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Preparation Course

For Physics EGD-UFPE

Classical
Electrodynamics
first edition

Christopher S. Baird

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001
Alternate Potentials, Electromagnetic Theory I
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. Maxwell's Equations with General Potentials
- When we looked at putting Mawell!s e"uations in ter#s of potentials in the standard way$we found the #agnetic field B was the curl of a vector field. But in #agnetostatics$ we discovered
that we could define the B field in ter#s of the gradient of a scalar potential as well if there
were no sources present. Can we use the sa#e alternate approach in electrodyna#ics%
- &he point is that the potentials are non-physical so we can define the# however we want and
we will still end up with the sa#e answers for the fields. &his is known as gauge freedo#.
- &he standard potential definitions #ay 'e the #ost useful #athe#atically$'ut they are not uni"ue and they are not the #ost general. - Let us write down Mawell!s e"uations with very general potential definitions and then see how they reduce to the standard for# as a special case. - Define( E= E A M t +A E and B= ) c * M + ) c * A E t +A M - +ote that even though these definitions are #uch #ore general than the standard definitions$
they are not uni"uely general. &here is no physical uni"ueness to the potentials in classical
electrodyna#ics ,"uantu# theory has #ore to say$though-. &o get uni"ueness #athe#atically$
we #ust artificially i#pose additional constrains on the potentials ,gauge conditions-.
- .ere

E
is the fa#iliar electrostatic scalar potential in the electrostatic li#it$A M is the fa#iliar #agnetostatic vector potential in the static li#it$

M
is the fa#iliar #agnetostatic scalar
potential in the static li#it in regions with no current$and A E is an electrostatic vector potential added to #ake the e"uations sy##etric. - /lug these trial solutions into the Mawell!s e"uations to find ,after several ter#s drop out 'ecause we always have A=0 and ( )=0 -( E = t A M total M = t A E (A E ) * A E + ) c * * A E t * = ) c * t M (A M ) * A M + ) c * * A M t * = ) c * t E + 0 total Maxwell Equations with general potentials 002 - Because we defined the potentials sy##etrically$ Mawell!s e"uations in potentials for# end
up partially sy##etric. 1f #agnetic charges and currents eisted$the sy##etry would 'e perfect. - We now get a uni"ue solution 'y i#posing additional constraints on the potentials ,choosing a gauge-. 2or illustration purposes$ let us choose the following gauges(
A
M
=
)
c
*

E
t
and
A
E
=0$M =0 Lorenz Gauge A E = ) c * M t and A M =0$
E
=0
Alternate Lorenz Gauge
A
M
=0
and
A
E
=0$M =0 Coulomb Gauge A E =0 and A M =0$
E
=0
Alternate Coulomb Gauge
- 3ach set of constraints leads to a particular for# of Mawell!s e"uations$as shown in the net page. - &he sy##etry 'etween the E and B field is preserved even in the potentials representations. &hey 'eco#e perfectly sy##etric in regions with no sources. - +ote that the 4lternate Loren5 6auge and the 4lternate Coulo#' 6auge is only possi'le in regions without electric charges or electric currents. 2or this reason$ they are rarely used in
practice.
- By sy##etry$the traditional Loren5 gauge is only possi'le in regions where there is no #agnetic charges or #agnetic currents ,which happens to 'e the entire known universe-. - +ow we see that the static #agnetic scalar potential we were using in certain cases in #agnetostatics is a special case of the 4lternate Coulo#' 6auge. 003 [ ) c * * t * ] E = total 0 [ ) c * * t * ] A M = 0 total where E= E A M t and B=A M [ ) c * * t * ] M =0 [ ) c * * t * ] A E =0 total =0 and total =0 where E=A E and B= ) c * M + ) c * A E t E = total 0 [ ) c * * t * ] A M = ) c * t E total where E= E A M t and B=A M * M =0 [ ) c * * t * ] A E = ) c * M t total =0 and total =0 where E=A E and B= ) c * M + ) c * A E t Lorenz Gauge Alternate Lorenz Gauge Coulomb Gauge Alternate Coulomb Gauge 004 O r d e r N a m e S a m p l e P o i n t F o r m P o t e n t i a l E l e c t r i c f i e l d S p h e r i c a l M o m e n t s C a r t e s i a n M o m e n t s l = 0 m o n o p o l e q 0 0 q l = 1 d i p o l e q 1 - 1 , q 1 0 , q 1 1 p x , p y , p z l = 2 q u a d r u p o l e q 2 - 2 , q 2 - 1 , q 2 0 , q 2 1 , q 2 2 Q x x , Q x y , Q x z Q y x , Q y y , Q y z Q z x , Q z y , Q z z l = 3 o c t u p o l e q 3 - 3 , q 3 - 2 , q 3 - 1 , q 3 0 , q 3 1 , q 3 2 , q 3 3 Q i j k i , j , a n d k = x , y , o r z . . . l l - p o l e - q l , - l , q l , - l + 1 , , q l , l - 1 , q l , l Q i j k . . . l i , j , k . . . l = x , y , o r z ++ - + - + - + - + - -+ - + E l e c t r i c M u l t i p o l e P l o t s D r . C h r i s t o p h e r S . B a i r d U n i v e r s i t y o f M a s s a c h u s e t t s L o w e l l E 1 r 2 E 1 r 1 r ! E 1 r " E 1 r l + 2 1r 1 r 2 1 r 1 r ! 1 r l + 1 005 006 007 008 009 010 011 012 013 014 015 016 017 018 019 020 021 022 023 024 025 026 027 Step-by-Step Green Function Method, Dirichlet Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell There are many places in this method where it is easy to make mistakes if you are not very careful with the notation. For this reason it is recommended that you use the notation and steps defined here. The sample pro!lem shown !elow is for a real point char"e Q centered over a rectan"ular plate at V in a "rounded plane. Steps Sample Problem Showing Proper Notation #.$rite down mathematically the char"e distri!ution of
the real problem in terms of primed coordinates
p( x' )=Q6 ( x' )6( y' )6( z' z
%
)
&. $rite down mathematically the !oundary surface's shape and location on which the !oundary condition e(ists surface S is the plane at z=% ).$rite down mathematically the !oundary condition of
the real problem in terms of primed coordinates
4(x' )=

V if x 'a and y'b

% if x '>a or y '>b

on S
*. Create the simpler problem's char"e distri!ution !y
placin" a point char"e at an arbitrary location defined in
terms of primed coordinates...
q is at ( x' , y ' , z ' )
+. Create the simpler problem's !oundary surface as the
e(act same as the real problem's
surface S is the plane at z=%
,. Create the simpler problem's !oundary condition as a
"rounded conductor
4(x)=% on S
-. Solve the simpler problem !y placin" an ima"e point
char"e.s/ at a lo"ical location.s/ on the other side of the
!oundary surface from the ori"inal point char"e and
removin" the !oundary surface
q' is at ( x ' , y' ,z' )
0. $rite down the simple problem's solution as the potential due to the point char"e and its ima"es char"e.s/ 4(x)= # *c % q .( xx' ) & +( yy' ) & +( zz' ) & + # *c % q' .( xx' ) & +( yy' ) & +( z+z ' ) & 1. 2pply the simpler problem's !oundary condition of a "rounded conductor to determine the ima"e char"e.s/ ma"nitude and location q' =q #%.$rite out the final solution to the simpler problem
where the unprimed coordinates "ive the location of
space where the potential is measured and the primed
coordinates "ive the location of the ar!itrarily placed
point char"e
4(x)=
q
*c
%

#
.( xx ' )
&
+( yy ' )
&
+( zz ' )
&

#
.( xx ' )
&
+( yy ' )
&
+( z+z ' )
&
|
##. Convert the solution of the simpler problem to the
3reen function of the real problem4
!ecomes G
q !ecomes *%
Make sure the 3reen function is symmetric !etween x
and x'. 5f not you have made a mistake that must !e
fi(ed.
G( x , x' )=
#
.( xx' )
&
+( yy' )
&
+( zz' )
&

#
.( xx' )
&
+( yy ' )
&
+( z+z ' )
&
028
#&. For later use find the partial derivative of the 3reen
function at the surface in the direction normal to the
surface and away from the volume of the real problem
where we want to know the potential.

G
n'
|
on S
=

G
z '
|
z ' =%

G
n'
|
on S
=
& z
(( xx ' )
&
+( yy ' )
&
+z
&
)
)/ &
#). $rite down the "eneral form of the 3reen function solution to the real problem makin" sure that inte"ration is over primed varia!les and the real char"e distri!ution and real !oundary condition are "iven in terms of primed varia!les. 4= # *c % p(x ' ) Gd ) x' # * 4(x' ) G n' da' #*. 6(pand the inte"rals in the solution into the coordinates system that you are usin" = # * % (x' ) Gd x ' d y ' d z ' # * (x' ) G n' d x ' d y' #+. 7lu" the followin" into the inte"rals in the solution4 8 the real char"e distri!ution as defined in step # 8 the 3reen function G as found in step ## 8 the real !oundary condition as defined in step ) 8 the partial of the 3reen function as found in step #& #,. 6valuate the Dirac deltas and inte"rals as much as possi!le. 4= Q *c % # . x & +y & +( zz % ) & # . x & +y & +( z+z % ) & | + V z & b b a a # (( xx' ) & +( yy' ) & +z & ) )/ & d x' d y ' 029 Helmholtz Decomposition of Vector Fields Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell 1. Introduction The Helmholtz Decomposition Theorem or the fundamental theorem of vector calculus states that any well!"ehaved vector field can "e decomposed into the sum of a lon#itudinal$diver#in# non!curlin#
irrotational% vector field and a transverse $solenoidal curlin# rotational diver#in#% vector field. Here the terms &lon#itudinal' and &transverse' refer to the nature of the operators and not the vector fields. ( purely &transverse' vector field does not necessarily have all of its vectors perpendicular to some reference vector. )n one sense the diver#ence and curl operators can "e thou#ht of as ortho#onal operators as their product is zero and they e*tract independent parts of a #eneral vector field. This is demonstrated in the mathematical identities+ =, and (A)=, There is also a third part to a #eneral vector field. -ven if the curl and diver#ence of a vector field is zero the vector field can still "e non!zero and non!trivial. This third part is .nown as the Laplacian part or the rela*ed part and is contained in the other parts. 2. Proof Start with a #eneral vector field F$x% where x is the three!dimensional o"servation point vector.
-*pand F into an inte#ral includin# a Dirac delta+
F( x)=

V
F(x/ )(xx /) d x /
Here we leave the inte#ration volume V ar"itrary for the sa.e of #enerality0 it does not have to "e all
space "ut it does have to include the point x. 1ow use the identity+
( xx/ )=
2
3

4
(
2
xx/
)
to find+
F( x)=
2
3

4

V
F( x/ )
xx/
d x /
1ow use the identity
4
A=(A)( A) to find+
F(x)=
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
xx/
d x /
)
+
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
xx/
d x/
)
)dentify the first term as the lon#itudinal part F
l
and the second term as the transverse part F
t
+
030
F=F
l
+F
t
where F
l
=
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
xx/
d x/
)
and F
t
=
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
xx/
d x /
)
Ta.in# the curl of F
l
shows that it is indeed non!curlin# $lon#itudinal% and ta.in# the diver#ence of F t shows that it is indeed non!diver#in#$transverse% as follows+
F
l
=
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
xx/
d x/
)
F
l
=,
"ecause the curl of the #radient is always zero
F
t
=
2
3

(

V
F(x/)
xx/
d x/
)
F
t
=,
"ecause the diver#ence of the curl is always zero
This means that the one term is purely solenoidal and the other is purely diver#in# and their sum #ives
a #eneral vector field. This is the Helmholtz Decomposition Theorem. Summarized mathematically we
have+
F=F
l
+F
t
where
F=F
l
and
F=F
t
3. Field ources
Let us investi#ate further. The field that results when we ta.e the diver#ence of F we will call the
source of F/s diver#ence. )t is apparently a scalar field 5. Similarly the field that results when we ta.e
the curl of F we will call the source of F/s curlin# nature. )t is a vector field !.
=F
!=F
Both 5 and ! are source fields0 they are not the vector field components of F "ut are related to them.
(ccordin# to the Helmholtz Decomposition Theorem this immediately tells us+
=F
l
!=F
t
Let us #o "ac. to the e*pansion of F and see if we can #et them to appear.
F(x)=
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
xx/
d x /
)
+
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
xx/
d x/
)
Use (A)=A +Aon the first term realizin# that F is a function of primed varia"les only
so the diver#ence of F with respect to unprimed varia"les is zero. Similarly use
(A)=A+()A on the second term realizin# that the curl of F with respect to
031
unprimed varia"les is zero for the same reason. (fter applyin# "oth of these e*pansions we find+
F(x)=
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
(
2
xx /
)
d x/
)

2
3

(

V
F(x/ )
(
2
xx /
)
d x/
)
Use

(
2
xx /
)
=/
(
2
xx /
)
where the prime on the #radient operator denotes differentiation with
respect to the primed varia"les.
F(x)=
2
3

(

V
F(x /)/
(
2
xx /
)
d x/
)
+
2
3

(

V
F(x/ )/
(
2
xx/
)
d x /
)
Use (A)=A +Aand (A)=A+( )A a#ain "ut now with respect to
primed varia"les such that+
F(x/ )/
(
2
xx/
)
=/
(
F(x/ )
xx/
)

/F(x /)
xx/
and
F(x/ )/
(
2
xx /
)
=/
(
F(x/ )
xx /
)
+
/ F(x/ )
xx/
Usin# these two e*pansions the total e*pression for F "ecomes+
F(x)=
2
3

(

V
/
(
F(x/ )
xx/
)
d x/

V
/F(x/)
xx/
d x/
)
+
2
3

(
[

V
/
(
F(x/ )
xx/
)
d x /+

V
/ F(x/ )
xx /
d x / ]
)
6e can use the diver#ence theorem on the first term to turn it into a surface inte#ral over the surface S
"oundin# volume V. )f we let V "e all space then S is the surface at infinity. )f F is well!"ehaved it will
die off to zero at infinity and this surface inte#ral vanishes. Similarly we can use a version of Sto.es
theorem on the third term to reduce it down to a surface inte#ral over S. This term will also #o away if
the volume is all space and F is well!"ehaved. 6ith these two terms #one we have+
F(x)=
2
3
( /F(x/ ))
(
2
xx/
)
d x /
2
3
(/ F(x/ ))
(
2
xx/
)
d x /
1ow use

(
2
xx /
)
=
xx/
xx/
7
to find+
F(x)=
2
3

( /F(x /))
(xx/ )
xx/
7
d x/ +
2
3

( / F(x/ ))
(xx/ )
xx/
7
d x/
1ow identity the sources =F and !=F inside the inte#rals+
032
F(x)=
2
3

(x/ )(xx /)
xx/
7
d x/ +
2
3

!(x/ )(xx/ )
xx/
7
d x/
where =F and !=F
This is a #eneral mathematical result descri"in# the properties of vector fields in #eneral. This
e*pansion can "e used to derive Coulom"/s law and the Biot!Savart law.
". #aplacian Fields
)f a vector field is non!curlin# and non!diver#in# it can still "e non!zero. ( field that has a zero curl
and zero diver#ence is said to "e a Laplacian or rela*ed field. 1ote that
F
t
=,
does not imply that
F
t
8 , 9ust that its curl is zero. Consider a vector field F that is non!curlin# and non!diver#in#+
$2% F=, and$4% F=,
Comparin# the first e:uation to the mathematical statement =, we see that this field can "e
defined as the #radient of some scalar field+ F= . ;lu##in# this into the second e:uation we
find+

4
=,
(lternatively comparin# -:. 4 to the mathematical statement (A)=, we see that F can "e
defined as the curl of some vector field+ F=A . ;lu##in# this into the second e:uation we have
(A)=, . Usin# a vector identity and remem"erin# that the diver#ence of F is zero we end up
with+

4
A
i
=,
)n "oth approaches we end up at the same result+ Laplace/s e:uation. The solutions to Laplace/s
e:uations are typically non!zero and non!trivial and depend only on the "oundary conditions. The
solution to Laplace/s e:uation is a minimal ener#y or surface!rela*ation state that meets the "oundary
conditions. ( non!curlin# non!diver#in# vector field therefore still has a Laplacian nature. Because
Laplacian fields are rela*ed fields they o"ey the mean value theorem $the value of the scalar field at a point e:uals the avera#e of the field over any sphere centered at that point% and have no local ma*ima or minima. (ll that is needed to find a uni:ue solution to Laplace/s e:uation is to apply a complete set of "oundary conditions$this is the Uni:ueness Theorem%.
033
$. %xamples Let us illustrate the difference "etween curlin# diver#in# and Laplacian fields. )n all of the followin# plots only the vector field/s directionality is shown and not its ma#nitude.$a% The field F=y

i +x

& is plotted on the ri#ht.

Simple calculations reveal+
Curling Nature: F=4

'
Diverging Nature: F=,
Laplacian Nature: =undefined
This is a transverse $curlin#% field.$"% The field F=x

i +y

& is plotted on the ri#ht.

Simple calculations reveal+
Curling Nature: F=,
Diverging Nature: F=4
Laplacian Nature: =undefined
This is a lon#itudinal $diver#in#% field.$c% The field F=x

i y

& is plotted on the ri#ht.

Simple calculations reveal+
Curling Nature: F=,
Diverging Nature: F=,
Laplacian Nature:
=
2
4
(x
4
y
4
)
This is a purely Laplacian field.
1ote that in #eneral curlin# field lines tend to loop around and connect to themselves diver#in# field
lines tend to emanate out from source points and Laplacian field lines tend to start and end on the
"oundaries.
034

i +4

& is plotted on the ri#ht.

Simple calculations reveal+
Curling Nature: F=,
Diverging Nature: F=,
Laplacian Nature: =3 x4 y
This is special .ind of Laplacian field .nown as a
uniform field.
$f% The field F=( x+y) i +( x+y) & is plotted on the ri#ht. Simple calculations reveal+ Curling Nature: F=, Diverging Nature: F=4 Laplacian Nature: =undefined This is a lon#itudinal field emanatin# from a linearly symmetric source rather than a radially symmetric source. 1ote that anytime a vector field has zero curl a potential can "e defined accordin# to F= which is the solution to the ;oisson e:uation 4 =f . Strictly spea.in# < is defined "ut it only "ecomes Laplacian when f 8 ,. This is the reason for the appearance of & =undefined ' a"ove. 035 Magnetic Mirrors, the Ionosphere, and the Magnetosphere Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell 1. Introduction The force F exerted by an external manetic field B on a manetic dipole m is iven by! F=[ (mB)] x=x m There is also a net tor"ue that the dipole experiences from the applied manetic field that tends to alin the two. #nce alined$ this e"uation
becomes!
F=[ mB]
x=x
m
The radient always points downhill$i.e. away from reions where its operand is the hihest. %s a result$ the manetic dipole experiences a
force away from reions of hih manetic field strenth$independent of whether it is a positive field or a neative field and independent of the particle&s chare. %dditionally$ at locations in space where the manetic field strenth chanes the most rapidly$the radient is the hihest$ and therefore the force is the hihest. #n a diaram$reions that have the manetic field becomin stroner are represented by converin field lines. The more the field lines convere$ the stroner the repellin force. The effect is summari'ed as!
Magnetic dipoles are repelled from areas with converging magnetic field lines
% sinle$free$ chared particle in an external manetic field feels a total force F=q vB . Coupled with (ewton&s law$this interaction leads to chared particles followin spiralin paths around manetic field lines. )f one loop of the spiral is small compared to the spatial variations in the manetic field$ the particle acts li*e a little loop of current and therefore acts li*e a manetic dipole. Their motion can thus be
summari'ed!
Free charged particles spiral along magnetic field lines and are repelled from areas with converging magnetic field lines
036
% reion of hih manetic field strenth$such as at the tip of an manet$ therefore acts li*e a manetic mirror. Two or more manetic mirrors
can be used to trap chared particles and are very useful in plasma confinement$as shown below. N S v par F F v par v par B 037 t t k gt gt t gt tt t' gt g t t gt Nt t A t, g t t t t V A t t t t' gt t g t zt t, tt t t tt t zt t t Nt tt t t gt gtt t t gt tt t t t t V A t t A, t gt t V gt, t g t t t t t 038 Magnetostatic Equations Summary Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2012 University of Massachusetts Loell 1. Definitions 0 H: The applied magnetic field plus interactions. 0 M: The material response magnetic field. B: The total magnetic field. J! "he applied current density. J M ! "he material current density J total ! "he total current density 2. Fundamental Equations to Understand and Memorize B= 0 H 0 M #total field$ applied field % &aterial response field'
J
total
=J+J
M
#total current density $applied current density % &aterial current density' B= 0 J total #total current (ives rise to curlin( total field' H=J #applied current (ives rise to curlin( applied field' M=J M #&aterial current (ives rise to curlin( &aterial response field' =0 #&ath identity! if a vector field has no curl, it is the (radient of a scalar potential' B=0 #total &a(netic field lines are not created or destroyed' H= M #positive effective &a(netic char(e creates H field lines, ne(ative destroys' M= M #ne(ative effective &a(netic char(e creates H field lines, positive destroys' ()=0 #&ath identity! if a vector field has )ero diver(ence, it is the curl of a vector field' B= H #linear &a(netic &aterial have the applied and total fields lin*ed +y a constant' 039 !. Deri"ed Equations#$otentials
%. Deri"ed Equations# Boundary &onditions
H=
M
H=
M
H=J J=0 =0
B=
M

M
=
M
B=
0
J
total
J
total
=0
=0
B=0

M
=0
B=0 ()=0
B= B=
0
J
total

2
=
0
J
total
B=0
(B
2
B
1
)n=0
H=
M
(H
2
H
1
)n=
M
M=
M
(M
2
M
1
)n=
M
B=
0
J
total
n(H
2
H
1
)=' n(B
2
B
1
)=
0
'
total
H=J M=J
M
n(M
2
M
1
)='
M

2
=
0
J
total
J=0

2
=
0
J
M
J
M
=0

2
=0
#alays true'
#true in re(ions ith
no applied current'
#true in re(ions ith
no total current'
#true in re(ions ith
no total current'
#usin( ,aussian
pill+o- surface'
#usin( .&perian
loop'
040
(. Deri"ed Equations# )inear Materials
/n re(ions of linear uniform &aterial and J $0, e can sho J M$ 0, and therefore J
total
$0. /n free space #no &a(netic &aterials', M$ 0, J
M
$0, and therefore B$
0
H and J
total
$J. B= H B= 0 H+ 0 M B= ( 0 0 ) M H= ( 0 0 ) M B= H 2 = J 2 = 0 J total (B 2 B 1 )n=0 B= H ( 2 H 2 1 H 1 )n=0 B= H n(H 2 H 1 )=' n ( 1 2 B 2 1 B 1 ) =' 041 Magnetostatics Methods Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell I. Are there permanent magnets with nown M ! Because the magnet is permanent" the fields it creates will #e independent and additive to the rest of the pro#lem. Solve for the fields due to the permanent magnets with the rest of the pro#lem$free
currents" materials" #oundaries" etc.% a#sent. Depending on the geometry choose one method&
Option A:
'. Calculate the magnet(s volume and surface magnetic charge density&

M
=M
). Calculate the magnetic scalar potential due to the magnet&
M
=
'
*

M
x(
xx (
d x(
+. Calculate the fields&
H=
M
"
B=
,
H
,
M
$M inside is nown" M outside is -ero% Option B: '. Calculate the magnet(s volume and surface #ound current density& J M =M ). Calculate the magnetic vector potential due to the magnet& A= , * J M x( xx( d x ( +. Calculate the fields& B=A " H= ' , BM$M inside is nown" M outside is -ero%
II. Are there regions in the pro#lem with no currents" J
total
. ," and linear uniform material!
'. /or each region solve
)

M
=, using orthogonal functions 0ust lie in electrostatics.
). Apply any trivial #oundary conditions $finite at origin" finite at infinity" etc.%. 1ther #oundary conditions will have to wait until later. +. Calculate the fields& B= M " H= ' B " M= ' B III. Are there free currents J free in a region of linear uniform material ! '. Calculate the magnetic vector potential due to the free currents& A= * J free x( xx( d x( ). Calculate the fields& B=A " H= ' B " M= ' B I2. In each region" add up the fields found a#ove. '. In each region" add up the fields as found a#ove due to permanent magnets" free currents" and #ound surface currents$this may re3uire the method of images to find the fields due to surface
currents%.
). Apply #oundary conditions to find the final solutions
B
)
B
'
n=,
"
n H
)
H
'
=K
free
042
Material Responses in Electrostatics and Magnetostatics
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
Dielectric
Ferroelectric
Parallel-
electric
Diamagnetic
Paramagnetic
Ferromagnetic
Conductor
Direction of
material response
field compared to
inducing field
opposite parallel opposite parallel
perfectly
opposite
Material's effect
on internally
applied
E or B field
E weakened E strengthened B weakened B strengthened E !" B !
Characteri#ation $! % ! % !$
!
& '
Material
component
interacting
polari#ed (ound
charge regions
polari#ed (ound
charge regions
magneti#ed
(ound currents
magneti#ed
(ound currents

free charges and
currents
)ffect on e*ternal
fields lines near
surface
partially
sucks in E field
lines
partially
pushes out E
field lines
partially
pushes out B
field lines
partially
sucks in B field
lines
E is normal
B is tangential
+orce on e*ternal
charges or
magnets
attracts charges repels charges repels magnets attracts magnets
attracts charges"
repels magnets
)*ample
materials
glass
plastic
water
diamond
none
in electrostatics
diamond
graphite
(ismuth
copper
iron
steel
co(alt
nickel
silver
copper
gold
aluminum
Note: +erroelectricity and +erromagnetism are nonlinear" history,dependent effects" in contrast to all the other responses. -owever"
for the purposes of general conceptuali#ation" they can (e classed with dielectricity and paramagnetism respectively.
.arallel,electric materials /distinct from paraelectrics0 do not e*ist in electrostatics. 1n electrodynamics" however" the permittivity
can (ecome negative. 2his is (ecause the charges get out of phase from the driving fields" (ut this is a time,dependent effect.
Most materials simultaneously e*hi(it electric" magnetic" and conductive effects" even if only in small amounts.
, 3
, 3
, 3
, 3
, 3
, 3
043
Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
1. RECTANGULAR COORDINATE
(x, y, z) where x1 x, x! y, x" z, x# x, etc
1.1 Differential O!erators
= "

x
+ y

y
+ #

z
or =

i=1
"
"
i

x
i
A=
A
x
x
+
A
y
y
+
A
z
z
or A=

i =1
"
A
i
x
i
A= "
(
A
z
y

A
y
z
)
+ y
(
A
x
z

A
z
x
)
+ #
(
A
y
x

A
x
y
)
or A=

i=1
"
"
i
(
A
i+!
x
i+1

A
i+1
x
i+!
)
or
A=

i j k
"
i

i j k
A
k
x
j
where

i j k
=$1 for even per%utations , &1 for odd, and ' otherwise ! = x ! + y ! + z ! or ! = i=1 " x i !$. C%LINDRICAL COORDINATE
(, , z) (radius, a(i%uth, hei)ht)
$.1 Relation to Rectan&'lar Coordinates( x=cos y=sin z =z =x ! +y ! sin= y x ! +y ! , cos = x x ! +y ! , tan = y x z =z$.$Unit )ectors($.* Inte&ral Elements
=cos "+sin y

=sin "+cos y
#= #
=
x
x
!
+y
!
"+
y
x
!
+y
!
y

=
y
x
!
+y
!
"+
x
x
!
+y
!
y
#= #
d l =d +d

+dz #
d a

=d d z
d a

=d d z

d a
z
=d d #
d V =d d d z
"=cos sin

y=sin +cos

#= #
"=
x
x
!
+y
!

y
x
!
+y
!

y=
y
x
!
+y
!
+
x
x
!
+y
!

#= #
$.+ Differential O!erators = + # z , A= 1 ( A )+ 1 + A z z A= [ 1 A z z ] + [ A z A z ] + # 1 ( A ) A ] , ! = 1 ) + 1 ! ! ! + z ! 044 Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics Dr. ,aird- UMass Lo.ell *. /0ERICAL COORDINATE (r , , ) (radius, polar an)le, a(i%uthal an)le) *.1 Relation to Rectan&'lar Coordinates( x=r sin cos y=rsin sin z =r cos r= x ! +y ! +z ! sin= x ! +y ! x ! +y ! +z ! , cos= z x ! +y ! +z ! , tan = x ! +y ! z sin= y x ! +y ! , cos = x x ! +y ! , tan = y x *.$ Unit )ectors(
r=sin cos "+sin sin y+cos #

=coscos "+cossin ysin #

=sin "+cos y
r=
1
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
[ x "+y y+z #]

=
1
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
[
z x
x
!
+y
!
"+
z y
x
!
+y
!
y x
!
+y
!
#
]

=
1
x
!
+y
!
[y "+x y]
"=sin cos r+coscos

sin

+cos

#=cos rsin

"=
x
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
r+
x z
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
1
x
!
+y
!

y
x
!
+y
!

y=
y
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
r+
y z
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
1
x
!
+y
!

+
x
x
!
+y
!

#=
z
x
!
+y
!
+z
!
r

x
!
+y
!
x
!
+y
!
+z
!

*.* Inte&ral Elements

d l =dr r+r d

+r sin d

d a
r
=r
!
sind d r , d a

=r sin dr d

, d a

=r dr d

d V =r
!
sin dr d d
*.+ Differential O!erators
= r

r
+

1
r

1
r sin

A=
1
r
!

r
(r
!
A
r
)+
1
r sin

(sin A

)+
1
r sin
A

A= r
1
r sin
[

(sin A

)
A

]
+

[
1
r sin
A
r

1
r

r
(r A

)
]
+

1
r
[

r
(r A

)
A
r

!
=
1
r

!
r
!
(r )+
1
r
!
sin

(
sin

)
+
1
r
!
sin
!

!
045
Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics Dr. ,aird- UMass Lo.ell
+. )ECTOR IDENTITIE
A,=A,sin n A,=A,cos
A,= "( A
y
B
z
A
z
B
y
)+ y( A
z
B
x
A
x
B
z
)+ #( A
x
B
y
A
y
B
x
) A,=A
x
B
x
+A
y
B
y
+A
z
B
z
A,=

i=1
"
"
i
(
A
i+1
B
i+!
A
i+!
B
i+1
)
A,=

i=1
"
A
i
B
i
A,=

i j k
"
i

i j k
A
j
B
k
A,=

i=1
"
( "
i
A)( "
i
,)
A(,C)=,(CA)=C(A,) A(,C)=,(AC)C(A,)

(
1
""*
)
=
""*
""*
"

(
1
"" *
)
=*
(
1
"" *
)

!
(
1
"" *
)
=#(""* )
!
(
1
"" *
)
=*
!
(
1
""*
)
=' (A)='
(A,)=(A),+(,)A+A( ,)+,(A) ()= +
(A,)=,( A)A(,) (A)=A +A
(A,)=A(,),(A)+(,)A(A),
(A)=(A)
!
A

V
A d
"
x=

S

S
(A)d a=

C

V
(
!

!
) d
"
x=

S
( )d a
1. ORT0OGONAL 2UNCTION 3 m - n - and l are inte&ers4
1.1 Ortho&onality tatements

'
a
cos
(
! mx
a
)
cos
(
!n x
a
)
dx=
a
!

mn

'
!
cos(m x)cos(n x)dx=
mn

'
a
sin
(
!m x
a
)
sin
(
!n x
a
)
dx=
a
!

mn

'
!
sin(mx)sin(n x)dx=
mn

'
a
e
i !(mn)x / a
dx=a
mn

'
!
e
i(mn)x
dx=!
mn

e
i(k k *) x
dx=!(kk * )

e
i( xx *)k
d k=!( xx * )

1
1
P
l *
(x)P
l
(x)dx=
!
!l +1

l l *

'

P
l *
(cos) P
l
(cos)sin d =
!
!l +1

l l *

1
1
P
l *
m
( x)P
l
m
( x)dx=
!
!l +1
(l +m)!
(l m)!

l l *

'
!

'

Y
l * m*
+
( ,)Y
lm
( , )sin d d =
l l *

m m*

'
a
J

(
x
n*

a
)
J

(
x
n

a
)
d =
a
!
!
[ J
+1
(x
n
)]
!

n* n

'

x J
m
(k x) J
m
(k * x)dx=
1
k
(k *k)
046
Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics Dr. ,aird- UMass Lo.ell
1.$Le&endre /olynomials P ' (x)=1 , P 1 (x)=x , P ! (x)= " ! x ! 1 ! , P " (x)= , ! x " " ! x , P # ( x)= ", - x # "' - x ! + " - P l (x)=(1) l P l ( x) , P l (1)=1 (l +1) P l +1 ( x)(!l +1) x P l (x)+l P l1 ( x)=' , P l ( x)= 1 !l +1 d dx [ P l +1 ( x)P l1 ( x) ] 1.* Associated Le&endre 2'nctions P l ' (x)=P l ( x) , P 1 1 =1x ! , P ! 1 (x)=" x 1x ! , P ! ! ="" x ! , P " 1 (x)= " ! (, x ! 1)1x ! P l m ( x)=(1) m (l m)! (l +m)! P l m ( x) 1.+ !herical 0armonics Y l ,m =(1) m Y + l m Y lm ( , )= !l +1 # (l m)! (l +m)! P l m (cos)e i m Y '' = 1 # Y 1' = " # cos Y !' = , 1. ( "cos ! 1) Y "' = / 1. (,cos " "cos) Y 11 = " - sine i Y !1 = 1, - sincos e i Y "1 = !1 .# sin ( ,cos ! 1)e i Y !! = 1, "! sin ! e i ! Y "! = 1', "! sin ! cose i ! Y "" = ", .# sin " e i " 1.1 ,essel 2'nctions J ' (')=1 , J n (')=' for n' , N m (')= , J ' * ( x)=J 1 ( x) , J m (x)=(1) m J m (x) J n+1 = !n x J n (x)J n1 (x) J n * (x)= 1 ! J n1 ( x)+ 1 ! J n+1 (x) x J ' (x)dx=x J 1 ( x) J 1 (x)dx=J ' ( x) ' e a x J ' (b x)dx= 1 a ! +b ! ' cos(a x) J ' (b x)dx= 1 a ! b ! if a 0 b ' J n (b x)d x= 1 b for n>1 J n (z)= 1 !i n ' ! e i( z cos +n) d N m ( x)= J m ( x) cos(m)J m (x) sin( m) N m ( x)=(1) m N m (x) H m (1) ( x)=J m ( x)+i N m ( x) H m (!) ( x)=J m (x)i N m ( x) I m ( x)=i m J m (i x) K m (x)= ! i m+1 H m (1) (i x) 047 Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics Dr. ,aird- UMass Lo.ell 5. COM/LE6 NUM,ER 1ll e2pressions with 1r)(z) have an i%plicit additive factor !3m where m ',1,!... e i m =(1) m where m=',1,!. .. e i m/! =i m where m=',1,!... e i =cos +i sin z =( z)+i !(z) z =ze i Arg (z ) z +=(z)i !(z) z +=ze i Arg( z) ( z)= z+z + ! ( z)=zcos( Arg( z)) !( z)= zz+ !i !(z)=zsin( Arg( z)) z=z z + z=((z)) ! +(!( z)) ! Arg (z)=sin 1 ( !(z) z ) Arg (z)=cos 1 ( (z) z ) Arg ( z)=tan 1 ( !( z) ( z) ) sin= e i e i !i cos= e i +e i ! tan=i e i e i e i +e i sinh x= e x e x ! cosh x= e x +e x ! tanh x= e x e x e x +e x sinh 1 z=ln(z+z ! +1) cosh 1 z=ln (z+z ! 1) tanh 1 z= 1 ! ln ( 1+z 1z ) sin 1 z=i ln(i z+1z ! ) cos 1 z="i ln (z+z ! 1) tan 1 z= i ! ln ( i z i +z ) sin(i z)=i sinh(z) cos(i z)=cosh(z ) tan (i z)=i tanh (z) sin 1 (i z)=i sinh 1 ( z) cos 1 ( z)="i cosh 1 ( z) tan 1 (i z)=i tanh 1 (z) z n =z n [ cos(n Arg(z))+i sin(n Arg( z))] z= 1 ! [ z+(z)+sgn(!(z))i z( z)] ln( z)=ln(z)+i Arg(z) tan 1 (z)= [ 1 ! tan 1 ( !(z) 1z ! )] +i [ 1 # ln ( 1+! !(z)+z ! 1! !(z)+z ! )] !(z 1 )!(z ! )= 1 ! [ z 1 z ! +z 1 + z ! ] 048 Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics Dr. ,aird- UMass Lo.ell 7. TRIGONOMETR% IDENTITIE sin( A"B)=sin Acos B"cos Asin B cos(A"B)=cos Acos B#sin Asin B sin A+sin B=!sin ( A+B ! ) cos ( AB ! ) cos A+cos B=!cos ( A+B ! ) cos ( AB ! ) sin Asin B=!cos ( A+B ! ) sin ( AB ! ) cos Acos B=!sin ( A+B ! ) sin ( AB ! ) sin Asin B= 1 ! [ cos( AB)cos( A+B)] cos Acos B= 1 ! [cos( AB)+cos( A+B)] sin(! A)=!sin Acos A cos(! A)=cos ! Asin ! A sin(! A)=!sin A1sin ! A cos(! A)=!cos ! A1 sin(! A)=!cos A1cos ! A cos(! A)=1!sin ! A$ if A4! in 5uad. 6 or 66
& if A4! in 5uad. 666 or 67
$if A4! in 5uad. 6 or 67 & if A4! in 5uad. 66 or 666 sin()=sin cos()=cos sin ( ! " ) =cos cos ( ! " ) =#sin sin(")=sin cos( ")=cos sinh()=sinh cosh()=cosh cos ! A+sin ! A=1 cosh ! Asinh ! A=1 cos 1 x+sin 1 x=/ ! cosh 1 (1/ x)=1/ cosh 1 x tan (A"B)= tan A"tan B 1#tan Atan B tan 1 a"tan 1 b=tan 1 ( a"b 1#a b ) tan ( A ! ) = 1cos A sin A tan ( A ! ) = sin A 1+cos A tan (! A)= ! tan A 1tan ! A tan (! A)= cos A1cos ! A cos ! A1/ ! tan A= sin A cos A tanh A= sinh A cosh A sin ( A ! ) =" 1cos A ! cos ( A ! ) =" 1+cos A ! 049 Mathematical Reference for Electrodynamics Dr. ,aird- UMass Lo.ell 8. OT0ER /ECIAL 2UNCTION 8.1 Lo&arithm and E"!onentiation ln(ab)=ln a+ln b ln(a/ b)=ln aln b ln(a b )=bln a e ln a =a (a )(a ! )=a +! (a )/( a ! )=a ! a =1/ a (a ) ! =a ! 8.$ Gamma 2'nction and 2actorials
$( ')= ,$( 1/ !)= , $(1)=1 ,$( !)=1 , $(n+1)=n$(n)

