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2007 Oxford Business & Economics Conference

ISBN : 978-0-9742114-7-3

The Impact of Outcome-Based Teaching and Learning: A Case Study In Hong Kong (China
!ary "ang# To !ing Ho# and $yan !an City %ni&ersity of Hong Kong# Hong Kong

I'T$O(%CTIO' Ou come-!"sed educ" ion is " #ed"$o$ic"% #rocess &'ic' "s 'e n"me su$$es s( focuses on 'e "c'ie)emen of cer "in s#ecified resu% s* Ou come-!"sed e"c'in$ "nd %e"rnin$ +OB,-. 'erefore is concerned &i ' curricu%um desi$n "nd ensurin$ '" 'e con en s( de%i)er/( "c i)i ies "nd "ssessmen s "re "%% "%i$ned o 'e%# f"ci%i " e s uden s o " "in 'ose in ended %e"rnin$ ou comes +0i%%is & 1iss"ne( 19923 Br"nd ( 19933 ,o&ers( 1994.* E"r%ier rese"rc'es on 'e effec s of ou come-!"sed educ" ion on s uden s4 %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es indic" ed " consensus in re#or in$ '" s /%es "##e"r o !e disci#%ine-de#enden * ,'e resu% s s'o&ed '" science su!5ec s ended o #roduce s uden s &'o demons r" ed surf"ce %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es( &'i%e "r s su!5ec s &ere more %i6e%/ o #roduce s uden s &'o dis#%"/ed " dee# %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' +Smi ' "nd 7i%%er( 20023 S6o$s!er$ "nd C%um#( 2003.* Business s uden s &ere $ener"%%/ seen o f")our 'e surf"ce %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'* 8 serious omission of 'ese s udies is '" 'e/ #resen ed on%/ " dic'o omous )ie& of ei 'er surf"ce or dee# %e"rnin$ in s uden s* 9'"n$ +2000. inc%uded 'e 'ird s /%e( 'e "c'ie)in$ "##ro"c' in '" cross-cu% ur"% #ro5ec ( !u unfor un" e%/( !usiness s uden s &ere no sur)e/ed in '" s ud/*

,'is curren s ud/ focuses on !usiness s uden s( "nd &e #ro#ose '" con r"r/ o exis in$ findin$s !/ o 'er sc'o%"rs( !usiness s uden s &i%% !e more %i6e%/ o dis#%"/ "n "c'ie)in$ "##ro"c' o %e"rnin$* 0e "r$ue '" 'is is !ec"use of 'e n" ure of 'e disci#%ine per se, reinforced !/ 'e necessi / o r"in s uden s o !e e:ui##ed &i ' 'e re:uisi e 6no&%ed$e( s6i%%s "nd com#e encies for &or6in$ in 'e commerci"% "nd !usiness &or%d* ;ur 'ermore( "ccordin$ o our #i%o s ud/ conduc ed in e"r%/ 200< usin$ S ud/ =rocess >ues ionn"ire +S=>. desi$ned !/ Bi$$s +1987.( i '"s !een found '" ne"r%/ '"%f of s uden s &'ose m"5or in Business m"/ #refer o use "n "c'ie)in$ "##ro"c'( in 'eir focus on " "inin$ $ood m"r6s* ,'is $rou# m"/ '")e " 'i$' "c"demic se%f conce# ( "s &e%% "s #erform !e er in form"% ex"min" ions +Bi$$s( 1987.* 0e ex#%ore &'e 'er "nd 'o& ou come-!"sed e"c'in$ im#"c s on 'e %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es of 'e firs co'or of under$r"du" e BB8 s uden s " Ci / ?ni)ersi / of @on$ 1on$( o under$o ou come-!"sed e"c'in$( ne&%/ in roduced in 200<-2007 "c"demic /e"r "s #"r of " ?ni)ersi /-&ide #o%ic/ o "do# Aune 24-2<( 2007 Oxford ?ni)ersi /( ?1 1

