
integral.
x
y

-
b R
R-
V
504

S
Enda=
1
c
2
q
enc
E

S
da=
1
c
2
f L
E )r L=
1
c
2
f L
E=
f
)c
2
r
r
Use the definition of the potential and solve for the potential
E=4
d 4
d r
=
f
)c
2
r
4=
f
)c
2
ln(r)+A
Set the ar%itrary integration constant to
A=
f
)c
2
ln( B)
and use the laws of logarithms3
4=
f
*c
2
ln
(
B
)
r
)
)
",he potential due to one line charge#
,he total potential is now found %y including %oth the line charge and the image line charge3
4=
f
*c
2
ln
(
B
)
r
1
)
)
+
f-
*c
2
ln
(
B
)
r
)
)
)
,he varia%les r
1
and r
)
are the distance from the respective wires to the o%servation point. 4e must
now epress them in terms of the cylindrical coordinates (p ,, z) 3
4=
f
*c
2
ln
(
B
)
p
)
+R
)
)p Rcos
)
+
f-
*c
2
ln
(
B
)
p
)
+R-
)
) pR- cos
)
Apply the %oundary condition 4(p-)=2
2=
f
*c
2
ln
(
B
)
p
)
+R
)
)p Rcos
)
+
f-
*c
2
ln
(
B
)
p
)
+R-
)
) pR- cos
)
(p
)
+R
)
)pRcos)
f
(p
)
+R-
)
)p R- cos )
f-
=( B
)
)
f+f -
505
As approaches infinity, only the highest power of will survive and all other terms will approach
5ero %y comparison3
(p
)
+22)
f
(p
)
+22)
f -
=( B
)
)
f+f -
(p
)
)
f+f -
=( B
)
)
f+f -
(f+f- )(ln (p
)
)ln ( B
)
))=2
(f+f- )=2
f-=f
,his ma0es sense %ecause for the potential to %e 5ero at infinity, the total charge should %e 5ero. ,he
image charge cancels out the line charge at large distances. ,he solution now %ecomes3
4=
f
*c
2

ln
(
B
)
p
)
+R
)
) pRcos
)
ln
(
B
)
p
)
+R-
)
) pR- cos
)|
4=
f
*c
2
ln
(
p
)
+R-
)
)p R- cos
p
)
+R
)
)p Rcos
)
Apply the %oundary condition 4(p=b)=V
V =
f
*c
2
ln
(
b
)
+R-
)
)b R- cos
b
)
+R
)
)b Rcos
)
e
(
*c
2
V
f
)
=
b
)
+R-
)
)b R- cos
b
)
+R
)
)b Rcos
(b
)
+R
)
)b Rcos) e
(
*c
2
V
f
)
=b
)
+R-
)
)b R- cos
(b
)
+R
)
)e
(
*c
2
V
f
)
b
)
R-
)
=

)b R-+)b Re
(
*c
2
V
f
)
|
cos
,his must %e true for all so that the %oth sides of the e6uation are independent and thus e6ual to a
constant. ,he constant must %e 5ero to accommodate the case of =/ ) .
(b
)
+R
)
)e
(
*c
2
V
f
)
b
)
R-
)
=2
and 2=)b R-+)b Re
(
*c
2
V
f
)
(b
)
+R
)
)e
(
*c
2
V
f
)
b
)
R-
)
=2
and
R-
R
=e
(
*c
2
V
f
)
506
4e can use these two e6uations to eliminate the dependence on V and ma0e the solution more general.
(b
)
+R
)
)
R-
R
b
)
R-
)
=2
R-
)
(b
)
+R
)
)
R-
R
+b
)
=2
R-=
b
)
R
"%# the potential at any point "epressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the ais of the cylinder
and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x ais#, including the asymptotic form far
from the cylinder$
7lugging in the image charge magnitude and location as found a%ove, the solution to the potential now
%ecomes3
4=
f
*c
2
ln
(
p
)
+b
*
/ R
)
)p(b
)
/ R)cos
p
)
+R
)
)p Rcos
)
,o get the asymptotic form, we put the term in parentheses in a form that is easy to epand3
4=
f
*c
2
ln
(
11+
p
)
+b
*
/ R
)
)p(b
)
/ R) cos
p
)
+R
)
)p Rcos
)
4=
f
*c
2
ln
(
1+
( R
*
b
*
)(1/ R
)
)+( R
)
b
)
))(p/ R)cos
(p
)
+R
)
)pRcos)
)
Use the epansion ln (1+x)=xx
)
/ )+x
8
/ 8+...
4=
f
*c
2