* =sin*

i +cos *

) and the spherical har#onics

'=

0
I a
>

l =0

m=l
l
(l m)!
(l +m)!
r
(
l
r
4
l+1
P
l
m
(0) P
l
m
(cos 0) e
i m

0
2
sin *

i +cos*

) | e
i m*
d *
'=

0
I a
>

l =0

m=l
l
(l m)!
(l +m)!
r
(
l
r
4
l+1
P
l
m
(0) P
l
m
(cos 0) e
i m

0
2
sin *

i +cos*

) | cos(m* )i sin(m* )| d *
315
'=

0
I a
>

l =0

m=l
l
(l m)!
(l +m)!
r
(
l
r
4
l +1
P
l
m
(0) P
l
m
(cos 0)e
i m

0
2
sin* cos(m* ) d * +

i i

0
2
sin * sin (m*) d *+

0
2
cos* cos( m* ) d *

) i

0
2
cos * sin( m* ) d *
|
Due to ortho$onality, m #ust e<ual positive or ne$ative one and !e can do the inte$rals '= 0 I a > l =0 r ( l r 4 l+1 (l +1)! (l 1)! P l 1 (0) P l 1 (cos0) e i i i + ) |+ (l 1)! (l +1)! P l 1 (0) P l 1 ( cos0) e i + i i + ) | | Ao! use the relation P l 1 = (l 1) ! (l +1) ! P l 1 '= 0 I a 2 l =0 ( l 1) ! ( l +1) ! r ( l r 4 l +1 P l 1 (0) P l 1 (cos0)sin i +cos )| ?'pand out the factorials enou$h to reali+e that thin$s cancel out '= 0 I a 2 l =0 1 l (l +1) r ( l r 4 l +1 P l 1 ( 0) P l 1 (cos0) For points inside the loop this %eco#es= '= 0 I 2 l=0 1 l (l +1) r l a l P l 1 ( 0) P l 1 (cos0) Ao! if !e put this loop in the #iddle of the cavity in the iron, !e can add in another$eneral potential
to ta1e into account the effects of the iron.
'
iron
=

l =0

A
l
r
l
P
l
1
( cos0)

'=

0
I a
2

l =0

1
l (l +1)
r
(
l
r
4
l +1
P
l
1
( 0) P
l
1
(cos0)

+

l=0

A
l
r
l
P
l
1
(cos0)

Ao! apply the %oundary condition. )he relative per#ea%ility of the iron is effectively infinite so that
the co#ponents of the #a$netic field B that are parallel to the sphere*s surface at r / b #ust vanish= B 0 (r=b)=0 0= 0B| r =b 0= 0( ')| r =b 316 0= 1 r r (r A ) | r =b 0= 1 r r (r ( 0 I a 2 l=0 1 l (l +1) a l r l +1 P l 1 (0) P l 1 (cos 0)+ l=0 A l r l P l 1 (cos 0))) | r =b 0= l =0 0 I a 2 1 (l +1) a l b l +2 P l 1 (0)+A l (l +1)b l1 | P l 1 (cos 0) )he e$endre functions are ortho$onal, so each coefficient #ust vanish separately A l = 0 I a 2 1 (l +1) 2 a l b 2l+1 P l 1 (0) )he final solution then %eco#es= '= 0 I a 2 l =0 1 l +1 1 l r ( l r 4 l +1 + 1 l +1 a l b l r l b l +1 | P l 1 (0) P l 1 (cos0) For points inside the loop, r ( a this %eco#es '= 0 I 2 l=0 1 l (l +1) 1+ l l +1 ( a b ) 2l+1 | r l a l P l 1 (0) P l 1 (cos0) Co#parin$ this to the solution for !hen no iron !as present ,the %o'ed e<uation a%ove- !e see that
each ter# is au$#ented %y a constant factor= 1+ l l +1 ( a b ) 2l+1 For b 44 a !e have ,a7b- (( 1 so that hi$her po!ers of ,a7b- are ne$li$i%le. )he l / 1 !ill do#inate
and the au$#entation factor %eco#es= 1+ 1 2 ( a b ) 3 Because this is a constant factor it can %e #oved out of derivatives. )his #eans that the #a$netic field
is au$#ented %y this sa#e factor !ith !hich the vector potential is au$#ented.
,%- 8hat is the radius of the 9i#a$e: current loop ,carryin$ the sa#e current- that si#ulates the effect
of the iron for r ( b;
5f there !ere an i#a$e loop of radius c so that c 4 b and current I, then the total potential inside the rin$
due to this loop and the ori$inal loop %eco#es= 317 '= 0 I 2 l=0 1 l (l +1) 1 a l + 1 c l | r l P l 1 (0) P l 1 (cos 0) ?<uate this to the potential for the rin$ in the iron cavity and e<uate ter#s=
c=

l +1
l
b
2l+1
a
l +1
|
1/ l
"pparently, the radius is a function of l, !hich does not #a1e sense for a constant radius. 8e cannot
e'actly #odel this pro%le# usin$an i#a$e current. But for the special case of b 44 a, !e re#e#%er
that only the l / 1 ter# contri%utes.
c=2
b
3
a
2
Problem *
" per#anent #a$net has the shape of a solid sphere !ith radius a and is centered at the ori$in. )he top
half of the sphere ,+ 4 0- has a unifor# #a$neti+ation in the positive z direction !ith #a$nitude M
0
!hile the %otto# half of the sphere ,+ ( 0- has a unifor# #a$neti+ation in the ne$ative z direction !ith
#a$nitude M 0 . )here are no other fields or currents e'cept those due to the per#anent #a$net.
,a- Find all #a$neti+ation currents associated !ith this #a$neti+ation.
,%- Find the #a$netic vector potential due to these #a$neti+ation currents for points outside the sphere.
?'pand the deno#inator in spherical har#onics to solve the inte$rals. ,c- Calculate the #a$netic field far a!ay due to this #a$net ,only 1eep the first ter# in '-. SOLTIO!" ,a- )he #a$neti+ation current and the associated #a$neti+ation are lin1ed accordin$ to=
#
M
=M
.utside he sphere and inside each half, the #a$neti+ation is a constant. )he curl operator contains derivatives and the derivative of a constant is +ero, so there are no currents inside or outside the each he#isphere. "lthou$h the plane !here the t!o he#ispheres #eet does not have constant #a$neti+ation ,there is a s!itch in direction-, this plane is perpendicular to the #a$neti+ation, so there is no currents
in this plane. )he currents are only on the surface of the sphere.
et us focus on one spot on the top he#isphere*s surface. 5nte$rate the a%ove e<uation over a s#all s<uare da that is half in the o%Bect and half out. # M d a= (M)d a Use Sto1e*s theore# to convert the surface inte$ral of a curl to a line inte$ral alon$ the %oundary of da.

#
M
d a=

Md l
318
Shrin1 the rectan$ular loop until the sides$ive no contri%ution to the inte$ral and the M field and current are constant over the top and %otto# line inte$ral portions. )he nor#al to the area inte$ral ele#ent points in a direction t tan$ent to the o%Bect surface.
#
M
t L
1
L
2
=M
2
l
top
L
1
M
1
l
top
L
1
M
2
is the M field at the o%Bect*s surface Bust outside the o%Bect and M
1
is the M field Bust inside the
o%Bect. Cere !e have used the fact that
l
bottom
=l
top
%ecause the direction of inte$ration on the top portion of the loop is in the opposite direction fro# the %otto# portion. 5f !e define the direction nor#al to the o%Bect*s surface as n, then l top =tn , leadin$ to=
#
M
t L
2
=(M
2
M
1
)(t n)
)he current density contained in the t!o&di#ensional %oundary surface ti#es a unit len$th is 1no!n as the surface current density + M =# M L 2 so that !e no! have= + M t=(M 2 M 1 )(tn) Use of a vector identity$ives=
+
M
t=(n(M
2
M
1
))t
)he vector t nor#al to the inte$ration surface is ar%itrary and can %e oriented in any direction !ithin the surface plane. )his e<uation #ust therefore hold for all possi%le directions= + M =n(M 2 M 1 ) Conceptually this #eans that the #a$neti+ation current $ives rise to a Bu#p in the tan$ential co#ponent
of the M field across the #aterial*s %oundary.
5n this pro%le#, the outside #aterial is free space, !hich can have no #a$neti+ation, so that M 2 / 0 + M =nM 1 Ao! su%stitute in the #a$neti+ation for the top he#isphere,
M=M
0
,
=
+
M
=M
0
r ,
+
M
=M
0
r(cos rsin

)
+
M
=M
0
sin

for D ( E72
For the %otto# half, !e have=
+
M
=M
0
r(,)
319
+
M
=M
0
sin

for D 4 E72
?ffectively, the #a$net acts li1e an upper %undle of circular !ires carryin$ current in the positive
a+i#uthal direction and a lo!er %undle of circular !ires carryin$current in the opposite direction. 8e e'pect such a confi$uration to have a stron$<uadrupole %ehavior. )he$eneral, three&di#ensional
current density can %e e'pressed as=
#
M
=M
0
sgn(cos) sin

( ra)
,%- )he #a$netic vector potential in$eneral is=
'=

0
>

#(( *)+#
M
((*)
((*
d (*
)here are no free currents # in this pro%le#, so that !e have=
'=

0
>

M
0
sgn(cos' )sin '

' (r ' a)|
((*
d (*
'=

0
M
0
a
2
>

0
2

0
/ 2
sin'

'
(a r*
sin* d * d *

0
2

/ 2

sin '

'
(a r*
sin * d * d *
|
?'pandin$the deno#inators into a su# over spherical har#onics, !e find= '= 0 M 0 a 2 l =0 m=l l a l 2l +1 1 r l+1 Y l m ( , ) 0 2 0 / 2 * Y l m @ (* , * )sin 2 * d * d * 0 2 / 2 * Y l m @ (* , * )sin 2 * d * d * | 8e can co#%ined the t!o inte$rals %y #a1in$a chan$e of varia%les in the inte$ral on the ri$ht of
* -* , d * -d * and usin$Y lm @ (* )=(1) l+m Y lm @ (* ) = '= 0 M 0 a 2 l =0 m=l l a l 2l +1 1 r l+1 Y l m ( , ) 1(1) l +m | 0 2 0 / 2 * Y l m @ (* , * )sin 2 * d * d * 8e i##ediately see that all coefficients !ill vanish for ,l 6 m- even. .ur solution no! %eco#es= '=2 0 M 0 a 2 l =0 m=l l a l 2l +1 1 r l +1 Y l m ( , ) 0 2 0 /2 * Y l m @ (* , *)sin 2 * d * d * !here l 6 m is odd )he a+i#uthal unit vector cannot co#e out the inte$ral %ecause it is not constant. et us instead e'pand
it into rectan$ular coordinates= 320 '=2 0 M 0 a 2 l =0 m=l l a l 2l +1 1 r l +1 Y l m ( , ) 0 2 0 /2 (sin* (+cos* y)Y l m @ (* , * )sin 2 * d * d * '=2 0 M 0 a 2 l =0 m=l l a l 2l +1 1 r l+1 Y l m (, ) 1 > (l m)! (l +m)! 0 1 P l m (x)1x 2 dx ( 0 2 sin * (cos(m*)i sin (m* ))d *+ y 0 2 cos * (cos(m* )i sin(m*))d * | Due to ortho$onality, only the m / 1 and m / &1 ter#s in the su# are non&+ero. )his #eans that l #ust
%e 2, >, 3,... to 1eep l 6 m odd. "fter evaluatin$the a+i#uthal inte$rals for %oth the m / 1 and the m /
&1 cases, and then usin$identities to co#%ine the t!o, !e find= '= 0 M 0 a l =2,>,3... ( a r ) l +1 (l 1)! (l +1)! P l 1 (cos) 0 1 P l 1 (x)1x 2 dx Unfortunately, !e cannot ta1e advanta$e of the ortho$onality state#ent for associated e$endre
functions %ecause the inte$ral is not over the ri$ht li#its. 8e can ho!ever use several identities and
use inte$ration %y parts to solve the inte$ral.

0
1
P
l
1
(x)1x
2
dx=

0
1
((1x
2
)
d
dx
P
l
(x))dx ,usin$Fodri$ues* for#ula-
Use inte$ration %y parts on the ri$ht side=

0
1
P
l
1
(x)1x
2
dx=

P
l
( x)(1x
2
)
|
0
1
2

0
1
P
l
( x) x dx

0
1
P
l
1
(x)1x
2
dx=P
l
(0)2

0
1
P
l
( x) x dx
Use the identity
(l +1)P
l +1
(x)(2l +1) x P
l
(x)+l P
l1
(x)=0

0
1
P
l
1
(x)1x
2
dx=P
l
(0)2
1
2l +1

0
1
((l +1) P
l+1
(x)+l P
l1
(x)) dx
Use the identity=
P
l
( x)=
1
2l +1
d
dx

P
l +1
(x)P
l1
( x)
|

0
1
P
l
1
(x)1x
2
dx=P
l
(0)2
1
2l +1

l +1
2l +3
(P
l +2
(0)+P
l
(0))+
l
2l 1
(P
l
(0)+P
l2
(0))|
Use
P
l
(0)P
l+2
(0)=P
l
(0)
(
2l +3
l +2
)
for l even
321
"fter #uch al$e%ra, !e find= 0 1 P l 1 (x)1x 2 dx=(1) l / 2 (l +1)! ! (l +2)! ! l (l 1) if l is even So that the solution is= '= 0 M 0 a l =2,>,3... (1) l / 2 ( a r ) l +1 (l 3)!! (l +2)! ! P l 1 (cos) ,c- 5f !e only 1eep the first ter# in ', our solution is= '= 0 M 0 a 3 G ( a r ) 3 cossin | )he #a$netic field is therefore=
B='
)he curl in spherical coordinates is very involved. Fortunately #any of the ter#s drop out, leavin$= B= r 1 r sin (sin A ) | 1 r r (r A ) | B= r 0 M 0 3 G ( a r ) > (3cos 2 1)+ 0 M 0 3 > ( a r ) > cos sin Usin$ $raphin$ soft!are !e can create a plot of this e'pression, and the result is sho!n %elo!. )his
#a$net is do#inantly <uadrupole in nature as !e e'pected. Because the sphere does not have unifor# #a$neti+ation, %ut flips at its e<uator, it acts li1e t!o per#anent #a$net he#ispheres stuc1 to$ether
!ith their south ends touchin$. 322 323 Homework 12 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013 University of Massachusetts o!ell Problem 1 "n infinite re#ion is filled !ith unifor$ linear $a#netic$aterial of per$ea%ility . Cut into this$aterial is a vacuu$cavity that is in the shape of a circular cylinder !ith radius a and infinite len#th. Before the cavity !as created, there !as ori#inally an e&ternal unifor$ $a#netic field that pointed in a direction perpendicular to the cylinder's a&is. Usin# a$a#netic scalar potential, find the B field in all
re#ions.
SOLTIO!
"li#n the a&is of the cylindrical cavity !ith the z(a&is and orient the ori#inal field to point in the
positive x direction)
B( p-)=B
0
"
Since there is only linear $aterial and no free currents, !e can solve for the$a#netic potential

2
1
M
=0 !here
B=1
M
and the potential far a!ay %eco$es 1 M =B 0 pcos *his is si$ply the aplace e+uation in polar coordinates, for !hich !e already ,no! the #eneral
solution to %e)
1
M
(p , )=

m=

p
m
(
A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
-utside the cylinder, apply the %oundary condition at lar#e
B
0
pcos=

m=1

p
m
(
A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
Due to ortho#onality)
A
1
=B
1
=B
0
/ 2
and
A
m
=B
m
=0
for m . 1
So that
1
M ,out
(p ,)=B
0
pcos+

m=
1
p
m
( A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
1
M ,out
(p ,)=B
0
pcos+

m=1

p
m
(
A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
/nside the cylinder, the solution $ust %e finite at the ori#in so that 324 1 M ,in (p , )= m=1 p m ( C m e i m +D m e i m ) *here are no free currents and all$aterials are linear, so the %oundary conditions %eco$e) (B out B in ) p=0 and ( 1 B out 0 B in ) =0 at 0 a "pplyin# the first %oundary condition #ives) 1 M out p = 1 M in p at 0 a B 0 cos+ m=1 (m) a m1 ( A m e i m +B m e i m ) = m=1 ma m1 ( C m e i m +D m e i m ) C 1 =B 0 / 2a 2 A 1 and B 1 0 A 1 , D 1 0 C 1 C m =a 2m A m for m . 1 D m =a 2m B m *he solutions thus far %eco$e)
1
M ,out
(p ,)=B
0
pcos+A
1
1
p
2cos+

m=2

p
m
(
A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
1
M ,in
(p , )=(B
0
2a
2
A
1
)pcos+