2007 Oxford Business & Economics Conference

ISBN : 978-0-9742114-7-3

OB,-* ,'e ;"cu% / of Business " Ci / ?ni)ersi / of @on$ 1on$ is 'e %"r$es Business Sc'oo% in @on$ 1on$( &'ic' #ro)ides "##roxim" e%/ 22B of "%% !usiness educ" ion in 'is S#eci"% 8dminis r" i)e Ce$ion of C'in"( "nd i '"s !een s ron$%/ #r"ised in !o ' of 'e &o ?ni)ersi /-Dr"n s Commi ee4s +@on$ 1on$ Do)ernmen . ,e"c'in$ "nd -e"rnin$ >u"%i / =rocess Ce)ie& +,->=C. e"c'in$ "ssessmen s o d" e* ,'e %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es of 'ese !usiness s uden s &i%% !e me"sured usin$ Ao'n Bi$$4s S=> o de ermine &'e 'er 'ese BB8 s uden s end o f")our surf"ce %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es( dee# %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es( or "c'ie)in$ %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es upon initial entry in o ?ni)ersi /* ;ur 'ermore( c'"n$es in %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es &i%% !e r"c6ed o)er ime !/ conduc in$ " %on$i udin"% s ud/( &'ic' &i%% s "r sur)e/in$ 'em from 'e firs &ee6 of 'eir firs semes er( fo%%o&ed !/ 'e firs &ee6 of 'eir second semes er( "nd so for '* ,'e #rocess of c'"n$e in %e"rnin$ s r" e$ies "nd %e"rnin$ s /%es &i%% "%so !e !e er unders ood !/ 'e co%%ec ion of d" " 'rou$' 'e conduc of focus $rou# in er)ie&s &i ' s"m#%es of 'is s uden #o#u%" ion* LIT)$AT%$) $)*I)+ Ou come-!"sed educ" ion '"s !een &ide%/ "cce# ed "s " mode% o res ruc ure educ" ion in m"n/ coun ries( suc' "s 8us r"%i" +1i%%en( 2000.( Ne& 9e"%"nd +Sund"r( 1999.( 'e ?1 +Coss & E")ies( 1999.( 'e ?S8 +7"nno( 19923 @"rden( Cros!/ & E")is( 1999".( Sou ' 8fric" +Bo '"( 2002.( "nd @on$ 1on$ S#eci"% 8dminis r" i)e Ce$ion +C'in". +E&e%%( 200<.( e c* Im#%emen " ion of ou come-!"sed e"c'in$ co)ers "%% %e)e%s of educ" ion &i ' differen o!5ec i)es( from 6inder$"r en o uni)ersi / educ" ion( from form"% educ" ion o con inuin$ educ" ion "nd communi / educ" ion +8!r"ms( 19923 Eonen( 19993 7"r$"re ( 1999.* ;ur 'ermore( ou come-!"sed curricu%um #%"nnin$ '"s !een incre"sin$%/ used in m"n/ su!5ec s( inc%udin$ medic"% sciences +@"rden( Cros!/ & E")is( 19993 E")en#or ( E")e/ & 1er( 2002.( inform" ion ec'no%o$/ +-orenFen( 1999.( en$ineerin$ +Eodrid$e & 1"ssino#ou%os( 2003.( !usiness +0ee( 2003.( e c* 8% 'ou$' OB,- is no com#%e e%/ "cce# ed +EoE( 199<.( 'e ro%e of OB,- in im#ro)in$ :u"%i / of educ" ion is mos %/ em#'"siFed !/ e"c'ers "nd rese"rc'ers +Bo '"( 20023 1i%%en( 2000.* OB,- '"s !een incre"sin$%/ used in desi$nin$ "nd #%"nnin$ curricu%um or #ro$r"ms* Bec"use educ" ion"% ou comes s'ou%d !e c%e"r%/ s#ecified under 'e s/s em of OB,-( s udies on OB,- "re "%&"/s focusin$ on de)e%o#in$ e"c'in$ or %e"rnin$ s r" e$ies( "ccordin$ o #rinci#%es of OB,- +7"r$"re ( 19993 Bro&n 1988.* ,'e "ssessmen on ou come-!"sed educ" ion '"s !een s udied in m"n/ rese"rc'es( focusin$ on "ssessin$ s uden s4 %e"rnin$ #rocess m"in%/ 'rou$' 'e &"/ of cri erion-referenced "ssessmen ( &'ic' com#"res 'e s uden s4 &or6 &i ' 'e desi$n" ed "ssessmen cri eri"( "nd 'e ou come of " #"r icu%"r s uden is no "ffec ed !/ ou comes of o 'er s uden s +Eodrid$e & 1"ssino#ou%os( 2003.* Some "d)"n "$es of OB,'")e !een #oin ed ou in m"n/ rese"rc'es !ec"use 'e ou comes "re "$reed "s 'e curricu%um $uide &'" is "u$' "nd &'" is "ssessed +@"rden( Cros!/ & E")is( 1999!.* ,'rou$' 'is $uide( e"c'in$ con ri!u es $re" %/ o 'e %e"rnin$ ou comes( &'ic' m"/ m"6e e"c'in$ direc %/ re%" ed o 'e fie%d of #r"c ice( "s &e%% "s con ri!u e o o 'er ou comes suc' "s s uden s4 communic" ion s6i%%s "nd e"m co%%"!or" ion +8!r"ms( Aune 24-2<( 2007 Oxford ?ni)ersi /( ?1 2