(
( R
*
b
*
)(1/ R
)
)+( R
)
b
)
) )(p/ R) cos
(p
)
+R
)
)p Rcos)
)
1/ )
(
( R
*
b
*
)(1/ R
)
)+( R
)
b
)
) )(p/ R) cos
(p
)
+R
)
)p Rcos )
)
)
+... |
9!ar away: from the cylinder is defined as ;; b and 9far away: from the line charge is defined as
;; R so that we can drop all the higher order terms in the epansion
4=
f
*c
2
( R
*
b
*
)(1/ R
)
)+( R
)
b
)
) )( p/ R)cos
(p
)
+R
)
) pRcos)
507
Similarly, we can drop all %ut the highest term in the numerator and denominator.
4=
f
)c
2
( R
)
b
)
)
pR
cos
"c# the induced surface&charge density, and plot it as a function of angle for R'b ( ), * in units of ')+b
As shown previously, the surface&charge density on a conductor is found using .auss-s Law to %e3

E
n
=
1
c
2
u
|
n=n
2
u=

c
2
4
n
|
n=n
2
,he normal to the conductor-s surface is <ust in the cylindrical radial direction3
u=

c
2
4
p
|
p=b
u=

c
2

p
f
*c
2
ln
(
p
)
+b
*
/ R
)
)p(b
)
/ R) cos
p
)
+R
)
)p Rcos
)
|
p=b
u=

c
2
f
*c
2

p
ln( p
)
+b
*
/ R
)
)p(b
)
/ R)cos)ln ( p
)
+R
)
)p Rcos) |
|
p=b
u=

c
2
f
*c
2

) p)(b
)
/ R) cos
p
)
+b
*
/ R
)
) p(b
)
/ R) cos

)p) Rcos
p
)
+R
)
)p Rcos
|
|
p=b
u=
f
)b
1( R/ b)
)
1+( R/ b)
)
)( R/ b)cos
|
!or R'b ( )
u=
f
)b

8
=*cos
|
/n units of "')+b# this %ecomes3
u=
8
=*cos
508
!or R'b ( *
u=
f
)b

1=
1>?cos
|
/n units of "')+b# this %ecomes3
u=
1=
1>?cos
509
"d# the force per unit length on the line charge
,he electric field felt at some point at a distance d from the image line charge due to the image line
charge is3
E=
f-
)c
2
d
p
,he image charge is 0nown to %e f-=f and the distance d is <ust the distance %etween the image
charge and the line charge, d =RR- =R
b
)
R
, so that
E=
f
)c
2
( Rb
)
/ R)
p
,he force is the charge %eing acted upon times the electric field3
#=q E
#=(f L) E where L is some length along the line charge
#=(f L)
(

f
)c
2
( Rb
)
/ R)
p
)
!orce per unit length3
#
L
=
f
)
R
)c
2
( R
)
b
)
)
p
",he force is attractive#
510
Jackson 2.12 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Starting with the series solution (2.7! for the two"di#ensional potential pro$le# with the potential
specified on the surface of a cylinder of radius b% evaluate the coefficients for#ally% su$stitute the#
into the series% and su# it to o$tain the potential inside the cylinder in the for# of &oisson's integral(
( , )=