m=2

p
m
(a
2 m
)
(
A
m
e
i m
+B
m
e
i m
)
"pply the last %oundary condition)
1

M
out

=
1

M
in

at 0 a
1

B
0
a sinA
1
1
a
2sin +

m=2

a
m
(
A
m
i me
i m
i m B
m
e
i m
)
|
=
1

0
( B
0
+2a
2
A
1
)a sin +

m=2

a
m
(a
2m
)( A
m
i me
i m
i mB
m
e
i m
)|
A
1
=
(

0
+
0
)
a
2
B
0
/ 2
A
m
=B
m
=0
for m . 1
325

M ,out
(, )=B
0
x
(

0
+
0
)
B
0
a
2
x
2
+y
2
x

M ,in
(, )=
(
2
0
+
0
)
B
0
x
B=1
M
B=

"
1
M
x
+ y
1
M
y
|
B
in
=B
0
(
2
0
+
0
)
" and B
out
=B
0
"B
0
(
a

)
2
(

0
+
0
)
2cos "|
*he field inside the cavity is unifor$, and the field outside is the ori#inal unifor$ field plus a dipole
field. /f the $aterial is para$a#netic, !e see that the field inside the cavity is !ea,er than the ori#inal
field.
Problem 2
1ac,son 2.13 4a5. Solve usin# effective $a#netic char#es and a$a#netic scalar potential.
" $a#netically 6hard7$aterial is in the shape of a ri#ht circular cylinder of len#th L and radius a. *he
cylinder has a per$anent$a#neti8ation M
0
, unifor$throu#h(out its volu$e and parallel to its a&is.
4a5 Deter$ine the$a#netic field H and $a#netic induction B at all points on the a&is of the cylinder, %oth inside and outside. SOLTIO!# et us place the center of the cylinder at the ori#in and its a&is ali#ned !ith the z a&is. *hen it is natural to use cylindrical coordinates. et us state everythin# !e ,no! a%out this pro%le$ outri#ht. *here are
no free currents present, so there cannot %e any curl to the H field.
H=0
*his is valid inside and out. *he curl of the #radient of any function is al!ays 8ero, so !e can define a
$a#netic scalar potential H=4 M -utside the o%9ect, there is no$aterial, so that the $a#neti8ation outside$ust %e 8ero and the total
field B depends only on the H field.
B=
0
H
and $0 0 outside 326 :e should also note that there are no applied e&ternal fields, only the fields created %y the shape. *his$eans that all fields should die do!n to 8ero infinitely a!ay fro$the shape. /nside, the$a#neti8ation is a ,no!n)
$=M 0 % inside ;enerally spea,in#, the e+uation that says there are no$a#netic $onopoles can %e cast as a relationship %et!een$ and H#
B=0 - (
0
H+
0
$)=0 - H=$
*his is a totally #eneral result, applica%le every!here, no $atter !hat$aterial is present. /t $eans that !hatever diver#ence that$ay e&ist in the $a#neti8ation$ust %e perfectly canceled %y the diver#ence
in the H field in order to ,eep the actual, real total field B diver#ence(less. :e no! su%stitute in the
definition of H in ter$s of the$a#netic scalar potential and reco#ni8e an entity that acts li,e a
$a#netic char#e density) 2 4 M =p M !here p M =$
Because the $a#neti8ation is constant inside the cylinder, its diver#ence is 8ero there. *he$a#netic
char#e density $ust reside on the surface. Dra!in# a closed surface around the surface char#e density and shrin,in# it do!n leads to ($
2
$1 )n=u M . -utside there is no$a#neti8ation $2 0 0 and inside !e ,no!$
1
=M
0
%
so that !e have)
u
M
=M
0
%n
*his $eans that u M =M 0 on the top of the cylinder, u M =M 0 on the %otto$ of the cylinder, and
u
M
=0
on the sides.
*his is %est su$$ed up as) p M =M 0 (6( zL/ 2)6( z+L/ 2)) for < a, and M 0 0 for . a. *he =oisson e+uation for the a#netic scalar potential has the #eneral solution) 4 M = 1 > | p M ""' d " ' 4 M = 1 > | | 0 2 | 0 p M .p 2 +p' 2 2pp' cos(' )+( zz ' ) 2 p' d p' d ' d z ' 4 M = 1 > | | 0 2 | 0 a ( M 0 (6( z 'L/ 2)6 ( z '+L/ 2))) .p 2 +p' 2 2pp' cos(' )+( zz ' ) 2 p' d p' d ' d z ' 4 M = M 0 > | 0 2 | 0 a p' d p' d ' .p 2 +p' 2 2pp' cos(' )+( zL/ 2) 2 | 0 2 | 0 a p' d p' d ' .p 2 +p' 2 2pp' cos(' )+( z+L/ 2) 2 | 327 *he pro%le only as,s for the solution on the a&is of the cylinder, so !e can safely set 0 0. 4 M = M 0 > | 0 2 | 0 a p' d p' d ' .p' 2 +( zL/ 2) 2 | 0 2 | 0 a p' d p' d ' .p' 2 +( z+L/ 2) 2 | 4 M = M 0 2 | 0 a p' d p' .p' 2 +( zL/ 2) 2 | 0 a p' d p' .p' 2 +( z+L/ 2) 2 | 4 M = M 0 2 .p' 2 +( zL/ 2) 2 | 0 a .p' 2 +( z+L/ 2) 2 | 0 a | 4 M = M 0 2 .a 2 +( zL/ 2) 2 .a 2 +( z+L/ 2) 2 zL/ 2+z+L/ 2| H=4 M H= 4 M z % H= M 0 2 zL/ 2 .a 2 +( zL/ 2) 2 z+L/ 2 .a 2 +( z+L/ 2) 2 zL/ 2 zL/ 2 + z+L/ 2 z+L/ 2| % " careful evaluation of the a%solute value in the different re#ions leads to) H out = M 0 2 zL/ 2 .a 2 +( zL/ 2) 2 z+L/ 2 .a 2 +( z+L/ 2) 2 | % on a&is H in = M 0 2 zL/ 2 .a 2 +( zL/ 2) 2 z+L/ 2 .a 2 +( z+L/ 2) 2 +2 | % on a&is Usin# B= 0 H+ 0 ,  0 0 outside, and =M 0 % inside B= 0 M 0 2 zL/ 2 .a 2 +( zL/ 2) 2 z+L/ 2 .a 2 +( z+L/ 2) 2 | % on a&is *he total fields inside and outside end up havin# the sae for. :e can plot these e+uations. For L 0 2a, !e have) 328 -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 z/L H s c a l e d -1.0 -0.8 -0.6 -0.4 -0.2 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 0.0 0.2 0.4 0.6 0.8 1.0 z/L B s c a l e d 329 Problem & 1ac,son 2.22 Sho! that in #eneral a lon#, strai#ht %ar of unifor cross(sectional area A !ith unifor len#th!ise a#neti8ation M, !hen placed !ith its flat end a#ainst an infinitely perea%le flat surface, adheres !ith a force #iven appro&iately %y F- 0 2 AM 2 ?elate your discussion to the electrostatic considerations in Section 1.11. SOLTIO!# First note that the pro%le does not say the %ar is a circular cylinder. :e can't 9ust use the fields due to a circular cylinder to solve this pro%le. *he %ar has ar%itrary cross(sectional shape. "ssue the a#neti8ation is a!ay fro the plate, in the positive z direction, =M % , and the plate lies in the x(y plane. "n infinitely perea%le flat surface acts 9ust li,e a perfect irror, so !e can 9ust represent its effects %y a second ia#e %ar !ith the e&act sae shape and a#neti8ation placed 9ust %elo! the first. *he a#neti8ation of each %ar can %e represented as due to an effective a#netic char#e distri%ution. Because the a#neti8ation is unifor, the a#netic char#es ust %e on the surface and not inside. Furtherore, the sides of the %ar are parallel to the a#neti8ation, so it has no char#e. "lso, the %ars are lon#, so !e can assue the top face of the real %ar and the %otto face of the ia#e %ar are so far a!ay as to have no effect. -n the %otto face of the real %ar there is a a#neti8ation surface char#e density) o M =n o M =(%)(M %) o M =M !hich e&ists at z 0 0 !ithin the circuference of the real %ar. @ote that %ecause the a#neti8ation is constant across the %otto face, so is the surface char#e. *he ia#e %ar has an e+ual and opposite char#e distri%ution) o M ' =M !hich e&ists at z 0 0 !ithin the circuference of the ia#e %ar *he force that the real %ar feels is due to the a#netic field created %y the ia#e %ar. Because the %ars are lon#, !e can assue the fields 9ust outside the ends of the %ar are unifor and e+ual to the fields ri#ht at the %ar's surface. /n #eneral B= 0 H+ 0  . /nside an infinitely lon# a#neti8ed %ar, H 0 0, so that B in = 0  . Since all the fields are noral to the end faces near the faces, and %ecause the noral coponent of B is al!ays continuous, !e have B out =B in = 0  9ust outside the face of each lon# %ar. @ear the top face of the ia#e %ar, the a#netic force created %y the %ar is therefore) B out = 0 M % Siilar to electrostatics, the force on an effective a#netic char#e is 9ust) 330 '=q M B *he total force over a surface char#e is therefore) '= | S o M Bda For our case, this %ecoes) '= | S (M)( 0 M %)da Averythin# is constant and can coe out of the inte#ral. '=% 0 AM 2 @ote that %y usin# an ia#e %ar, !e have in effect dou%le(counted. /n reality, there are no fields in the re#ion z < 0. :e can account for this %y ultiplyin# %y one half) '=% 0 2 AM 2 331 Homework 13 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013 University of Massachusetts o!ell Problem 1 Start !ith Ma"!ell#s euations in ter%s of the fields. &ssu%e that all space is filled !ith a unifor%, isotropic, linear dielectric'%a(netic %aterial and apply this fact. )e"t, ta*e the standard definitions of the dyna%ic fields in ter%s of the scalar and vector potentials and insert these definitions into Ma"!ell#s euations. )e"t, choose the oren+ ,au(e. )e"t, assu%e the potentials vary har%onically in ti%e at so%e an(ular freuency - and si%plify Ma"!ell#s euations for this special case. SOLUTIO! Ma"!ell#s euations are. "= , #=0 E= # t , H= " t For linear, isotropic, unifor% %aterial, !e have "=E and #= H leadin( to. E= , #=0 E= # t , #= + E t /he standard potential definitions are. #=% and E= % t 0nsertin( these, !e find. 2 + t %= and (%)=  t 2 % t 2 Use a vector identity on the ter% on the ri(ht of the second euation to find. 2 + t %= and (%) 2 %=  t 2 % t 2 0n the oren+e ,au(e, !here %= t , these euations reduce to. 332 t 2 = and 2 % 2 % t 2 =  For 1ar%onic ti%e dependence, !e have. 2 + 2 = and 2 %+ 2 %=  333 Practice Final Exam Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013 University of Massachusetts o!ell Part I: Multiple Choice Circle only one answer to each question. In cases where many answers may seem true, choose the one best answer. 1. "hen all fields are static, !hat does the D field descri#e %a& the applied electric field after 'aterial interactions occur and the syste' reaches e(uili#riu' %#& the total electric field in re)ions !here there is no dielectric 'aterial %c& all electric fields in a )iven re)ion e*cept the field directly attri#uta#le to a 'aterial+s polari,ation in that re)ion %d& all of the a#ove 2. -he current I runs throu)h an ar#itrarily.shaped loop of thin !ire. /o! does the 'a)netic field stren)th B produced #y this syste' depend on I %a& B is proportional to I 2 %#& B is proportional to I %c& B does not depend on I %d& B is proportional to cos%I& 3. "hat does the surface of a paramagnetic 'aterial tend to do to a pre.e*istin) e*ternal 'a)netic field %a& nothin) %#& repels and dilutes 'a)netic field lines %c& attracts and concentrates 'a)netic field lines %d& 0nots up the field lines 1. 2n electric char)e distri#ution is )iven #y3 = Q 4 R 3 cos ( r R ) e ( 3r / R) 2 cos 1 !here R is so'e constant radius, Q is so'e constant char)e, r is the radial di'ension of spherical coordinates and is the polar an)le of spherical coordinates. 5f !e !ere to solve for the electrostatic potential created #y this char)e distri#ution, !hat 0ind of functions !ould the final solution involve %a& co'ple* e*ponentials %#& Bessel functions %c& ordinary e)endre polyno'ials %d& spherical har'onics 6. 5n 'a)netostatics, !hich one of the potential definitions is valid, B=A or B= M  %a& only B=A %#& only B= M %c& Both B=A and B= M are valid all the ti'e %d& B=A is valid all the ti'e, #ut B= M is only valid !hen there is no total current 334 7. "hich e*pression descri#es electro'a)netic field ener)y flow %a& 8%E 9 D : B 9 & %#& E ; %c& E ; D %d& ! 9 E <. "hen !e solved for the potential of a point char)e outside a conductin) sphere usin) the 'ethod of i'a)es, !here did !e place the i'a)e char)e%s& %a& one i'a)e char)e !as placed in the sphere on the line connectin) the real char)e !ith the sphere+s center %#& one i'a)e char)e !as placed in the sphere at a co'pletely ar#itrary location %c& t!o i'a)e char)es !ere placed in the sphere on either side of the sphere+s center %d& one i'a)e char)e !as placed e*ternal to the sphere on the other side fro' the real char)e 4. 5n the process of solvin) for the electrostatic potential inside an infinite hollo! cylinder that is unifor' alon) its a*is, a #oundary condition is applied of a finite potential on its a*is. "hich ter'%s& in the )eneral solution )oes a!ay !hen this #oundary condition is applied %a& e -im %#& ! m %c& ! -m %d& ! -m and ln%!& =. "hat does >)au)e invariance? 'ean in electrodyna'ics %a& the electric and 'a)netic fields stay the sa'e !hen the potentials are transfor'ed a certain !ay %#& the electric and 'a)netic fields chan)e !hen the potentials are transfor'ed in a certain !ay %c& the potentials stay the sa'e !hen certain transfor'ations are 'ade %d& the electro'a)netics fields produced #y a coa*ial ca#le are independent of its thic0ness 10. "hen a per'anent 'a)net is placed a)ainst a steel refri)erator, it stic0s. "hat is the #est e*planation of the physics involved %a& -he 'a)netic field fro' the 'a)net induces a 'a)neti,ation in the steel, !hich then creates a 'a)netic field #ac0 to!ards the 'a)net, attractin) it to the frid)e. %#& -he 'a)netic field fro' the 'a)net e*erts a tor(ue on the 'a)netic dipoles in the steel so that they end up perpendicular to the 'a)net+s field lines, thus creatin) a field that curls around the 'a)net and repels it. %c& -he 'a)netic field fro' the 'a)net induces effective currents in the steel that run in strai)ht lines deep into the steel. -hese currents create electric fields that e*ert a tor(ue on the 'a)net. %d& -he 'a)netic field fro' the 'a)net attracts electric char)e to the surface of the steel, !hich then e*erts a force #ac0 on the 'a)net. 335 Part II: Diagram Pro"lem #% Points& 2 positively.char)ed electric point char)e :q and a ne)atively.char)ed electric point char)e -q are placed in free space near the surface of a flat, se'i.infinite sla# of dielectric 'aterial, as sho!n in the dia)ra's on the ne*t pa)e. -he outside re)ion is free space %" 0 & and the inside re)ion is a unifor', isotropic, linear dielectric 'aterial !ith per'ittivity " @ " 0 . "e !ill solve for the fields dia)ra'atically usin) the 'ethod of i'a)es, reali,in) that each re)ion 'ust #e solved separately usin) its o!n set of i'a)e char)es. "hen dra!in) field lines, do not !orry a#out !hich fields are, or are not, continuous or s'ooth at the 'aterial surface. 1. An dia)ra' 5, 'ar0 the location and si)n of the i'a)e char)e%s& needed to find the fields in the outside re)ion. 2. An dia)ra' 5, dra! the E field lines created in the outsi#e region only #y the real and i'a)e char)es. 3. An dia)ra' 55, dra! the location and si)n of the i'a)e char)e%s& needed to find the fields in the inside re)ion. 1. An dia)ra' 55, dra! the E field lines created in the insi#e region only #y the i'a)e char)es. 6. An dia)ra' 555, dra! all real E field lines every!here they e*ist. -his should #e the su' of the 'ethod.of.i'a)es re)ion solutions in dia)ra's 5 and 55. 7. An dia)ra' 5B, dra! all real D field lines every!here they e*ist. <. An dia)ra' B, dra! all real P field lines every!here they e*ist. 4. Far a!ay fro' this syste', in the free space re)ion, ho! does the total electric field stren)th  depend on the distance r fro' the center of the syste' Mar0 your ans!er in the for' r 1< on dia)ra' 555 in the outside re)ion. =. Far a!ay fro' this syste', in the dielectric 'aterial, ho! does the total electric field stren)th  depend on the distance r fro' the center of the syste' Mar0 your ans!er in the for' r 1< on dia)ra' 555 in the inside re)ion. 336 I' II' III' I(' (' %q -q E %q -q D %q -q P %q -q E %q&& -q&& E -q& %q& r 3 or r 1 r 3 337 Part III: )or* Pro"lems #+% Points& Cou 'ay directly use any e(uation on your e(uations sheet !ithout e*planation or Dustification. 1. 5f there !ere real 'a)netic char)es and real 'a)netic currents, !hat !ould Ma*!ell+s e(uations #eco'e Start !ith the continuity e(uation to for' your ans!er. S,-.TI,/: 5f there !ere 'a)netic char)es and 'a)netic char)e currents, they !ould have to o#ey a 'a)netic char)e continuity e(uation3 total,'a)netic t =! total,'a)netic Ma)netic char)es !ould than )ive rise to diver)in) total 'a)netic B fields in the sa'e !ay that total electric char)es )ive rise to diver)in) electric fields3 B= total,'a)netic Elu))in) this into the continuity e(uation !ould yield3 B t =! total,'a)netic "e can al!ays add ,ero to an e(uation. et us add the 'athe'atical state'ent E=0 3 B t (E)=! total,'a)netic "e inte)rate a!ay the diver)ence operator on #oth sides of the e(uation and rearran)e3 E=! total,'a)netic B t 5n su''ary, if there !ere 'a)netic 'onopoles, Ma*!ell+s e(uations !ould #eco'e3 E= total,electric 0 , B= total,'a)netic E=! total,'a)netic B t , B= 0 ! total,electric 0 E t 338 2. -!o concentric conductin) spheres of inner and outer radii a and b, respectively, carry char)es FQ. -he e'pty space #et!een the spheres is half.filled #y a he'ispherical shell of dielectric %of dielectric constant "G" 0 &, as sho!n in the fi)ure. Due to sy''etry, the D and E fields have the for'3 D left =' 1 r 2 r , D ri)ht =B 1 r 2 r , E ri)ht =E left = ' 0 1 r 2 r !here r is the radial di'ension of spherical coordinates, and ' and B are constants. Find the D fields #y applyin) the D.field version of Hauss+ la! in inte)ral for'. S,-.TI,/ "e dra! an inte)ration sphere !ith radius r !here a I r I b so that it co'pletely encloses the free char)e Q and use Hauss+s la! in inte)ral for'. ( Dr# 3 x=Q "e 'ust #e careful here. -he D field is not the sa'e over this inte)ration sphere, so !e 'ust split the inte)ral into t!o pieces3 0 2 0 / 2 (D ri)ht r)r 2 sin # # + 0 2 / 2 (D left r)r 2 sin # # =Q ' 0 2 0 / 2 sin # # +B 0 2 /2 sin # # =Q '+B= Q 2 2lso, D ri)ht =E ri)ht !hich leads to3 B 1 r 2 r= ' 0 1 r 2 r B= 0 ' Solvin) this syste' of e(uations, !e find3 '= Q 0 2( 0 +) and B= Q 2( 0 +) so that3 D left = Q 0 2( 0 +) 1 r 2 r , D ri)ht = Q 2( 0 +) 1 r 2 r , E ri)ht =E left = Q 2( 0 +) 1 r 2 r a b :Q -Q left ri)ht 339 3. 2 per'anent 'a)net is shaped into a solid ri)ht circular cone !ith a round #otto' as sho!n in the fi)ure. -he center of curvature of the #otto' face is the cone+s tip, so that its radius of curvature is R. -he cone has a side len)th of R, an e*ternal cone an)le of ) and a unifor' 'a)neti,ation M=M 0 0 . a& Find the effective 'a)netic char)e density associated !ith M %surface density andGor volu'e density&. Jote that if the cone+s tip is at the ori)in, the #otto' face is a surface of constant radius and the top face is a surface of constant polar an)le. 2lso note that3 =coscos x+cos sin ysin 0 r=sincos x+sinsin y+cos 0 #& "rite do!n the inte)ral solution to the 'a)netic scalar potential K M %defined #y = M &!ith the effective 'a)netic char)e density inserted. Si'plify this as 'uch as possi#le !ithout solvin) the inte)ral or e*pandin) the deno'inator. S,-.TI,/: 5nside the cone3 M =M=( M 0 0)= * (M 0 )=0 For the #otto' face3 M =nM , M =( r)(M 0 0) , M =M 0 cos For the top face3 M =nM , M =( )(M 0 0) , M =M 0 sin #ut = every!here on this surface, so3 M =M 0 sin -he 'a)netic potential inte)ral solution is3 M = 1 1 M ( x+ ) xx+ #a M = 1 1 0 2 M , #otto' (x+ ) xx+ R 2 sin+ # + # + + 1 1 0 2 0 R M , top (x+) xx+ r + sin # r + # + M = R 2 M 0 1 0 2 1 xx+ cos+ sin+ # + # + + M 0 sin 2 1 0 2 0 R 1 xx+ r + # r + # + * R ) 340 Homework 1 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory II Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Spring 2013 University of Massachusetts Loe!! Problem 1 Starting ith a negative"va!ued dispersion re!ation for the #eta"#ateria!, derive Sne!!s !a for the interface %eteen a standard #ateria! and a #eta"#ateria!. S&etch the incident, ref!ected, and trans#itted rays in this case. SOLUTION '!ugging a p!ane ave so!ution into the ave e(uation !ed to the dispersion re!ation) k 2 (u)c(u) u 2 =0 hich hen so!ved for the ave nu#%er k gives) k=!.(u)c(u)u *or #eta"#ateria!s e &eep the negative"va!ued so!ution) k=.(u)c(u)u +e previous!y p!ugged the p!ane ave so!ution into *aradays !a to find that the fie!ds are perpendicu!ar) kE 0 =u! 0 ,f e use the dispersion re!ation, e can si#p!ify this) kE 0 = 1 .(u)c(u) ! 0 kE 0 = c n ! 0 ,n #eta#ateria!s, the e!ectric fie!d E, the #agnetic fie!d !, and the propagation vector k are sti!! a!! perpendicu!ar to each other, %ut they no for# a !eft"handed trip!e instead of a right"handed trip!e as shon in the diagra#. -hat is hy #eta"#ateria!s are a!so &non as .!eft"handed/ #ateria!s. 341 +e can ca!cu!ate the 'oynting vector to get a sense of here the energy is going. +e #ust re#e#%er to use the rea! parts of the fie!ds) S=EH S=(E 0 cos(k"ut ))(H 0 cos(k"ut )) Use H= 1 ! S= 1 E 0 ! 0 cos 2 (k"ut ) Use the re!ation a%ove) S= . c E 0 kE 0 cos 2 (k"ut ) S= . c E 0 2 cos 2 (k"ut ) k -o find the ti#e"averaged energy f!o, e integrate over so#e ti#e T in the usua! ay and !et T %eco#e !arge, !eading to) 0S 1= 1 2 . c E 0 2 k ,n #eta#ateria!s, the energy f!os at the sa#e rate as in standard #ateria!s, %ut in the opposite direction as the ave vector. -his see#s counter"intuitive that the energy ou!d f!o in the opposite direction as the ave"fronts are trave!ing, %ut this has %een verified e2peri#enta!!y. ,n deriving the !a of refraction, e #atched up the incident ave k and trans#itted ave k at the %oundary to find) (k") z=0 =(k ") z =0 k E ! Standard Materia!s) 3ight"4anded Syste# k E ! Meta#ateria!s) Left"4anded Syste# 342 Carrying through the dot"products ith the understanding that the x vector at the %oundary is a!ays in the z p!ane gives us) k sin 0 i =k  sin 0 t Suppose the region of the incident ave is fi!!ed ith standard #ateria! and the region of the trans#itted ave is fi!!ed ith #eta"#ateria!. Using the respective dispersion re!ations gives us) .(u)c(u) sin 0 i =.  (u) c (u)sin 0 t nsin 0 i =n sin 0 t here n' 0 0 -herefore, Sne!!s !a sti!! ho!ds for #eta"#ateria!s, as !ong as e redefine the inde2 of refraction of the second #ateria! to %e negative. ,t #eans that aves entering #eta"#ateria!s fro# free space i!! %e refracted on the opposite side of the normal, %ut i!! sti!! toards the nor#a!. 5atura! Materia! Meta"#ateria! -his !eads to interesting effects such as #a&ing !enses out of f!at s!a%s of #eta"#ateria!s, as e!! as %ui!ding c!oa&ing devices here the !ight is %ent around an o%6ect. ,n the sa#e ay, Bresters ang!e 0 i =tan 1 ( n n ) and tota! interna! ref!ection 0 i =sin 1 ( n n ) are sti!! the sa#e as !ong as e rea!i7e no that the incident ave vector and trans#itted ave vector are on opposite sides of the nor#a!. 343 Problem # 8ac&son 9.1 *or each set of Sto&es para#eters given %e!o deduce the a#p!itude of the e!ectric fie!d, up to an overa!! phase, in %oth !inear po!ari7ation and circu!ar po!ari7ation %ases and #a&e an accurate draing si#i!ar to *ig. 9.: shoing the !engths of the a2es of one of the e!!ipses and its orientation. ;a< s 0 = 3, s 1 = "1, s 2 = 2, s 3 = "2 ;%< s 0 = 2>, s 1 = 0, s 2 = 2:, s 3 = 9 SOLUTION ?s discussed in the notes, the Sto&es para#eters are defined in a !inear po!ari7ation %asis according to) s 0 = E 1 2 + E 2 2 s 1 = E 1 E 2 2 s 2 =2 ( E 1 @ E 2 ) s 3 =2 ( E 1 @ E 2 ) -he 8ones vector e!e#ents are 6ust the #agnitude and phase of each co#ponent, so !et us rerite these definitions e2p!icit!y) s 0 = E 1 2 + E 2 2 s 1 = E 1 E 2 2 s 2 =2 E 1 E 2 cos(0 2 0 1 ) s 3 =2 E 1 E 2 sin(0 2 0 1 ) 5o invert these e(uations to so!ve for the 8ones vector e!e#ents) E 1 = . s 0 +s 1 2 E 2 = . s 0 s 1 2 0 2 0 1 =cos 1 s 2 . s 0 2 s 1 2 | or 0 2 0 1 =sin 1 s 3 . s 0 2 s 1 2 | 5ote that the four Sto&es para#eters are not independent, so that e can on!y &no the difference of the phase factors. -he !ast piece of infor#ation, the overa!! phase factor of the ho!e syste#, is typica!!y not as i#portant %ecause it depends on the choice of origin hich can %e anything) 344 E 0 = E 1 e i 1 E 2 e i 2 | =e i 1 E 1 E 2 e i ( 2 1 ) | Si#i!ar!y, the Sto&es para#eters are defined in a circu!ar po!ari7ation %asis according to) s 0 = E A 2 + E " 2 s 1 =2 E A E " cos( " A ) s 2 =2 E A E " sin( " A ) s 3 = E A E " 2 5o invert these e(uations) E A s 0 +s 3 2 E " s 0 s 3 2 " A =cos 1 s 1 s 0 2 s 3 2 | or " A =sin 1 s 2 s 0 2 s 3 2 | ,n Su##ary) E 0, !in = 1 2 s 0 +s 1 s 2 +i s 3 s 0 +s 1 | and S= E 1 2 + E 2 2 E 1 2 E 2 2 2 E 1 E 2 cos( 2 1 ) 2E 1 E 2 sin( 2 1 ) | E 0, circ = 1 2 s 0 +s 3 s 1 +i s 2 s 0 +s 3 | and S= E A 2 + E " 2 2E A E " cos( " A ) 2 E A E " sin( " A ) E A 2 E " 2 | ;a< E 0, !in = 1 1i | and E 0, circ = 1 2 1 1+2i | or E 0, !in = 1 2e i 9/ : | and E 0, circ = 1/ 2 >/ 2e i (+tan 1 (2)) | 345 ;%< E 0, !in = 1 2 > 2:+i 9 > | and E 0, circ = : 3i | or E 0, !in = >/ 2 >/ 2e i tan 1 (9/ 2:) | and E 0, circ = : 3e i / 2 | -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 E1 E 2 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 -4 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 4 E1 E 2 346 Problem  8ac&son 9.3 -o p!ane se#i"infinite s!a%s of the sa#e unifor#, isotropic, nonper#ea%!e, !oss!ess die!ectric ith inde2 of refraction n are para!!e! and separated %y an air gap ;n = 1< of idth d. ? p!ane e!ectro#agnetic ave of fre(uency B in free space is incident on the gap fro# one of the s!a%s ith ang!e of incidence i. *or !inear po!ari7ation both para!!e! to and perpendicu!ar to the p!ane of incidence, ;a< ca!cu!ate the ratio of poer trans#itted into the second s!a% to the incident poer and the ratio of ref!ected to incident poerC ;%< for i greater than the critica! ang!e for tota! interna! ref!ection, s&etch the ratio of trans#itted poer to incident poer as a function of d #easured in units of ave!ength in the gap. SOLUTION -his pro%!e# is very interesting %ecause it contains the funda#enta! physics %ehind eta!ons, interfero#eters, and *a%ry"'erot cavities. -here are three separate regions of unifor# #ateria!, so e set up different e!ectric fie!ds in each and then re!ate the# using %oundary conditions. Because the incident ave is a p!ane ave, and the interfaces are f!at, e assu#e the fie!ds in a!! regions ta&e on the for# of p!ane aves. Let us ca!! the incident #ateria! region .inc/, the air gap region .gap/, and the !ast s!a% region .trans/. '!ace the interface %eteen the incident s!a% and the gap at z = 0 and the other interface at z = d. ,n the incident s!a%, there is a forard"going ave ;the incident ave< and a %ac&ard"going ave ;the su# of a!! ref!ected aves<. ,n the gap there is a!so a forard"going ave ;the su# of a!! forard"ref!ected aves< and a %ac&ard"going ave ;the su# of a!! %ac&ard" ref!ected aves<. ,n the trans#itted s!a% there is on!y a forard"going ave ;the su# of a!! trans#itted aves<. 5ote that a!! #ateria!s are !oss!ess so that n and k are rea!"va!ued. -he aves are a!! assu#ed to have !inear po!ari7ation) E inc = 0 E 0 e i ( n c k"t ) + 1 E 1 e i ( n c 1 k 1 " 1 t ) E gap = 2 E 2 e i ( 1 c 2 k # " 2 t ) + 3 E 3 e i ( 1 c 3 k 3 " 3 t) E trans = : E : e i ( n c : k : ("%) : t ) 5ote that the trans#itted fie!d in the !ast s!a% as shifted a distance d in the z direction to account for the fact that it is created at z = d and not z = 0, despite %eing defined as re!ative to z = 0. -he %oundary conditions #ust ho!d for a!! ti#e and a!! points on the %oundary. -his #eans that the e2ponentia!s #ust #atch at z = 0 and z = d, !eading to) inc trans gap n n n=1 z x k k 1 k 2 k 3 k : 347 e i ( n c k"t ) =e i ( n c 1 k 1 " 1 t ) =e i ( 1 c 2 k # " 2 t ) =e i ( 1 c 3 k 3 " 3 t ) | z=0 and e i ( 1 c 2 k # " 2 t ) =e i ( 1 c 3 k 3 " 3 t) =e i( n c : k : ("%) : t) | z=d -hese to sets of e(uations #ust %e true for a!! ti#es t, so that the coefficients of t #ust #atch independent!y, !eading to) = 1 = 2 = 3 = : . +ith the ti#e co#ponents a!! cance!ed out, these to sets of e(uations no %eco#e) n k"=n k 1 "= k # "= k 3 " | z=0 and k # "= k 3 "=n k : ("%) | z =d ?!! the ave vectors !ie in the sa#e p!ane ca!!ed the p!ane of incidence. +e can assu#e e have a!igned the p!ane of incidence ith the x"z p!ane. ?s a resu!t, none of the ave vectors have any y co#ponents. D2pand the vectors into x and z co#ponents and define these co#ponents in ter#s of the ang!es fro# the z a2is ;for e2a#p!e k x =k sin i , k z =k cos i <. Dva!uate at z = 0 and z = d. 5ote that eva!uating at specific z !ocations reduces the z"co#ponent e(uations don to 6ust a %unch of constants. -hey have no #eaning at this point %ecause e can a!ays suc& a constant phase factor into the re#aining undeter#ined coefficients E 0 , E 1 , etc. Because of the !ac& of #eaningfu! infor#ation, e co#p!ete!y drop the z co#ponents. ?!! that re#ains is the x co#ponents) nsin i =nsin r =sin g ,i =sin g ,r and sin g ,i =sin g , r =nsin t ,i -his !eads to) i = r , g ,i = g , r , i = t ,i , nsin i =sin g , i , sin g ,i =nsin t , i , -hese are 6ust the !a of ref!ection and Sne!!s !a app!ied at %oth interfaces. +ith these app!ied, our fie!ds %eco#e) E inc = 0 E 0 e i ( n c (sin i x+cos i z)t ) + 1 E 1 e i( n c (sin i xcos i z )t) E gap = 2 E 2 e i ( 1 c (nsin i x+1n 2 sin 2 i z )t ) + 3 E 3 e i ( 1 c (nsin i x1n 2 sin 2 i z )t) E trans = : E : e i ( n c (sin i x+cos i (z d))t ) -hese are the #ost e2p!icit for#s of these e(uations. ?side fro# the current!y un&non fie!d strengths, E 1 , E 2 , etc, everything is defined in ter#s of the &non inde2 of refraction n and ang!e of incidence i . *or ease of future ca!cu!ations, hoever, !et us si#p!ify these e(uations. 5ote that %ecause e are dea!ing ith p!ane aves and f!at interfaces, e can or& ith a!! these fie!ds at the !atera! position x = 0 ithout any !oss of genera!ity. ,n addition, e can eva!uate the fie!ds at ti#e t = 0 ithout any !oss of genera!ity. Last!y, e use the shorthand notation cos g , i = 1n 2 sin 2 i . +ith these si#p!ifications, the fie!ds %eco#e) 348 E inc = 0 E 0 e i n c cos i z + 1 E 1 e i n c cos i z E gap = 2 E 2 e i 1 c cos g , i z + 3 E 3 e i 1 c cos g , i z E trans = : E : e i n c cos i (zd ) here cos g , i = 1n 2 sin 2 i ?!! that is !eft is to find the fie!d #agnitudes %y app!ying %oundary conditions. -o do this, e need to approach %oth possi%!e po!ari7ation cases separate!y. *or po!ari7ation perpendicular to the p!ane of incidence, a!! the po!ari7ation vectors point in the positive y direction. Because of !=(n/ c) kE , this te!!s us that a!! of the forard going aves have ! fie!ds pointing in the negative"xEpositive"z direction and a!! the %ac&ards going aves have ! pointing in the positive"xEpositive"z direction ;of course, they rea!!y osci!!ate %ac& and forth, %ut at points of 7ero tota! phase they point in this direction<. *or this po!ari7ation, the fie!ds %eco#e) E inc = y E 0 e i n c cos i z + y E 1 e i n c cos i z E gap = y E 2 e i 1 c cos g , i z + y E 3 e i 1 c cos g , i z E trans = y E : e i n c cos i (z d) ! inc = n c (sin i &cos i ")E 0 e i n c cos i z + n c (sin i &+cos i ") E 1 e i n c cos i z ! gap = 1 c (nsin i &cos g ,i ") E 2 e i 1 c cos g , i z + 1 c (nsin i &+cos g ,i ") E 3 e i 1 c cos g , i z ! trans = n c (sin i &cos i ")E : e i n c cos i ( zd) here cos g , i = 1n 2 sin 2 i -he four genera! %oundary conditions hen no charges or currents are present are) 2 E 2 n= 1 E 1 n | on S , E 2 n=E 1 n | on S , ! 2 n=! 1 n | on S , 2 ! 2 n= 1 1 ! 1 n | on S +e have to %oundaries, so e have eight %oundary conditions tota!. -he #ateria!s are a!! non" #agnetic so that F 2 = F 1 = F 0 , = 0 in the gap and =n 2 0 outside the gap. -he %oundary conditions at %oth interfaces %eco#e) 349 ;1< E gap &=n 2 E inc &| z=0 ;2< E gap &=E inc & | z =0 ;3< ! gap &=! inc & | z =0 ;:< ! gap &=! inc & | z=0 ;>< n 2 E trans &=E gap &| z=d ;G< E trans &=E gap & | z =d ;9< ! trans &=! gap & | z =d ;H< ! trans &=! gap & | z=d '!ugging in the fie!ds into these %oundary conditions, e find) 0 = 0 fro# e(uations ;1< and ;>< E 2 +E 3 =E 0 +E 1 fro# e(uations ;2< and ;3< E 2 E 3 =b( E 0 E 1 ) fro# e(uation ;:< E : =E 2 e i a +E 3 e i a fro# e(uations ;G< and ;9< b E : =E 2 e i a E 3 e i a fro# e(uation ;H< here b= ncos i 1n 2 sin 2 i and a= 1 c d 1n 2 sin 2 i Considering that the incident strength E 0 is ta&en to %e a &non, e have four independent e(uations a%ove in four un&nons and can therefore so!ve uni(ue!y for the different fie!d strengths. ?fter #uch a!ge%ra, e so!ve this syste# of e(uations to find) E 1 E 0 = (1b 2 )i sin a 2bcosa(1+b 2 )i sina E 2 E 0 = b(1+b)(cosai sin a) 2bcosai (1+b 2 )sina E 3 E 0 = b(1b)(cosa+i sina) 2bcosai (1+b 2 )sina E : E 0 = 2b 2bcos ai (1+b 2 )sin a here a= 1 c d 1n 2 sin 2 i and b= ncos i 1n 2 sin 2 i +e no see& to find the fraction of ref!ected and trans#itted poer %y ta&ing the #agnitude s(uared of the first and !ast e(uation. +e have to %e carefu! %ecause %eyond the critica! ang!e of tota! interna! ref!ection, a and b %eco#e pure!y i#aginary, %ut e can sti!! have va!id trans#ission via the evanescent #odes. Let us approach the to cases separate!y. Be!o the critica! ang!e, a and b are pure!y rea!"va!ued, !eading to) 350 R= E 1 E 0 2 = (1b 2 ) 2 sin 2 a :b 2 cos 2 a+(1+b 2 ) 2 sin 2 a Perpendicular polarization, belo the critical angle T= E : E 0 2 = :b 2 :b 2 cos 2 a+(1+b 2 ) 2 sin 2 a here a= 1 c d 1n 2 sin 2 i and b= ncos i 1n 2 sin 2 i Ireater than the critica! ang!e, a and b %eco#e pure!y i#aginary. Let us e2p!icit!y factor out this i#aginary nature) a=i =i ( 1 c d 1n 2 sin 2 ) and b=i =i ( ncos i 1n 2 sin 2 ) . +ith these definitions inserted %efore ta&ing the #agnitude s(uared, and then #agnitude s(uaring, e find) R= E 1 E 0 2 = (1+ 2 ) 2 sinh 2 () : 2 cosh 2 ()+(1 2 ) 2 sinh 2 ( ) Perpendicular polarization, abo!e the critical angle T= E : E 0 2 = : 2 : 2 cosh 2 ()+(1 2 ) 2 sinh 2 () here = 1 c d 1n 2 sin 2 i and = ncos i 1n 2 sin 2 Let us no do the sa#e thing for the po!ari7ation here the e!ectric fie!ds are a!! in the p!ane of incidence. ?!! of the forard going aves have E fie!ds pointing in the negative"xEpositive"z direction and a!! the %ac&ards going aves have E pointing in the positive"xEpositive"z direction. Using !=( n/ c) kE , e find the fie!ds for para!!e! po!ari7ation are) E inc =(cos i "+sin i &) E 0 e i n c cos i z +(cos i "+sin i &) E 1 e i n c cos i z E gap =(cos g , i "+nsin i &) E 2 e i 1 c cos g , i z +(cos g ,i "+nsin i &) E 3 e i 1 c cos g , i z E trans =(cos i "+sin i &)E : e i n c cos i ( zd) ! inc = y(n/ c)(E 0 e i n c cos i z +E 1 e i n c cos i z ) ! gap = y(1/ c)( E 2 e i 1 c cos g , i z +E 3 e i 1 c cos g , i z ) ! trans = y(n/ c) E : e i n c cos i (z d) here cos g , i = 1n 2 sin 2 i 351 '!ugging these fie!ds into the %oundary conditions shon in D(uations ;1<";H<, e find) E 2 +E 3 =n E 0 +n E 1 fro# e(uations ;1< and ;:< n E 2 n E 3 =b E 0 b E 1 fro# e(uation ;2< 0 = 0 fro# e(uations ;3< and ;9< n E : =E 2 e ia +E 3 e i a fro# e(uation ;>< and ;H< b E : =n E 2 e i a n E 3 e i a fro# e(uation ;G< here as usua! b= ncos i 1n 2 sin 2 i a= 1 c d 1n 2 sin 2 i +e can no so!ve uni(ue!y for the undeter#ined coefficients. ?fter #uch a!ge%ra, e find) E 1 E 0 = (n : b 2 )i sin a 2n 2 bcos ai (n : +b 2 )sin a E 2 E 0 = b n(n 2 +b)( cosai sina) 2n 2 bcos ai ( n : +b 2 )sin a E 3 E 0 = bn(n 2 b)(cos a+i sin a) 2n 2 bcos ai (n : +b 2 )sin a E : E 0 = 2n 2 b 2n 2 bcos ai (n : +b 2 )sin a here a= 1 c d 1n 2 sin 2 i and b= ncos i 1n 2 sin 2 i *or ang!es !ess than the critica! ang!e e find) R= E 1 E 0 2 = (n : b 2 ) 2 sin 2 a : n : b 2 cos 2 a+(n : +b 2 ) 2 sin 2 a Parallel polarization, belo the critical angle T= E : E 0 2 = :n : b 2 : n : b 2 cos 2 a+(n : +b 2 ) 2 sin 2 a here a= 1 c d 1n 2 sin 2 i and b= ncos i 1n 2 sin 2 i 352 *or ang!es greater than the critica! ang!e e find) R= E 1 E 0 2 = (n : + 2 ) 2 sinh 2 () : n : 2 cosh 2 ()+(n : 2 ) 2 sinh 2 () Parallel polarization, abo!e the critical angle T= E : E 0 2 = : n : 2 : n : 2 cosh 2 ( )+(n : 2 ) 2 sinh 2 ( ) here = 1 c d 1n 2 sin 2 i and = ncos i 1n 2 sin 2 Let us p!ot a!! these e(uations to understand hat they #ean. +e on!y need to p!ot the trans#ission coefficients T %ecause the ref!ection coefficients are trivia!!y re!ated %y R = 1 J T" -he trans#ission coefficient represents the fraction of the incident poer that #a&es it a!! the ay through the syste# and trave!s out the other side. ?t nor#a! incidence, hich is a!ays %e!o the critica! ang!e, T depends on the gap space d and the inde2 of refraction n as shon %e!o. 353 5ote that due to the sy##etry hen e are at nor#a! incidence, %oth po!ari7ations give the sa#e trends. -he trends are periodic. +hen the gap spacing is c!ose to a ha!f"integer #u!tip!e of the ave!ength of the !ight in the gap ;hen dEK = nE2, n = 0,1,2...< then the trans#ission is high. -his is %ecause the forard ref!ected aves in the gap and the %ac&ard ref!ected ave !ine up so that they constructive!y interfere. ?ay fro# these resonance points, the %ac&ard and forard aves %eco#e una!igned and destructive!y interfere. ?s a resu!t, the trans#ission drops for gap idths aay fro# ha!f"integer #u!tip!es of the ave!ength. ?!so note that a higher inde2 of refraction n !eads to !oer drops in trans#ission. -his is %ecause a higher inde2 #ateria! in the s!a%s !eads to greater ref!ection at the interfaces. ?s a resu!t, the aves spend !onger in the gap and participate #ore in destructive interference. ,n the !i#it that n approaches infinity, this device %eco#es a perfect #onochro#atic fi!ter, on!y !etting through one ave!ength per period. ,f e #ove aay fro# nor#a! incidence, the sa#e genera! trends ho!d, %ut the to different po!ari7ations %ehave different!y no. ?!so, the resonance points are no not e2act!y at ha!f"integer #u!tip!es of the ave!ength. -his is %ecause the ave is trave!ing at a diagona!, so that the interference effects %eco#e #ore co#p!e2. 354 *or ang!es of incidence greater than the critica! ang!e of tota! interna! ref!ection, trans#ission is on!y via evanescent aves in the gap, hich die out e2ponentia!!y. ?s a resu!t, the trans#ission is on!y high for s#a!! gap idths, as shon %e!o. -he higher the inde2 of refraction, the #ore strong!y the incident ave is ref!ected, and the (uic&er the evanescent ave dies out. -his princip!e is used to create tuna%!e %ea# sp!itters. ?ny desired trans#ission coefficient can %e rea!i7ed %y ad6usting the gap idth appropriate!y. 5e2t, e can p!ot #any trends as a function of ang!e of incidence and not inde2 of refraction to get a fee! for ho the trans#ission depends on incidence ang!e. -he resu!ts are shon %e!o for n = 2, p!otted in >L incre#ents starting fro# 0L in red to M0L for the !ast %!ac& curve. ?s these p!ots sho, the critica! ang!e of tota! interna! ref!ection divides the periodic curves fro# the da#ped curves. ?!so note that as the ang!e of incidence increases, the resonant gap idths increase. *ina!!y note that for para!!e! po!ari7ation, the trans#ission reaches 100N for a!! gap idths d at a certain ang!e. -his is Bresters ang!e, as discussed in c!ass. 355 'erhaps Bresters ang!e is #ost visi%!e if e #a&e an intensity p!ot so that the trans#ission can %e a s#ooth function of %oth the ang!e of incidence and the gap idth. -he resu!ts are shon %e!o. Lighter co!ors represent higher trans#ission. +hite represents 100N trans#ission and %!ac& represents 0N trans#ission. -he x a2is is the gap idth dE# and the y a2is is the ang!e of incidence i . -he hite strea&s occur at the resonant ave!engths of the syste#. -he resonant ave!engths start at ha!f"integer #u!tip!es of the gap idth for nor#a! incidence, and then %end toards higher va!ues as the ang!e of incidence increases. ?fter the critica! ang!e of tota! interna! ref!ection is reached, the p!ot %eco#es %!ac& e2cept for at very s#a!! gaps idths here tunne!ing is supported. Co#paring the resu!ts for the perpendicu!ar po!ari7ation and the para!!e! po!ari7ation, e see a %right %ar of strong trans#ission right %efore the critica! ang!e in the para!!e! po!ari7ation. -his is Bresters ang!e. -ota! trans#ission is encouraged at Bresters ang!e independent of gap idth, %ut it on!y occurs in one po!ari7ation. -he p!ots %e!o sho the cases of n = 2 and n = :. *ro# these e see that changing the inde2 of refraction of the #ateria!s does not change the overa!! pattern, %ut si#p!y !oers Bresters ang!e and the critica! ang!e, as e!! as increasing the contrast %eteen highs and !os. 356 357 Homework 2 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory II Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Spring 2013 University of Massachusetts Loe!! Problem 1 Consider a p!ane, "onochro"atic e!ectro"agnetic ave inside an infinite, pure p!as"a ith its ave vector in the x direction. #a Derive the co"p!e% ave vector of this ave in ter"s of the p!as"a fre&uency p and ave fre&uency for the cases of ' p and ( p . #) *rite don the e!ectric fie!d of this ave as e%p!icit!y as possi)!e for )oth cases. #c *hat does the e!ectric fie!d reduce don to for the cases of + p , + 3 p , and + #1,3 p - Descri)e the type of ave in each case. SOLUTIO! #a .he die!ectric constant for a pure p!as"a is/ 0 =1 p 2 2 here p is the p!as"a fre&uency. 0or a non1"agnetic "ateria! #such as a pure p!as"a, the ave nu")er is re!ated to the per"ittivity according to/ k= 0or a p!as"a, this )eco"es/ k= c 1 p 2 2 k= 1 c p 2 2f the fre&uency is greater than the p!as"a fre&uency, ' p , then the ave nu")er is a!ays positive and rea!. 2f the fre&uency is !ess than the p!as"a fre&uency, then the ave nu")er is pure!y i"aginary and positive/ k= 1 c p 2 if ' p k=i 1 c p 2 if ( p #) .he e!ectric fie!d of a p!ane ave has the for" E=E 0 e i k xt . 2nside a p!as"a, this )eco"es/ 358 E=E 0 e i 1 c p 2 xi t E=E 0 e 1 c p 2 x e i t #c 2f + p this )eco"es/ E=E 0 e i p t . .his is a standing ave. 2f + 3 p this )eco"es/ E=E 0 e i p 3x /c3 p t . .his is a trave!ing ave. 2f + #1,3 p this )eco"es/ E=E 0 e p 3/ 4x /c e i p t / 3 . .his is a standing ave that spatia!!y decays e%ponentia!!y. Because there is no "ateria! !oss, the ave "ust decay )ecause it is )eing ref!ected, "uch !i5e the evanescent ave does in the tota! interna! ref!ection of die!ectric "ateria!s. Problem 2 6 p!ane, "onochro"atic trave!ing e!ectro"agnetic ave is incident nor"a!!y fro" free space on a se"i1infinite p!anar s!a) of "ateria! ith rea!1va!ued per"ea)i!ity , per"ittivity and conductivity , all greater than the corresponding free space va!ues. #a 0ind the phase shift that the ave ac&uires upon ref!ection. Ma5e sure your anser ends up in the right &uadrant #) 2f e ant the phase shift to a!ays )e 130 degrees, hat does this te!! us a)out the conductivity- SOLUTIO! #a Because the ave is nor"a! to the "ateria!7s surface, the "athe"atics si"p!ifies considera)!y. 6!! aves trave! in the positive or negative nor"a! direction. 