2007 Oxford Business & Economics Conference

ISBN : 978-0-9742114-7-3

19923Bro&n 1988.* ,'ere "re "%so some concerns re$"rdin$ OB,- !ec"use e"c'in$ is de%i)ered in "n ended circ%e( cons r"ined !/ 'e desired ou comes( &'ic' m"/ omi Gsome r"di ion"% "c"demic con en s4 +1i%%en( 2000.* ,'e resu% s of OB,- "re "ssessed( focusin$ on "c"demic score of s uden s +Bo '"( 20023 E")idson( 2002.* Bu i s im#"c on %e"rnin$ "c i)i ies( es#eci"%%/ on s uden s4 %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' '"s no recei)ed muc' " en ion* Bu s uden s4 %e"rnin$ "c i)i ies "re "%&"/s desi$ned !/ e"c'ers under 'e #rinci#%es of OB,-* S uden s "re recei)ers of OBE( &'o m"/ "%so "d5us 'eir %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es in 'e reformed educ" ion s/s em* ,'us( unders "ndin$ 'e im#"c of OB,- on %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es is o !e er unders "nd 'e )"%ue of OB,-* OB,- concen r" es more on 'e %e"rnin$ #rocess( !ec"use 'e #rocess !e$ins &i ' some sor of in)en or/ or ex"min" ion( &'ic' m"/ im#ro)e !o ' 'e s uden 4s "nd 'e e"c'er4s #erce# ion of &'" s'ou%d !e %e"rn !/ s uden s* Bi$$s "nd 7oore +1993. define %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' "s G" consis en &"/ of $oin$ "!ou " #"r icu%"r "s6( or %e"rnin$Hs ud/4* Bi$$s +1987. $ener"%iFes %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es in o 'ree c" e$ories( inc%udin$ surf"ce "##ro"c'( dee# "##ro"c' "nd "c'ie)in$ "##ro"c'* Surf"ce "##ro"c' is "ccom#"nied &i ' ro e %e"rnin$ &i 'ou cri ic"% "nd ref%ec i)e 'in6in$ o &'" is "u$' * Eee# "##ro"c' is "ssoci" ed &i ' " "inmen of " #erson"% me"nin$ "nd recons ruc ion of 6no&%ed$e* 8c'ie)in$ "##ro"c'es "re #r"c iced +ei 'er dee# or surf"ce. o " "in 'e 'i$'es $r"des in " #"r icu%"r circums "nce* ,'rou$' Bi$$s4s s ud/ #rocess :ues ionn"ire( 'ree scores "re c"%cu%" ed o re#resen %e"rnin$ mo i)e( %e"rnin$ s r" e$/ "nd %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' of 'e res#onden s* -e"rnin$ "##ro"c' is 'e sum of %e"rnin$ mo i)e "nd %e"rnin$ s r" e$/* 8ccordin$ o Bi$$s "nd 7oore +1993.( %e"rnin$ mo i)e demonstrates the reason why a student approaches a task. Learning strategy defines as a way of tackling a type of problem, or learning material, that may be applied to a whole class of learning, not just to the particular problem in question (Biggs !oore, "##$%. ,'ere"f er( some s udies fo%%o& Bi$$s4s c" e$ories o s ud/ 'e %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es of s uden s "nd 'e re%" ions'i# of %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es &i ' o 'er "s#ec s of 'e %e"rnin$ #rocess +Si)"n( -eun$( 0oon & 1em!er( 2000.( suc' "s "c"demic ou comes +E")id( Der"rd( ;i%i# & =ie ( 2002. or "ssessmen me 'ods +Smi ' & 7i%%er( 2002.* One s ud/ found '" s uden s4 %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es "re disci#%ine re%" ed( for ex"m#%e( s uden s s ud/in$ science &ere more %i6e%/ o "do# surf"ce %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' '"n s uden s s ud/in$ "r 3 &'ere"s s uden s s ud/in$ #s/c'o%o$/ &ere more %i6e%/ o "do# dee# %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es( &'i%e !usiness s uden s m"in%/ demons r" ed surf"ce %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' +ibid..* Simi%"r findin$s &ere found !/ S6o$s!er$ "nd C%um# +2003.( &'ic' conc%uded '" #s/c'o%o$/ s uden s $ener"%%/ used dee# "##ro"c'( com#"red o !io%o$/ s uden s4 surf"ce "##ro"c'* Besides disci#%ines( cu% ur"% !"c6$round &"s "%so considered o '")e "n im#"c * Bi$$s +1993. found '" s uden s from @on$ 1on$( 7"%"/si"( Ne#"%( e c* &ere more %i6e%/ o '")e dee#er "##ro"c'es o %e"rnin$ '"n 8us r"%i"n s uden s* ,'is findin$ 'o&e)er &"s c'"%%en$ed !/ 0" 6ins +199<.( on 'e !"sis of 'e Aune 24-2<( 2007 Oxford ?ni)ersi /( ?1 3