)
2
( b, ' )
b
2

2
b
2
+
2
2bcos(')
d '
*hat #odification is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space $ounded $y the cylinder
and infinity+
SOLU!O":
*hen the potentials and charges are unifor# in the z"direction% as is the case in this pro$le# with the
cylinder% the syste# reduces down to a two"di#ensional pro$le#. ,he circular cross"section of the
cylinder dictates that polar coordinates are the #ost fitting two"di#ensional coordinate syste# to use.
,here are not charges involved% so we need to solve the Laplace e-uation. ,he series solution to the
Laplace e-uation in polar coordinates was found in .ac/son to $e (0-. 2.7!(
( , )=a
)
+b
)
ln +

n=

a
n

n
sin(n
n
)+

n=

b
n

n
sin(n+
n
)
Because this is a solution to a two"di#ensional second order differential e-uation (the Laplace
e-uation!% there #ust $e four undeter#ined coefficients (or sets of coefficients for series solutions!. *e
therefore need four $oundary conditions1 or a $oundary condition at the #a2i#u# and #ini#u# of
each di#ension. 3or this pro$le# the $oundary conditions are(
(! angular #ini#u#( (=))=(=2)
(2! angular #a2i#u#( (=2)=( =))
(4! radial #ini#u#( (=))=finite
(5! radial #a2i#u#( (=b)=V ()
Boundary conditions (! and (2! are the sa#e $oundary conditions ensuring periodicity $ecause the full
angular sweep is included in the region of interest. 6pplying $oundary conditions (! and (2! leads to
the coefficient #ultiplied against phi $eco#ing an integer. ,hese $oundary conditions have already
$een applied in the solution given in .ac/son 0-. 2.7. *ith two $oundary conditions left% we should
only have two undeter#ined sets of coefficients. But 0-. 2.7 see#s to contain four independent
undeter#ined coefficients. 7n reality% they are not all independent and will $e ta/en care of as we
proceed.
*hen we apply $oundary condition (4! we see right away that(
511
b
n
=)
and
b
)
=)
so that the solution $eco#es(
( , )=a
)
+

n=

a
n

n
sin(n
n
)
Because a
n
and
n
are ar$itrary at this point% we can redefine the# as we want to get this general
solution into a #ore useful for#. ,a/e a b
-n
out of the a
n
constants.
( , )=a
)
+

n=

a
n
(

b
)
n
sin(n
n
)
Use sin =(e
i
e
i
)/(2i)
( , )=a
)
+

n=

a
n
2i
(

b
)
n
[ e
i
n
e
i n
e
i
n
e
i n
]
8edefine constants(
( , )=a
)
+

n=

b
)
n
[c
n
e
i n
+d
n
e
i n
]
Both ter#s (as well as a
)
! can $e co#$ined $y letting the su##ation inde2 e2tend to negative nu#$ers(
( , )=

n=

c
n
(

b
)
n
e
i n
6pply $oundary condition (5! to find(
V ( )=

n=

c
n
e
i n
Multiple $oth sides $y a co#ple2 e2ponential and integrate(

)
2
V ()e
i n'
d =

n=

c
n

)
2
e
i (nn')
d
9ow recogni:e the integral on the right as the state#ent of orthogonality for co#ple2 e2ponentials so
that(

)
2
V ()e
i n'
d =

n=

c
n
2
nn'
512
6pply the delta and solve for c
n
(
c
n
=

)
2
V ()e
i n
d
;ur final solution $eco#es(
( , )=

)
2
d ' V (' )

n=

b
)
n
e
i n(')
( , )=

)
2
d ' V (' )
[
+

n=)

b
)
n
e
i n(')
+

n=)

b
)
n
e
i n(')
]
( , )=

)
2
d ' V (' )
[
+

n=)

[(

b
)
e
i (')
]
n
+

n=)