6!so, sy""etry dictates that a!! po!ari8ations !ead to e%act!y the sa"e resu!ts. 2f e set up the pro)!e" in the usua! ay ith the incident ave E trave!ing in the positive z direction, the trans"itted ave E7 trave!ing in the positive z direction, and the ref!ected ave E77 trave!ing in the negative z direction, e get fro" the )oundary conditions/ E 0 7=E 0 E 0 77 k 7 E 0 7 =k E 0 k E 0 77 *e can use )oth of these to so!ve for the ref!ected ave in ter"s of the incident ave/ E 0 77 = k k 7 E 0 k k 7 E 0 77E 0 E 0 77= kk 7 kk 7 E 0 E 0 77 E 0 = kk 7 k+k 7 359 .he ave nu")er in free space is 9ust k= c . .he ave nu")er in the other "ateria! o)eys k 7=() 0or a conducting "ateria! e can use =i so that e have k 7= +i :!ugging these in a)ove !eads to/ E 0 77 E 0 = 1 c 2 +i c 2 1+ c 2 +i c 2 .he phase shift that the ave gains upon ref!ection is 9ust the phase difference )eteen the incident and ref!ected ave at the interface. .his is 9ust the argu"ent of the a)ove e%pression. .he phase of a co"p!e% nu")er is Arg (z)=tan 1 ( i zz ; z+z ; ) +( if (z)<0) so that e find after "uch a!ge)ra/ Arg ( E 0 77 E 0 ) =+tan 1 ( i c 2 i c 2 c 2 +i c 2 1 2 c < + 2 c < ) =ote that the > is there to "a5e sure the ang!e ends up in the right &uadrant )ecause the arctan function destroys so"e &uadrant infor"ation. 2f the per"ittivity, per"ea)i!ity, and conductivity are a!! rea!1 va!ued, you can sho that the rea! part of E 0 77,E 0 is a!ays negative so that the phase is a!ays in the second and third &uadrant. Using z= 1 2 [ z+(z )+sgn( (z))i z( z)] e find/ Arg ( E 0 77 E 0 ) =+tan 1 ( 2 0 ) 2 + ( 0 ) 2 0 ) 2 + ( 0 ) 2 1 ) #) 2f the ref!ection phase shift is to )e 130 degrees, this puts the fo!!oing constraint on the conductivity/ 360 =+tan 1 ( 2 0 ) 2 + ( 0 ) 2 0 ) 2 + ( 0 ) 2 1 ) =0 or *e have therefore shon that a!! non1conductors and perfect conductors shift a ave7s phase )y 130 degrees upon ref!ection #if the e%terna! "ateria! is free space. 0urther"ore, e have shon that non1 perfect conductors can never shift a ave7s phase )y e%act!y 130 degrees upon ref!ection. .o sho this )etter, !et us p!ot the phase shift. .he resu!t is shon )e!o as a function of the nor"a!i8ed conductivity for a handfu! or representative per"ittivities and per"ea)i!ities. .his p!ot shos that non1 conductors and very good conductors !ead to a 130 degrees phase shift. *e a!so see that no "atter the "ateria! #as !ong as its unifor" and se"i1infinite, the phase shift a!ays fa!!s so"e here )eteen 130 and 2?0 degrees. .he higher the per"ittivity or per"ea)i!ity, the "ore the "ateria! acts !i5e a non1 conductor, and the "ore the curve )eco"es a f!at !ine at 130 degrees. 361 Problem " @ac5son ?.12 .he ti"e dependence of e!ectrica! distur)ances in good conductors is governed )y the fre&uency1 dependent conductivity #?.A3. Consider !ongitudina! e!ectric fie!ds in a conductor, using Bh"7s !a, the continuity e&uation, and the differentia! for" of Cou!o")7s !a. #a Sho that the ti"e10ourier1transfor"ed charge density satisfies the e&uation [ ()i 0 ](# ,)=0 #) Using the representation ()= 0 /(1i ) , here 0 = 0 p 2 and is a da"ping ti"e, sho that in the appro%i"ation p '' 1 any initia! distur)ance i!! osci!!ate ith the p!as"a fre&uency and decay in a"p!itude ith a decay constant + 1,2. =ote that if you use # + #0 + 0 in part a, you i!! find no osci!!ations and e%tre"e!y rapid da"ping ith the #rong decay constant w + 0 , 0 . SOLUTIO! #a *e are assu"ing that the conductivity do"inates so that = 0 and therefore = 0 E . .he ti"e 0ourier transfor"s are defined according to/ ()= 1 2 ( t )e i t dt here (t )= 1 2 ()e i t d %( )= 1 2 %(t )e i t dt here %(t )= 1 2 %( )e i t d E()= 1 2 E(t ) e i t dt here E(t )= 1 2 E()e i t d .he charge continuity e&uation states that/ %= ! !t 0ourier transfor" the continuity e&uation to get it into fre&uency space/ %()=i () Bh"7s !a states that %( )=( )E() . 2nserting Bh"7s !a into the continuity e&uation in fre&uency space, e find/ ( )E()=i () *e have assu"ed the conductor "ateria! is spatia!!y unifor" in order to ta5e C out of the divergence operator. =o on the right e have the divergence of the e!ectric fie!d, hich re"inds us of Cou!o")7s !a in differentia! for"/ E( )=( ) / 0 . #Because = 0 , and there are no ti"e operators, Cou!o")7s !a !oo5s the sa"e in fre&uency space and ti"e space. 2nsert Cou!o")7s !a in the e&uation a)ove to find/ [ ()i 0 ] ()=0 362 #) =o use the representation ( )= 0 /(1i ) , here 0 = 0 p 2 and is a da"ping ti"e. [ ()i 0 ] ()=0 [ p 2 1i i ] ()=0 2f the charge density is to e%ist #)e non18ero, then the factor in )rac5ets "ust vanish. [ p 2 1i i ] =0 2 +i p 2 =0 = i" < 2 p 2 1 2 2n the appro%i"ation p '' 1 =" p i 1 2 .his te!!s us that ()= [ 0, D if =+ p i / 2 0, 1 if = p i / 2 0 for a!! other fre&uencies ] :!ugging this into the definition of the charge density/ (t )= 1 2 ()e i t d (t )= 0, D e i( p i/ 2)t + 0, 1 e i( p i / 2)t (t )=[ 0, D e i p t + 0, 1 e i p t ] e t / 2 .his te!!s us that an initia! charge distri)ution i!! osci!!ate at the p!as"a fre&uency and decay ith decay constant 1,2. 363 Homework 3 Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory II Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Spring 2013 University of Massachusetts Loe!! Problem 1 Consider a pure p!as"a # 0  0 and 0  0% ith p!as"a fre&uency p . Using the si"p!e har"onic "ode!, derive e'pressions for the group ve!ocity v g and phase ve!ocity v p of a ave pac(et trave!ing in this "ateria!. )!ot the re!ative per"ittivity, the ave nu"*er, the phase ve!ocity, and the group ve!ocity a!! as a function of fre&uency #nor"a!i+e everything appropriate!y so that a!! p!ot do"ains and ranges are unit!ess%. SOLUTIO! ,he si"p!e har"onic "ode! of the co"p!e' die!ectric constant for one resonant fre&uency is- 0 =1+ N e 2 0 m 1 ( 0 2 2 i 0 ) .or a pure p!as"a, this *eco"es- 0 =1 p 2 2 )!ugging this into the dispersion re!ation- k= () 0 k= 1 c p 2 ,he phase ve!ocity is- v p = k v p c = 1 1 p 2 / 2 ,he group ve!ocity is- v g = [ d d k ] = c ,o find this, e ta(e the derivative of the dispersion re!ation ith respect to k on *oth sides to find- 364 v g c = 1 p 2 / 2 /e can p!ot a!! these resu!ts. 0ote that *e!o the p!as"a fre&uency, a p!as"a does not support trave!ing aves. 1s a resu!t, the ve!ocities end up i"aginary at these fre&uencies. 1t very high fre&uencies, *oth ve!ocities approach the speed of !ight as if the p!as"a is not there. 1t the p!as"a fre&uency, the group ve!ocity *eco"es +ero and the phase ve!ocity is infinite. ,his is the description of a standing ave. ,he group ve!ocity is a!ays !ess than the speed of !ight in (eeping ith re!ativity. ,he phase ve!ocity is greater than the speed of !ight, *ut this is not pro*!e"atic as the phase ve!ocity does not carry infor"ation. 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3 Dispersion in a Pure Plasma permittivity (/0) wavenumber (k/!p) p"ase veloity (vp/) #roup veloity (v#/) !/!p 365 Problem " Use the 2ra"ers32ronig re!ation to ca!cu!ate the rea! part of the die!ectric constant if the i"aginary part as found e'peri"enta!!y to *e A hen # 0 4 d% 5 5 # 0 6 d% and +ero otherise. )!ot the rea! and i"aginary part of the die!ectric constant as a function of fre&uency. Be carefu! to "a(e sure you don7t ta(e the !ogarith" of a negative nu"*er SOLUTIO! (()/ 0 )=1+ 2 ((7 )/ 0 )7 7 2 2 d 7 (()/ 0 )=1+A 2 0 d 0 +d 7 7 2 2 d 7 /e have to *e carefu! *ecause this integra! can on!y *e done for certain ranges. .or instance, if the fre&uency of interest 8 is outside the resonant region, there is no singu!arity in the integra! and it can *e direct!y. 9therise, e "ust ta(e the principa! part to avoid the singu!arity. .or fre&uencies outside the resonant region, if < # 0 4 d% or > # 0 6 d%, e do the integra! direct!y to find- (( )/ 0 )=1+ A [ !n( 7 2 2 )] 0 d 0 +d (( )/ 0 )=1+ A !n [ ( 0 +d ) 2 2 ( 0 d ) 2 2 ] 9n the other hand, inside the resonant region, e "ust ta(e the principa! part to avoid the singu!arity. ,his is done *y *rea(ing up the integra! at the po!e. :f # 0 4 d% 5 5 # 0 6 d%- (()/ 0 )=1+!i" 0 A 2 [ 0 d 7 7 2 2 d 7+ 0 +d 7 7 2 2 d 7 ] (( )/ 0 )=1+!i" 0 A 2 [ [ 1 2 !n( 2 7 2 ) ] 0 d + [ 1 2 !n( 7 2 2 ) ] + 0 +d ] (()/ 0 )=1+ A !n [ ( 0 +d ) 2 2 ( 0 d ) 2 2 ] +!i" 0 !n ( 2 2+ ) ,he !ast ter" goes aay in the !i"it, !eaving- (( )/ 0 )=1+ A !n [ ( 0 +d ) 2 2 ( 0 d ) 2 2 ] 366 /e can no co"*ine *oth cases into- (( )/ 0 )=1+ A !n [ ( 0 +d ) 2 2 ( 0 d ) 2 ] 0 0.2 0. 0.% 0.& 1 1.2 1. 1.% 1.& 2 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3  5 % 'ma#inary Part o( t"e Dieletri )onstant !/!0 ' m ( 0 ) 0 0.2 0. 0.% 0.& 1 1.2 1. 1.% 1.& 2 -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3  5 % *eal Part o( t"e Dieletri )onstant !/!0 * e ( 0 ) 367 Problem 3 ;ac(son <.1= 1n appro'i"ate!y "onochro"atic p!ane ave pac(et in one di"ension has the instantaneous for", u(x ,0)=f (x)e i k 0 x , ith f#x% the "odu!ation enve!ope. .or each of the for"s f#x% *e!o, ca!cu!ate the ave3nu"*er spectru" >A#k%> 2 of the pac(et, s(etch >u#x, 0%> 2 and >A#k%> 2 , eva!uate e'p!icit!y the r"s deviations fro" the "eans ?x and ?k #defined in ter"s of the intensities >u#x, 0%> 2 and >A#k%> 2 %, and test ine&ua!ity #<.@2%. #a% f ( x)=N e x/ 2 #*% f (x)=N e 2 x 2 / A #c% f (x)= [ N (1x) for x<1 0 for x>1 ] #d% f (x)= [ N for x<a 0 for x>a ] SOLUTIO! .irst note the definition of r"s for a ave pac(et- x= x 2 [ f (x)] 2 dx [ f (x)] 2 dx #a% .or u(x ,0)=N e i k 0 xx/2 the ave3nu"*er spectru" is- A( k)= 1 2 u( x , 0)e i k x dx A(k)= 1 2 N e i k x+i k 0 xx/ 2 dx A( k)= 1 2 2 N [ cos((kk 0 ) x) e x/ 2 dx ] A(k)= 1 2 2 N [ e x /2 2 cos((kk 0 ) x)+(kk 0 )sin((kk 0 ) x) 2 / A+(kk 0 ) 2 ] 0 A(k)= 1 2 [ N 2 / A+( kk 0 ) 2 ] ,he "odu!us s&uared is therefore found #in a for" nor"a!i+ed for p!otting%- 368 A(k ) 2 2 N 2 = 1 2 [ 1 1 A + ( k k 0 ) 2 ] 2 ,his is the ave3nu"*er spectru" of- u( x , 0) 2 N 2 =e x /e can p!ot this spectru" #ith k 0  2% and its corresponding ave pac(et- ,he spread of the ave pac(et and its spectru" can no *e found- x= x 2 e x dx e x dx x= 2 k= k 2 [ 1 2 / A+k 2 ] 2 dk [ 1 2 / A+k 2 ] 2 dk k= 2 x k= 2 2 for this case, hich o*eys x k 1 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5  0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 k/ + , ( k ) - a l p " a + . 2 / / . 2 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0 0.2 0. 0.% 0.& 1 x + u ( 0 1 0 ) + . 2 / / . 2 369 #*% .or u(x ,0)=N e i k 0 x 2 x 2 / A the ave3nu"*er spectru" is- A(k)= 1 2 u( x , 0)e i k x dx A( k)= 1 2 N e i k 0 xi k x 2 x 2 / A dx A(k)= 2 2 N cos((kk 0 ) x)e 2 x 2 / A dx A(k)=N 2 e (k k 0 ) 2 / 2 ,he "odu!us s&uared is therefore found #in a for" nor"a!i+ed for p!otting%- A(k ) 2 2 N 2 =2e 2 ( k k 0 ) 2 ,his is the ave3nu"*er spectru" of- u( x , 0) 2 N 2 =e ( x) 2 / 2 /e can p!ot this spectru" #ith k 0  2% and its corresponding ave pac(et- ,he spread of the ave pac(et and its spectru" can no *e found- x= x 2 e 2 x 2 / 2 dx 2 x 2 / 2 dx x= 1 -2 -1.5 -1 -0.5 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 0 0.2 0. 0.% 0.& 1 x + u ( 0 1 0 ) + . 2 / / . 2 0 0.5 1 1.5 2 2.5 3 3.5  0 0.5 1 1.5 2 k/ + , ( k ) - a l p " a + . 2 / / . 2 370 k= k 2 e 2k 2 / 2 dk e 2k 2 / 2 dk k= 2 x k= 1 2 for this case, hich sti!! o*eys x k 1 2 0ote that this ave pac(et reaches the "ini"u" uncertainty possi*!e. ,his "eans that this ave pac(et has "a'i"u" s"oothness. #c% .or the case of u(x ,0)=N (1x)e i k 0 x for x<1, 0 otherise , the ave3nu"*er spectru" is- A(k)= 1 2 u( x , 0)e i k x dx A(k)= 2 N 2 0 1/ (1 x)cos((kk 0 )x)dx A(k)= 2 N 2 1 (k /k 0 / ) 2 [ 2(k / k 0 / ) sin(k / k 0 / )+1cos(k / k 0 / )] ,he "odu!us s&uared is therefore found #in a for" nor"a!i+ed for p!otting%- A(k ) 2 2 N 2 = 2 1 ( k k 0 ) A [ 2 ( k k 0 ) sin ( k k 0 ) +1cos ( k k 0 )] 2 ,his is the ave3nu"*er spectru" of- u( x , 0) 2 N 2 =(1 x) 2 for x<1, 0 otherise /e can p!ot this spectru" #ith k 0  2% and its corresponding ave pac(et- 371 0ote that the discontinuous nature of the s!ope of the avefor" in coordinate space !eads to ringing in avenu"*er space. ,he spread of the ave pac(et and its spectru" can no *e found- x= 1 0 1 x 2 (1x) 2 dx 0 1 (1x) 2 dx x= 1 10 k= 1 k 2 [ 2 k sin k+1cos k] 2 dk 1 k A [ 2 k sin k+1cos k] 2 dk 0ote that the highest poer ter" in the nu"erator is A sin 2 k dk hich o*vious!y diverges, so that- k= x k=for this case, hich certain!y o*eys x k 1 2 -% - -2 0 2  % & 10 0 1 2 3  k/ + , ( k ) - a l p " a + . 2 / / . 2 -& -% - -2 0 2  % & 0 0.2 0. 0.% 0.& 1 x + u ( 0 1 0 ) + . 2 / / . 2 372 #d% .or u(x ,0)=N e i k 0 x for x<a , 0 otherise , the ave3nu"*er spectru" is- A(k)= 1 2 u( x , 0)e i k x dx A(k)= 1 2 N a a e i (kk 0 )x dx A(k)= 2 2 N sin((kk 0 )a) (kk 0 ) ,he "odu!us s&uared is therefore found #in a for" nor"a!i+ed for p!otting%- A(k ) 2 N 2 a 2 = 2 sin 2 (k ak 0 a) (k ak 0 a) 2 ,his is the ave3nu"*er spectru" of- u( x , 0) 2 N 2 =1 for x/ a<1, 0 otherise /e can p!ot this spectru" #ith k 0  2/a% and its corresponding ave pac(et- ,he avefor" itse!f is discontinuous, so there is significant ringing in avenu"*er space. ,he spread of the ave pac(et and its spectru" can no *e found- x= a a x 2 dx a a dx x= a 3 -% - -2 0 2  % & 10 0 0.2 0. 0.% 0.& ka + , ( k ) + . 2 / ( / . 2 a . 2 ) -& -% - -2 0 2  % & 0 0.2 0. 0.% 0.& 1 x/a + u ( 0 1 0 ) + . 2 / / . 2 373 k= sin 2 (k a)dk sin 2 (k a) k 2 dk k= x k=for this case, hich certain!y o*eys x k 1 2 374 "#% &'()*+',- 375 Mid-Term Exam, Electromagnetic Theory I Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013 University of Massachusetts o!ell PART I: Multiple Choice (3 point!"# Circle the one best answer to each question. 1. "hat is the advanta#e of representin# the reen function for spherical %oundaries as a series of spherical har&onics Y lm ' (a) *he spherical har&onics series is &ore co&pact. (%) *he spherical har&onics series is finite. (c) Spherical har&onics do not for& an orthonor&al set of functions, so there is &ore freedo&. (d) +nte#rals that arise are &ore solva%le usin# the spherical har&onics representation. 2. +f a locali,ed char#e distri%ution is placed near an infinite, #rounded, conductin# plane sheet, !hat can !e say a%out the i&a#e char#e distri%ution - that represents the effects on the sheet' (a) - has the sa&e total char#e as and has the sa&e si#n. (%) - has the sa&e total char#e as and has the opposite si#n. (c) - al!ays has less total char#e than . (d) - al!ays has &ore total char#e than . 3. Consider an infinitely lon# cylinder of radius a !ith the potential V ( ) on its surface. "e desire to find the electric potential every!here inside the cylinder. "hat are the %oundary conditions in the radial direction' (a) =V () only (%) =V () at . a and =finite at . 0 (c) =V () at . a and =0 at . / (d) =V () at . 0 and =0 at . a 0. 1 non2unifor& line char#e 3(z) e4tends infinitely in the z direction. *he line char#e is located in polar coordinates at the point ( 0, 0 ) . "hat is the e4pression for the volu&e char#e density ch (x) of this distri%ution in ter&s of cylindrical coordinates' (a) ch (x)=( zz 0 ) ( 0 )( 0 ) (%) ch (x)=(z) ( 0 )( 0 ) (c) ch (x)=(z) ( 0 ) ( 0 ) (d) ch (x)=q( 0 ) ( 0 ) sin 376 5. 1 hollo! cu%e is located !ith one corner at the ori#in and the other corner at the point (x, y, z) . (a, a, a). 1ll faces of the cu%e are held at a potential of ,ero, e4cept for the top face (at z . a) !hich is held at a potential of V sin(6x7a) sin(6y7a). "hat is the %est description of the solution for the potential every!here inside the cu%e' (a) an infinite series of ter&s that includes e#endre polyno&ials. (%) an infinite series of ter&s that includes cosine and cosh functions. (c) a sin#le ter& that includes cosine and cosh functions. (d) a sin#le ter& that includes sine and sinh functions. 8. Consider these o%9ects: a sharp conical point, a deep conical hole in a solid %loc;, a flat plate, and a solid sphere. <ach o%9ect is a%out the sa&e si,e, is a conductor, and has a%out the sa&e a&ount of total char#e. "hich re#ion in space has the hi#hest ener#y density W' (a) *he re#ion close to the tip of the sharp conical point. (%) *he re#ion deep in the conical hole. (c) *he re#ion 9ust a%ove the center of the flat plate. (d) *he re#ion close to the surface of the sphere. =. 1 hollo! circular cylinder !ith radius R and hei#ht h has its %otto& face centered on the ori#in and its top face at , . h. *he top face and %otto& face of the cylinder are held at the potential V and the entire round side is held at a potential of ,ero. 1 s&all, positively2char#ed particle >q (s&all enou#h that is does not effect the total electric field) is %rou#ht directly fro& a point on the cylinder-s side to a point on the cylinder-s a4is. ?o! did the potential energy of the particle chan#e !hen &a;in# this &ove' (a) *he particle-s potential ener#y did not chan#e. (%) *he particle-s potential ener#y decreased. (c) *he particle-s potential ener#y increased. (d) *he particle-s potential ener#y %eca&e e4actly ,ero. 377 PART II: iagram Pro%lem (&' point!" Consider a #rounded, conductin# sphere. 1 positively2char#ed, unifor& line char#e >3 is shaped into a rin# and is centered on the sphere, as sho!n in the dia#ra&. 1. +f !e !ere to use the &ethod of i&a#es to solve for the potential outside the sphere, dra! the i&a#e char#e confi#uration !e !ould need and la%el it as 3-. 2. Dra! the electric field lines. Do not dra! all field lines in three2di&ensional space. +nstead 9ust dra! the field lines that are in the cross2sectional plane that is parallel to the paper and cuts throu#h the sphere-s center. 3. 1 s&all, negatively-charged particle is placed at the location of the red dot. Dra! a s&all, thic; arro! attached to this dot to indicate the direction that the particle accelerates. (*his char#e is so s&all that it does not effect the rest of the syste&.) >3 V . 0 378 PART III: (or) Pro%lem! (** Point!" 1. 1 hollo! sphere of radius a is centered at the ori#in and held at the potential: = { V cos sin if (/ 2)<<(/ 2+) 0 if <(/ 2) or >(/ 2+) } "e !ant to find the potential every!here inside the sphere. @ou !ill need to use these eAuations: Y lm ( )= 2l +1 0 (l m)! (l +m)! e i m " l m (cos) 2cos=e i +e i " l 1 (cos )= 1 l (l +1) " l 1 (cos) cos(/ 2#)=sin # " l 1 (cos)= d d " l (cos) " l (1)=1 " l (x)=(1) l " l ( x) (a) Start !ith the #eneral solution to the aplace eAuation in spherical coordinates (!hen all an#les are involved), and solve for the potential inside a sphere !ith the #eneral %oundary condition: V ( ) . (%) +nsert the specific %oundary condition of this pro%le&, e4pand out the spherical har&onics in full for&, and separate out the t!o inte#rals !ithout solvin# the&. (c) Bo! solve 9ust the inte#ral over the a,i&uth an#le and si&plify # lm as &uch as possi%le. (d) Bo! solve the other inte#ral and si&plify # lm as &uch as possi%le. (e) +nsert all the pieces into the #eneral solution and !rite out the final solution, si&plifyin# as &uch as possi%le. *here should %e no spherical har&onics in your final ans!er. C C z x D . 0 D . 0 D . cosE7sinF 379 %& '( )#* 380 Mid-Term Exam Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013 University of Massachusetts o!ell PART I: Multiple Choice !" points# Circle the one best answer to each question. 1. "hat is the advanta#e of representin# the reen function for spherical %oundaries as a series of spherical har&onics Y lm ' (a) *he spherical har&onics series is &ore co&pact. (%) *he spherical har&onics series is finite. (c) Spherical har&onics do not for& an orthonor&al set of functions, so there is &ore freedo&. (d) +nte#rals that arise are &ore solva%le usin# the spherical har&onics representation. 2. +f a locali,ed char#e distri%ution is placed near an infinite, #rounded, conductin# plane sheet, !hat can !e say a%out the i&a#e char#e distri%ution - that represents the effects on the sheet' (a) - has the sa&e total char#e as and has the sa&e si#n. (%) - has the sa&e total char#e as and has the opposite si#n. (c) - al!ays has less total char#e than . (d) - al!ays has &ore total char#e than . 3. Consider an infinitely lon# cylinder of radius a !ith the potential V ( ) on its surface. "e desire to find the electric potential every!here inside the cylinder. "hat are the %oundary conditions in the radial direction' (a) =V () only (%) =V () at . a and =finite at . 0 (c) =V () at . a and =0 at . / (d) =V () at . 0 and =0 at . a 0. 1 non2unifor& line char#e 3(z) e4tends infinitely in the z direction. *he line char#e is located in polar coordinates at the point ( 0, 0 ) . "hat is the e4pression for the volu&e char#e density ch (x) of this distri%ution in ter&s of cylindrical coordinates' (a) ch (x)=( zz 0 ) ( 0 )( 0 ) (%) ch (x)=(z) ( 0 )( 0 ) (c) ch (x)=(z) ( 0 ) ( 0 ) (d) ch (x)=q( 0 ) ( 0 ) sin 381 5. 1 hollo! cu%e is located !ith one corner at the ori#in and the other corner at the point (x, y, z) . (a, a, a). 1ll faces of the cu%e are held at a potential of ,ero, e4cept for the top face (at z . a) !hich is held at a potential of V sin(6x7a) sin(6y7a). "hat is the %est description of the solution for the potential every!here inside the cu%e' (a) an infinite series of ter&s that includes e#endre polyno&ials. (%) an infinite series of ter&s that includes cosine and cosh functions. (c) a sin#le ter& that includes cosine and cosh functions. (d) a sin#le ter& that includes sine and sinh functions. 8. Consider these o%9ects: a sharp conical point, a deep conical hole in a solid %loc;, a flat plate, and a solid sphere. <ach o%9ect is a%out the sa&e si,e, is a conductor, and has a%out the sa&e a&ount of total char#e. "hich re#ion in space has the hi#hest ener#y density W' (a) *he re#ion close to the tip of the sharp conical point. (%) *he re#ion deep in the conical hole. (c) *he re#ion 9ust a%ove the center of the flat plate. (d) *he re#ion close to the surface of the sphere. =. 1 hollo! circular cylinder !ith radius R and hei#ht h has its %otto& face centered on the ori#in and its top face at , . h. *he top face and %otto& face of the cylinder are held at the potential V and the entire round side is held at a potential of ,ero. 1 s&all, positively2char#ed particle >q (s&all enou#h that is does not effect the total electric field) is %rou#ht directly fro& a point on the cylinder-s side to a point on the cylinder-s a4is. ?o! did the potential energy of the particle chan#e !hen &a;in# this &ove' (a) *he particle-s potential ener#y did not chan#e. (%) *he particle-s potential ener#y decreased. (c) *he particle-s potential ener#y increased. (d) *he particle-s potential ener#y %eca&e e4actly ,ero. 382 PART II: %iagram Pro&lem '( points# Consider a #rounded, conductin# sphere. 1 positively2char#ed, unifor& line char#e >3 is shaped into a rin# and is centered on the sphere, as sho!n in the dia#ra&. 1. +f !e !ere to use the &ethod of i&a#es to solve for the potential outside the sphere, dra! the i&a#e char#e confi#uration !e !ould need and la%el it as 3-. 2. Dra! the electric field lines. Do not dra! all field lines in three2di&ensional space. +nstead 9ust dra! the field lines that are in the cross2sectional plane that is parallel to the paper and cuts throu#h the sphere-s center. 3. 1 s&all, negatively-charged particle is placed at the location of the red dot. Dra! a s&all, thic; arro! attached to this dot to indicate the direction that the particle accelerates. (*his char#e is so s&all that it does not effect the rest of the syste&.) >3 V . 0 3- E 383 PART III: )or* Pro&lems ++ Points# 1. 1 hollo! sphere of radius a is centered at the ori#in and held at the potential: = { V cos sin if (/ 2)<<(/ 2+) 0 if <(/ 2) or >(/ 2+) } "e !ant to find the potential every!here inside the sphere. @ou !ill need to use these eAuations: Y lm ( )= 2l +1 0 (l m)! (l +m)! e i m " l m (cos) 2cos=e i +e i " l 1 (cos )= 1 l (l +1) " l 1 (cos) cos(/ 2#)=sin # " l 1 (cos)= d d " l (cos) " l (1)=1 " l (x)=(1) l " l ( x) (a) Start !ith the #eneral solution to the aplace eAuation in spherical coordinates (!hen all an#les are involved), and solve for the potential inside a sphere !ith the #eneral %oundary condition: V ( ) . *he #eneral solution to the aplace eAuation in spherical coordinates is (!hen all an#les are involved): (r )= l=0 m=l l ( # l m r l + l m r l 1 )Y lm ( ) "e need a finite solution at the ori#in, so all  l m &ust %e ,ero, leadin# to: (r )= l=0 m=l l # l m r l Y lm ( ) 1pply the %oundary condition at the sphere-s surface: V ( )= l=0 m=l l # l m a l Y lm ( ) *he ortho#onality state&ent for the spherical har&onics is: 0 2 Y l - m- B ( )Y l m ( )sin d d = l - l m- m So if !e &ultiply %oth sides of the solution %y the appropriate factors and inte#rate, !e use the ortho#onality state&ent to pic; out one ter& in the dou%le series, leadin# to: C C z x D . 0 D . 0 D . cosE7sinF 384 # l m =a l 0 2 V ( )Y l m B ( )sin d d (%) +nsert the specific %oundary condition of this pro%le&, e4pand out the spherical har&onics in full for&, and separate out the t!o inte#rals !ithout solvin# the&. # l m =V a l 2l +1 0 (l m)! (l +m)! 0 2 cos e i m d / 2 / 2+ " l m (cos )d (c) Go! solve 9ust the inte#ral over the a,i&uth an#le and si&plify # lm as &uch as possi%le. # l m = 1 2 V a l 2l+1 0 (l m)! (l +m)! ( 0 2 e i e i m d + 0 2 e i e i m d ) / 2 / 2+ " l m (cos )d Due to ortho#onality, the inte#rals over the a,i&uthal an#le are ,ero e4cept for the m . 21 and m . 1 cases: # l 1 =V a l 2l +1 0l (l +1) / 2 / 2+ " l 1 (cos)d and # l 1 =V a l 2l +1 0 (l +1)! (l 1)! /2 /2+ " l 1 (cos )d # l 1 =V a l 2l +1 0 l (l +1) /2 /2+ " l 1 (cos)d # l 1 =# l 1 # l m =0 for all other m (d) Go! solve the other inte#ral and si&plify # lm as &uch as possi%le. / 2 / 2+ " l 1 (cos)d = / 2 / 2+ d d " l (cos ) d / 2 / 2+ " l 1 (cos)d =" l (cos(/ 2+))" l (cos(/ 2)) / 2 / 2+ " l 1 (cos)d =" l (sin)" l (sin ) 385 / 2 / 2+ " l 1 (cos)d =[ (1) l 1] " l (sin ) / 2 / 2+ " l 1 (cos) d =2 " l (sin) if l is odd and 0 if l is even # l 1 =2V a l 2l +1 0l (l +1) " l (sin ) if l is odd and 0 if l is even (e) +nsert all the pieces into the #eneral solution and !rite out the final solution, si&plifyin# as &uch as possi%le. *here should %e no spherical har&onics in your final ans!er. (r )= l=0 m=l l # l m r l Y lm ( ) (r )= l =1,3,5... [ # l 1 Y l 1 ( )+# l 1 Y l 1 ( ) ] r l (r )= l =1,3,5... # l 1 [ Y l 1 ( )Y l 1 ( ) ] r l (r )= l =1,3,5... # l 1 [ Y l 1 ( )+Y l 1 B ( ) ] r l (r )= l =1,3,5... # l 1 2l +1 0l (l +1) " l 1 (cos)[ e i +e i ] r l (r )= l =1,3,5... 2 # l 1 2l +1 0l (l +1) " l 1 (cos)cos r l (r )=V cos l=1,3,5. .. 2l +1 l (l +1) " l (sin) ( r a ) l " l 1 (cos) 386 Final Exam, Electromagnetic Theory I Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013 University of Massachusetts o!ell PART I: Multiple Choice (45 point!" Circle the one best answer to each question. 1. "n #eneral, !hat does the a#netic vector potential A loo% li%e in relation to the static free current # that creates it& 'a( A points rou#hly in the sae direction as # and usually fills all the space near #. ')( A points rou#hly in the sae direction as # )ut e*ists only at locations !here # e*ists. 'c( A points rou#hly in the directions perpendicular to #. 'd( A points rou#hly in paths curlin# around #. 2. "n electrodynaics, !hat can #ive rise to a diver#in# a#netic field & 'a( a tie+varyin# % field. ')( effective a#netic char#es. 'c( a free current density #" 'd( nothin#. 3. , point char#e -q is placed a distance d.2 fro a lar#e flat, #rounded conductor. /o! does the force on the char#e vary !ith d& 'a( 1.d 0 ')( 1.d 3 'c( 1.d 2 'd( 1.d 0. "n a#neto+1uasi+statics 'M2S(, !hat appro*iation is ade to siplify Ma*!ell3s e1uations& 'a( ,ll a#netic fields are assued to )e copletely static. ')( 4he a#netic field varies so slo!ly !ith respect to tie that & t is dropped. 'c( 4he electric field varies so slo!ly !ith respect to tie that E t is dropped. 'd( 4he a#netic field is assued to )e non+curlin# so & is dropped. 387 5. Consider a point char#e -q at the location 'x 6 a, y 6 a(, a point char#e -q at the location 'x = -a, y 6 a( and a sei+infinite linear dielectric sla) e*istin# in the re#ion y 7 0. "f !e used the ethod of ia#es to represent the electric potential in the y 8 0 re#ion, !here should !e place the ia#e char#e's(& 'a( put a char#e q' at 'x 6 a, y 6 +a( and a char#e q' at 'x 6 -a, y 6 +a(. ')( you cannot solve this pro)le usin# the ethod of ia#es. 'c( put a char#e q' at 'x 6 a, y 6 0( and a char#e q'' at 'x 6 -a, y 6 0(. 'd( put a char#e q' at the ori#in. 9. For the previous pro)le, !hat does the polari:ation char#e distri)ution loo% li%e& ';ositive polari:ation char#e is ar%ed red, ne#ative polari:ation char#e is ar%ed #reen.( 'a( ')( 'c( <. For pro)le 5, far a!ay fro the ori#in, and outside the material, ho! do you e*pect the electric field to doinantly )ehave 'assue the aterial3s perittivity is infinite(& 'a( li%e an electric onopole field. ')( li%e an electric dipole field. 'c( li%e an electric 1uadrupole field. 'd( li%e an electric octupole field. =. For pro)le 5, far a!ay fro the ori#in, and inside the material, ho! do you e*pect the electric field to doinantly )ehave& 'a( li%e an electric onopole field. ')( li%e an electric dipole field. 'c( li%e an electric 1uadrupole field. 'd( li%e an electric octupole field. >. "n #eneral, !here is the field M :ero& 'a( in free space 'vacuu( and in aterials that are perfectly non+a#netic. ')( no!here? M is never :ero. 'c( in hard ferroa#nets. 'd( only in re#ions !here there is no free current density #. x y -q +q a a a a y -q +q x y -q +q x y -q +q 388 10. @hich e*pression represents electroa#netic field ener#y density& 'a( # A E ')( B'E A % - & A ( 'c( E C  'd( E C % 11. @hen a peranent )ar a#net is placed a#ainst a steel door, it stic%s and does not fall. @hat is the )est e*planation of the physics involved& 'a( 4he a#netic field fro the a#net e*erts a tor1ue on the a#netic 1uadrupoles in the steel so that they end up perpendicular to the a#net3s field lines, thus creatin# a field that curls around the a#net and attracts it. ')( 4he a#netic field fro the a#net induces electric currents in the steel that run in strai#ht lines deep into the steel. 4hese currents create electric fields that e*ert a tor1ue on the a#net. 'c( 4he a#netic field fro the a#net attracts electric char#e to the surface of the steel, !hich then e*erts a force )ac% on the a#net. 'd( 4he a#netic field fro the a#net induces a a#neti:ation in the steel, !hich then creates a a#netic field )ac% to!ards the a#net, attractin# it to the door. 12. @hat e1uations ust )e used to completely specify the electric and a#netic fields #enerated )y a haronically oscillatin# char#e distri)ution& 'a( Ma*!ell3s e1uations, the orent: force la!, and De!ton3s second la!. ')( only the orent: force la!, and De!ton3s second la!. 'c( only the aplace e1uation. 'd( only Ma*!ell3s e1uations. 13. @hat type of a#netic field in a certain re#ion repels a sall a#netic dipole fro that re#ion& 'a( none, a#netic dipoles are never repelled. ')( a very stron# unifor a#netic field pointed alon# the a*is of the dipole. 'c( a very stron# unifor a#netic field pointed perpendicular to the a*is of the dipole. 'd( a non+unifor a#netic field !ith hi#h flu* density in the re#ion. 10. @hat piece did Ma*!ell add to ,pere3s a! to a%e it consistent !ith the char#e continuity e1uation& 'a( the rate of chan#e in tie of a varyin# electric field ')( the rate of chan#e in tie of a varyin# a#netic field 'c( a#netic onopoles 'd( the constant c 15. "n #eneral, linear diaa#netic aterials tend to do !hat to the a#netic fields penetratin# the& 'a( t!ist the in spirals ')( stren#then the 'c( !ea%en the 'd( nothin# 389 PART II: 'or( Pro)lem (55 Point! ;ro)le 1. '15 points( Startin# !ith Ma*!ell3s e1uations in ters of total fields, derive these e1uations in ters of the standard potentials in the Coulo) Eau#e. 390 ;ro)le 2. '20 points( , peranent a#net has the shape of a solid sphere !ith radius a and is centered at the ori#in. 4he entire sphere has a unifor a#neti:ation M in the positive z direction !ith a#nitude 0 . 4here are no other fields or currents e*cept those due to the peranent a#net. 'a( Find all a#neti:ation currents associated !ith this a#neti:ation. ')( Find the a#netic vector potential A due to these a#neti:ation currents for points outside the sphere. F*pand the denoinator in spherical haronics and solve the inte#rals. Siplify so that there are no spherical haronics or inte#rals in your final ans!er. Gou ay need to useH *=cos rsin , =sin x+cos y , 2cos =e i +e i , 2i sin=e i e i sin3 sin3 =i 2 3 (! 1,1 (3 , 3 )+! 1,1 (3 , 3 )) , sin3 cos3= 2 3 (! 1,1 (3 , 3 )! 1,1 ( 3 , 3)) 391 ;ro)le 3. '20 points( , thin, strai#ht !ire placed at x 6 0, y 6 d carries a unifor current " in the positive z direction. 4he sei+infinite re#ion consistin# of all points !here y 7 0 is filled !ith a#netic aterial !ith perittivity I. @e !ish to find the force per unit len#th that the !ire e*periences. 'a( Usin# ,pere3s a! in inte#ral for, find the #eneral a#netic field produced )y a sin#le, strai#ht, current+carryin# !ire alon# the z a*is. ')( Usin# the results of part a, and usin# the fact that a current #'x, y, z( in free space ne*t to a a#netic aterial occupyin# the space y 7 0 induces an ia#e current #3H # x 3= ( 0 + 0 ) # x ( x ,y , z) , # y 3 = ( 0 + 0 ) # y (x ,y , z) , # z 3 = ( 0 + 0 ) # z (x ,y , z) , find the a#netic field in the y 8 0 re#ion as the su of the field fro the real current and the field fro the ia#e current. 'c( Find the force the !ire e*periences. 'd( Descri)e this force in !ords if the aterial is paraa#netic and if it is diaa#netic. DoteH = y x+x y x 2 +y 2 392 JFDD KF FL,MM 393 Final Exam Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory I Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Fall 2013 University of Massachusetts o!ell PART I: Multiple Choice (! points"# Circle the one best answer to each question. 1. "n #eneral, !hat does the a#netic vector potential A loo% li%e in relation to the static free current  that creates it& 'a( A points rou#hly in the sae direction as  and usually fills all the space near . ')( A points rou#hly in the sae direction as  )ut e*ists only at locations !here  e*ists. 'c( A points rou#hly in the directions perpendicular to . 'd( A points rou#hly in paths curlin# around . 2. "n electrodynaics, !hat can #ive rise to a diver#in# a#netic field %& 'a( a tie+varyin# & field. ')( effective a#netic char#es. 'c( a free current density # 'd( nothin#. 3. , point char#e -q is placed a distance d.2 fro a lar#e flat, #rounded conductor. /o! does the force on the char#e vary !ith d& 'a( 1.d 0 ')( 1.d 3 'c( 1.d 2 'd( 1.d 0. "n a#neto+1uasi+statics 'M2S(, !hat appro*iation is ade to siplify Ma*!ell3s e1uations& 'a( ,ll a#netic fields are assued to )e copletely static. ')( 4he a#netic field varies so slo!ly !ith respect to tie that ' t is dropped. 'c( 4he electric field varies so slo!ly !ith respect to tie that E t is dropped. 'd( 4he a#netic field is assued to )e non+curlin# so ' is dropped. 394 5. Consider a point char#e -q at the location 'x 6 a, y 6 a(, a point char#e -q at the location 'x = -a, y 6 a( and a sei+infinite linear dielectric sla) e*istin# in the re#ion y 7 0. "f !e used the ethod of ia#es to represent the electric potential in the y 8 0 re#ion, !here should !e place the ia#e char#e's(& 'a( put a char#e q' at 'x 6 a, y 6 +a( and a char#e q' at 'x 6 -a, y 6 +a(. ')( you cannot solve this pro)le usin# the ethod of ia#es. 'c( put a char#e q' at 'x 6 a, y 6 0( and a char#e q'' at 'x 6 -a, y 6 0(. 'd( put a char#e q' at the ori#in. 9. For the previous pro)le, !hat does the polari:ation char#e distri)ution loo% li%e& ';ositive polari:ation char#e is ar%ed red, ne#ative polari:ation char#e is ar%ed #reen.( 'a( ')( 'c( <. For pro)le 5, far a!ay fro the ori#in, and outside the material, ho! do you e*pect the electric field to doinantly )ehave 'assue the aterial3s perittivity is infinite(& 'a( li%e an electric onopole field. ')( li%e an electric dipole field. 'c( li%e an electric 1uadrupole field. 'd( li%e an electric octupole field. =. For pro)le 5, far a!ay fro the ori#in, and inside the material, ho! do you e*pect the electric field to doinantly )ehave& 'a( li%e an electric onopole field. ')( li%e an electric dipole field. 'c( li%e an electric 1uadrupole field. 'd( li%e an electric octupole field. >. "n #eneral, !here is the field M :ero& 'a( in free space 'vacuu( and in aterials that are perfectly non+a#netic. ')( no!here? M is never :ero. 'c( in hard ferroa#nets. 'd( only in re#ions !here there is no free current density . x y -q +q a a a a y -q +q x y -q +q x y -q +q 395 10. @hich e*pression represents electroa#netic field ener#y density& 'a(  A E ')( B'E A & - ' A %( 'c( E C % 'd( E C & 11. @hen a peranent )ar a#net is placed a#ainst a steel door, it stic%s and does not fall. @hat is the )est e*planation of the physics involved& 'a( 4he a#netic field fro the a#net e*erts a tor1ue on the a#netic 1uadrupoles in the steel so that they end up perpendicular to the a#net3s field lines, thus creatin# a field that curls around the a#net and attracts it. ')( 4he a#netic field fro the a#net induces electric currents in the steel that run in strai#ht lines deep into the steel. 4hese currents create electric fields that e*ert a tor1ue on the a#net. 'c( 4he a#netic field fro the a#net attracts electric char#e to the surface of the steel, !hich then e*erts a force )ac% on the a#net. 'd( 4he a#netic field fro the a#net induces a a#neti:ation in the steel, !hich then creates a a#netic field )ac% to!ards the a#net, attractin# it to the door. 12. @hat e1uations ust )e used to completely specify the electric and a#netic fields #enerated )y a haronically oscillatin# char#e distri)ution& 'a( Ma*!ell3s e1uations, the orent: force la!, and De!ton3s second la!. ')( only the orent: force la!, and De!ton3s second la!. 'c( only the aplace e1uation. 'd( only Ma*!ell3s e1uations. 13. @hat type of a#netic field in a certain re#ion repels a sall a#netic dipole fro that re#ion& 'a( none, a#netic dipoles are never repelled. ')( a very stron# unifor a#netic field pointed alon# the a*is of the dipole. 'c( a very stron# unifor a#netic field pointed perpendicular to the a*is of the dipole. 'd( a non+unifor a#netic field !ith hi#h flu* density in the re#ion. 10. @hat piece did Ma*!ell add to ,pere3s a! to a%e it consistent !ith the char#e continuity e1uation& 'a( the rate of chan#e in tie of a varyin# electric field ')( the rate of chan#e in tie of a varyin# a#netic field 'c( a#netic onopoles 'd( the constant c 15. "n #eneral, linear diaa#netic aterials tend to do !hat to the a#netic fields penetratin# the& 'a( t!ist the in spirals ')( stren#then the 'c( !ea%en the 'd( nothin# 396 PART II: (or) Pro*lems (!! Points" ;ro)le 1. '15 points( Startin# !ith Ma*!ell3s e1uations in ters of total fields, derive these e1uations in ters of the standard potentials in the Coulo) Eau#e. S+,-TI+.: Ma*!ell3s e1uations in ters of total fields areF E= total , '=0 E= ' t , '= 0  total + 0 0 E t Usin# the standard potential definition '=A and E= A t Ma*!ell3s e1uations )ecoeF 2 + t A= total and (A)= 0  total t 0 2 A t 2 G*pand the curl of the curl usin# an identityF 2 + t A= total and (A) 2 A= 0  total t 0 2 A t 2 "n the Coulo) Eau#e, A=0 , !e haveF 2 = total and 2 A 0 2 A t 2 = 0  total + 0 t 397 ;ro)le 2. '20 points( , peranent a#net has the shape of a solid sphere !ith radius a and is centered at the ori#in. 4he entire sphere has a unifor a#neti:ation M in the positive z direction !ith a#nitude 0 . 4here are no other fields or currents e*cept those due to the peranent a#net. 'a( Find all a#neti:ation currents associated !ith this a#neti:ation. ')( Find the a#netic vector potential A due to these a#neti:ation currents for points outside the sphere. G*pand the denoinator in spherical haronics and solve the inte#rals. Siplify so that there are no spherical haronics or inte#rals in your final ans!er. Hou ay need to useF /=cos rsin , =sin x+cos y , 2cos =e i +e i , 2i sin=e i e i sin3 sin3 =i 2 3 (! 1,1 (3 , 3 )+! 1,1 (3 , 3 )) , sin3 cos3= 2 3 (! 1,1 (3 , 3 )! 1,1 ( 3 , 3)) S+,-TI+.: 'a( 4he a#neti:ation current and the associated a#neti:ation are lin%ed accordin# toF  =M "nside the sphere the a#neti:ation is a constant, and the curl of a constant is :ero, so there are no volue currents. 4he currents are only on the surface of the sphereF 0 =Mn 0 = 0 / r 0 = 0 (cos rsin ) r 0 = 0 sin  = 0 sin (ra) ')( 4he a#netic vector potential in #eneral isF A= 0 0 (x 3) xx3 d x3 4here are no free currents  in this pro)le, so that !e haveF A= 0 0 [ 0 sin' ' (r ' a)] xx 3 d x3 398 A= 0 a 2 0 0 2 ' xa r3 sin 2 3 d 3 d 3 G*pandin# the denoinator into a su over spherical haronics, !e findF A= 0 0 a 2 l =0 m=l l a l 2l +1 1 r l+1 ! l m ( , ) 0 2 3 ! l m I (3 , 3 )sin 2 3 d 3 d 3 4he a:iuthal unit vector cannot coe out the inte#ral )ecause it is not constant. et us instead e*pand it into rectan#ular coordinatesF A= 0 0 a 2 l =0 m=l l a l 2l +1 1 r l+1 ! l m (, ) 0 2 (sin 3 x+cos 3 y)! l m I (3 , 3)sin 2 3 d 3 d 3 Usin#F sin3 sin 3 =i 2 3 (! 1,1 +! 1,1 ) and sin3 cos3= 2 3 (! 1,1 ! 1,1 ) A= 2 3 0 0 a 2 l=0 m=l l a l 2l +1 1 r l +1 ! l m ( , ) 0 2 (i ! 1,1 (3 , 3 ) xi ! 1,1 (3 , 3 ) x+! 1,1 (3 , 3 ) y! 1,1 (3 ,3 ) y)! l m I (3 , 3 )sin 3 d 3 d 3 Due to ortho#onality, all the inte#rals reduce do!n to Jronec%er deltasF A= 2 3 0 0 a 2 l=0 m=l l a l 2l +1 1 r l +1 ! l m ( , )((i x y) 1,1 +(i x+ y) 1,1 ) 4he Jronec%er deltas no! collapse the su$$ationsF
A=