2007 Oxford Business & Economics Conference

ISBN : 978-0-9742114-7-3

inf%uence of soci"% desir"!i%i / on 'e %e"rnin$ #rocess* 9'"n$4s +2000. cross-cu% ur"% s ud/ on 'e re%" ions'i# !e &een "c"demic "c'ie)emen "nd %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es found '" dee# "##ro"c'es "%&"/s '"d #osi i)e effec s on s uden s4 "c"demic "c'ie)emen s in N"n5in$ "nd ?S8* In @on$ 1on$( 'is seemed no o !e 'e c"se( !ec"use for c'emis r/ "nd $eo$r"#'/ s uden s( surf"ce "##ro"c'es #osi i)e%/ "ffec ed "c"demic "c'ie)emen +ibid.( &'ere"s o 'er m"5ors suc' "s m" 'em" ics( C'inese %"n$u"$e "nd 'is or/( 'is or/ "nd En$%is'( dee# "nd "c'ie)in$ "##ro"c'es &ere #osi i)e%/ re%" ed o "c'ie)emen +ibid.* ?n%i6e e"r%ier rese"rc'es( 'is #resen s ud/ focuses on 'e %in6 !e &een OB,- "nd s uden s4 %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'( s#ecific"%%/ for under$r"du" e !usiness s uden s* !)THO(OLO,In 'is s ud/ Bi$$4s +1987. S ud/ =rocess >ues ionn"ire +S=>. &i%% !e used o de ermine "nd ex"mine 'e %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es of 'e firs /e"r co'or of BB8 under$r"du" es " 'e ;"cu% / of Business +;B.( Ci / ?ni)ersi / of @on$ 1on$ +Ci /?.* ,'e S=> '"s !een &ide%/ used in some rese"rc'es( "nd i s re%i"!i%i / "nd )"%idi / #ro)en +E")id( Der"rd( ;i%i#( =ie ( 20023 E")idson( 2002.* ,'is rese"rc' '"s !een desi$ned "s " %on$i udin"% s ud/* 8!ou 800 /e"r1-s uden s in 'e ;"cu% / of Business &ere in)i ed o fi%% in 'e :ues ionn"ire o es 'eir %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es &ice( in 'e firs &ee6 of Semes er 8 "nd Semes er B res#ec i)e%/* In o "%( 789 "nd 708 :ues ionn"ires &ere co%%ec ed in Semes er 8 "nd Semes er B res#ec i)e%/* ,'e res#onse r" es in 'e Semes er 8 "nd Semes er B &ere 88*2B "nd 83*2B( res#ec i)e%/* Ou of 'ese res#onden s( 212 #"r ici#"n s '"d fi%%ed in 'e :ues ionn"ire in !o ' semes ers 8 "nd B + 'e o 'er res#onden s &ere from o 'er f"cu% ies &i 'in Ci /?.( 'erefore 'e s"m#%e num!er of 'is s ud/ &i%% !e "6en "s 212* Dender !re"6do&ns &ere: 49B fem"%es "nd +21B. m"%es* ,'e #"r ici#"n s &ere dr"&n from "%% de#"r men s of f"cu% / of !usiness( "nd &ere dis ri!u ed 'us: 8ccoun "nc/ +17B.( Economics "nd ;in"nce +1<B.( Inform" ion S/s ems +19B.( 7"n"$emen +1<B.( 7"n"$emen Sciences +12B.( 7"r6e in$ +14B.( O 'ers +3B.* S uden s4 %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es "s me"sured !/ 'e se%f-re#or s " emen re:uired !/ 'e S=> '"s 'e "d)"n "$e of dis in$uis'in$ !e &een %e"rnin$ mo i)es "nd %e"rnin$ s r" e$ies* ,'e res#onden s r" ed 'emse%)es on e"c' of 'e 42 s " emen s on " 2-#oin sc"%e( from 2 +G,'is i em is "%&"/s or "%mos "%&"/s rue of me4. o 1 +G,'is i em is ne)er or on%/ r"re%/ rue of me4.* ,'e %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' score is 'e sum of 'e su!scores + '" is( 'e s r" e$/ score "nd 'e mo i)e score.* "$)LI!I'A$- .I'(I',S ,"!%e 1 #ro)ides 'e !"c6$round inform" ion "!ou 'e c'"r"c eris ics of our res#onden s in erms of 'eir %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es* I c"n !e o!ser)ed '" I=re-OB,-J +" 'e s "r of Semes er 8. 'e m"5ori / +20*8B. of 'e res#onden s "do# ed "n 8c'ie)in$ 8##ro"c' +88.( &'i%e 23*2B "nd 17*2B of 'em "do# ed Eee# Aune 24-2<( 2007 Oxford ?ni)ersi /( ?1 4