[(

b
)
e
i (')
]
n
]
Use
)

r
n
=

r
( , )=

)
2
d ' V (' )
[
+

b
)
e
i (')
+

b
)
e
i (')
]
( , )=

)
2
d ' V (' )
[
((
(

b
)
e
i (')
)+(
(

b
)
e
i (')
)(
(

b
)
e
i (')
)(
(

b
)
e
i (' )
))
(
(

b
)
e
i(')
)(
(

b
)
e
i (')
)
]
( , )=

)
2
( b, ' )
b
2

2
b
2
+
2
2bcos(')
d '
7f instead% we want to find the potential in the region e2ternal to the cylinder% we swap b and to find(
( , )=

)
2
( b, ' )

2
b
2
b
2
+
2
2bcos(')
d '
513
Jackson 2.13 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
(a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated y s!all
lengthwise gaps on each side" and are #ept at different potentials V
$
and V
%
. Show that the potential
inside is given y
4(p, )=
V
$
+V
%
%
+
V
$
V
%

tan
$
(
%bp
b
%
p
%
cos
)
where is !easured fro! a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap.
() Calculate the surface&charge density on each half of the cylinder.
SOL!"O#:
Due to the sy!!etry of the prole!" it is apparent that the solution will e est e'pressed in cylindrical
coordinates. (dditionally" ecause the solution will e independent of the z coordinate" the prole!
reduces to the two di!ensions of polar coordinates (p ,) . Because the prole! contains no charge"
the prole! si!plifies down to solving the Laplace e)uation
%
4=* in polar coordinates and
applying the oundary condition 4(p=b , )=V () where+
V ()=

V
$
if / %>>,/ %
V
%
if / %,/ %

The Laplace e)uation in polar coordinates is+


$
p

p
(
p
4
p
)
+
$
p
%

%
4

%
=*
Separation of variales leads to the general solution+
4(p, )=(a
*
+b
*
ln p)( A
*
+B
*
)+

v ,v*
(a
v
p
v
+b
v
p
v
)( A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)
-e desire a valid solution at the origin" which is only possile if b
*
. * and b

. * so that the solution
eco!es+
4(p, )=A
*
+B
*
+

v ,v*
p
v
( A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)
-e desire a single" valid solution over the full angular range" so the single&value re)uire!ent !eans
4(p, )=4(p ,+%) . -hen we apply this" we get+
514
A
*
+B
*
+

v ,v*
p
v
( A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)=A
*
+B
*
(+%)+

v , v*
p
v
( A
v
e
i v( +%)
+B
v
e
i v(+%)
)
-hich leads to B
*
. * and . n where n . $" %" ... -e now have+
4(p, )=A
*
+

n=$

p
n
(
A
n
e
i n
+B
n
e
i n
)
/ow apply the last oundary condition 4(p=b , )=V ()
V ()=A
*
+

n=$

b
n
(
A
n
e
i n
+B
n
e
i n
) (Eq. $)
Let us first find the A
*
ter!. 0ntegrate oth sides over the full angular sweep.

*
%
V () d =

*
%
A
*
d +

n=$

b
n
(
A
n

*
%
e
i n
d +B
n

*
%
e
i n
d
)

/ %
/ %
V
$
d +

/ %
,/%
V
%
d =A
*
%
V
$
+V
%
=A
*
%
A
*
=
V
$
+V
%
%
Let us now find the A
n
coefficients. Multiply (Eq. $) on oth sides y e
i n1
and integrate over all
angles +

*
%
V () e
i n1
d =A
*

*
%
e
i n1
d +

n=$

b
n
(
A
n

*
%
e
i( nn1 )
d +B
n

*
%
e
i ( n+n1)
d
)
Use the orthonor!ality condition

*
%
e
i ( kk 1) x
dx=%6
k , k 1

*
%
d V () e
i n
=%b
n
A
n
A
n
=
$
%b
n

*
%
d V ()e
i n
2lug in the e'plicit for! of the potential on the oundary which rea#s the integral into two parts+
515
A
n
=
$
%b
n

V
$

/ %
/ %
d e
i n
+V
%

/ %
,/ %
d e
i n
|
A
n
=
$
%b
n

V
$

e
i n
i n