2
2<

0

0
a
(
a
r
)
2
[
!
1,1
( , )(i x y)+!
1,1
( , )(i x+ y)
]
A=

2
2<

0

0
a
(
a
r
)
2
[

3
=
sin e
i
(i x y)+

3
=
sine
i
(i x+ y)
]
A=
1
3

0
asin
(
a
r
)
2
[ sin x+cos y]
A=
1
3

0
asin
(
a
r
)
2

399
;ro)le$3. '20 points( , thin, strai#ht !ire placed at x 6 0, y 6 d carries a unifor$ current " in the positive z direction. 4he
se$i+infinite re#ion consistin# of all points !here y 7 0 is filled !ith$a#netic $aterial !ith per$ittivity K. @e !ish to find the force per unit len#th that the !ire e*periences.
'a( Usin# ,$pere3s a! in inte#ral for$, find the #eneral $a#netic field produced )y a sin#le, strai#ht, current+carryin# !ire alon# the z a*is. ')( Usin# the results of part a, and usin# the fact that a current$'x, y, z( in free space ne*t to a $a#netic$aterial occupyin# the space y 7 0 induces an i$a#e current$3F
#
x
3=
(

0
+
0
)
#
x
( x ,y , z) , #
y
3 =
(

0
+
0
)
#
y
(x ,y , z) , #
z
3 =
(

0
+
0
)
#
z
(x ,y , z) ,
find the $a#netic field in the y 8 0 re#ion as the su$ of the field fro$the real current and the field fro$ the i$a#e current. 'c( Find the force the !ire e*periences. 'd( Descri)e this force in !ords if the$aterial is para$a#netic and if it is dia$a#netic.
DoteF

=
y x+x y
x
2
+y
2
S+,-TI+.:
'a( ,$pere3s la! in inte#ral for$ statesF

C
'd l =
0
"
enc
;ut a current #oin# alon# the z a*is and inte#rate over a circle !ith radius $centered on the ori#in and in the x+z plane. 4he$a#netic field is constant alon# this circle and can co$e outF %2= 0 " '= 0 " 2 '= 0 " 2(x 2 +y 2 ) (y x+x y) ')( 4he i$a#e current is a line current at the location x 6 0, y 6 +d travelin# in the positive z
direction and !ith $a#nitude ( 0 + 0 ) " . 4he total field is thereforeF 400 '= 0 " 2(x 2 +( yd ) 2 ) (( yd) x+x y)+ ( 0 + 0 ) 0 " 2(x 2 +( y+d ) 2 ) (( y+d) x+x y) 'c( 4he force that the !ire e*periences is F=$'d&
F=

0
'

" ( x) ( yd )/'dx dy dz
F
'
=" /'( x=0, y=d )
F
'
=

0
"
2
0 d
(

0
+
0
)
y !here !e have dropped the ter$that !as an infinite self+force. 'd( "f the$aterial is para$a#netic, > 0 , then the force is in the ne#ative y direction so that the !ire is attracted to the sla). "f the$aterial is dia$a#netic, < 0 , then the force is in the positive y direction so that the !ire is repelled fro$ the sla).
401
Mid-Term Exam, Electromagnetic Theory II
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Spring 2013
University of Massachusetts Loe!!
Part I: Multiple Choice (24 Points
Circle the one best answer to each question.
1. " ave of fre#uency $1 is sent through a certain die!ectric %ateria!. &nside the %ateria!, the ave is %easured to have a spatia! fre#uency 'the rea! part of its avenu%(er) ith a va!ue* =k 1 , and an attenuation 'the i%aginary part of its avenu%(er) ith a va!ue* / 2=2k 1 . "t this fre#uency, hat is the rea! part and i%aginary part of the per%ittivity of the %ateria!+ 'a) ()= k 1 2 1 2 and ()= , k 1 2 1 2 '() ()= 3k 1 2 1 2 and ()= , k 1 2 1 2 'c) ()= k 1 2 1 2 and ()=0 'd) ()=0 and ()= -k 1 2 1 2 2. " !inear dipo!e antenna is centered on the origin, a!igned so that it runs a!ong the z a.is, and is driven (y a har%onic current. &f the x/y p!ane is ta0en to (e the so!id ground of earth, hat is the best description of the po!ari1ation of the aves e%itted (y this antenna, re!ative to the ground p!ane+ 'a) !eft circu!ar!y po!ari1ed '() right circu!ar!y po!ari1ed 'c) hori1onta!!y po!ari1ed 'd) vertica!!y po!ari1ed 3. 2o does the %ass/spring 'har%onic) %ode! of e!ectrons (ound to ato%s !ead to an e#uation for the e!ectrodyna%ic per%ittivity of a %ateria!+ 'a) Cou!o%(3s !a is app!ied to a grid of %asses and springs and so!ved for the per%ittivity '() the divergence of the osci!!ating e!ectrica! current is found and p!ugged into the continuity e#uation 'c) the induced %agnetic dipo!e %o%ent m of one e!ectron is found, and then the %agneti1ation M of the %ateria! is found (y su%%ing over the ato%s in a given vo!u%e. 'd) the induced e!ectric dipo!e %o%ent p of one e!ectron is found, and then the po!ari1ation P of the %ateria! is found (y su%%ing over the ato%s in a given vo!u%e. 402 ,. 4hat is the e#uation for the %ost genera! instantaneous e!ectrodyna%ic energy f!u. vector, in its %ost e.p!icit for%+ 'a) !=E" here E and " are in fu!!, co%p!e./va!ued for% '() !=(E)(") 'c) != 1 2 (E"5) 'd) != 0 c 2 E 2 -. " resonant cavity has a long !ifeti%e 6 to its decaying e!ectro%agnetic ave that is (ound inside the cavity, as co%pared to other si%i!ar cavities. 4hat is the #ua!ity 'Q factor) of this cavity, and the fre#uency !ineidth 7$ of its ave, co%pared to the other cavities+
'a) high #ua!ity, s%a!! !ineidth
'() !o #ua!ity, s%a!! !ineidth
'c) high #ua!ity, !arge !ineidth
'd) !o #ua!ity, !arge !ineidth
8. Consider a fi.ed vo!u%e of pure p!as%a, of hich e have tota! contro! over a!! of its properties. 4e
are trans%itting %onochro%atic p!ane aves through the p!as%a, (ut on!y aves ith fre#uencies
a(ove a certain thresho!d are trans%itted. 4aves ith fre#uencies (e!o this thresho!d are co%p!ete!y
ref!ected (y the p!as%a. 4hat shou!d e do to the p!as%a if e ant to lower this thresho!d+
'a) reduce the te%perature of the p!as%a
'() increase the angu!ar %o%entu% of the p!as%a
'c) reduce the nu%(er of free e!ectrons in the vo!u%e of p!as%a
'd) increase the nu%(er of free e!ectrons in the vo!u%e of p!as%a
9. 4hat is the (est description of hat a %onochro%atic p!ane ave e.periences that is incident on a
(oundary (eteen to different die!ectric %ateria!s exactly at Brewster's angle+
'a) one po!ari1ation is tota!!y ref!ected, the other po!ari1ation is partia!!y ref!ected
'() one po!ari1ation is tota!!y trans%itted, the other po!ari1ation is partia!!y trans%itted
'c) (oth po!ari1ations are tota!!y ref!ected
'd) (oth po!ari1ations are tota!!y trans%itted
403
:. " p!ane, %onochro%atic ave is incident at so%e non/nor%a! ang!e on a very good, (ut not perfect,
conductor. 4hat is the nature of the fie!ds inside the conductor+
'a) there are 1ero fie!ds inside a good conductor
'() there are a.ia! standing aves e.tending nor%a! to the conductor3s surface into the conductor a(out
the distance of its s0in depth.
'c) there are transverse trave!ing aves propagating nor%a! to the conductor3s surface into the
conductor a(out the distance of its s0in depth.
'd) there are transverse trave!ing aves propagating at the ang!e of incidence end!ess!y through the
conductor ith no attenuation.
;. 4hen is the group ve!ocity of an e!ectro%agnetic ave physica!!y %eaningfu!+
'a) it is a!ays physica!!y %eaningfu!
'() on!y hen the group ve!ocity is greater than the speed of !ight in vacuu%
'c) on!y at fre#uencies of ano%a!ous dispersion
'd) on!y hen the ave pac0et3s enve!ope retains its (asic shape as it trave!s, and aay fro% regions of
ano%a!ous dispersion
10. Consider a !oca!i1ed, osci!!ating current distri(ution sitting in free space, creating e!ectro%agnetic
fie!ds. 4hy is the e!ectric fie!d in the radiation 1one a!ays in the for% of transverse trave!ing aves+
'a) Because transverse trave!ing aves are the on!y 0ind of self-propagating e!ectro%agnetic
configuration in free space. "!! other fie!ds die off (efore reaching the radiation 1one (ecause they are
not se!f/propagating.
'() Because transverse trave!ing aves are very strong c!ose to the source, co%pared to a!! other fie!d
configurations, despite that they do not propagate as far as the other fie!d configurations.
'c) Because the te%perature of radiation is very high.
'd) <he e!ectric fie!d in the radiation 1one never ta0es the for% of transverse trave!ing aves.
11. Consider the tota! interna! ref!ection a ave e.periences hen hitting the (oundary (eteen a
standard die!ectric %ateria! and free space. 2o ou!d e reduce the critica! ang!e '%ove it c!oser to
the interface nor%a!)+
'a) increase the inde. of refraction of the %ateria!
'() decrease the inde. of refraction of the %ateria!
'c) change the po!ari1ation of the incident ave
'd) increase the te%perature of the %ateria!
12. &f e e.cite (oth <M and <= %odes at the same time inside a rectangu!ar aveguide, hat can e
say a(out the a.ia! co%ponents of the tota! fie!ds 'the co%ponents a!ong the aveguide a.is, in the z
direction)+
'a) E
z
> 0 and B
z
> 0
'() E
z
? 0 and B
z
? 0
'c) E
z
? 0 and B
z
> 0
'd) E
z
> 0 and B
z
? 0
404
Part II: #iagram Pro$lem (24 Points " !arge vo!u%e is fi!!ed ith !inear, dispersive, !ossy 'a(sorptive) die!ectric %ateria!. <his %ateria! is represented (y the gray areas on the diagra%s. @or si%p!icity, this %ateria! fo!!os the si%p!e har%onic %ode! 'e!ectrons as %asses on springs) for the induced %ateria! osci!!ations. <his %ateria! on!y has one resonant osci!!ation, hich has a resonant fre#uency 0 and a p!as%a fre#uency p . " ave pac0et ith a certain carrier fre#uency is incident fro% free space on this %ateria!. Do not ta0e ti%e to dra the ref!ections fro% the free/spaceA%ateria! interface. 1) Bn the appropriate diagra% on the ne.t page, s0etch the rea! part of the relati!e per%ittivity " r of this %ateria!. 2) Bn the appropriate diagra% on the ne.t page, s0etch the i%aginary part of the relati!e per%ittivity " r of this %ateria!. 3) &n the red (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the %ateria!, if its carrier fre#uency is far (e!o the resonant fre#uency, CC 0 , as shon (y the red !ine. ,) &n the orange (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the %ateria!, if its carrier fre#uency is s!ight!y (e!o the resonant fre#uency, C 0 , as shon (y the orange !ine. -) &n the green (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the %ateria!, if its carrier fre#uency is (eteen the resonant fre#uency and the p!as%a fre#uency, 0 C C p , as shon (y the green !ine. 8) &n the (!ue (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the %ateria!, if its carrier fre#uency is a(ove the p!as%a fre#uency, D p , as shon (y the (!ue !ine. 405$
Ee'"
r
)
$&%'" r ) 1$
0
$0$
p
406
Part II: %or& Pro$lems ('2 Points #how all your work an$ explain each ma%or step to recei!e full cre$it. Pro$lem ()
" %onochro%atic p!ane ave trave!ing in free space in the z direction is %easured and found to have
the fo!!oing Sto0es para%eters* s
0
> b, s
1
> /b, s
2
> 0, s
3
> 0.
'a) Ca!cu!ate the Fones para%eters for this ave 'the %agnitudes and phases of the po!ari1ation vector3s
co%ponents).
'() 4rite don the e!ectric fie!d E for this ave in its %ost co%p!ete for%, shoing e.p!icit!y its
dependence on space, ti%e, and its po!ari1ation co%ponents.
'c) Descri(e in ords hat 0ind of ave this is 'unpo!ari1ed, !eft/circu!ar!y po!ari1ed, etc.).
407
Pro$lem 2) <he e!ectro%agnetic a(sorption of a certain %ateria! is %easured and found to have strong a(sorption pea0s at fre#uencies 1 and 2 . <o a very good appro.i%ation, this %ateria! has 1ero a(sorption at a!! other fre#uencies, so that the a(sorption can (e %ode!ed as a Dirac de!ta at 1 ith a%p!itude 0 & 1 2 1 and a Dirac de!ta at ' ith a%p!itude 0 & 2 2 2 . 'a) Using the Gra%ers/Gronig re!ations, find the rea! part of the per%ittivity of this %ateria!. '() @ind the static inde. of refraction, n s = ( =0) 0 , for this %ateria!. 408 Pro$lem *)
" ho!!o, %eta! aveguide consists of perfect!y conducting a!!s surrounding free space. <he
aveguide is unifor% in the z direction, and has a s#uare cross/sectiona! shape ith one corner at
x > 0, y > 0 and the opposite corner at x > a, y > a. <he source of the aves de!ivered to the aveguide
can on!y e.cite <= aves 'E
z
> 0) in the aveguide, and can a!so on!y e.cite aves here a!! e!ectric
and %agnetic fie!d co%ponents are independent of the di%ension y .
'a) @ind the genera! so!ution to the transverse ave e#uation for B
z
ith the independence fro% y
app!ied.
'() "pp!y (oundary conditions to find the uni#ue so!utions to B
z
.4rite don the dispersion re!ation for
aves in the aveguide, ith the transverse avenu%(er H e.p!icit!y e.panded.
'c) "pp!y the genera! aveguide e#uations to your so!ution to B
z
in order to find the transverse
co%ponents of the e!ectric and %agnetic fie!ds. 4rite your fina! so!utions out in fu!! for%, inc!uding
the dependence on z and ti%e.
'd) @ind the cutoff fre#uency of the <=
1
%ode.
409
Mid-Term Exam Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory II
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Spring 2013
University of Massachusetts Loe!!
Part I: Multiple Choice (2 Points!
Circle the one best answer to each question.
1. " ave of fre#uency $1 is sent through a certain die!ectric %ateria!. &nside the %ateria!, the ave is %easured to have a spatia! fre#uency 'the rea! part of its avenu%(er) ith a va!ue* =k 1 , and an attenuation 'the i%aginary part of its avenu%(er) ith a va!ue* / 2=2k 1 . "t this fre#uency, hat is the rea! part and i%aginary part of the per%ittivity of the %ateria!+ 'a) ()= k 1 2 1 2 and ()= , k 1 2 1 2 '() ()= 3k 1 2 1 2 and ()= , k 1 2 1 2 'c) ()= k 1 2 1 2 and ()=0 'd) ()=0 and ()= -k 1 2 1 2 2. " !inear dipo!e antenna is centered on the origin, a!igned so that it runs a!ong the z a.is, and is driven (y a har%onic current. &f the x/y p!ane is ta0en to (e the so!id ground of earth, hat is the best description of the po!ari1ation of the aves e%itted (y this antenna, re!ative to the ground p!ane+ 'a) !eft circu!ar!y po!ari1ed '() right circu!ar!y po!ari1ed 'c) hori1onta!!y po!ari1ed 'd) vertica!!y po!ari1ed 3. 2o does the %ass/spring 'har%onic) %ode! of e!ectrons (ound to ato%s !ead to an e#uation for the e!ectrodyna%ic per%ittivity of a %ateria!+ 'a) Cou!o%(3s !a is app!ied to a grid of %asses and springs and so!ved for the per%ittivity '() the divergence of the osci!!ating e!ectrica! current is found and p!ugged into the continuity e#uation 'c) the induced %agnetic dipo!e %o%ent m of one e!ectron is found, and then the %agneti1ation M of the %ateria! is found (y su%%ing over the ato%s in a given vo!u%e. 'd) the induced e!ectric dipo!e %o%ent p of one e!ectron is found, and then the po!ari1ation P of the %ateria! is found (y su%%ing over the ato%s in a given vo!u%e. 410 ,. 4hat is the e#uation for the %ost genera! instantaneous e!ectrodyna%ic energy f!u. vector, in its %ost e.p!icit for%+ 'a) S=E" here E and " are in fu!!, co%p!e./va!ued for% '() S=(E)(") 'c) S= 1 2 (E"5) 'd) S= 0 c 2 E 2 -. " resonant cavity has a long !ifeti%e 6 to its decaying e!ectro%agnetic ave that is (ound inside the cavity, as co%pared to other si%i!ar cavities. 4hat is the #ua!ity 'Q factor) of this cavity, and the fre#uency !ineidth 7$ of its ave, co%pared to the other cavities+
'a) high #ua!ity, s%a!! !ineidth
'() !o #ua!ity, s%a!! !ineidth
'c) high #ua!ity, !arge !ineidth
'd) !o #ua!ity, !arge !ineidth
8. Consider a fi.ed vo!u%e of pure p!as%a, of hich e have tota! contro! over a!! of its properties. 4e
are trans%itting %onochro%atic p!ane aves through the p!as%a, (ut on!y aves ith fre#uencies
a(ove a certain thresho!d are trans%itted. 4aves ith fre#uencies (e!o this thresho!d are co%p!ete!y
ref!ected (y the p!as%a. 4hat shou!d e do to the p!as%a if e ant to lower this thresho!d+
'a) reduce the te%perature of the p!as%a
'() increase the angu!ar %o%entu% of the p!as%a
'c) reduce the nu%(er of free e!ectrons in the vo!u%e of p!as%a
'd) increase the nu%(er of free e!ectrons in the vo!u%e of p!as%a
9. 4hat is the (est description of hat a %onochro%atic p!ane ave e.periences that is incident on a
(oundary (eteen to different die!ectric %ateria!s exactly at Brewster's angle+
'a) one po!ari1ation is tota!!y ref!ected, the other po!ari1ation is partia!!y ref!ected
'() one po!ari1ation is tota!!y trans%itted, the other po!ari1ation is partia!!y trans%itted
'c) (oth po!ari1ations are tota!!y ref!ected
'd) (oth po!ari1ations are tota!!y trans%itted
411
:. " p!ane, %onochro%atic ave is incident at so%e non/nor%a! ang!e on a very good, (ut not perfect,
conductor. 4hat is the nature of the fie!ds inside the conductor+
'a) there are 1ero fie!ds inside a good conductor
'() there are a.ia! standing aves e.tending nor%a! to the conductor3s surface into the conductor a(out
the distance of its s0in depth.
'c) there are transverse trave!ing aves propagating nor%a! to the conductor3s surface into the
conductor a(out the distance of its s0in depth.
'd) there are transverse trave!ing aves propagating at the ang!e of incidence end!ess!y through the
conductor ith no attenuation.
;. 4hen is the group ve!ocity of an e!ectro%agnetic ave physica!!y %eaningfu!+
'a) it is a!ays physica!!y %eaningfu!
'() on!y hen the group ve!ocity is greater than the speed of !ight in vacuu%
'c) on!y at fre#uencies of ano%a!ous dispersion
'd) on!y hen the ave pac0et3s enve!ope retains its (asic shape as it trave!s, and aay fro% regions of
ano%a!ous dispersion
10. Consider a !oca!i1ed, osci!!ating current distri(ution sitting in free space, creating e!ectro%agnetic
fie!ds. 4hy is the e!ectric fie!d in the radiation 1one a!ays in the for% of transverse trave!ing aves+
'a) Because transverse trave!ing aves are the on!y 0ind of self-propagating e!ectro%agnetic
configuration in free space. "!! other fie!ds die off (efore reaching the radiation 1one (ecause they are
not se!f/propagating.
'() Because transverse trave!ing aves are very strong c!ose to the source, co%pared to a!! other fie!d
configurations, despite that they do not propagate as far as the other fie!d configurations.
'c) Because the te%perature of radiation is very high.
'd) <he e!ectric fie!d in the radiation 1one never ta0es the for% of transverse trave!ing aves.
11. Consider the tota! interna! ref!ection a ave e.periences hen hitting the (oundary (eteen a
standard die!ectric %ateria! and free space. 2o ou!d e reduce the critica! ang!e '%ove it c!oser to
the interface nor%a!)+
'a) increase the inde. of refraction of the %ateria!
'() decrease the inde. of refraction of the %ateria!
'c) change the po!ari1ation of the incident ave
'd) increase the te%perature of the %ateria!
12. &f e e.cite (oth <M and <= %odes at the same time inside a rectangu!ar aveguide, hat can e
say a(out the a.ia! co%ponents of the tota! fie!ds 'the co%ponents a!ong the aveguide a.is, in the z
direction)+
'a) E
z
> 0 and B
z
> 0
'() E
z
? 0 and B
z
? 0
'c) E
z
? 0 and B
z
> 0
'd) E
z
> 0 and B
z
? 0
412
Part II: #iagram Pro$lem (2 Points! " !arge vo!u%e is fi!!ed ith !inear, dispersive, !ossy 'a(sorptive) die!ectric %ateria!. <his %ateria! is represented (y the gray areas on the diagra%s. @or si%p!icity, this %ateria! fo!!os the si%p!e har%onic %ode! 'e!ectrons as %asses on springs) for the induced %ateria! osci!!ations. <his %ateria! on!y has one resonant osci!!ation, hich has a resonant fre#uency 0 and a p!as%a fre#uency p . " ave pac0et ith a certain carrier fre#uency is incident fro% free space on this %ateria!. Do not ta0e ti%e to dra the ref!ections fro% the free/spaceA%ateria! interface. 1) Bn the appropriate diagra% on the ne.t page, s0etch the rea! part of the relati!e per%ittivity " r of this %ateria!. 2) Bn the appropriate diagra% on the ne.t page, s0etch the i%aginary part of the relati!e per%ittivity " r of this %ateria!. 3) &n the red (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the %ateria!, if its carrier fre#uency is far (e!o the resonant fre#uency, CC 0 , as shon (y the red !ine. ,) &n the orange (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the %ateria!, if its carrier fre#uency is s!ight!y (e!o the resonant fre#uency, C 0 , as shon (y the orange !ine. -) &n the green (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the %ateria!, if its carrier fre#uency is (eteen the resonant fre#uency and the p!as%a fre#uency, 0 C C p , as shon (y the green !ine. 8) &n the (!ue (o., s0etch hat the ave pac0et !oo0s !i0e after trave!ing a ays through the %ateria!, if its carrier fre#uency is a(ove the p!as%a fre#uency, D p , as shon (y the (!ue !ine. 413$
Ee'"
r
)
$&%'" r ) 1$
0
$0$
p
414
Part II: %or& Pro$lems ('2 Points! #how all your work an$ explain each ma%or step to recei!e full cre$it. Pro$lem ()
" %onochro%atic p!ane ave trave!ing in free space in the z direction is %easured and found to have
the fo!!oing Sto0es para%eters* s
0
> b, s
1
> /b, s
2
> 0, s
3
> 0.
'a) Ca!cu!ate the Fones para%eters for this ave 'the %agnitudes and phases of the po!ari1ation vector3s
co%ponents).
'() 4rite don the e!ectric fie!d E for this ave in its %ost co%p!ete for%, shoing e.p!icit!y its
dependence on space, ti%e, and its po!ari1ation co%ponents.
'c) Descri(e in ords hat 0ind of ave this is 'unpo!ari1ed, !eft/circu!ar!y po!ari1ed, etc.).
S*+,TI*-:
'a) <he Sto0es para%eters are defined according to*
s
0
=

E
x

2
+

E
y

2
s
1
=

E
x

E
y

2
s
2
=2 (E
x
5
E
y
)
s
3
=2 ( E
x
5
E
y
)
Co%parison ith the nu%(er va!ues given a(ove i%%ediate!y revea!s that e %ust have*
E
x
=0 and E
y
=b
Because there is on!y one co%ponent to the po!ari1ation vector, the phases are %eaning!ess and can (e
set to 1ero* "rg'E
x
) > "rg'E
y
) > 0
'() <he e!ectric fie!d of a po!ari1ed p!ane ave in its %ost e.p!icit for% is*
E= xE
x
e
i (k z t +&rg( E
x
))
+ yE
y
e
i(k zt +&rg (E
y
))
@or the case in this pro(!e%, this (eco%es*
E= y b e
i (k zt)
'c) <his is a !inear!y po!ari1ed ave, po!ari1ed in the vertica! direction.
415
Pro$lem 2) <he e!ectro%agnetic a(sorption of a certain %ateria! is %easured and found to have strong a(sorption pea0s at fre#uencies 1 and 2 . <o a very good appro.i%ation, this %ateria! has 1ero a(sorption at a!! other fre#uencies, so that the a(sorption can (e %ode!ed as a Dirac de!ta at 1 ith a%p!itude 0 & 1 2 1 and a Dirac de!ta at ' ith a%p!itude 0 & 2 2 2 . 'a) Using the Gra%ers/Gronig re!ations, find the rea! part of the per%ittivity of this %ateria!. '() @ind the static inde. of refraction, n s = ( =0) 0 , for this %ateria!. S*+,TI*-: 'a) "(sorption is descri(ed (y the i%aginary part of the per%ittivity, so that e can rite don* ()= 0 2 [ & 1 1 ( 1 )+ & 2 2 ( 2 ) ] Bne of the Gra%ers/Gronig re!ations gives the rea! part in ter%s of the i%aginary part* (()/ 0 )=1+ 2 ((3 )/ 0 )3 3 2 2$ 3
H!ugging in our va!ue for the i%aginary part, e find*
(())=
0
+
0
(

(
&
1

1
(3
1
)+
&
2

2
(3
2
))3
3
2

2
$3 (( ))= 0 + 0 & 1 1 ( (3 1 ) 3 3 2 2$ 3 +

0
&
2

2
(

(3
2
) 3
3
2

2
$3 (( ))= 0 [ 1+ & 1 1 2 2 + & 2 2 2 2 ] '() <he static inde. of refraction is* n s = 1+ & 1 1 2 + & 2 2 2 416 Pro$lem .)
" ho!!o, %eta! aveguide consists of perfect!y conducting a!!s surrounding free space. <he
aveguide is unifor% in the z direction, and has a s#uare cross/sectiona! shape ith one corner at
x > 0, y > 0 and the opposite corner at x > a, y > a. <he source of the aves de!ivered to the aveguide
can on!y e.cite <= aves 'E
z
> 0) in the aveguide, and can a!so on!y e.cite aves here a!! e!ectric
and %agnetic fie!d co%ponents are independent of the di%ension y .
'a) @ind the genera! so!ution to the transverse ave e#uation for B
z
ith the independence fro% y
app!ied.
'() "pp!y (oundary conditions to find the uni#ue so!utions to B
z
.4rite don the dispersion re!ation for
aves in the aveguide, ith the transverse avenu%(er I e.p!icit!y e.panded.
'c) "pp!y the genera! aveguide e#uations to your so!ution to B
z
in order to find the transverse
co%ponents of the e!ectric and %agnetic fie!ds. 4rite your fina! so!utions out in fu!! for%, inc!uding
the dependence on z and ti%e.
'd) @ind the cutoff fre#uency of the <=
1
%ode.
S*+,TI*-:
'a) 4e need to so!ve
t
2
B
z
=
2
B
z
here
2
=
0

2
k
2
. &n rectangu!ar coordinates, this (eco%es*

2
B
z
x
2
+

2
B
z
y
2
=
2
B
z
But none of the fie!d co%ponents depend on y, so this reduces don to*

2
B
z
x
2
=
2
B
z
<he genera! so!ution is*
B
z
=B
0
cos( x)+B
0
3 sin( x)
'the second ter% %ay (e o%itted in vie of the (oundary conditions)
'() <he (oundary condition to app!y at each a!! is
B
z
n
=0 . <he so!ution a!ready %eets this (oundary
condition for the a!!s at y > 0 and at y > a. "pp!ying this (oundary condition at the x > 0 a!!s !eads
to B
0
3 > 0. "pp!ying it at the x > a a!! !eads to I > mJAa here m > 1, 2... so that*
B
z
=B
0
cos
(
m x
a
)
e
i k zi t
here k=

2
c
2

2
m
2
a
2
and m > 1, 2...
'c) <he aveguide e#uations for <= aves are*
E
t
=
i

2
(
/
t
B
z
) and
0
t
=
i k

2
(

t
B
z
)
417
@irst ca!cu!ate

t
B
z
= x

x
(
B
0
cos
(
m x
a
))
= x B
0
m
a
sin
(
m x
a
)
so that*
E
t
= y
i a
m
B
0
sin
(
m x
a
)
e
i k z i t
and 0
t
= x
i k a
m
B
0
sin
(
m x
a
)
e
i k zi t
here k=

2
c
2

2
m
2
a
2
and m > 0, 1, 2...
'd) @or the <=
1
the dispersion re!ation (eco%es*
k=