2007 Oxford Business & Economics Conference

ISBN : 978-0-9742114-7-3

+E8. "nd Surf"ce +S8. 8##ro"c'es res#ec i)e%/* ,'e sur)e/ " 'is #oin c%e"r%/ c"# ures "nd ref%ec s 'e mos &ide%/ "do# ed "nd u% im" e%/ Gsuccessfu%4 %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' used !/ 'ese ne& uni)ersi / en r"n s( fres' from 'e f%us' "nd rium#' of 'eir 8d)"nced-%e)e% ex"min" ions* @o&e)er( I=os -OB,-J s'o&s "no 'er s or/( '" is( " 'e s "r of Semes er B 'ere &"s " no ice"!%e dro# in 'e num!er of s uden s "do# in$ 'e 88 +from 20*8B o 42*0B.* Ke ( 'e num!er of res#onden s "do# in$ 'e S8 ne"r%/ dou!%ed from 17*2B o 30*2B* ,'ere seemed o !e no si$nific"n c'"n$e in 'e rem"inin$ c" e$or/ +E8.* ,'is resu% is some&'" sur#risin$ "s i &"s s " ed " 'e !e$innin$ of 'is #"#er '" 'e #resen rese"rc'ers '/#o 'esiFed '" 'e 88 &ou%d !e mos #re)"%en "mon$s !usiness s uden s for 'e re"sons #ro)ided e"r%ier* 0'i%e ,"!%e 1 s'o&s 'e o)er"%% #ic ure( i $i)es no de "i%s "!ou n" ure of s&i c'in$ of %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es or 'e r" ion"%e !e'ind 'e c'"n$es* 0e urn no& o more c%ose%/ ex"mine 'e s or/ !e'ind 'ese ne mo)emen s* ,"!%e 2 s'o&s '" "mon$ 'e 212 s uden s &'o #"r ici#" ed in !o ' of 'e &o sur)e/s( on%/ 171 +33B. s uden s did no c'"n$e 'eir %e"rnin$ s r" e$/ in 'eir firs semes er* 8s c"n !e seen from ,"!%e 2 88 %e"rners &ere found o !e 'e ones mos %i6e%/ o re "in 'eir ori$in"% "##ro"c'( com#"red o E8 "nd S8 %e"rners( "f er one semes er* S#ecific"%%/( 42B of "%% 'e ori$in"% 88 %e"rners rem"ined "s suc'3 &'i%e on%/ 32B of 'e ori$in"% S8 %e"rners "nd 24B of 'e ori$in"% E8 %e"rners "%so rem"in unc'"n$ed* In "ddi ion ,"!%e 2 demons r" es 'o& differen c" e$ories of s uden %e"rners c'"n$ed 'eir o)er"%% %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es "f er one semes er of OB,- inf%uence* Ees#i e 'ere !ein$ no dr"m" ic c'"n$es in 'e ne #ercen "$es of s uden s "do# in$ 'e 'ree /#es of %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es "s s'o&n in ,"!%e 1( &o- 'irds of "%% 'e res#onden s did in f"c c'"n$e 'eir %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' from 'eir ini i"% en r/ /#e o "no 'er c" e$or/ "f er 'e firs semes er* 8mon$ 'ose 88 %e"rners &'o did r"nsfer 'eir %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'( 21B of 'em s&i c'ed o S8( &'ere"s 34B of 'em c'"n$ed o 'e E8* 8mon$ 'ose S8 %e"rners c'"n$in$ 'eir %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es( 'e m"5ori / +<8B. r"nsferred o 88( !u on%/ 2<B of 'em s&i c'ed o !ecome E8 %e"rners* ;or 'e E8 %e"rners &'o c'"n$ed 'eir %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es( 22B !ec"me 88 %e"rners( &'i%e 39B of 'em s&i c'ed o S8 %e"rnin$* In $ener"%( i "##e"red '" mos s uden s "s 'e/ se %ed "nd "d"# ed o 'e ne& en)ironmen did c'"n$e 'eir %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es "f er ex#eriencin$ one semes er of OB,-* Bo ' S8 "nd E8 %e"rners dis#%"/ed " endenc/ o s&i c' o !ecomin$ 88 %e"rners* ="r"doxic"%%/( &'i%e 'ere &"s " s ron$ #reference for S8 %e"rners o r"nsfer o 88( 'ere &"s "%so " re)erse rend for 'e m"5ori / of 88 %e"rners c'"n$in$ 'eir %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' o S8* ;ocus $rou# in er)ie&s '")e !een sc'edu%ed o 'e%# !e er unders "nd 'e Aune 24-2<( 2007 Oxford ?ni)ersi /( ?1 2

2007 Oxford Business & Economics Conference

ISBN : 978-0-9742114-7-3

d/n"mics of 'ese f%o&s of %e"rners !e &een 'ese &o %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es* 8s ex#%"ined e"r%ier( %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es "re 'e sum of -e"rnin$ 7o i)es +-7. "nd 'e -e"rnin$ S r" e$ies +-S.* ,'erefore o $"in " c%e"rer )ie& of 'e effec s of OB,- on s uden s4 %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es i is necess"r/ o focus in on 'e -7 "nd -S of 'e res#onden s* ,"!%es 3 "nd 4 s'o& 'o& differen /#es of res#onden c'"n$e 'eir %e"rnin$ mo i)es "nd s r" e$ies "f er one semes er of OB,-* ,"!%e 3 s'o&s 'e effec s of OB,- on res#onden s4 %e"rnin$ mo i)e( &'ic' coincide &i ' '" on 'e o)er"%% "##ro"c' o %e"rnin$* ,'" is( &o- 'irds +<<B. of "%% 'e res#onden s did r"nsfer 'eir -7 from one o "no 'er "f er " semes er4s ex#osure o OB,-* -e"rners demons r" in$ "n 8c'ie)in$ 7o i)e +87. &ere mos %i6e%/ o re "in 'eir ori$in"% mo i)e1( com#"red o Eee# 7o i)e +E7. "nd Surf"ce 7o i)e +S7. %e"rners( "f er 'e firs semes er* S#ecific"%%/( 42B of "%% 'e 87 %e"rners 6e# "do# in$ 'eir ori$in"% "##ro"c'3 com#"red o on%/ 31B of 'e S7 %e"rners2 "nd 22B of 'e E7 %e"rners3 &'o rem"ined unc'"n$ed* 8ddi ion"%%/ ,"!%e 3 s'o&s 'o& 'e differen c" e$ories of res#onden s c'"n$ed 'eir %e"rnin$ mo i)es* 8mon$ 'ose 87 %e"rners c'"n$in$ 'eir %e"rnin$ mo i)es 49B of 'em s&i c'ed o S7( &'i%e 27B of 'em s&i c'ed o E7* ;or 'e S7 %e"rners r"nsferrin$ 'eir %e"rnin$ mo i)es( 'e m"5ori / +<<B. c'"n$ed o 87( !u on%/ 12B "% ered o !ecome E7 %e"rners* 8nd for 'e E7 %e"rners c'"n$in$ 'eir %e"rnin$ mo i)es( 22B r"nsferred o 87( &'i%e 29B of 'em s&i c'ed o S7* In $ener"%( mos s uden s &ou%d c'"n$e 'eir %e"rnin$ mo i)es "f er ex#eriencin$ one semes er of OB,-* Bo ' %e"rners &i ' surf"ce mo i)e "nd dee# mo i)e '")e " endenc/ o s&i c' o "c'ie)in$ mo i)e* Ees#i e 'ere is %o&er endenc/ for %e"rners &i ' "c'ie)in$ mo i)e o c'"n$e( 'e m"5ori / of "c'ie)in$-mo i)" ed %e"rners c'"n$in$ 'e %e"rnin$ mo i)e #refer o s&i c' o surf"ce mo i)e* 8$"in( 'e findin$ !/ i se%f is :ui e #"r"doxic"%* ,"!%e 4 s'o&s 'e effec s of OB,- on res#onden s4 %e"rnin$ s r" e$/ +-S.* 0'i%e ,"!%es 2 "nd 3 dis#%"/ed simi%"r c'"n$es( 'is is no 'e c"se for %e"rnin$ s r" e$/* 8!ou 70B of "%% 'e res#onden s "c u"%%/ did s&i c' 'eir -S "f er 'e firs semes er* -e"rners "do# in$ dee# s r" e$/ +ES. &ere mos %i6e%/ o re "in 'eir ori$in"% s r" e$/4( com#"red o 8c'ie)in$ S r" e$ic +8S. %e"rners "nd Surf"ce S r" e$ic +SS. %e"rners( "f er one semes er* S#ecific"%%/( 37B of 'e %e"rners "do# in$ ES con inued o "do# 'e ori$in"% "##ro"c'3 8c'ie)in$ mo i)e is defined !/ Bi$$s "s: 8c'ie)emen +Ex rinsic.: com#e e for 'i$'es $r"des "nd &innin$ #riFes* 2 Surf"ce mo i)e is defined "s: Ex rinsic: ")oid f"i%ure !u don4 &or6 oo '"rd* 3 Eee# mo i)e is defined "s: In rinsic: s" isf/ curiosi / "!ou o#ic* 4 Eee# s r" e$/ is defined !/ Bi$$s "s: 7"ximiFe unders "ndin$3 re"d &ide%/( discuss( ref%ec *
1

Aune 24-2<( 2007 Oxford ?ni)ersi /( ?1

<

2007 Oxford Business & Economics Conference

ISBN : 978-0-9742114-7-3

&'i%e on%/ 28B of 'e %e"rners "do# in$ SS2 "nd 30B of 'e %e"rners "do# in$ 8S< rem"ined unc'"n$ed* ;ur 'ermore ,"!%e 4 demons r" es 'o& 'e differen /#es of res#onden s "% ered 'eir %e"rnin$ s r" e$ies* ;or 'e 8S %e"rners c'"n$in$ 'eir %e"rnin$ s r" e$/( 47B of 'em s&i c'ed o ES( &'i%e 32B of 'em r"nsferred o SS* 8mon$ 'ose SS %e"rners &'o s&i c'ed 'eir %e"rnin$ s r" e$ies( '"%f of 'em +20B. c'"n$ed o ES( "nd 33B c'"n$ed o 8S* ;in"%%/( of 'e ES %e"rners c'"n$in$ 'eir %e"rnin$ s r" e$ies( 43B s&i c'ed o 8S( &'i%e 34B s&i c'ed o SS* In $ener"%( 'e m"5ori / of s uden s m"de " c'"n$e in 'eir %e"rnin$ s r" e$ies "f er ex#eriencin$ one semes er of OB,-* Bo ' 8S "nd SS %e"rners s'o&ed " endenc/ o s&i c' o ES* 8% 'ou$' ES %e"rners '"d " %o&er endenc/ o c'"n$e( 'e m"5ori / of ES %e"rners &'o did "% er 'eir s r" e$/ #referred o c'"n$e o "n 8S* (ISC%SSIO' A'( CO'CL%SIO' I is found '" !o ' %e"rnin$ s r" e$/ "nd %e"rnin$ mo i)e '")e !een r"nsferred under 'e ex#erience of OB,-* ,'e "n"%/sis on r"nsference of s uden s4 %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' s'ou%d %in6 'e r"nsference #rocessHre"son of !o ' %e"rnin$ mo i)e "nd %e"rnin$ s r" e$/* S uden s4 %e"rnin$ mo i)e is s&i c'ed &i ' 'e c'"r"c eris ics men ioned "!o)e m"/ !e due o fo%%o&in$ '/#o 'esiFed commen s: o ?nder OB,-( 'e "ssessmen is !"sed on 'e com#"rison !e &een 'e s uden s4 &or6 &i ' 'e desi$n" ed "ssessmen cri eri"* 8%so( 'e ou comes "re "$reed "s 'e curricu%um $uide "!ou &'" is "u$' "nd &'" is "ccessed "nd "re "%&"/s em#'"siFed 'rou$'ou 'e e"c'in$ "nd %e"rnin$ #rocess* 0i ' 'e "ssessmen cri eri" !ein$ c%e"r%/ s#ecified + 'e inform" ion cos s "re %o&ered. of "nd 'e ou comes !ein$ fre:uen %/ em#'"siFed + 'e/ "re "m#%/ reminded "!ou 'e !enefi s.3 i m"/ induce some s uden s &i ' surf"ce "nd dee# mo i)e o !ecome more &i%%in$ o com#e e for 'i$'er $r"des* o On 'e o 'er '"nd( "no 'er fe" ure of OB,-( 'e ou come of " #"r icu%"r s uden is no "ffec ed !/ ou comes of o 'er s uden s( m"/ !e 'e re"son !e'ind 'e sur#risin$ s&i c' o surf"ce mo i)e !/ %e"rners ini i"%%/ &i ' "c'ie)in$ mo i)e* ,'ere "re &o #ossi!%e scen"rios: 0'en s uden s "re $r"ded on cur)e( s uden s &'o in end o $e " I#"ssJ '")e o( in some sense( com#e e &i ' o 'ers( e)en 'ou$' 'e I#riFeJ is no 'e 'i$'es $r"de* +,'e in ensi / of 'e com#e i ion cer "in%/ de#ends on 'o& 'e cur)e
2 <