2
c
2

2
a
2
<he cutoff fre#uency occurs at k > 0*

c )1
=
c
a
418
Final Exam Solutions, Electromagnetic Theory II
Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Spring 2013
University of Massachusetts Loe!!
Part I: Multiple Choice (45 Points
Circle the one best answer to each question.
1. "ccording to the genera! aveguide e#uations, hat entities are coup!ed inside aveguides$%a& the poer trans'itted is coup!ed to static e!ectro'agnetic fie!ds. %(& circu!ar!y)po!ari*ed aves are coup!ed to !inear!y)po!ari*ed aves. %c& the transverse e!ectro'agnetic fie!d co'ponents are coup!ed to the a+ia! co'ponents. %d& the tota! e!ectric fie!d is coup!ed to the te'perature of the aveguide. 2. " 'eta'ateria! %negative inde+ of refraction 'ateria!& is p!aced ne+t to another 'eta'ateria! having a different inde+ of refraction so that there is a p!anar interface (eteen the to. "n e!ectro'agnetic p!ane ave is incident on this 'ateria! interface and !eads to a ref!ected p!ane ave and a refracted p!ane ave. ,o do the directions of the aves for this 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! interface differ fro' that for a standard)'ateria!-standard)'ateria! interface$ %" standard 'ateria! has positive inde+ of
refraction&.
%a& there is *ero ref!ected ave off of the 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! interface.
%(& the refracted avevector for the 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! case is c!oser to the nor'a! than for the
standard)'ateria!-standard)'ateria! case.
%c& the refracted avevector for the 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! interface is on the opposite side of the
nor'a! fro' the standard)'ateria!-standard)'ateria! case.
%d& the directions are the sa'e for (oth situations.
3. .hat is the 'ain 'echanis' at or/ for e!ectro'agnetic scattering (y a pure!y dielectric sphere if
the ave!ength of the incident ave is very !arge co'pared to the sphere$%a& the incident aves (ounce off the front surface of the sphere !i/e (a!!s. %(& e!ectric currents are induced on the sphere0s front surface that radiate. %c& an osci!!ating 'agnetic dipo!e is induced in the sphere that radiates. %d& an osci!!ating e!ectric dipo!e is induced in the sphere that radiates. 1. .hat is represented (y the e#uation = 1 c J$
%a& to of Ma+e!!0s e#uations !in/ing the e!ectro'agnetic fie!ds to the currents and charges.
%(& Ma+e!!0s stress tensor !in/ing the e!ectro'agnetic force to the currents and charges.
%c& on!y "'pere0s !a !in/ing the current to static 'agnetic fie!ds.
%d& the continuity e#uation !in/ing current to charge.
2. .hat is the difference (eteen a contravariant four)vector A

and a covariant four)vector A

$%a& the order of the co'ponents is sitched. %(& they are e+act!y the sa'e. %c& an overa!! negative sign on the spatia! co'ponents of one of the four)vectors. %d& an overa!! negative sign on a!! four co'ponents of one of the four)vectors. 419 3. "s the speed v of an o(4ect re!ative to the ground reaches the speed of !ight in vacuu' c, hat happens to the 'o'entu' p of the o(4ect re!ative to the ground according to specia! re!ativity$
%a& the 'o'entu' approaches the universa! !i'it mc.
%(& the 'o'entu' is un(ounded and approaches infinity.
%c& the 'o'entu' approaches *ero.
%d& the 'o'entu' stays constant for a!! speeds.
5. .hy does a conducting sphere in the !ong)ave!ength appro+i'ation scatter 'ore strong!y in the
(ac/)scattering direction than in the forard)scattering direction$%a& (ecause of a shado effect here the sphere (!oc/s aves fro' trave!ing forard. %(& (ecause of interference effects (eteen the radiating e!ectric and 'agnetic dipo!es. %c& (ecause the induced currents are *ero. %d& (ecause the sphere is too s'a!! to (e 6visi(!e7 to the incident aves. 8. .hat is the significance of the cutoff frequency of a aveguide$
%a& (e!o the cutoff fre#uency, aves cannot trave! a!ong the aveguide.
%(& a(ove the cutoff fre#uency, aves cannot trave! a!ong the aveguide.
%c& (e!o the cutoff fre#uency, aves trave! faster than the speed of !ight c in the aveguide.
%d& the cutoff fre#uency 'ar/s the point here the avenu'(er (eco'es infinite.
9. .hat is the po!ari*ation pattern of earth0s day)ti'e s/y according to an earth)(ound o(server$%a& the s/y patches c!ose to the sun are unpo!ari*ed: the s/y patches approaching a 90 degree vieing ang!e aay fro' the sun are !inear!y po!ari*ed in a circu!ar pattern. %(& a!! points in the s/y are unpo!ari*ed. %c& the s/y patches c!ose to the sun are circu!ar!y)po!ari*ed: a!! other s/y patches are unpo!ari*ed. %d& a!! points in the s/y are circu!ar!y)po!ari*ed. 10. .hat is the (est conceptua! su''ary of !inear Lorent* transfor'ations$
%a& !ength e+pansion and ti'e contraction.
%(& !ength e+pansion, ti'e contraction, and origin shifting.
%c& !ength contraction, ti'e di!ation, and origin shifting.
%d& origin shifting on!y.
11. .hy as the !u'iniferous ether c!ai'ed to e+ist (y physicists in the 18000s$%a& in order to reso!ve the contradictions (eteen ;eton0s !as and Ma+e!!0s e#uations (y constructing a specia! fra'e of reference through hich !ight trave!s. %(& in order to rep!ace Ma+e!!0s e#uations ith a ne theory that (etter 'atched e+peri'ents. %c& in order to prove that ;eton0s !as ere rong. %d& in order to e+p!ain the tin/!ing of stars. 12. <f the effective height of the earth0s at'osphere ere increased ten ti'es and everything e!se ere /ept the sa'e, ho ou!d the overa!! (rightness and co!or of the s/y change according to the 'ode! used in c!ass$
%a& the s/y ou!d (e (righter and vio!et)shifted
%(& the s/y ou!d (e (righter and red)shifted
%c& the s/y ou!d (e dar/er and vio!et)shifted
%d& the s/y ou!d (e dar/er and red)shifted
420
13. Horizontally po!ari*ed !ight passes through an e!e'ent ith scattering =ones 'atri+ J
1
=
1
2
[
1 1
1 1
]
and then through another e!e'ent ith scattering =ones 'atri+ J
2
=
[
0 0
0 1
]
. .hat is the fina! state of
the e!ectro'agnetic ave after passing though these to e!e'ent$%a& hori*onta!!y po!ari*ed. %(& vertica!!y po!ari*ed. %c& circu!ar!y po!ari*ed. %d& there is no ave that 'a/es it co'p!ete!y through this syste'. 11. .hat i!! happen if an e!ectro'agnetic ave is incident on a s!a( of conducting 'ateria! hose s!a( idth is thinner than its e!ectro'agnetic s/in depth$
%a& a!! of the incident ave0s energy i!! (eco'e a(sor(ed (y the s!a( so that there is no ref!ected ave
and no trans'itted ave.
%(& a!! of the incident ave i!! ref!ect off the s!a( and there i!! (e no trans'itted ave.
%c& a significant portion of the incident ave0s energy i!! tunne! through the conducting s!a( and
generate a trans'itted ave on the other side.
%d& part of the incident ave i!! (e ref!ected, none of it i!! (e trans'itted, and part of it i!! (e
eterna!!y trapped inside the s!a(.
12. .hat is a good general description for the vector potentia! ! created (y an osci!!ating current
distri(ution$%a& ! is a!ays *ero. %(& ! is a transverse trave!ing ave so!ution in a!! *ones, fro' near)fie!d to far)fie!d. %c& ! is the static so!ution ith no changes, va!id for a!! *ones, fro' near)fie!d to far)fie!d. %d& ! is the static so!ution ith the various contri(utions to the so!ution retarded appropriate!y to account for signa! trave! ti'e. 421 Part II: "or# Pro$lems (55 Points
how all your wor! and e"plain each ma#or step to receive full credit.
Pro$lem %& >he four)avevector ? of a p!ane ave in free space has$-c as its ti'e co'ponent and
the traditiona! three)di'ensiona! avevector # as its space co'ponent. >he four)position @ is defined
in the usua! ay. Aind the fo!!oing ite's and rite in ords hat each resu!t 'eans physica!!y
/eeping in 'ind the invariant nature of four)vector productsB
%a& @
%(& ?
%c& ?@
S'()TI'*
%a& @=@@=

"
0
2
"
2
=c
2
t
2
"
2
= s
2
=s
Because the dot product of to four)vectors is a Lorent* invariant, i.e. a sca!ar that is the sa'e
in a!! fra'es, this te!!s us that the space)ti'e interva! s is the sa'e in a!! fra'es.
%(& ?=??=

2
c
2
!
2
=0
>his te!!s us that the four)avevector has a !ength of *ero in a!! fra'es.
%c& ?@=t #x=
>his te!!s us that the phase of a p!ane ave is the sa'e in a!! fra'es.
Pro$lem +& "n e!ectron is shot out of a gun at speed u0 = 3 1 c in the positive " direction re!ative to the gun. >he gun is trave!ing at speed v= 1 2 c in the positive " direction re!ative to the ground. .hat is the re!ativistic tota! energy of the e!ectron as 'easured (y an o(server that is stationary on the ground$
S'()TI'*:
Airst e i!! find the e!ectron0s speed re!ative to the ground, then p!ug this speed into the
standard energy e#uation. >he speed re!ative to the ground is found using the ve!ocity addition
for'u!aB
u=
u0 +v
1+u 0 v/ c
2
u=
3
1
c+
1
2
c
1+
(
3
1
c
)(
1
2
c
)
/ c
2
422
u=
10
11
c
>he re!ativistic tota! energy is thereforeB
%=
m
e
c
2
1u
2
/ c
2
%=
11
21
m
e
c
2
Pro$lem ,& " !oca!i*ed charge distri(ution is osci!!ating har'onica!!y so that its charge density isB = & 2a 2 r 2 cose i t for a!! radii r C a, and D E 0 for r F a, here r and G are the radia! and po!ar ang!e coordinates of spherica! coordinates. %a& Aind the pseudo)static e!ectric dipo!e 'o'ent p of this charge distri(ution. %(& Aind the tota! poer radiated (y this charge distri(ution if on!y dipo!e radiation is considered. S'()TI'*: %a& >he pseudo)static e!ectric dipo!e 'o'ent p is the dipo!e 'o'ent at an instant of ti'eB p= x(x)d 3 x Aro' the sy''etry of the pro(!e', e i''ediate!y /no that the dipo!e 'o'ent i!! point in the z direction. p= - z(x)d 3 x p= - 0 2 0 a z(r ' ' ) r 2 sin dr d d p= - 0 2 0 a r cos(r ' ' )r 2 sin dr d d p= - 0 2 0 a r cos [ & 2a 2 r 2 cos ] r 2 sin dr d d p= & a 2 - cos 2 sind 0 a r 2 dr p= &a 3 - cos 2 sin d 423 p= & a 3 - 1 1 u 2 du p= 1 9 &a - %d& >he tota! poer radiated (y an osci!!ating dipo!e isB (= c 2 ) 0 ! 1 12 p 2 (= c 2 ) 0 ! 1 12 1 9 &a 2 (= c 2 ) 0 ! 1 & 2 a 2 81(12) (= c 2 ) 0 ! 1 & 2 a 2 952 Pro$lem 4& Derive the scattering properties of a s'a!! sphere 'ade of non)conducting, non)die!ectric,
'agnetica!!y)per'ea(!e 'ateria! in the !ong)ave!ength, far)fie!d appro+i'ation. ;ote that an incident
p!ane ave induces in a s'a!! 'agnetic sphere the pseudo)static 'agnetic dipo!e 'o'ent m:
m=1
0
a
3
c
(

0
+2
0
)
%
0

#
0

0
here

#
0
is the direction of propagation of the incident ave,

0
is the po!ari*ation unit vector of the
incident ave, a is the sphere radius, and is the sphere0s 'agnetic per'ea(i!ity.
%a& Derive the po!ari*ation)specific differentia! scattering cross sections.
%(& Derive the average po!ari*ation H%G& of the aves scattered (y this 'agnetic sphere.
%c& <f the earth0s s/y as co'posed of s'a!! 'agnetic spheres instead of s'a!! die!ectric spheres, hat
ou!d the po!ari*ation pattern of the s/y !oo/ !i/e$S/etch the po!ari*ation pattern of this s/y around the sun as seen (y a ground o(server !oo/ing up, si'i!ar to the s/etch 'ade in c!ass. S'()TI'*: %a& >he differentia! scattering cross section in the !ong)ave!ength, far)fie!d !i'it can (e e+pressed in ter's of the induced 'agnetic and e!ectric dipo!e 'o'entsB d d = ! 1 1 0 % 0 I p 1 c # I m 2 424 J!ug in p E 0 and the 'agnetic dipo!e 'o'ent shon a(oveB d ! d " = ! 1 (1 0 % 0 ) 2 1 c ( # I )(1 0 a 3 c ( 0 +2 0 ) % 0 ( # 0 0 )) 2 d ! d " =! 1 a 3 ( 0 +2 0 ) 2 ( # I )( # 0 0 ) 2 <f e no define the scattering ang!e and the scattering p!ane in the usua! ay, and !a(e! the po!ari*ation perpendicu!ar to the scattering p!ane as , and the po!ari*ation para!!e! to the scattering p!ane as K, the po!ari*ation)specific scattering cross sections (eco'eB d ! ,, d " =! 1 a 3 ( 0 +2 0 ) 2 cos 2 d ! ,K d " =0 d ! K, d " =0 d ! KK d " =! 1 a 3 ( 0 +2 0 ) 2 %(& >he average po!ari*ation is defined asB #()= d ! ,, d " + d ! K, d " d ! ,K d " d ! KK d " d ! ,, d " + d ! K, d " + d ! ,K d " + d ! KK d " #()= sin 2 cos 2 +1 %c& >he average po!ari*ation found a(ove is identica! to hat as found for scattering (y a die!ectric sphere, e+cept ith opposite sign. >his 'eans that at a vieing ang!e of 90L the scattered aves (eco'e co'p!ete!y po!ari*ed para!!e! to the scattering p!ane as opposed to perpendicu!ar to the scattering p!ane as as the case for the die!ectric sphere. >he s/y ou!d appear as s/etched (e!oB 425 426 Final Exam, Electromagnetic Theory II Dr. Christopher S. Baird, Spring 2013 University of Massachusetts Loe!! Part I: Multiple Choice (45 Points) Circle the one best answer to each question. 1. "ccording to the genera! aveguide e#uations, hat entities are coup!ed inside aveguides$
%a& the poer trans'itted is coup!ed to static e!ectro'agnetic fie!ds.
%(& circu!ar!y)po!ari*ed aves are coup!ed to !inear!y)po!ari*ed aves.
%c& the transverse e!ectro'agnetic fie!d co'ponents are coup!ed to the a+ia! co'ponents.
%d& the tota! e!ectric fie!d is coup!ed to the te'perature of the aveguide.
2. " 'eta'ateria! %negative inde+ of refraction 'ateria!& is p!aced ne+t to another 'eta'ateria! having
a different inde+ of refraction so that there is a p!anar interface (eteen the to. "n e!ectro'agnetic
p!ane ave is incident on this 'ateria! interface and !eads to a ref!ected p!ane ave and a refracted
p!ane ave. ,o do the directions of the aves for this 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! interface differ
fro' that for a standard)'ateria!-standard)'ateria! interface$%" standard 'ateria! has positive inde+ of refraction&. %a& there is *ero ref!ected ave off of the 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! interface. %(& the refracted avevector for the 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! case is c!oser to the nor'a! than for the standard)'ateria!-standard)'ateria! case. %c& the refracted avevector for the 'eta'ateria!-'etat'ateria! interface is on the opposite side of the nor'a! fro' the standard)'ateria!-standard)'ateria! case. %d& the directions are the sa'e for (oth situations. 3. .hat is the 'ain 'echanis' at or/ for e!ectro'agnetic scattering (y a pure!y dielectric sphere if the ave!ength of the incident ave is very !arge co'pared to the sphere$
%a& the incident aves (ounce off the front surface of the sphere !i/e (a!!s.
%(& e!ectric currents are induced on the sphere0s front surface that radiate.
%c& an osci!!ating 'agnetic dipo!e is induced in the sphere that radiates.
%d& an osci!!ating e!ectric dipo!e is induced in the sphere that radiates.
1. .hat is represented (y the e#uation

=
1
c
J

$%a& to of Ma+e!!0s e#uations !in/ing the e!ectro'agnetic fie!ds to the currents and charges. %(& Ma+e!!0s stress tensor !in/ing the e!ectro'agnetic force to the currents and charges. %c& on!y "'pere0s !a !in/ing the current to static 'agnetic fie!ds. %d& the continuity e#uation !in/ing current to charge. 2. .hat is the difference (eteen a contravariant four)vector A and a covariant four)vector A$
%a& the order of the co'ponents is sitched.
%(& they are e+act!y the sa'e.
%c& an overa!! negative sign on the spatia! co'ponents of one of the four)vectors.
%d& an overa!! negative sign on a!! four co'ponents of one of the four)vectors.
427
3. "s the speed v of an o(4ect re!ative to the ground reaches the speed of !ight in vacuu' c, hat
happens to the 'o'entu' p of the o(4ect re!ative to the ground according to specia! re!ativity$%a& the 'o'entu' approaches the universa! !i'it mc. %(& the 'o'entu' is un(ounded and approaches infinity. %c& the 'o'entu' approaches *ero. %d& the 'o'entu' stays constant for a!! speeds. 5. .hy does a conducting sphere in the !ong)ave!ength appro+i'ation scatter 'ore strong!y in the (ac/)scattering direction than in the forard)scattering direction$
%a& (ecause of a shado effect here the sphere (!oc/s aves fro' trave!ing forard.
%(& (ecause of interference effects (eteen the radiating e!ectric and 'agnetic dipo!es.
%c& (ecause the induced currents are *ero.
%d& (ecause the sphere is too s'a!! to (e 6visi(!e7 to the incident aves.
8. .hat is the significance of the cutoff frequency of a aveguide$%a& (e!o the cutoff fre#uency, aves cannot trave! a!ong the aveguide. %(& a(ove the cutoff fre#uency, aves cannot trave! a!ong the aveguide. %c& (e!o the cutoff fre#uency, aves trave! faster than the speed of !ight c in the aveguide. %d& the cutoff fre#uency 'ar/s the point here the avenu'(er (eco'es infinite. 9. .hat is the po!ari*ation pattern of earth0s day)ti'e s/y according to an earth)(ound o(server$
%a& the s/y patches c!ose to the sun are unpo!ari*ed: the s/y patches approaching a 90 degree vieing
ang!e aay fro' the sun are !inear!y po!ari*ed in a circu!ar pattern.
%(& a!! points in the s/y are unpo!ari*ed.
%c& the s/y patches c!ose to the sun are circu!ar!y)po!ari*ed: a!! other s/y patches are unpo!ari*ed.
%d& a!! points in the s/y are circu!ar!y)po!ari*ed.
10. .hat is the (est conceptua! su''ary of !inear Lorent* transfor'ations$%a& !ength e+pansion and ti'e contraction. %(& !ength e+pansion, ti'e contraction, and origin shifting. %c& !ength contraction, ti'e di!ation, and origin shifting. %d& origin shifting on!y. 11. .hy as the !u'iniferous ether c!ai'ed to e+ist (y physicists in the 18000s$
%a& in order to reso!ve the contradictions (eteen ;eton0s !as and Ma+e!!0s e#uations (y
constructing a specia! fra'e of reference through hich !ight trave!s.
%(& in order to rep!ace Ma+e!!0s e#uations ith a ne theory that (etter 'atched e+peri'ents.
%c& in order to prove that ;eton0s !as ere rong.
%d& in order to e+p!ain the tin/!ing of stars.
12. <f the effective height of the earth0s at'osphere ere increased ten ti'es and everything e!se ere
/ept the sa'e, ho ou!d the overa!! (rightness and co!or of the s/y change according to the 'ode!
used in c!ass$%a& the s/y ou!d (e (righter and vio!et)shifted %(& the s/y ou!d (e (righter and red)shifted %c& the s/y ou!d (e dar/er and vio!et)shifted %d& the s/y ou!d (e dar/er and red)shifted 428 13. Horizontally po!ari*ed !ight passes through an e!e'ent ith scattering =ones 'atri+ J 1 = 1 2 [ 1 1 1 1 ] and then through another e!e'ent ith scattering =ones 'atri+ J 2 = [ 0 0 0 1 ] . .hat is the fina! state of the e!ectro'agnetic ave after passing though these to e!e'ent$
%a& hori*onta!!y po!ari*ed.
%(& vertica!!y po!ari*ed.
%c& circu!ar!y po!ari*ed.
%d& there is no ave that 'a/es it co'p!ete!y through this syste'.
11. .hat i!! happen if an e!ectro'agnetic ave is incident on a s!a( of conducting 'ateria! hose
s!a( idth is thinner than its e!ectro'agnetic s/in depth$%a& a!! of the incident ave0s energy i!! (eco'e a(sor(ed (y the s!a( so that there is no ref!ected ave and no trans'itted ave. %(& a!! of the incident ave i!! ref!ect off the s!a( and there i!! (e no trans'itted ave. %c& a significant portion of the incident ave0s energy i!! tunne! through the conducting s!a( and generate a trans'itted ave on the other side. %d& part of the incident ave i!! (e ref!ected, none of it i!! (e trans'itted, and part of it i!! (e eterna!!y trapped inside the s!a(. 12. .hat is a good general description for the vector potentia! created (y an osci!!ating current distri(ution$
%a& is a!ays *ero.
%(& is a transverse trave!ing ave so!ution in a!! *ones, fro' near)fie!d to far)fie!d.
%c& is the static so!ution ith no changes, va!id for a!! *ones, fro' near)fie!d to far)fie!d.
%d& is the static so!ution ith the various contri(utions to the so!ution retarded appropriate!y to
account for signa! trave! ti'e.
429
Part II: !or" Pro#lems (55 Points)
how all your wor! and e"plain each ma#or step to receive full credit.
Pro#lem $% >he four)avevector ? of a p!ane ave in free space has$-c as its ti'e co'ponent and
the traditiona! three)di'ensiona! avevector " as its space co'ponent. >he four)position @ is defined
in the usua! ay. Aind the fo!!oing ite's and rite in ords hat each resu!t 'eans physica!!y
/eeping in 'ind the invariant nature of four)vector productsB
%a& @
%(& ?
%c& ?@
Pro#lem &% "n e!ectron is shot out of a gun at speed u0 =
3
1
c in the positive " direction re!ative to the
gun. >he gun is trave!ing at speed v=
1
2
c in the positive " direction re!ative to the ground. .hat is the
re!ativistic tota! energy of the e!ectron as 'easured (y an o(server that is stationary on the ground$430 Pro#lem '% " !oca!i*ed charge distri(ution is osci!!ating har'onica!!y so that its charge density isB = % 2a 2 r 2 cose i t for a!! radii r C a, and D E 0 for r F a, here r and G are the radia! and po!ar ang!e coordinates of spherica! coordinates. %a& Aind the pseudo)static e!ectric dipo!e 'o'ent p of this charge distri(ution. %(& Aind the tota! poer radiated (y this charge distri(ution if on!y dipo!e radiation is considered. 431 Pro#lem 4% Derive the scattering properties of a s'a!! sphere 'ade of non)conducting, non)die!ectric, 'agnetica!!y)per'ea(!e 'ateria! in the !ong)ave!ength, far)fie!d appro+i'ation. ;ote that an incident p!ane ave induces in a s'a!! 'agnetic sphere the pseudo)static 'agnetic dipo!e 'o'ent m: m=1 0 a 3 c ( 0 +2 0 ) & 0 " 0 0 here " 0 is the direction of propagation of the incident ave, 0 is the po!ari*ation unit vector of the incident ave, a is the sphere radius, and is the sphere0s 'agnetic per'ea(i!ity. %a& Derive the po!ari*ation)specific differentia! scattering cross sections. %(& Derive the average po!ari*ation H%G& of the aves scattered (y this 'agnetic sphere. %c& <f the earth0s s/y as co'posed of s'a!! 'agnetic spheres instead of s'a!! die!ectric spheres, hat ou!d the po!ari*ation pattern of the s/y !oo/ !i/e$ S/etch the po!ari*ation pattern of this s/y around
the sun as seen (y a ground o(server !oo/ing up, si'i!ar to the s/etch 'ade in c!ass.
432

"#$%&'( )'*+,-'(& 433 "#$%&'(
)
434
Jackson 1.1 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Use Gauss's theorem
S
Enda=
q

0
and

Ed l=0 to prove the followin!

a" #ny e$cess chare placed on a conductor must lie entirely on its surface. %# conductor &y definition contains chares capa&le of movin freely under the action of applied electric fields." &" # closed' hollow conductor shields its interior from fields due to chares outside' &ut does not shield its e$terior from fields due to chares placed inside it.
c" (he electric field at the surface of the conductor is normal to the surface and has a manitude
/
0
'
where is the chare density per unit area on the surface.
SOLUTO!:
a" )irst' the pro&lem contains the unstated assumption that what is wanted is the location of the chares
in static equilibrium. (his assumption is valid &ecause this pro&lem is found in the chapter on
electrostatics. Static e*uili&rium %the lac+ of movement" can only e$ist when free chares are present if there are no electric fields. Therefore the electric field inside a conductor is zero. ,ne can draw any ar&itrary' closed surface completely inside the conductor and it will always have -ero electric field at every point on the surface. (he interal of the electric field over this surface is -ero and &y Gauss's law' the total chare is therefore -ero. Because the surface is ar&itrary' it can &e chosen to &e infinitesimally small or &e chosen to o throuh any point in the conductor's interior. (herefore every point inside a conductor has -ero chare' and all the chare must then reside on the surface. &" #ssume for the moment that the electric field e$ternal to the conductor is perpendicular to the
conductor's surface at the surface %the proof is left to part c". Because the conductor is hollow' the
interior reion of the conductor has &y definition no free chares. .f we choose a closed mathematical
surface /ust inside and parallel to the inner surface of the hollow conductor' it therefore contains a total
chare of -ero. Gauss's Law then &ecomes!

S
Enda=0
Because the mathematical surface of the interal is parallel to the surface of the conductor' and the
electric field is perpendicular to the surface of the conductor' the electric field must &e parallel to the
normal!
435

(his simplifies Gauss's law to!

S
E da=0
(he manitude of a vector' in this case E' is always positive. (here is no way to et the interal of a
permanently positive function to e*ual -ero e$cept if the function itself is -ero at every point. (hus the electric field is -ero at every point on the mathematical surface. (he surface can &e chosen to show that all points in the hollow reion have -ero electric fields. #nother way of provin this is to consider a hollow conductor with no chares e$ternal to it. #ccordin
to part a' there are no electric fields in the hollow reion. 0ow &rin chares in from infinity and place
them /ust e$ternal to the conductor. (heir electric fields can never penetrate the interior of the conductor accordin to part a' and thus can never reach the hollow reion &eyond the conductin shell. (he fields in the hollow reion remain -ero. 0ote' this is true only for perfect conductors. .n practice' if a conductor is thin enouh and non1perfect enouh' the fields actually do penetrate throuh a conductin shell. ,n the other hand' a chare inside the hollow reion of a closed conductor induces a chare on the conductor that creates an e$ternal field. .f the chare free reion is now the infinite reion e$ternal to the conductor' we can never draw a closed surface around infinity' and can thus never use Gauss's law to prove there is -ero field. #nother way of doin this is to draw a Gaussian interation surface outside and around the entire conductor. (he surface now encloses the internal chares and &y Gauss's law there must therefore &e non1-ero fields outside the conductor. c" .nside the conductor there are no electric fields. ,utside the conductor' there are no free chares' and therefore there can &e electric fields. 2hat happens at the surface of the conductor3 .f there is a component of the electric field tanential to the conductor's surface' it would accelerate chares alon the surface' and there would &e no static e*uili&rium. (here is therefore no tanential component' and electric fields are always normal to the conductor's surface. Draw a pill&o$ surface half1in and half1out of the surface of the conductor and let us interate the
electric field over the surface. (here is no electric field tanential to the conductor's surface' thus the
sides of the pill&o$contri&utes nothin to the interal. #lso' the electric field is -ero inside the E n 436 conductor' thus the &ottom of the pill&o$ contri&utes nothin to the interal. #ll that is left is the top of
the pill&o$. .f the pill&o$ is small enouh' the surface normal of its top and the electric field are parallel
so that Gauss's law &ecomes!