Surf"ce s r" e$/ is defined "s: ;ocus on se%ec ed de "i%s "nd re#roduce "ccur" e%/* 8c'ie)in$ s r" e$/ is defined "s: O# imiFe or$"niF" ion of ime "nd effor +Gs ud/ s6i%%s4.* 7

Aune 24-2<( 2007 Oxford ?ni)ersi /( ?1

2007 Oxford Business & Economics Conference

ISBN : 978-0-9742114-7-3

%oo6s %i6e.* ?nder OB,-( &i ' 'e "ssessmen cri eri" !ein$ c%e"r%/ s#ecified + 'e inform" ion cos s "re %o&ered. "nd 'e com#e i ion "mon$ s uden s "re e%imin" ed( some %e"rners ori$in"%%/ &i ' "c'ie)in$ mo i)e +"imin$ " !ein$ "mon$ 'e o# 20B of 'e c%"ss. m"/ !e em# ed o 5us s" isf/ 'e minimum re:uiremen s +i*e* surf"ce mo i)e.* In some c"ses( i is #ossi!%e '" 'e #re-s#ecified re:uiremen s for 'e 'i$'es $r"de "re difficu% o mee * 8f er 'e com#"rison of cos "nd !enefi ( 'ose c"%cu%" i)e %e"rners &i ' "c'ie)in$ mo i)e m"/ !e discour"$ed "nd 'erefore se for " %o&er "r$e "nd !ecomes %e"rners &i ' surf"ce mo i)e* ,'e "!o)emen ioned '/#o 'esiFed commen s "re due for 5us ific" ion( s"/ !/ focus $rou# in er)ie&s* ,'e c'"n$e in %e"rnin$ s r" e$/ per se is no so inform" i)e un%ess i is re%" ed !"c6 o 'e %e"rnin$ mo i)e +see ,"!%e 3.( suc' 'e sum of 'ese &o "s#ec s m"6e u# 'e %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' of s uden s* In com#"rin$ 'e %e"rnin$ mo i)es "nd s r" e$ies +i*e* ,"!%es 3 "nd 4.( "n in eres in$ o!ser)" ion c"n !e found* In semes er 8( &'i%e 2<*0 B of res#onden s '")e " S7( on%/ 12*2B of res#onden s "do# ed " SS* ,'e o##osi e 'o%ds rue for 'e E8( &i ' on%/ 12*4B of res#onden s '")in$ " E7( /e 34*4B of res#onden s "do# ed " ES +see ,"!%e 1.* I m"/ !e re"son"!%e o conc%ude '" ( !"sed on our s"m#%e( s uden s4 mo i)es "nd s r" e$ies "re no com#" i!%e &'en 'eir #erson"% s ud/ con r"c s "re formed* In semes er B( &'i%e !o ' 'e %e"rnin$ mo i)es "nd s r" e$ies of m"n/ s uden s m"/ '")e c'"n$ed "f er ex#eriencin$ one semes er of OB,-( 'ere "##e"red o !e more con)er$ence in 'e num!ers* 0'i%e 27*9B of res#onden s '")e " S7( 23*2B of 'em "do# ed " SS* @o&e)er( &i ' on%/ 13*9B of res#onden s '")in$ " E7( in #r"c ice 34*8B of res#onden s "do# ed " ES +see ,"!%e 1.* 8 #ossi!%e ex#%"n" ion for 'e num!er of ES %e"rners exceedin$ 'e num!er of E7 %e"rner is '" m"n/ 8S %e"rner did s&i c' o ES +i*e* 'e o!ser)" ion no ed from ,"!%e 4.* ?nder OB,-( 'e "ssessmen is !"sed on 'e com#"rison !e &een 'e s uden s4 &or6 &i ' 'e #re-s#ecified "ssessmen cri eri"* 7ore of en '"n no ( 'e cri eri" o "c'ie)e 'e 'i$'es $r"de re:uire s uden s o m"ximiFe unders "ndin$( re"d &ide%/( discuss "nd ref%ec +i*e* dee# s r" e$/.* ,'erefore( i is com#re'ensi!%e '" m"n/ 87 %e"rners "imin$ " 'e 'i$'es $r"de '")e o "do# ES* Before re"c'in$ 'e fin"% conc%usion on 'o& OB,- "ffec s s uden s4 %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'( one #ossi!%e effec c"n !e $ener"%iFed: OB,- 'e%#s s uden s "%i$n 'eir %e"rnin$ mo i)es "nd s r" e$ies in formin$ 'eir #erson"% s ud/ con r"c s* .%$TH)$ ST%(Aune 24-2<( 2007 Oxford ?ni)ersi /( ?1 8