top
E da=
q

0
where q is the chare contained inside the pill&o$. 0ow shrin+ the pill&o$ until it is infinitesimally
small. (he electric field is constant over an infinitesimally small surface and can &e ta+en out of the
interal' so that the interal is evaluated to /ust &e the total area of the pill&o$top! E A top = q 0 4earranin! E= q A top 5 0 Define as the chare per unit area q/ A top and the e*uation &ecomes! E= 0 437 Jackson 1.2 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: The Dirac delta function in three dimensions can be taken as the improper limit as ! of the "aussian function D(o ; x , y , z)=(#)$/ #
o
$e%p & #o # ( x # +y # +z # ) | Consider a 'eneral ortho'onal coordinate system specified by the surfaces u ( constant) v ( constant) w ( constant) with len'th elements du/U) dv/V) dw/W in the three perpendicular directions. Show that 6( xx* )=6( uu* )6(vv* )6 (ww *)UVW by considerin' the limit of the "aussian above. +ote that as ! only the infinitesimal len'th element need be used for the distance between the points in the e%ponent. SOL!"O#: Start with the 'eneral property of a Dirac delta, 6 ( x)6( y)6 ( z)dx dy dz =& Substitute in our representation, lim o-! D(o; x , y , z) dx dy dz=& +ow transform the volume element into the new coordinate system lim o-! D(o; x , y , z) du U dv V dw W =& -e do not know e%actly how the one system of coordinates transforms into the other) so we cannot transform D in a direct manner. Let us instead define an intermediate variable function F accordin' to, F (u , v , w)=lim o-! D(o; x , y , z-u , v , w) & U V W -ith this definition our inte'ral becomes F( u , v , w) du dv dw=& 438 Because we are inte'ratin' over all space) we are free to make a chan'e of variables which .ust shifts the ori'in. F( uu* , vv * , ww* ) dudv dw=& Comparin' this to the very first e/uation we see that it is identical e%cept with different inte'ration labels and therefore, F (uu * , vv* , ww *)=6 (uu *) 6(vv * )6( ww* ) so that) after plu''in' back in) we have 6(uu* )6( vv * )6 (ww* )=lim o-! D(o; x , y , z -u , v , w) & U V W Solve for D, lim o-! D(o; x , y , z-u , v , w)=6(uu * )6( vv * )6( ww* )U V W The entity on the left) no matter what coordinate system it is represented in) is .ust what we mean by the 'eneral three0dimensional Dirac delta, 6( xx* )=6( uu* )6(vv* )6 (ww *)UVW +ow note that we never used the e%plicit form of D) so we have solved the problem in a way that the book did not intend. Let us try solvin' the problem usin' a method that uses the e%plicit form of D. D(o ; x , y , z)=(#)$/ #
o
$e%p & #o # ( x # +y # +z # ) | Make a chan'e of variables x x 1 x*) etc. 23therwise we will not end up with the most 'eneral case.4 D(o ; xx * , yy * , z z * )=( #)$/ #
o
$e%p & #o # (( xx* ) # +( yy* ) # +( zz *) # ) | 5s !) D will become 6ero unless x 1 x* approaches 6ero as well. 7n calculus) we remember that x 1 x* approachin' 6ero becomes dx. Therefore we have, D(o ; xx * , yy * , z z * )=( #)$/ #
o
$e%p & #o # ((dx) # +(dy) # +( dz) # ) | -e reco'ni6e the last part in parentheses as the incremental arc len'th element ds s/uared, D(o ; xx * , yy * , z z * )=( #)$/ #
o
$e%p & #o # ds # | 439 8%pand the arc len'th in the new coordinate system, D=( #)$/ #
o
$e%p & #o # ( du # U # + dv # V # + dw # W # )| +ote that dxdu/U and we are not makin' that claim here. 9ather) the entire three0dimensional incremental arc len'th ds is the same in all ortho'onal coordinate systems. +ow e%pand the increments back into differences, D=( #)$/ #
o
$e%p & #o # ( ( uu* ) # U # + (vv* ) # V # + ( ww* ) # W # ) | D= e ( uu*) # / #o # U # .#o | e (vv *) # / #o # V # .#o | e ( ww*) # / #o # W # .#o | +ow make the substitution & :U in the first bracket) # :V in the second bracket) and$
:W in the last bracket. -e can do this as lon' as we let
&
)
#
) and
$'o to 6ero .ust like we were lettin' 'o to 6ero. D= e ( uu*) # / #o & # .#o & | e (vv *) # /#o # # .#o # | e ( ww*) # /#o$
#
.#o
$| U V W -e now let the alpha*s approach 6ero. 8ach term in brackets on the ri'ht side becomes a one0 dimensional linear Dirac delta. The left side becomes the 'eneral e%pression for the three0dimensional Dirac delta, 6( xx* )=6( uu* )6(vv* )6 (ww *)UVW +ow this is a very useful result. Suppose we have a point char'e. 7n spherical coordinates) we can find the representation of its Dirac delta usin' the above e%pression. ;or spherical coordinates u=r , v=0 , w= and the len'th elements are dr , r d 0 , rsin 0d so that U=&) V= & r , W= & r sin and 6( xx* )=6( rr * )6(00 *) 6(* ) & r # sin 0 2Spherical Coordinates4 +ote that it is fairly strai'ht0forward to prove usin' Dirac delta properties that 6(00 *)/ sin0=6( cos0cos0 *) so that the three0dimensional Dirac delta in spherical coordinates is often written 6( xx* )=6( rr * )6(cos 0cos0* )6(* ) & r # as it is on p. &#! in Jackson. Similarly in cylindrical coordinates) u=r , v=0 , w=z and the len'th elements are dr , r d 0 , dz so that 440 U=&) V= & r , W=& and 6( xx* )=6( rr * )6(00 *) 6( zz * ) & r 2Cylindrical Coordinates4 5ssume that instead of a point char'e) we have a line char'e shaped into a rin') centered on the z a%is) located at some radius r* and polar an'le *. The char'e is distributed alon' the rin' accordin' to the line char'e density $$) . The total char'e density in this case would be, p=6(uu * )6( vv * )U V \(w) 2Spherical Coordinates4 p= 6(rr * )6(00* ) \() r 2Spherical Coordinates4 441 Jackson 1.3 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: Using Dirac delta functions in the appropriate coordinates, express the following charge distributions as threedi!ensional charge densities "x#. "a# n spherical coordinates, a charge Q unifor!ly distributed over a spherical shell of radius R. "b# n cylindrical coordinates, a charge per unit length unifor!ly distributed over a cylindrical surface of radius b. "c# n cylindrical coordinates, a charge Q spread unifor!ly over a flat circular disc of negligible thic%ness and radius R. "d# &he sa!e as part "c#, but using spherical coordinates. SOL!"O#: &he easiest !ethod to use is to set a Dirac delta for every di!ension that has an infinitely thin appearance. Multiply this by so!e arbitrary para!eter, integrate over the whole ob'ect, set this e(ual to the total charge, then solve for the arbitrary para!eter. "a# )or the spherical shell, the charge distribution is only thin in the radial direction. (r , , )=A(rR) *ow integrate over all space and set it e(ual to the total charge Q. Q= + , (r , , )r , sin dr d d Q=- A (rR)r , dr Q=- R , A A= Q - R , r , ,= Q - R , rR 442 &his answer should be obvious now. t is 'ust the total charge divided by the area of a sphere ti!es the delta. "b# )or the cylindrical surface. (r , , z)=A(rb) = + , ( r , , z)r dr d =A + , d (rb)r dr =A,b A= ,b r ,, z= ,b rb /gain, this should be obvious that this is the surface charge density ti!e the delta, where the surface charge density is the linear charge density divided by the circu!ference of the cylinder. "c# )or the flat disc, we !ust use the step function H in the radial direction. r ,, z=A z H Rr Q= + , r ,, z r dr d dz Q=A z dz + , d H Rr r dr Q=A, + R r dr A= Q R , r ,, z = Q R , z H Rr /gain, it should be obvious that this is the deltas ti!es the surface charge density, which is the total charge divided by the area of the disc. 443 "d# )or the flat disc in spherical coordinates try. r , ,=A / , r H Rr Q= + , r , , r , sin dr d d Q=A + , d / ,sin d H Rr r dr A= Q R , (r , , )= Q R , ( / ,) r H(Rr) 444 Jackson 1.4 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: Each of three charged spheres of radius a, one conducting, one having a uniform charge density within its volume, and one having a spherically symmetric charge density that varies radially as r n n ! "#, has a total charge Q. Use %auss&s theorem to o'tain the electric fields 'oth inside and outside each sphere. S(etch the 'ehavior of the fields as a function of radius for the first two spheres, and for the third with n ) "*, n ) +*. SOLU!O": a ,he first sphere is conducting. -s shown in .ro'lem /./, the electric field inside the sphere is 0ero. ,o o'tain the field outside the field, draw an integration sphere concentric to the conducting sphere and with some radius r. -s shown in .ro'lem /.1, the electric field is normal to the conducting sphere, is thus normal to the integration surface, and is thus parallel to the integration surface&s normal. %auss&s law 'ecomes2 S E da= Q 3 Due to the symmetry of the conducting sphere and integration sphere, the electric field is constant over the integration surface and can 'e removed from the integral2 E S da= Q 3 ,he surface integral evaluates to the total area of the integration sphere with radius r. E 1r * = Q 3 -fter rearranging2 E= Q 1 3 r * 4t should 'e noted that according to Coulom'&s law, this is the same field as that created 'y a point charge Q at the origin. ,he sphere acts as if all of its charge where concentrated at its center even though it is actually spread uniformly over its surface. 445 ' ,he second sphere has a uniform charge density. 5utside the sphere, the surface integration used in %auss&s law contains the same amount of charge as for the conducting sphere a'ove and thus has the same solution2 E= Q 1 3 r * 4nside the sphere there is a uniform charge density2 = Q 1 # a # Draw a spherical integration surface concentric with and inside the charged sphere, with a radius r. ,he total charge contained in this integration sphere is2 q= Q 1 # a # 1 # r # q=Q r # a # Due to parallel vectors and symmetry, as shown a'ove, %auss&s law 'ecomes2 E S da= q 3 E 1r * = / 3 Q r # a # E= Qr 1 3 a # c ,he third sphere has a spherically symmetric charge density that varies radially as r n . 5utside the sphere, the surface integration used in %auss&s law contains the same amount of charge as for the conducting sphere a'ove and thus has the same solution2 E= Q 1 3 r * 446 4nside the sphere we must first find the full form of the charge density. ,he charge density has the form2 =Ar n ,o determine the constant A, we integrate the charge density over the whole sphere and set it e6ual to the total charge2 3 * 3 a Ar n r * dr sin d d =Q A= Q 1 3 a r n* dr A= Q 1 [ a n# n# ] ,he charge density now has the form2 = Q 1 [ a n# n# ] r n Draw a spherical integration surface concentric with and inside the charged sphere, with a radius r. ,he total charge contained in this integration sphere is o'tained 'y integrating2 q= 3 * 3 r r & r & * dr & sin d d q=1 3 r r & r & * dr & q=1 3 r Q 1 [ a n# n# ] r & n r & * dr & q=1 Q 1 [ a n# n# ] 3 r r & n* dr & 447 q=1 Q 1 [ a n# n# ] r n# n# q=Q r n# a n# Due to parallel vectors and symmetry, as shown a'ove, %auss&s law 'ecomes2 E S da= q 3 E 1r * = / 3 Q r n# a n# E= Q 1 3 r * r n# a n# 7or n ) "*2 E= Q 1 3 r a 7or n ) *2 E= Qr # 1 3 a 8 448 Jackson 1.5 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: The time-averaged potential of a neutral hydrogen atom is given y 4= q !c " e o r r ( #+ or ) where q is the magnitude of the electronic charge% and -# & a " '% a " eing the Bohr radius. (ind the distriution of charge )oth continuous and discrete* that will give this potential and interpret your result physically. SOLU!O": The +oisson e,uation lin-s charge densities and the electric scalar potential that they create. .e use it here to find the charge density. .e must perform a straight-forward differentiation in spherical coordinates. 4= p c " /0pand this in spherical coordinates1 # r r ( r 4 r ) + # r sin 0 0 ( sin0 4 0 ) + # r sin 0 4 = p c " The potential is spherically symmetric% so that the potential depends only on the radial coordinate - the partial derivatives of the potential are all 2ero% e0cept for the one with respect to the radial component. # r r ( r 4 r ) = p c " /valuate the e,uation e0plicitly1 # r r ( r r q !c " e or r ( #+ # or ) |) = p c " q !c " # r r ( r r e or r | +r r o e or |) = p c " 449 q !c " # r r ( r # r r e or +e or r # r | o r e or ) = p c " q !c " # r r ( or e or +r e o r r # r o r e or ) = p c " q !c " ( o r e or + o 3 e or ) + q !c " # r r ( r e or r # r ) = p c " p= qo 3 4 e o r e o r q ! # r r ( r r # r ) 5ow we must e careful ecause #'r lows up at the origin. Split the last term into two cases1 p= qo 3 4 e o r e o r q ! # r r ( r r # r ) if r 6 " p= qo 3 4 e o r e o r q ! # r r ( r r # r ) if r 7 " 8way from the origin% #'r does not low up and the derivatives can e evaluated normally. The last term ends up e,uating to 2ero% so that our e,uations now ecomes1 p= qo 3 4 e o r e o r q ! # r r ( r r # r ) if r 6 " p= qo 3 4 e o r if r 7 " 8t r "% we have e or =# so that the two cases ecome1 p= qo 3 4 q ! # r r ( r r # r ) if r 6 " p= qo 3 4 e o r if r 7 " 5ow use the relation1 ( # r ) =!6( r) which when evaluated e0plicitly ecomes1 450 # r r ( r r ( # r )) =!6(r) +lug this into the aove set of e,uations1 p= qo 3 4 +q6(r) if r 6 " p= qo 3 4 e or if r 7 " Because the delta function is 2ero everywhere e0cept at the origin% and ecause the first term of the first e,uation is 9ust the specific r & " form of the first term of the second e,uation% the two cases can e comined into one case1 p= qo 3 4 e or +q6( r) for all r This corresponds physically to a positive point charge at the origin with one unit of elementary charge% and a finite cloud of negative charge that decays e0ponentially% ut contains a total charge of one unit of elementary charge. (rom a time-averaged perspective then% hydrogen in the ground state contains a positive point charge at the center and a circular cloud of negative charge. This is of course only useful for conceptuali2ation purposes% ecause at atomic si2es the system ehaves ,uantum mechanically% not classically. 451 Jackson 1.6 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: A simple capacitor is a device formed by two insulated conductors adjacent to each other. f e!ual and opposite char"es are placed on the conductors# there will be a certain difference of potential between them. he ratio of the ma"nitude of the char"e on one conductor to the ma"nitude of the potential difference is called the capacitance %in S units it is measured in farads&. Usin" 'auss(s law# calculate the capacitance of %a& two lar"e# flat# conductin" sheets of area A# separated by a small distance d) %b& two concentric sphere with radii a# b %b * a& %c& two concentric conductin" cylinders of len"th L# lar"e compared to their radii a# b %b * a&. %d& +hat is the inner diameter of the outer conductor in an air,filled coa-ial cable whose center conductor is a cylindrical wire of diameter . mm and whose capacitance is / - .0 ,.. 12m3 / - .0 ,.4 12m3 SOLU!O": n each case# the dimensions are such that we can ne"lect frin"e effects and therefore can ta5e advanta"e of symmetry. %a& 6arallel 6lates f we place a char"e of ,Q on a plate at z 7 0 and a char"e of 8Q on a plate at z 7 d# then a constant volta"e difference V is established between the two plates. he relationship between potential and electric field is9 E= 1or a one,dimensional system %as this one is because the sheets are lar"e enou"h to be appro-imated as infinite&# the ma"nitude reduces to9 E= d dz 1or a uniform electric field %as this must be because of the symmetry& this becomes9 E= z he potential difference between the two plates is then9 452 E= V d f we draw a 'aussian pillbo- around a section of the positive plate# we will contain part of its char"e. Apply 'auss(s law in inte"ral form over the surface of the 'aussian pillbo-9 Enda= q enc 0 f we shrin5 the bo- properly# the part of the inte"ral due to the sides of the pillbo- surface become ne"li"ible# and we are left with the top and bottom of the pillbo-. f we shrin5 the bo- small enou"h# the electric field becomes constant across the surface and can be ta5en out of the inte"ral# so that9 E top n top daE bottom n bottom da= q enc 0 n this particular case# the fields and normals point in the same direction %see dia"ram& and thus reduce down to a simple scalar product. E pos plate = q enc 4 a 0 E pos plate = 4 0 E pos plate = Q 4 A 0 his is the field due to the positive plate. t should be obvious from the "eometry that the field ma"nitude due to the ne"ative plate is the same so that the total field is9 E= Q A 0 Substitute in the relationship between electric field and potential difference V found above and solve for Q2V which is capacitance9 Q V = A 0 d C= 0 A d # # # # # # # # # # # # # # # E top n top n bottom E bottom 453 %b& Concentric Spheres9 6lace a char"e 8Q on the sphere at r 7 a and ,Q on the sphere at r 7 b. f we draw a spherical 'aussian surface around the inner sphere such that a : r : b# apply 'auss(s law in inte"ral form# and use symmetry# it is easy to show that between the spheres the electric field is9 E= . ; 0 Q r 4 r he electric potential is than = . ; 0 Q r 4 r Dot both sides by the radial unit vector and inte"rate with respect to r to "et the potential difference between the spheres9 d d r = . ; 0 Q r 4 b a d = b a . ; 0 Q r 4 d r V = Q ; 0 . a . b Q V = ; 0 . a . b C= ; 0 ab ba %c& Concentric Cylinders9 6lace a char"e 8Q on the cylinder at r 7 a and ,Q on the cylinder at r 7 b. f we draw a cylindrical 'aussian surface around the inner cylinder such that a : r : b# apply 'auss(s law in inte"ral form# and use symmetry# it is easy to show that between the cylinders the electric field is9 E= Q 4r 0 L r <ow find the potential difference9 d = Q 4r 0 L dr 454 V = b a Q 4r 0 L dr V = Q 4 0 L ln b a Q V = 4 0 L lnb/ a C= 4 0 L ln b/ a %d& Solve for b9 b=a e 4 0 L/C b=.mme 4 0.=>.0 .. 12m / /.0 .. 12m b=?mm Also9 b=.mme 4=.>.0 .4 12m / /.0 .4 12m b=.0 = mm or .005m 455 Jackson 1.7 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: Two long, cylindrical conductors of radii a 1 and a are parallel and separated !y a distance d, which is large co"pared with either radius. Show that the capacitance per unit length is given appro#i"ately !y C ( ln d a ) 1 where a is the geo"etrical "ean of the two radii. %ppro#i"ately what gauge wire &state dia"eter in "illi"eters' would !e necessary to "a(e a two)wire trans"ission line with a capacitance of 1. # 1 )11 *+" if the separation of the wires was ., c"- 1., c"- ,. c"- SOLU!O": .lace the center of cylinder 1 at the origin and the center of cylinder at x / d. .lace a total charge per unit length )Q+L on cylinder 1 and 0Q+L on cylinder . 1e first pretend cylinder is not present and solve !y superposition. 1ithout cylinder , the field lines fro" cylinder 1 are radially outwards. This sy""etry allows us to use 2auss3s law in integral for". Draw a cylindrical 2aussian surface centered on cylinder 1 and enclosing it. E 1 n da= q enc E 1 = Q r L r The second cylinder !y itself will create a si"ilar field, only shifted to the right4 E = Q #d i L (#d i ) So that the total field is4 E= Q (x +y ) L ( x i +y )+ Q (( xd ) +y ) L (( xd ) i +y ) The potential is then4 = Q (x +y ) L ( x i +y ) Q (( xd ) +y ) L (( xd ) i +y ) 456 To calculate conductance, we don3t need to (now the potential everywhere, only the potential difference !etween the two conductors. %lso, the conductor surfaces are e5uipotentials, so we only need to (now the potential at one point on the surface to (now it everywhere. Let us calculate the potential difference !etween the points &x / a 1 , y / ' and &x / d ) a , y / '. Dot the a!ove e5uation with i . d d x = Q ( x +y ) L x Q ((xd) +y ) L ( xd ) 6ntegrate !etween our two points4 d = Q ( x +y )L x Q ((xd) +y ) L ( xd )d x V = a 1 da d = a 1 d a [ Q x L Q (xd )L d x ] V = Q L[ a 1 da 1 x d x a 1 da 1 xd d x ] V = Q L[ ln ( da a 1 ) ln ( a a 1 d ) ] V = Q L[ ln ( ( da 1 a )( da a 1 ) ) ] C L= Q V C= [ ln ( ( da 1 a )( da a 1 ) )] 1 *or d 77 a 1 , a C [ ln ( d a 1 a )] 1 C ( ln d a ) 1 where a= a 1 a ad e C 457 *or a two)wire trans"ission line with a capacitance of 1. # 1 )11 *+", this !eco"es4 a(.1)d or in ter"s of the dia"eter4 diameter( .)d 6f the separation of the wires was ., c", 1., c", or ,. c", the gauge should !e4 1 "", 8 "", or 1 "" 458 Jackson 1.8 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: (a) For the three capacitor geoetries in !ro"le #. calculate the total electrostatic energy and e%press it alternatively in ters of the e&ual and opposite charges Q and 'Q placed on the conductors and the potential difference "etween the. (") S(etch the energy density of the electrostatic field in each case as a function of the appropriate linear coordinate. SOLU!O": (a) For a siple capacitor) the total energy is given "y W * +QV. ,n pro"le #.) we found the following results. !arallel plates capacitor- V = Qd A . and E= Q A . Concentric spheres capacitor- V = Q / . ( # a # b ) and E= # / . Q r 0 Concentric cylinders capacitor- V = Q 0 . L ln ( b a ) and E= Q 0 r . L ,t is straight'forward to su"stitute these e&uations into the energy e&uation and find the following- !arallel plates capacitor- W= Q 0 d 0 A . and W= V 0 A . 0d Concentric spheres capacitor- W= Q 0 1 . ( # a # b ) and W= V 0 0 . ab ba Concentric cylinders capacitor- W= Q 0 / . L ln ( b a ) and W= V 0 . L ln ( b/ a) 459 (") 2he energy density is defined as w= . 0 E 0 . 3 siple su"stitution of the fields found in pro"le #. reveals- !arallel plates capacitor- w= Q 0 0 . A 0 Concentric spheres capacitor- w= Q 0 40 0 . r / Concentric cylinders capacitor- w= Q 0 1 0 . L 0 r 0 z w . . d Q 0 506 . A 0 z w . . a Q 0 5407 0 6 . a / b Q 0 5407 0 6 . b / z w . . a Q 0 517 0 6 . L 0 a 0 b Q 0 517 0 6 . L 0 b 0 460 Jackson 1.9 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: Calculate the attractive force between conductors in the parallel plate capacitor (Problem .!a" area A# separated by distance d and the parallel cylinder capacitor (Problem .%" radii a and a & # separated by distance d for (a fi'ed char(es on each conductor (b fi'ed potential difference between conductors. SOLU!O": (a Parallel Plates Because the plates are lar(e# flat# and close# we can ne(lect frin(e effects. )f one plate has total char(e *Q and the other plate has total char(e +Q# then they each have a char(e density p= Q A 6( zd ) and p= Q A 6( z) for , - x - A .& and , - y - A .& /he total force on the positive plate due to the other plate is the sum of the force on all of its parts# which mathematically ta0es the form of an inte(ral" #= p( ) E() d 1ere E is not the total electric field# but the electric field due to the ne(ative plate 2'pand in Cartesian coordinates" #= p( x , y , z ) E( x , y , z) dx dy dz Let us find the force on the positively char(ed plate placed at z 3 d by substitutin( in its char(e density" #= Q A , . A , .A E( x , y , d ) dx dy Because we are ne(lectin( frin(e effects (in effect we are assumin( that the plates are lar(e enou(h that they appear infinite when compared to the rest of the system# the symmetry of the system re4uires that the electric field can only be a function of z. /he remainin( inte(rals thus reduce down to the area of the plate# which cancels the area in the denominator. 461 #=Q E( z=d ) /he electric field can be found by placin( a 5aussian pillbo' around a section of the each plate# as is demonstrated in detail elsewhere. Because the plate is thin# both top and bottom of the 5aussian surface have electric field lines crossin( and contribute" & E n = u c , E n = !Q & Ac , 6e must be careful to reali7e that the normal of the inside of the positive plate points towards +z and the normal of the inside of the ne(ative plate points towards *z. E pos plate = Q & Ac , ( %) E ne( plate = (Q) & Ac , % Because of the symmetry# the field is constant and uniform across that (ap so that E=E pos plate +E ne( plate E= Q Ac , % But for the purposes of calculatin( the force# we do not use the total field# rather we use the field due to to the ne(ative plate because it is what acts on the positive plate. #=Q E ne( plate #= Q & & Ac , % /he ri(ht plate e'periences a force in the +7 direction# towards the other plate and is therefore attracted to it# as we should e'pect because opposites attract. Parallel Cylinders" Because the distance between the cylinders is lar(e compared to their radii# we can appro'imate them as infinitely thin wires for the purpose of calculatin( the fields. Place cylinder at the ori(in with positive char(e per unit len(th * and cylinder & at x 3 d with ne(ative char(e per unit len(th +. )f we want to find the force on cylinder &# we only need to find the field due to cylinder because cylinder & will not e'ert a net force on itself. /he field due to cylinder can be found by placin( a cylindrical 5aussian surface around it and ta0in( 462 advanta(e of symmetry" E nda= q enc c , l E r r d = q enc c , E r &r= ( q enc l ) c , 8eco(ni7e q enc .l as the char(e per unit len(th " E= \ &r c , r #= p( x , y , z ) E( x , y , z) dx dy dz #= 6( y)6( xd )($$ E( x , y , z) dx dy dz # l =\E(d ,,) # l = \ & &d c , r Cylinder & e'periences a force in the +r direction# towards the ori(in# where cylinder resides. (b$ Parallel Plates"
9 fi'ed potential difference V is maintained across the capacitor as opposed to fi'ed char(es. Potential
is related to electric field accordin( to"
E=4
:or a one dimensional field # this becomes"
E=
d 4
d z
:or a uniform field this becomes"
E=
V
d
where d is the distance between the two points where the potential is measured.
463
/he contribution from ;ust one plate is
E
ne( plate
=
V
&d
6e found previously the relationship between the total electric field and the char(e on one plate to be"
E=
Q
Ac
,
so that"
Q=Ac
,
E
Q=
Ac
,
V
d
:inally"
#=QE
ne( plate
#=
Ac
,
V
&
&d
&
%
Parallel Cylinders"
/he electric field due to cylinder was found to be"
E

=
\
&r c
,
r
Let us restrict ourselves to points alon( the x a'is.
E

=
\
& xc
,
$/he field due to cylinder & is E & = \ &( xd )c ,$
/he total field is"
E=
\
&c
,

xd
|
$/he potential difference between the two cylinders can be found by inte(ratin(" 464 V = da & Ed$
V =
\
&c
,

a

da
&

xd
|
d x
V =
\
&c
,
ln

( da
&
)(da

)
a

a
&
|
6ith d << a# we can simplify this
V =
\
c
,
ln

d
.
a

a
&
|
Solve for the line char(e density"
\=
c
,
V
ln

d
.
a

a
&
|
#
l
=\E

(d , ,)
#
l
=
c
,
V
&
&d

ln
(
d
.
a

a
&
)|
&
( $) 465 Jackson 1.10 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: Prove the mean value theorem: For chargefree space the value of the electrostatic potential at any point is e!ual to the average of the potential over the surface of any sphere centered on that point. SOLU!O": "he potential is #nown on the surface$ so this pro%le& can %e for&ulated using a Dirichlet 'reen(s
function e!uation:
#=
)
*
+

#G
D
d
,
#(
)
*

d G
D
d n(

da (
where the Dirichlet 'reen(s function &ust satisfy:
G
D
( # , #( )=
)
##(
+F(# , #( )
where (
-
F # , #( =+ and G
D
. + on the surface
/n this particular case$there is no free charge$ #=+ $so that the e!uation si&plifies to ( #)= ) * d G D d n( ) da( Because we are only &easuring the potential at the center of the sphere which is centered on the origin$
# . + and therefore
)
##(
=
)
x(
$leading to: G D (# , #( )= ) x ( +F(# , #( ) /n order for the green function to disappear on the surface$ G
D
0x( . R1 . +$we &ust have F . )2R. "he 'reen function is now: G D (# , #( )= ) x ( ) R /nsert this into the e!uation: ( #)= ) * d d x( [ ) x( ) R ]) x (=R da ( 466 (#)= ) * [ ) x ( - ]) x(=R da( (#)= ) * [ ) R - ] da( #= da ( *R - "he divisor is the surface area of the sphere so that: #= da ( da( "he right side is %y definition the average value of the function over the surface and thus e!uals the value at its center. 467 Jackson 1.11 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: Use Gauss's theorem to prove that at the surface of a curved charged conductor the normal derivative of the electric field is given !y " E E n = ( " R " + " R # ) where R " and R # are the principal radii of curvature of the surface. SOLUTO!:$e will find the normal derivative of the electric field !y ta%ing the limit of the finite difference&
E
n
=lim
r '
E("+r n)E(")
r
where (r is a small length increment in the normal direction. )his is the definition of a derivative
according to fundamental theorem of calculus.
$e set a s*uare Gaussian pill!o+ ,ust a!ove the surface of a point on the curved charges conductor -not straddling. and use Gauss's theorem to integrate over the pill!o+. Ma%e the upper and lower surfaces curved so that their curvature matches the conductor's surface. Set the location of the center of the lower surface at " and the center of the upper surface at "+r n . Set the sides of the pill!o+ normal to the conductor's surface so they do not contri!ute. )he pill!o+ is a!ove the surface and therefore contains no charge. S Enda=' top En da+ !ottom En da=' Shrin% the pill!o+ down in the usual way so that the electric field !ecomes constant across its surface and comes out of the integral. Be careful and remem!er that the normal to the !ottom Gaussian surface is in the opposite direction as the conductor's normal so we need a negative sign to account for this. E top top daE !ottom !ottom da=' E("+r n)( R " +r)(R # +r) d " d # =E(") R " R # d " d # R " R 2 n (r 468 E("+r n)= E(") R " R # (R " +r)(R # +r) /lug this into the normal derivative definition& E n =lim r ' R " R # ( R " +r)(R # +r) " r E E n =lim r ' R " R # r (R " +r)( R # +r) E " E E n = ( " R " + " R # ) 0or very small curvatures of radius such as the tip of a pointed conductor or the edge of a conducting cu!e the derivative !ecomes very large. )his means that the field is changing very *uic%ly so that the field lines are diverging away from the point or edge. 0or very large curvatures of radius such as approaching a flat surface this e*uation tells us the derivative approaches 1ero. )his means that the electric field is appro+imately constant outside near2flat conducting surfaces. 469 Jackson 1.12 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: Prove Green's reciprocation theorem: If is the potential due to a volue!char"e density # within a volue V and a surface!char"e density$ on the conductin" surface S %oundin" the volue V& while '
is the potential due to another char"e distri%ution #' and $'& then V ' d ( x+ S ' da= V ' d ( x+ S ' da SOLU!O": Start with the )reen's theore: V ( * '' * ) d ( x= S ( d ' d n ' d d n ) da Use the Poisson e+uation: * = , - (#) and * '= , - ' ( #) : V (' ' ) d ( x= S ( d ' d n ' d d n ) da V ' d ( x V ' d ( x= S ( - d ' d n ' - d d n ) da .he noral direction n in )reen's theore points away fro the volue of interest& which in this case would %e into the conductin" surface. /ro a previous pro%le& we 0now that the potential on a conductor and surface char"e density are related accordin" to: [ = - n ] on S and [ ' = - ' n ] on S 1e have to reali2e that the norals in these e+uations are pointin" out of the conductor& whereas the norals in )reen's theore are pointin" into the conductor. 1e reverse the si"n to account for this: [ = - n in ] on S and [ ' = - ' n in ] on S 470 3ow su%stitute these into )reen's theore: V ' d ( x V ' d ( x= S ( '' ) da Shuffle around to find: V ' d ( x+ S ' da= V ' d ( x+ S ' da 471 Jackson 1.14 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: Consider the electrostatic Green functions of Section 1.10 for Dirichlet and Neuann !oundary conditions on the surface S !oundin" the volue V. #pply Green$s theore %1.&'( with inte"ration
varia!les y and =G( , y) and =G( $, y) ) with y * G( ! , y)=+6(y!) . ,ind an e-pression for the difference .G%)$( / G%$) (0 in ters of an inte"ral over the !oundary surface S. %a( ,or Dirichlet !oundary conditions on the potential and the associated !oundary condition on the Green function) show that G D %)$( ust !e syetric in and $. %!( ,or Neuann !oundary conditions) use the !oundary condition %1.+'( for G N %)$( to show that
G
N
%) $( is not syetric in "eneral) !ut that G N %)$( / F%( is syetric in and $) where F ()= 1 S S G N ( , y) da y %c( Show that the addition of F%( to the Green function does not affect the potential %(. See pro!le *.&1 for an e-aple of the Neuann Green function. SOL"#$O%:
2he electrostatic Green function for Dirichlet and Neuann !oundary conditions is3
4()=
1
+c
0

V
p( $)Gd &$+
1
+

S (
G
d 4
d n$4 d G d n$
)
da$Green$s theore %1.&'( is3

V
(
*

*
) d
&
x=

n
|
da
4ith inte"ration varia!les y and =G( , y) and =G( $, y) ) and with y * G( ! , y)=+6( y!) ) this e5uation !ecoes3 + V (G( , y)6( y$ )G( $, y)6( y)) d & y= S G( , y) G($ , y)
n
G( $, y) G( , y) n | da y G( ,$)G( $, )|= 1 + S G( , y) G($ , y)
n
G( $, y) G( , y) n | da y 472 %a( ,or Dirichlet !oundary conditions on the potential) is 6nown on the surface and F can !e chosen to a6e G D 7 0 on the surface. 2he electrostatic Green function !ecoes3 4()= 1 +c 0 V p($ )G
D
d
&
$1 + S 4 d G D d n$
da $2he "reen function G D in this case can !e shown to !e syetric in and$ !y usin" the "eneral for
fro a!ove3
G( , $)G($ , )|=
1
+

S
G( , y)
G( $, y) n G($ , y)
G( , y)
n
|
da
y
,or Dirichlet !oundary conditions) as stated a!ove) G
D
7 0 on the surface. 2he leads to3
G( , $)G($ , )|=
1
+

S
(0)
(0)
n
(0)
(0)
n
|
da
y
G( , $)G($ , )|=0
G( , $)=G($ , )
%!( ,or Neuann !oundary conditions) F can !e chosen so that the siplest !oundary condition %1.+'(
for G
N
%) $( is3 G N n$
( , $)= + S where S is the total surface area of the !oundary. 2he electrostatic Green function !ecoes3 4()= 1 +c 0 V p($ )G
N
d
&
$+ 1 + S ( G N d 4 d n$
)
da$+4 S 2he "reen function G N in this case is not syetric in "eneral) shown !y usin" the "eneral for fro a!ove3 G( ,$)G( $, )|= 1 + S G( , y) G($ , y)
n
G( $, y) G( , y) n | da y ,or Neuann !oundary conditions) as stated a!ove) G N n$
=
+
S
on the surface. 2he leads to3

G
N
( , $)G N ($ , )
|
=
1
S

S
G
N
( , y) da
y

1
S

S
G
N
($, y)da y G N ( ,$ )
1
S

S
G
N
( , y) da
y
=G
N
( $, ) 1 S S G N ($ , y)da
y
473
2his is o!viously not syetric in "eneral) !ut G
N
%) $( / F%( is syetric in and$) where
F ()=
1
S

S
G
N
( , y) da
y
.
%c( Start with the Neuann Green$s function solution3 4()= 1 +c 0 V p($ )G
N
d
&
$+ 1 + S ( G N d 4 d n$
)
da$+4 S Now add to the Green function F%( and find its affect. 4$ ( )=
1
+c
0

V
p( $)(G N +F( ))d &$ +
1
+

S (
(G
N
+F ())
d 4
d n$) da$+ 4
S
4$( )= 4 S + 1 +c 0 V p($ )G
N
d
&
$+ 1 + S ( G N d 4 d n$
)
da$+ 1 +c 0 V p($) F () d
&
$+ 1 + S ( F () d 4 d n$
)
da $4$ ( )=4()+
1
+c
0

V
p( $) F ()d &$+
1
+

S (
F ()
d 4
d n$) da$
4$( )=4()+ 1 + F () 1 c 0 V p($ ) d
&
$+ S ( d 4 d n$
)
da $| Use Gauss$s Law in inte"ral for in ters of a char"e distri!ution %where all of the inte"ration
varia!les are pried to 6eep the notation consistent(3

S
En$da$=
1

V
( $)d &$
4$( )=4()+ 1 + F () S En$ da$+ S ( d 4 d n$
)
da $| Use the definition of the scalar potential) E=$
4 ) and reco"ni8e that

$4n$ =
d 4
dn$4$ ( )=4()+
1
+
F ()

S (
d 4
dn$) da$+

S (
d 4
d n$) da$
|
2he last two ters now cancel so that
4$( )=4() 2he addition of F%( to the Green function does not affect the potential %(. 474 "#$%&'(
)
475
Jackson 2.1 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
A point charge q is brought to a position a distance d away from an infinite plane conductor held at
ero potential. Using the method of images! find"
#a$the surface%charge density induced on the plane! and plot it& #b$ the force between the plane and the charge using Coulomb's law for the force between the charge
and its image&
#c$the total force acting on the plane by integrating u ( / (c ) over the whole plane& #d$ the wor* necessary to remove the charge q from its position to infinity
#e$the potential energy between the charge q and its image +compare the answer to part d and discuss,. #f$ -ind the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the surface.
SOLU!O":
.e place the point charge q at z / d and its image charge %q at z / %d. 0he total potential is then 1ust the
potential due to these two point charges"
4=
q
2c
)

3
.x
(
+y
(
+( zd )
(

3
.x
(
+y
(
+( z+d )
(
|
a$the surface%charge density can be found using the relation we derived in a previous homewor* problem" u=c ) 4(#) n | on S u=c ) 4(#) z | z=) u=c ) q 2c ) ( zd ) ( x ( +y ( +( zd ) ( ) 4/ ( + ( z+d ) ( x ( +y ( +( z+d ) ( ) 4/( || z =) u= 3 ( q d ( x ( +y ( +d ( ) 4/ ( #b$ the force on the particle due to the image charge is"
$= 3 35c ) q ( d ( % 476 0he real charge is attracted down towards the conductor. 0he force gets stronger as it gets closer. #c$ the force on the conductor should be e6ual and opposite to the force on the particle! which we
derived in part b. .e are supposed to calculate it anyways. Let us calculate the force as the interaction
of the surface charge and the particle! as opposed to the interaction of the particle with its image.
d $da =uE 0he incremental force per unit area shown on the left is the electrostatic pressure. But the field is also related to the surface charge on a thin conductor according to" E= u (c ) n so that d$
da
=
u
(
(c
)
n
Electrostatic pressure on the surface of a conductor
0he total force is 1ust the pressure times an incremental patch of area! integrated over all area patches"
d $= u ( (c ) nda$=

u
(
(c
)
da n
$= 3 (c ) q ( d ( ( ) pd p (p ( +d ( ) 4 %$= %
3
(c
)
q
(
d
(
7
3
( p
(
+d
(
)
(
|
)

$= 3 35c ) q ( d ( % d$ 0he wor* needed to remove the charge to infinity"
W=

F (d ' ) d d '
W=
q
(
35c
)

3
d '
(
d d '
477
W=
q
(
35c
)

3
d '
|
d

W=
q
(
35c
)
d
#e$0he potential energy between the charge q and its image" W= q 3 q ( 2c ) # 3 # ( W= q ( 7c ) d 0he potential energy is twice the wor* re6uired to move the particle to infinity. 0he reason they don't match is because the image particle is not a real particle. .e must remember that there are actually no fields within the conductor. 0he potential energy calculation above is counting the energy of the fields in the conductor! which don't actually e8ist. #f$ .e now find the answer to part d in electron volts for an electron originally one angstrom from the
surface.
W=
q
(
35c
)
d
W=
(3e)
(
35(9.9(53)
:
e;<m)(3)
3)
m)
W=4.5e<
478
Jackson 2.2 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Using the method of images, discuss the problem of a point charge q inside a hollow, grounded,
conducting sphere of inner radius a. ind
!a" the potential inside the sphere#
!b" the induced surface$charge density# !c" the magnitude and direction of the force acting on q. !d" %s there any change in the solution if the sphere is &ept at a fi'ed potential V( %f the sphere has a total charge Q on its inner and outer surfaces( SOLUTO!: %n class, we already solved the problem of a point charge outside a conducting sphere. )his problem is identical e'cept that we switch the position of the image charge and real charge. !a" Because of the symmetry, the potential will still be the same* 4(")= q + c , - "# y a " a y # | !b" )he surface charge density will evaluate to the same value, e'cept that the normal is now pointing in the opposite direction, so we must add a negative sign* u= q +a . ( a y ) - a . y . ( -+ a . y . . a y cos 0 ) // . 0ote that for a real charge inside the sphere, y 1 a, so that the numerator ends up negative, so that the overall charge is still the opposite charge of q as it was for the case of the real charge outside the sphere. 479 !c" )he force is the same as before but is directed in the opposite direction*$=
-
+c
,
q
.
a
.
(
a
y
)
/
(
-
a
.
y
.
)
.
#
!d" 0othing changes. %f the charge Q is added to the sphere, the induced charge on the inside surface of
the sphere must still be $q, leaving a charge Q$ q on the outside surface of the sphere.
480
Jackson 2.3 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
A straight-line charge with constant linear charge is located perpendicular to the x-y plane in the first
!
" y
!
#. $he intersecting planes at x % !" y & ! and y % !" x & ! are conducting 'oundary surfaces held at (ero potential. Consider the potential" fields" and surface charges in the first quadrant. a#$he well-)nown potential for an isolated line charge at x
!
" y
!
# is *x" y# % +,-
!
#lnR
.
,r
.
#"
where r
.
% x - x
!
#
.
/ y - y
!
#
.
and R is a constant. Deter0ine the e1pression for the potential of the line
charge in the presence of the intersecting planes. 2erify e1plicitly that the potential and the tangential
electric field vanish at the 'oundary surfaces.
'# Deter0ine the surface charge density on the plane y % !" x & !. 3lot , versus x for
x
!
% ." y
!
% 4#" x
!
% 4" y
!
% 4#" x
!
% 4" y
!
% .#.
c# Show that the total charge per unit length in z# on the plane y % !" x & ! is
Q
x
=
.

\tan
4
(
x
!
y
!
)
5hat is the total charge on the plane x % !6
d# Show that far fro0 the origin 7 88
!
" where %
.x
.
+y
.
and
!
%
.
x
!
.
+y
!
.
9 the leading ter0 in the
potential is
4-4
asy0
=
-\
c
!
( x
!
y
!
)( xy)
p
-
:nterpret.
SOLU!O":
Using the 0ethod of i0ages" let us put an i0age line charge ; at -x
!
" y
!
#" an i0age line charge ;; at
x
!
" -y
!
#" and an i0age line charge ;;; at -x
!
" -y
!
# and conceptually re0ove the conducting surface.
481
$he solution to the potential for the four line charges is< 4( x , y)= 4 -c ! \ln ( R . ( xx ! ) . +( yy ! ) . ) + 4 -c ! \; ln ( R . ( x+x ! ) . +( yy ! ) . ) + 4 -c ! \;; ln ( R . ( xx ! ) . +( y+y ! ) . ) + 4 -c ! \;;; ln ( R . ( x+x ! ) . +( y+y ! ) . ) Apply the 'oundary condition 4( x=!" y)=! !=\ln ( R . x ! . +( yy ! ) . ) +\; ln ( R . x ! . +( yy ! ) . ) +\;; ln ( R . x ! . +( y+y ! ) . ) +\;;; ln ( R . x ! . +( y+y ! ) . ) !=ln ( R . x ! . +( yy ! ) . ) \ ( R . x ! . +( yy ! ) . ) \; ( R . x ! . +( y+y ! ) . ) \;; ( R . x ! . +( y+y ! ) . ) \;;; | 4= ( R . x ! . +( yy ! ) . ) \+\; ( R . x ! . +( y+y ! ) . ) \ ;;+\ ;;;$his can only 'e true for all y if \+\;=! and \;;+\;;;=!
Apply the 'oundary condition 4( x , y=!)=!
!=\ln
(
R
.
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.
)
+\; ln
(
R
.
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.
)
+\;; ln
(
R
.
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.
)
+\;;; ln
(
R
.
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.
)
4=
(
R
.
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.
)
\+\ ;;
(
R
.
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.
)
\ ;+\;;;

$his can only 'e true for all x if \+\;;=! and \;+\;;;=! x y x ! " y ! # x y x ! " y ! # x ! " -y ! # ;; -x ! " y ! # ; -x ! " -y ! # ;;; 482 Using the four equations in 'o1es" we now have four equations and three un)nowns. 5e solve for each< \;=\ " \;;=\ " \;;;=\$he final solution is then<
4( x , y)=
4
-c
!
\ln
(
R
.
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)

4
-c
!
\ln
(
R
.
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)

4
-c
!
\ln
(
R
.
( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)
+
4
-c
!
\ln
(
R
.
( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
ln
(
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln
(
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln (( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)+ln (( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
) |
$o e1plicitly verify that the potential disappears at the 'oundary" we chec) the potential at x % ! 4( x , y)= \ -c ! ln ( ( x ! ) . +( yy ! ) . ) ln ( ( x ! ) . +( yy ! ) . ) ln ( ( x ! ) . +( y+y ! ) . ) +ln ( ( x ! ) . +( y+y ! ) . ) | 4( x=!" y)=! and chec) the potential at y % ! 4( x , y)= \ -c ! ln ( ( xx ! ) . +( y ! ) . ) ln ( ( x+x ! ) . +( y ! ) . ) ln ( ( xx ! ) . +( y ! ) . ) +ln ( ( x+x ! ) . +( y ! ) . ) | 4( x , y=!)=!$he tangential electric field along the x-a1is 'oundary is =ust E
x
<
E
x
=
4
x
at y % !
E
x
=
\
-c
!

x
ln
(
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln
(
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln(( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)+ln (( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
) |
E
x
=
\
-c
!

.( xx
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.

.( x+x
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.

.( xx
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
+
.( x+x
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
|
483
At y % !<
E
x
=
\
-c
!

.( xx
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.

.( x+x
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.

.( xx
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.
+
.( x+x
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.
|
E
x
=!
at y % !<

$he tangential electric field along the y-a1is 'oundary is =ust E y < E y = 4 y at x % ! E y = \ -c ! y ln ( ( xx ! ) . +( yy ! ) . ) ln ( ( x+x ! ) . +( yy ! ) . ) ln (( xx ! ) . +( y+y ! ) . )+ln (( x+x ! ) . +( y+y ! ) . ) | E y = \ -c ! .( yy ! ) ( xx ! ) . +( yy ! ) . .( yy ! ) ( x+x ! ) . +( yy ! ) . .( y+y ! ) ( xx ! ) . +( y+y ! ) . + .( y+y ! ) ( x+x ! ) . +( y+y ! ) . | At x % !< E y = \ -c ! .( yy ! ) x ! . +( yy ! ) . .( yy ! ) x ! . +( yy ! ) . .( y+y ! ) x ! . +( y+y ! ) . + .( y+y ! ) x ! . +( y+y ! ) . | E y =! at x % ! '# Deter0ine the surface charge density on the plane y % !" x & !. 3lot , versus x for x ! % ." y ! % 4#" x ! % 4" y ! % 4#" x ! % 4" y ! % .#.$he surface charge density on an ar'itrary surface creates an electric field discontinuity according to<

(E
.
E
4
)n=
4
c
!
u
|
n=n
!
>or a conductor" the electric field 'elow the surface is (ero" E
4
% !" and the electric field is nor0al to
the conductor;s surface" and thus parallel to the conductor;s nor0al" so that<

E
n
=
4
c
!
u
|
n=n
!
>or this particular pro'le0" the surface is the x-a1is so that the nor0al is in the y direction
u=

c
!
E
y
|
y=!
484
y
a'ove and plug it directly in<
u=

\
-
.( yy
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.

.( yy
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.

.( y+y
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
+
.( y+y
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
|
|
y=!
u=
\
-

-( y
!
)
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.
+
-( y
!
)
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.
|
u=
\ y
!

4
( xx
!
)
.
+y
!
.

4
( x+x
!
)
.
+y
!
.
|
>or x
!
% ." y
!
% 4#
u
\
=
4

4
( x.)
.
+4

4
( x+.)
.
+4
|
>or x
!
% 4" y
!
% 4#
u
\
=
4

4
( x4)
.
+4

4
( x+4)
.
+4
|
485
>or x
!
% 4" y
!
% .#
u
\
=
.

4
( x4)
.
+-

4
( x+4)
.
+-
|
c# Show that the total charge per unit length in z# on the plane y % !" x & ! is
Q
x
=
.

\tan
4
(
x
!
y
!
)
5hat is the total charge on the plane x % !6
$o get the total charge on the plane y % ! we =ust integrate over the charge density on the plane< Q x = u( x) dx Q x = \ y ! 4 ( xx ! ) . +y ! . dx 4 ( x+x ! ) . +y ! . dx | Q x = \ y ! x ! 4 x . +y ! . dx x ! 4 x . +y ! . dx | Q x = \ y ! 4 y ! tan 4 ( x y ! ) | x ! 4 y ! tan 4 ( x y ! ) | x ! | Q x = \ y ! . y ! 4 y ! tan 4 ( x ! y ! ) . y ! + 4 y ! tan 4 ( x ! y ! ) | Q x = . \tan 4 ( x ! y ! ) 486 Due to the total sy00etry 'etween the x and y a1es" the total charge on the x % ! plane is< Q x = . \tan 4 ( y ! x ! ) d# Show that far fro0 the origin 7 88 ! " where % .x . +y . and ! % . x ! . +y ! . 9 the leading ter0 in the potential is 4-4 asy0 = -\ c ! ( x ! y ! )( xy) p - :nterpret.$he potential was found a'ove to 'e<
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
ln
(
( xx
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln
(
( x+x
!
)
.
+( yy
!
)
.
)
ln (( xx
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
)+ln (( x+x
!
)
.
+( y+y
!
)
.
) |
3ut this potential in cylindrical coordinates " " z#<
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
ln
(
p
.
+p
!
.
.pp
!
cos(00
!
)
)
ln
(
p
.
+p
!
.
+.pp
!
cos(0+0
!
)
)
ln( p
.
+p
!
.
. pp
!
cos(0+0
!
))+ln( p
.
+p
!
.
+.pp
!
cos(00
!
)) |
Divide everything 'y
.
so that we can get everything in ter0s of
!
, and then we are a'le to 0a)e a
state0ent a'out 'eing far away fro0 the origin<
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
ln( p
.
)+ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
.
p
!
p
cos(00
!
)
)
ln(p
.
)ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
+.
p
!
p
cos(0+0
!
)
)

ln(p
.
)ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
.
p
!
p
cos(0+0
!
)
)
+ln (p
.
)+ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
+.
p
!
p
cos(00
!
)
)
|
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
.
p
!
p
cos(00
!
)
)
ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
+.
p
!
p
cos(0+0
!
)
)

ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
.
p
!
p
cos(0+0
!
)
)
+ln
(
4+
(
p
!
p
)
.
+.
p
!
p
cos(00
!
)
)
|
?1pand each ter0 in a $aylor series using ln (4+x)=xx . / .+x @ / @+... 487 4( x , y)= \ -c ! ( p ! p ) . . p ! p cos(00 ! ) | (4/ .) ( p ! p ) . . p ! p cos(00 ! ) | . +F 4 ( x @ , x - ,...) ( p ! p ) . +. p ! p cos(0+0 ! ) | +(4/ .) ( p ! p ) . +. p ! p cos(0+0 ! ) | . +F . ( x @ , x - ,...) ( p ! p ) . . p ! p cos(0+0 ! ) | +(4/ .) ( p ! p ) . . p ! p cos(0+0 ! ) | . +F @ ( x @ , x - ,...) + ( p ! p ) . +. p ! p cos(00 ! ) | (4/ .) ( p ! p ) . +. p ! p cos(00 ! ) | . +F - ( x @ , x - ,...) | Most of the first few ter0s cancel out when e1panded< 4( x , y)= \ -c ! - ( p ! p ) . (cos . (0+0 ! )cos . (00 ! )) +F 4 ( x @ , x - , ...)+F . ( x @ , x - ,...)+F @ ( x @ , x - , ...)+F - ( x @ , x - ,...)| >ar away fro0 the origin we have 88 ! and therefore ! ,AA4.$his 0eans that
!
,#
@
and
!
,#
-
etc.
are negligi'le co0pared to
!
,#
.
and they can all 'e dropped.
4( x , y)=
\
-c
!
-
(
p
!
p
)
.
(cos
.
(0+0
!
)cos
.
(00
!
))
4( x , y)=
\
c
!
(
p
!
p
)
.
(- cos0cos0
!
sin0sin0
!
)
4( x , y)=
-\
c
!
( x
!
y
!
)( x y)
p
-

$his is the quadrupole ter0" which 0a)es sense 'ecause there are four line charges. 488 Jackson 2.4 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: A point charge is placed a distance d > R from the center of an eually charged! isolated! conducting sphere or radius R. "a#$nside of what distance from the surface of the sphere is the point charge attracted rather than
repelled %y the charged sphere&
"%# 'hat is the limiting value of the force of attraction when the point charge is located a distance
a "( d ) R# from the surface of the sphere! if a ** R&
"c# 'hat are the results for parts a and % if the charge on the sphere is twice "half# as large as the point
charge! %ut still the same sign&
SOLU!O":
'e can treat the final solution as the sum of a grounded conducting sphere plus the remaining charge
on the sphere which spreads out uniformly. Call the total charge on the point charge q and the total
charge on the sphere Q. $f the sphere were grounded! it would have a total charge induced on it eual to the image charge q+. ,he remaining charge Q ) q+ spreads out uniformly and creates a potential euivalent to a point charge at its center. ,he total potential is then the sum of that due to the original charge! the image charge! and the remaining charge "note that d = # - designates the position of the point charge#. = / 0 - [ q ## - Rq d # R 1 d 1 # - + Q+ R d q # ] "a# ,his potential is valid at all points in space. Because all we care a%out is the potential which leads to a force on the point charge! we can constrain our points of interest to the a2is of the charge3sphere system! #= # - ! and also drop the first term %ecause the particle does not e2ert a total force on itself. "4ote that r=# #. = / 0 - [ Rq r dR 1 + Q r + Rq r d ] ,he force the point charge e2periences is.$=q E(r=d )
489
$=[q ] r =d$= r
[
q

r
]
r=d
$= r q 0 - [ Rq d (r dR 1 ) 1 Q r 1 Rq r 1 d ] r=d$= r
q
1
0
-
d
1
[

(
d
R
)
5
((
d
R
)
1
/
)
1
+Q/ q+
R
d
]
,he point of turning from %eing repelled to attracted occurs when the force euals 6ero.
-=

(
d
R
)
5
((
d
R
)
1
/
)
1
+Q/ q+
R
d
(
d
R
)
5
=(Q/ q+
R
d
)
((
d
R
)
1
/
)
1
(Q/ q)
(
d
R
)
7
1(Q/ q)
(
d
R
)
5
1
(
d
R
)
1
+
(
d
R
)
(Q/ q)+/=-
8or Q ( q.
(
d
R
)
7
1
(
d
R
)
5
1
(
d
R
)
1
+
(
d
R
)
+/=-
,his is solved numerically to give.
d
R
=/.9/:-5
"%# 'hen the point charge is close to the surface! d ( R ; a and a ** R.
$= r q 1 0 - (R+a) 1 [ ( ( R+a) R ) 5 (( ( R+a) R ) 1 / ) 1 +Q/ q+ R (R+a) ] 490$= r
q
1
0
-
[
R(R+a)
0
+a
1
(R a
1
+0 R
5
+0a R
1
+Q/ q(7Ra
1
+0 R
5
+:a R
1
+a
5
))
a
1
( a
1
+0 R
1
+0a R)( R+a)
5
]
4ow apply a ** R.
$= r q 1 0 - [ R 7 a 1 (0 R 7 ) ]$=r
q
1
/9
-
a
1
,his is the force %etween a point charge and its image in an infinite plane. ,his means that very close to
the sphere! it loo<s li<e a plane! and the e2cess charge is far away enough to have no effect.
"c# ,he results for part "%# are general and will still %e the same no matter what the total charge on the
sphere is. ,he turning point of part "a# will however change.
8or Q ( 1q we must solve.
1
(
d
R
)
7
0
(
d
R
)
5
1
(
d
R
)
1
+1
(
d
R
)
+/=-
Using a numerical solver! we find.
d
R
=/.01=79
8or Q ( q>1 we must solve.
// 1
(
d
R
)
7

(
d
R
)
5
1
(
d
R
)
1
+
(
d
R
)
// 1+/=-
Using a numerical solver! we find.
d
R
=/.::11=
491
Jackson 2.5 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
(a) Show that the work done to remove the chare q from a distance r ! a to infinity aainst the force"
#$. (%.&)" of a rounded conductin sphere is W= q % a ' ( (r % a % ) )elate this result to the electrostatic potential" #$. (%.*)" and the enery discussion of Section +.++.
(,) )epeat the calculation of the work done to remove the chare q aainst the force" #$. (%.-)" of an isolated chared conductin sphere. Show that the work done is W= + . ( [ q % a %(r % a % ) q % a %r % qQ r ] )elate the work to the electrostatic potential" #$. (%.')" and the enery discussion of Section +.++.
SOLU!O":
(a) / chare q near a rounded conducin sphere feels an attractive force0
F=
+
.
(
q
%
a
%
(
a
y
)
*
(
+
a
%
y
%
)
%
1he work done to remove it to infinity is0
W=

A
B
#d l
W=

+
.
(
q
%
a
%
(
a
y
)
*
(
+
a
%
y
%
)
%
dy
W=
+
.
(
q
%
a

y
( y
%
a
%
)
%
dy
Use u=y
%
a
%
" d u=% y dy
W=
+
'
(
q
%
a

r
%
a
%

du
u
%
492
W=
q
%
a
'
(
(r
%
a
%
)
1he work is the chare times potential difference" or 2ust the potential if we have a 3ero4potential
reference point at infinity" as we do here. 5e found the potential to ,e0
$= q . ( [ +$%

y
a
$a y % ] 6n this case" the chare helpin to create the potential is the same one we are doin work on" so that$ 7 % 7 r. (1he infinite self4enery of the first term is non4physical and is dropped).
q($)= q % . ( a (r % a % ) Comparin this e8pression to the work e8pression" we see they are identical e8cept for a few features. 9irst" the sin difference accounts for the fact that we have removed the particle aainst a force. /lso" the missin factor of one half is accounted ,y the fact that we have dou,le counted when the chare helpin to the create the potential is the same one that is havin work done on it aainst the potential. (,) 1o remove a chare from near an isolated" chared" conductin sphere" we do the same type of calculation0 F= + . ( q y % [ Q qa * (% y % a % ) y( y % a % ) % ] W= q . ( + y % [ Q qa * (% y % a % ) y( y % a % ) % ] dy W= q . ( [ Q r q a * (% y % a % ) y * ( y % a % ) % dy ] Use u=y % a % " d u=% y dy " y % =u+a % and separate into partial fractions0 W= q . ( [ Q r qa % [ r % a % + ( u+a % ) % du+ r % a % + u % du ]] W= + . ( [ q % a %(r % a % ) q % a %r % qQ r ] 493 1he potential when$ 7 % 7 r is0
q=
+
.
(
[
q
%
a
(r
%
a
%
)

q
%
a
r
%

qQ
r
]
Comparin this e8pression to the work e8pression" we see that they match apart from the overall sin
and a factor of one half. :otice that the factor of one half only e8ists on the pieces related to the
oriinal chare" ,ecause this is the only one that ets dou,le4counted.
494
Jackson 2.7 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
Consider a potential problem in the half-space defined by z ! with Dirichlet boundary conditions on
the plane z " #and at infinity$. #a$ %rite down the appropriate &reen function &#x! x'$#b$ (f the potential on the plane z " is specified to be " V inside a circle of radius a centered on the
ori)in! and " outside that circle! find an inte)ral e*pression for the potential at the point P specified
in terms of cylindrical coordinates (p ,, z) .
#c$Show that! alon) the a*is of the circle # "$! the potential is )iven by
4=V
(
+
z
.a
,
+z
,
)
#d$Show that at lar)e distances # , - z , .. a ,$ the potential can be e*panded in a power series in
#
,
- z
,
$-+ ! and that the leadin) terms are 4= V a , , z (p , +z , ) // , + /a , 0(p , +z , ) + 1(/p , a , +a 0 ) 2(p , +z , ) , +... | 3erify that the results of parts c and d are consistent with each other in their common ran)e of validity. SOL!"O#: #a$ 4he &reen function solution to the potential problem with this boundary for Dirichlet boundary
conditions re5uires that G
D
" on the surface and that G
D
obeys
=G( x , x' )=
+
xx'
+F (x , x' )
everywhere else. 4he problem of findin) the &reen function amounts to findin) the proper function F
above so that the &reen function G disappears on the boundary. 4his problem is e*actly e5uivalent to a
the situation where we have a unit point char)e at x'! which creates the potential +67x-x'7! in the presence
of a flat conductor runnin) alon) the z " plane. 4he solution for the potential of the e5uivalent
problem will then be identical to the &reen function for the ori)inal problem.
4o solve the problem of the char)e q at x' in the presence of a conductin) sheet at the z " plane! we
use the method of ima)es. %e place an ima)e char)e q' at #x'! y'! -z'$so that the potential is 8ust the sum of the two point char)es9 495 4= + 0c q .( xx' ) , +( yy' ) , +( zz' ) , + + 0c q' .( xx' ) , +( yy ' ) , +( z+z ' ) , :pply the boundary condition of a conductor at the z " plane9 4( x , y , z=)= = + 0c q .( xx' ) , +( yy ' ) , +( z ' ) , + + 0c q' .( xx' ) , +( yy ' ) , +( z ' ) , q' =q 4he ima)e char)e is 8ust the perfect mirror ima)e in location and in char)e! which ma;es sense because a perfectly conductin) surface that is perfectly flat is 8ust a perfect mirror. 4he potential is then9 4= q 0c + .( xx ') , +( yy ' ) , +( zz ' ) , + .( xx' ) , +( yy ') , +( z+z ' ) , | <ow )o bac; to the ori)inal problem without the conductor and point! but some potentially comple* char)e distribution in the presence of some potentially comple* boundary condition alon) the z " plane. 4he solution to this ori)inal problem is! accordin) to the &reen function method9 4(x)= + 0c p(x ') G D d / x' + 0 ( 4 d G D d n' ) da ' where we now ;now the &reen function used by this e5uation. (t is 8ust the solution to the e5uivalent problem with unit char)e #q " 0$9
G
D
( x , x' )=
+
.( xx' )
,
+( yy ' )
,
+( zz ' )
,

+
.( xx' )
,
+( yy' )
,
+( z+z ')
,
#b$(f the potential on the plane z " is specified to be " V inside a circle of radius a centered on the ori)in! and " outside that circle! find an inte)ral e*pression for the potential at the point P specified in terms of cylindrical coordinates (p ,, z) . :lthou)h not stated! it can be assumed that there is no char)e present anywhere in this problem. when that is the case! then the &reen function solution for Dirichlet boundary conditions becomes9 4(x)= + 0 S ( 4 d G D d n' ) da' 4he enclosin) surface S in this case is a bo* with one side on the plane z " and the other sides at infinity. 4he potential dies off to =ero at infinity! so the sides at infinity ma;e no contribution to the inte)ral. 4he potential is also =ero everywhere on the plane z " outside the circle! so that those locations ma;e no contribution to the inte)ral. 4he only piece of the inte)ral left is inside the circle! so that9 496 4(x)= + 0 , ( 4 d G D d n' ) p' d ' d p' 4(x)= V 0 , d G D d n' p' d ' d p' 4he normal n' is defined as pointin) out of the volume enclosed so that for this problem n' " -z' 4(x)= V 0 , d G D d z ' p' d ' d p' >lu))in) in the &reen function we found above9 4(x)= V 0 , d d z ' + .( xx ' ) , +( yy' ) , +( zz' ) , + .( xx ') , +( yy ' ) , +( z+z ' ) , | p' d ' d p' >uttin) everythin) in cylindrical coordinates9 4(x)= V 0 , d d z ' + .p , +p' , ,pp' cos(' )+( zz ' ) , + .p , +p' , ,pp' cos (' )+( z+z ' ) , | p' d ' d p' 4(x)= V 0 , (+/ ,) ,( zz ')(+) (p , +p' , , pp' cos(' )+( zz ' ) , ) //, (+/ ,) ,( z+z ' ) ( p , +p' , ,pp' cos(')+( z+z ' ) , ) // , | p' d ' d p' %e now evaluate everythin) at z' " because our inte)ration surface #the primed system$ is completely
contained in this plane.
4(x)=
z V
,

,
p' d ' d p'
( p
,
+p'
,
,pp' cos(')+z
,
)
//,
4he problem is a=imuthally symmetric! so that we are free to ma;e a chan)e of variables9
' -'+
4(x)=
z V
,

,
p' d ' d p'
( p
,
+p'
,
,pp' cos(')+z
,
)
// ,
497
#c$Show that! alon) the a*is of the circle # "$! the potential is )iven by
4=V
(
+
z
.a
,
+z
,
)
4a;e the )eneral solution found above and plu) in # " $to )et the on-a*is solution9 4(x)= z V , , p' d ' d p' (p' , +z , ) //, 4(x)= z V , , d ' a p' d p' (p' , +z , ) // , 4(x)=z V a p' d p' (p' , +z , ) // , Ma;e a chan)e of variables u=p' , +z , ! d u=,p' d p' 4(x)= z V , z , a , +z , du u //, 4(x)=z V + .u | z , a , +z , 4(x)=V + z .a , +z , | #d$ Show that at lar)e distances #
,
- z
,
.. a
,
$the potential can be e*panded in a power series in # , - z ,$
-+
! and that the leadin) terms are
4=
V a
,
,
z
(p
,
+z
,
)
// ,

+
/a
,
0(p
,
+z
,
)
+
1(/p
,
a
,
+a
0
)
2(p
,
+z
,
)
,
+...
|
3erify that the results of parts c and d are consistent with each other in their common ran)e of validity.
4he )eneral solution found above was9
4(x)=
z V
,

,
p' d ' d p'
( p
,
+p'
,
,pp' cos(')+z
,
)
// ,
Divide top and bottom by (p
,
+z
,
)
// ,
498
4(x)=
z V
,
+
(p
,
+z
,
)
//,

,
d '

a
d p' p'
(
++
p'
,
,pp' cos(' )
p
,
+z
,
)
// ,
?*pand the last factor usin) the Binomial series9 (++x)
n
=++n x+
n(n+)
,
x
,
+...
4(x)=
z V
,
+
(p
,
+z
,
)
//,

,
d '

a
d p' p' +
/
,
(p
,
+z
,
)
+
(p'
,
,pp' cos(' ))

+
+1
2
(p
,
+z
,
)
,
(p'
,
,pp' cos(' ))
,
+... |
%e can now inte)rate term by term
4(x)=
z V
,
+
(p
,
+z
,
)
//,

,
d '

a
d p' p'
|

/
,
(p
,
+z
,
)
+

,
d '

a
d p' p' p'
,
,pp' cos(' )|
+
+1
2
(p
,
+z
,
)
,

,
d '

a
d p' p' (p'
,
,pp' cos(' ))
,
|+... |
4(x)=
z V
,
+
(p
,
+z
,
)
//,
a
,

/
,
(p
,
+z
,
)
+

,
d '

a
d p' p' p'
,
|,

,
d '

a
d p' p' pp' cos(' )|
|
+
+1
2
(p
,
+z
,
)
,

,
d '

a
d p' p' p'
0
+0 p
,
p'
,
cos
,
(')0pp'
/
cos(')|+... |
4(x)=
z V
,
+
(p
,
+z
,
)
//,
a
,

/
,
(p
,
+z
,
)
+

,
a
0
|
+
+1
2
(p
,
+z
,
)
,

,
a
@
@
+0p
,
a
0
0

|
+... |
4(x)=
V a
,
,
z
( p
,
+z
,
)
//,

+
/a
,
0(p
,
+z
,
)
+
1(/p
,
a
,
+a
0
)
2( p
,
+z
,
)
,
+...
|
:lon) the a*is this becomes
4(x)=
V a
,
,
+
z
,

+
/a
,
0 z
,
+
1a
0
2 z
0
+...
|
4(x)=V

a
,
, z
,

/a
0
2 z
0
+
1a
@
+@ z
@
+...
|
4(x)=V

+
(
+
a
,
, z
,
+
/a
0
2 z
0

1a
@
+@ z
@
+...
)|

<ow we reco)ni=e the e*pansion9
(++x)
+/ ,
=+
+
,
x+
/
2
x
,

1
+@
x
/
499
4(x)=V

+
(
++
a
,
z
,
)
+/,
|
4(x)=V

+
z
.a
,
+z
,
|
4his matches part c.
500
Jackson 2.9 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
An insulated, spherical, conducting shell of radius a is in a uniform electric field E

. !f the sphere is cut

into two hemispheres "y a plane perpendicular to the field, find the force re#uired to prevent the
hemispheres from separating
$a% if the shell is uncharged&$"% if the total charge on the shell is Q.
SOLU!O":
$a% Align the z a'is with the direction of the electric field. (ind the potential outside a sphere at the origin in a uniform field "y placing charges at z ) *R and z ) +R with charges +Q and *Q and letting R and Q approach infinity with Q,R - constant. .he response of the sphere can "e represented "y placing two image charges *Qa,R and +Qa,R in the sphere at *a - ,R and +a - ,R. .he potential outside an uncharged conductor in a uniform field is therefore the potential of these four charges/ = Q 0 [ 1 r - +R - +-r Rcos 1 r - +R - - r Rcos + a/ R r - + a 0 R - -a - r R cos a/ R r - + a 0 R - +-a - r R cos ] !n the limit R 22 r, this "ecomes/ =E r cos+E a 3 r - cos where E was recogni4ed as -Q,056 R - .he first term is 7ust the potential due to the applied field in spherical coordinates. .he second term is the potential of a perfect dipole. .he sphere there has an induced charge distri"ution that acts as a perfect dipole. .he electric field is therefore/ E= E=E [ cos rsin + a 3 r 3 (-cos r+sin )] .he electric field at the surface of the sphere is/ E( r=a)=E 3cos r 501 .he charge distri"ution on the sphere8s surface is found using/ = rE(r=a) =3 cos !f the sphere is now cut into hemispheres at the polar angle 9 ) 5,-, the "ottom hemisphere will feel a total force/ #= ($)E($)d a :e have to "e careful and not include the force of the "ottom hemisphere on itself. :e do this "y using the relation E= - which gives us 7ust the electric field at the surface of a conductor due to non*self contri"utions. Using this, we have/ #= 1 - - r d a #= k a - - / - (3 cos) - cossind d #= k ; - a - /- cos 3 sin d #= ; 0 - a - k .he force needed to <eep the "ottom hemisphere in place would therefore have to "e e#ual and in the opposite direction/ #= ; 0 - a - k Due the symmetry, the force needed to <eep the other hemisphere in place would "e e#ual and opposite.$"% !f the sphere has a total charge of Q, it will 7ust spread out uniformly on the sphere as an additional
charge to the induced one.
=3

cos+
Q
0a
-
.he total force on the "ottom hemisphere will therefore "e/
#=
1
-

-
r d a
502
#=

k
a
-
-

/ -

(3

cos+
Q
0a
-
)(3

cos+
Q
0 a
-
)cossin d d
#=
a
-
-

/ -

(;

-
E

-
cos
-
+=

cos
Q
0 a
-
+
Q
-
1=
-
a
0
)cos sin d d
.he first term represents the force on the induced charges due the e'ternal field and the field from the
induced charges. .he second term represents the force on the charge Q due the e'ternal field. .he third
term represent the force Q on itself. >ote that the force of the e'ternal field on the point*charge*li<e
charge Q will 7ust tend to shift it and not separate it. Because we 7ust want forces that will separate the
two hemispheres, we must drop the middle term/
#=
a
-
-

/ -

(;

-
E

-
cos
-
+
Q
-
1=
-
a
0
)cossin d d
#=

k
[
;
0
a
-

-
+
Q
-
3-

a
-
]
.he force needed to <eep the "ottom hemisphere touching the upper sphere is therefore/
#=

k
[
;
0
a
-

-
+
Q
-
3-

a
-
]
503
Jackson 2.11 Homework Problem Solution
Dr. Christopher S. Baird
University of Massachusetts Lowell
PROBLEM:
A line charge with linear charge density is placed parallel to, and a distance R away from, the ais of
a conducting cylinder of radius b held at fied voltage such that the potential vanishes at infinity. !ind
"a# the magnitude and position of the image charge"s#$"%# the potential at any point "epressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the ais of the cylinder and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x ais#, including the asymptotic form far from the cylinder$
"c# the induced surface&charge density, and plot it as a function of angle for R'b ( ), * in units of ')+b
"d# the force per unit length on the line charge
SOLU!O":
,his pro%lem is similar to a point charge net to sphere. Let us place an image line charge - inside the
cylinder at R- as shown in the diagram %elow.
,he electric field surrounding one wire without anything else present is found %y drawing a cylindrical
.aussian surface around the line charge and using .auss-s Law. Due to the symmetry, the electric field
is parallel to the surface normal and constant over the .aussian surface. /t can thus %e ta0en out of the
integral.
x
y

-
b R
R-
V
504

S
Enda=
1
c
2
q
enc
E

S
da=
1
c
2
f L
E )r L=
1
c
2
f L
E=
f
)c
2
r
r
Use the definition of the potential and solve for the potential
E=4
d 4
d r
=
f
)c
2
r
4=
f
)c
2
ln(r)+A
Set the ar%itrary integration constant to
A=
f
)c
2
ln( B)
and use the laws of logarithms3
4=
f
*c
2
ln
(
B
)
r
)
)
",he potential due to one line charge#
,he total potential is now found %y including %oth the line charge and the image line charge3
4=
f
*c
2
ln
(
B
)
r
1
)
)
+
f-
*c
2
ln
(
B
)
r
)
)
)
,he varia%les r
1
and r
)
are the distance from the respective wires to the o%servation point. 4e must
now epress them in terms of the cylindrical coordinates (p ,, z) 3
4=
f
*c
2
ln
(
B
)
p
)
+R
)
)p Rcos
)
+
f-
*c
2
ln
(
B
)
p
)
+R-
)
) pR- cos
)
Apply the %oundary condition 4(p-)=2
2=
f
*c
2
ln
(
B
)
p
)
+R
)
)p Rcos
)
+
f-
*c
2
ln
(
B
)
p
)
+R-
)
) pR- cos
)
(p
)
+R
)
)pRcos)
f
(p
)
+R-
)
)p R- cos )
f-
=( B
)
)
f+f -
505
As approaches infinity, only the highest power of will survive and all other terms will approach
5ero %y comparison3
(p
)
+22)
f
(p
)
+22)
f -
=( B
)
)
f+f -
(p
)
)
f+f -
=( B
)
)
f+f -
(f+f- )(ln (p
)
)ln ( B
)
))=2
(f+f- )=2
f-=f
,his ma0es sense %ecause for the potential to %e 5ero at infinity, the total charge should %e 5ero. ,he
image charge cancels out the line charge at large distances. ,he solution now %ecomes3
4=
f
*c
2

ln
(
B
)
p
)
+R
)
) pRcos
)
ln
(
B
)
p
)
+R-
)
) pR- cos
)|
4=
f
*c
2
ln
(
p
)
+R-
)
)p R- cos
p
)
+R
)
)p Rcos
)
Apply the %oundary condition 4(p=b)=V
V =
f
*c
2
ln
(
b
)
+R-
)
)b R- cos
b
)
+R
)
)b Rcos
)
e
(
*c
2
V
f
)
=
b
)
+R-
)
)b R- cos
b
)
+R
)
)b Rcos
(b
)
+R
)
)b Rcos) e
(
*c
2
V
f
)
=b
)
+R-
)
)b R- cos
(b
)
+R
)
)e
(
*c
2
V
f
)
b
)
R-
)
=

)b R-+)b Re
(
*c
2
V
f
)
|
cos
,his must %e true for all so that the %oth sides of the e6uation are independent and thus e6ual to a
constant. ,he constant must %e 5ero to accommodate the case of =/ ) .
(b
)
+R
)
)e
(
*c
2
V
f
)
b
)
R-
)
=2
and 2=)b R-+)b Re
(
*c
2
V
f
)
(b
)
+R
)
)e
(
*c
2
V
f
)
b
)
R-
)
=2
and
R-
R
=e
(
*c
2
V
f
)
506
4e can use these two e6uations to eliminate the dependence on V and ma0e the solution more general.
(b
)
+R
)
)
R-
R
b
)
R-
)
=2
R-
)
(b
)
+R
)
)
R-
R
+b
)
=2
R-=
b
)
R
"%# the potential at any point "epressed in polar coordinates with the origin at the ais of the cylinder
and the direction from the origin to the line charge as the x ais#, including the asymptotic form far
from the cylinder$7lugging in the image charge magnitude and location as found a%ove, the solution to the potential now %ecomes3 4= f *c 2 ln ( p ) +b * / R ) )p(b ) / R)cos p ) +R ) )p Rcos ) ,o get the asymptotic form, we put the term in parentheses in a form that is easy to epand3 4= f *c 2 ln ( 11+ p ) +b * / R ) )p(b ) / R) cos p ) +R ) )p Rcos ) 4= f *c 2 ln ( 1+ ( R * b * )(1/ R ) )+( R ) b ) ))(p/ R)cos (p ) +R ) )pRcos) ) Use the epansion ln (1+x)=xx ) / )+x 8 / 8+... 4= f *c 2 ( ( R * b * )(1/ R ) )+( R ) b ) ) )(p/ R) cos (p ) +R ) )p Rcos) ) 1/ ) ( ( R * b * )(1/ R ) )+( R ) b ) ) )(p/ R) cos (p ) +R ) )p Rcos ) ) ) +... | 9!ar away: from the cylinder is defined as ;; b and 9far away: from the line charge is defined as ;; R so that we can drop all the higher order terms in the epansion 4= f *c 2 ( R * b * )(1/ R ) )+( R ) b ) ) )( p/ R)cos (p ) +R ) ) pRcos) 507 Similarly, we can drop all %ut the highest term in the numerator and denominator. 4= f )c 2 ( R ) b ) ) pR cos "c# the induced surface&charge density, and plot it as a function of angle for R'b ( ), * in units of ')+b As shown previously, the surface&charge density on a conductor is found using .auss-s Law to %e3 E n = 1 c 2 u | n=n 2 u= c 2 4 n | n=n 2 ,he normal to the conductor-s surface is <ust in the cylindrical radial direction3 u= c 2 4 p | p=b u= c 2 p f *c 2 ln ( p ) +b * / R ) )p(b ) / R) cos p ) +R ) )p Rcos ) | p=b u= c 2 f *c 2 p ln( p ) +b * / R ) )p(b ) / R)cos)ln ( p ) +R ) )p Rcos) | | p=b u= c 2 f *c 2 ) p)(b ) / R) cos p ) +b * / R ) ) p(b ) / R) cos )p) Rcos p ) +R ) )p Rcos | | p=b u= f )b 1( R/ b) ) 1+( R/ b) ) )( R/ b)cos | !or R'b ( ) u= f )b 8 =*cos | /n units of "')+b# this %ecomes3 u= 8 =*cos 508 !or R'b ( * u= f )b 1= 1>?cos | /n units of "')+b# this %ecomes3 u= 1= 1>?cos 509 "d# the force per unit length on the line charge ,he electric field felt at some point at a distance d from the image line charge due to the image line charge is3 E= f- )c 2 d p ,he image charge is 0nown to %e f-=f and the distance d is <ust the distance %etween the image charge and the line charge, d =RR- =R b ) R , so that E= f )c 2 ( Rb ) / R) p ,he force is the charge %eing acted upon times the electric field3 #=q E #=(f L) E where L is some length along the line charge #=(f L) ( f )c 2 ( Rb ) / R) p ) !orce per unit length3 # L = f ) R )c 2 ( R ) b ) ) p ",he force is attractive# 510 Jackson 2.12 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: Starting with the series solution (2.7! for the two"di#ensional potential pro$le# with the potential
specified on the surface of a cylinder of radius b% evaluate the coefficients for#ally% su$stitute the# into the series% and su# it to o$tain the potential inside the cylinder in the for# of &oisson's integral(
( , )=

)
2
( b, ' )
b
2

2
b
2
+
2
2bcos(')
d '
*hat #odification is necessary if the potential is desired in the region of space $ounded$y the cylinder
and infinity+
SOLU!O":
*hen the potentials and charges are unifor# in the z"direction% as is the case in this pro$le# with the cylinder% the syste# reduces down to a two"di#ensional pro$le#. ,he circular cross"section of the
cylinder dictates that polar coordinates are the #ost fitting two"di#ensional coordinate syste# to use.
,here are not charges involved% so we need to solve the Laplace e-uation. ,he series solution to the
Laplace e-uation in polar coordinates was found in .ac/son to $e (0-. 2.7!( ( , )=a ) +b ) ln + n= a n n sin(n n )+ n= b n n sin(n+ n ) Because this is a solution to a two"di#ensional second order differential e-uation (the Laplace e-uation!% there #ust$e four undeter#ined coefficients (or sets of coefficients for series solutions!. *e
therefore need four $oundary conditions1 or a$oundary condition at the #a2i#u# and #ini#u# of
each di#ension. 3or this pro$le# the$oundary conditions are(
(! angular #ini#u#( (=))=(=2)
(2! angular #a2i#u#( (=2)=( =))
Boundary conditions (! and (2! are the sa#e $oundary conditions ensuring periodicity$ecause the full
angular sweep is included in the region of interest. 6pplying $oundary conditions (! and (2! leads to the coefficient #ultiplied against phi$eco#ing an integer. ,hese $oundary conditions have already$een applied in the solution given in .ac/son 0-. 2.7. *ith two $oundary conditions left% we should only have two undeter#ined sets of coefficients. But 0-. 2.7 see#s to contain four independent undeter#ined coefficients. 7n reality% they are not all independent and will$e ta/en care of as we
proceed.
*hen we apply $oundary condition (4! we see right away that( 511 b n =) and b ) =) so that the solution$eco#es(
( , )=a
)
+

n=

a
n

n
sin(n
n
)
Because a
n
and
n
are ar$itrary at this point% we can redefine the# as we want to get this general solution into a #ore useful for#. ,a/e a b -n out of the a n constants. ( , )=a ) + n= a n ( b ) n sin(n n ) Use sin =(e i e i )/(2i) ( , )=a ) + n= a n 2i ( b ) n [ e i n e i n e i n e i n ] 8edefine constants( ( , )=a ) + n= b ) n [c n e i n +d n e i n ] Both ter#s (as well as a ) ! can$e co#$ined$y letting the su##ation inde2 e2tend to negative nu#$ers( ( , )= n= c n ( b ) n e i n 6pply$oundary condition (5! to find(
V ( )=

n=

c
n
e
i n
Multiple $oth sides$y a co#ple2 e2ponential and integrate(

)
2
V ()e
i n'
d =

n=

c
n

)
2
e
i (nn')
d
9ow recogni:e the integral on the right as the state#ent of orthogonality for co#ple2 e2ponentials so
that(

)
2
V ()e
i n'
d =

n=

c
n
2
nn'
512
6pply the delta and solve for c
n
(
c
n
=

)
2
V ()e
i n
d
;ur final solution $eco#es( ( , )= ) 2 d ' V (' ) n= b ) n e i n(') ( , )= ) 2 d ' V (' ) [ + n=) b ) n e i n(') + n=) b ) n e i n(') ] ( , )= ) 2 d ' V (' ) [ + n=) [( b ) e i (') ] n + n=) [( b ) e i (') ] n ] Use ) r n = r ( , )= ) 2 d ' V (' ) [ + b ) e i (') + b ) e i (') ] ( , )= ) 2 d ' V (' ) [ (( ( b ) e i (') )+( ( b ) e i (') )( ( b ) e i (') )( ( b ) e i (' ) )) ( ( b ) e i(') )( ( b ) e i (') ) ] ( , )= ) 2 ( b, ' ) b 2 2 b 2 + 2 2bcos(') d ' 7f instead% we want to find the potential in the region e2ternal to the cylinder% we swap b and to find( ( , )= ) 2 ( b, ' ) 2 b 2 b 2 + 2 2bcos(') d ' 513 Jackson 2.13 Homework Problem Solution Dr. Christopher S. Baird University of Massachusetts Lowell PROBLEM: (a) Two halves of a long hollow conducting cylinder of inner radius b are separated y s!all lengthwise gaps on each side" and are #ept at different potentials V$
and V
%
. Show that the potential
inside is given y
4(p, )=
V
$+V % % + V$
V
%

tan
$( %bp b % p % cos ) where is !easured fro! a plane perpendicular to the plane through the gap. () Calculate the surface&charge density on each half of the cylinder. SOL!"O#: Due to the sy!!etry of the prole!" it is apparent that the solution will e est e'pressed in cylindrical coordinates. (dditionally" ecause the solution will e independent of the z coordinate" the prole! reduces to the two di!ensions of polar coordinates (p ,) . Because the prole! contains no charge" the prole! si!plifies down to solving the Laplace e)uation % 4=* in polar coordinates and applying the oundary condition 4(p=b , )=V () where+ V ()= V$
if / %>>,/ %
V
%
if / %,/ %

The Laplace e)uation in polar coordinates is+

$p p ( p 4 p ) +$
p
%

%
4

%
=*
Separation of variales leads to the general solution+
4(p, )=(a
*
+b
*
ln p)( A
*
+B
*
)+

v ,v*
(a
v
p
v
+b
v
p
v
)( A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)
-e desire a valid solution at the origin" which is only possile if b
*
. * and b

. * so that the solution
eco!es+
4(p, )=A
*
+B
*
+

v ,v*
p
v
( A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)
-e desire a single" valid solution over the full angular range" so the single&value re)uire!ent !eans
4(p, )=4(p ,+%) . -hen we apply this" we get+
514
A
*
+B
*
+

v ,v*
p
v
( A
v
e
i v
+B
v
e
i v
)=A
*
+B
*
(+%)+

v , v*
p
v
( A
v
e
i v( +%)
+B
v
e
i v(+%)
)
*
. * and . n where n . $" %" ... -e now have+ 4(p, )=A * + n=$

p
n
(
A
n
e
i n
+B
n
e
i n
)
/ow apply the last oundary condition 4(p=b , )=V ()
V ()=A
*
+

n=$b n ( A n e i n +B n e i n ) (Eq.$)
Let us first find the A
*
ter!. 0ntegrate oth sides over the full angular sweep.

*
%
V () d =

*
%
A
*
d +

n=$b n ( A n * % e i n d +B n * % e i n d ) / % / % V$
d +

/ %
,/%
V
%
d =A
*
%
V
$+V % =A * % A * = V$
+V
%
%
Let us now find the A
n
coefficients. Multiply (Eq. $) on oth sides y e i n1 and integrate over all angles + * % V () e i n1 d =A * * % e i n1 d + n=$

b
n
(
A
n

*
%
e
i( nn1 )
d +B
n

*
%
e
i ( n+n1)
d
)
Use the orthonor!ality condition

*
%
e
i ( kk 1) x
dx=%6
k , k 1

*
%
d V () e
i n
=%b
n
A
n
A
n
=
$%b n * % d V ()e i n 2lug in the e'plicit for! of the potential on the oundary which rea#s the integral into two parts+ 515 A n =$
%b
n

V
$/ % / % d e i n +V % / % ,/ % d e i n | A n =$
%b
n

V
\$

e
i n
i n