2007 Oxford Business & Economics Conference

ISBN : 978-0-9742114-7-3

,'is s ud/ s'o&s 'e num!er of r"nsferred s uden s in %e"nin$ "##ro"c'es( "s &e%% "s %e"rnin$ mo i)es "nd %e"rnin$ s r" e$ies* ,'e ou come of %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' r"nsferences is c%e"r%/ descri!ed( 'rou$' %in6in$ 'e &o "s#ec s of !o ' %e"rnin$ mo i)e "nd %e"rnin$ s r" e$/* 0'i%e( 'e ex"c #rocess of OB,- "ffec in$ +#us'in$ or #u%%in$. 'e s uden s4 %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' o r"nsfer is difficu% o !e com#%e e%/ "n"%/Fed 'rou$' 'e num!er( !ec"use 'e r"nsference is " 6ind of #rocess o %e s uden s m"6e 'is or 'er o&n decision( &'ic' m"/ !e " :ui e su!5ec i)e #rocess* ,o %e"rn more inform" ion on 'e #rocess of OB,"ffec in$ s uden s o c'"n$e 'eir %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'( " fur 'er s ud/ conduc in$ focus $rou# in er)ie& is under #ro$ress o %e s uden s "%6 "!ou 'eir %e"rnin$ #rocess under 'e !"c6$round of OB,-* ;ur 'er rese"rc' :ues ion on s uden s4 su!5ec i)e commen s on OB,- "nd i s effec s on c'"n$in$ %e"rnin$ "##ro"c' +mo i)e "nd s r" e$/. is $oin$ o !e found ou in fur 'er s ud/* $).)$)'C)S
8!r"ms( A* E* +1992. 7"6in$ ou come-!"sed educ" ion &or6* Educ" ion"% -e"ders'i#* 1992( ##* 30-32 Bi$$s( A* +1987.* S uden 8##ro"c'es o -e"rnin$ "nd S ud/in$* 7e%!ourne: 8us r"%i"n Counci% for Educ" ion"% Cese"rc'* Bi$$s( A* & 7oore( =* A* +1993.* ,'e =rocess of -e"rnin$* 7e%!ourne: =ren ice @"%% of 8us r"%i" = / - d* Bi$$s( A* +1993.* 0'" do in)en ories of s uden s4 %e"rnin$ #rocesses re"%%/ me"sureL 8 'eore ic"% re)ie& "nd c%"rific" ion* Bri is' Aourn"% of Educ" ion"% =s/c'o%o$/* <3* #3-19 Bo '"( C* A* +2002.* Ou comes-!"sed educ" ion "nd educ" ion"% reform in Sou ' 8fric"* In ern" ion"% Aourn"% of -e"ders'i# in Educ" ion* 2* 4* 3<1-371* Br"nd ( C* +1993.* On Ou come-B"sed Educ" ion: 8 Con)ers" ion &i ' Bi%% S#"d/* Educ" ion"% -e"ders'i#( 2 +4.( <<-70* Bro&n( 8* S* +1988.* Ou come-B"sed Educ" ion: 8 Success S or/* Educ" ion"% -e"ders'i# 4<( 2 Eodrid$e( 7* & 1"ssino#ou%os( 7* +2003.* 8ssessmen of s uden %e"rnin$: 'e ex#erience of &o Euro#e"n ins i u ions &'ere ou comes-!"sed "ssessmen '"s !een im#%emen ed* Euro#e"n Aourn"% of En$ineer Educ" ion* 28*4*249-2<2 E")en#or ( -* 8* =*( E")e/( =*D* & 1er( A* S* +2002. 8n ou come-!"sed "##ro"c' for e"c'in$ #ruden "n imicro!i"% #rescri!in$ o under$r"du" e medic"% s uden s: re#or of " &or6in$ #"r / of 'e Bri is' Socie / for 8n imicro!i"% C'emo 'er"#/* Aourn"% of 8n imicro!i"% C'emo 'er"#'/* 2<* #19<-203* E")id( D*( Der"rd( M* 0*;i%i#E* & =ie ( M*B*2002*,'e re%" ions'i# !e &een s uden s4 "##ro"c'es o %e"rnin$ "nd 'e "ssessmen of %e"rnin$ ou comes* Euro#e"n 5ourn"% of #s/c'o%o$/ of educ" ion * 20+4.*#* 327-341 * E")idson( C* 8* +2002.* Ce%" ions'i# of s ud/ "##ro"c' "nd ex"m #erform"nce* Aourn"% of 8ccoun in$ Educ" ion* 20*#*29-44 Eodrid$e( 7* & 1"ssino#ou%os( 7* +2003.* 8ssessmen of s uden %e"rnin$: 'e ex#erience of &o Euro#e"n ins i u ions &'ere ou comes-!"sed "ssessmen '"s !een im#%emen ed* Euro#e"n Aourn"% of En$ineerin$ Educ" ion* 28+4.* =249-2<2 EoE +199<.* -ife%on$ -e"rnin$ 'rou$' " N" ion"% >u"%ific" ions ;r"me&or6( 7inis eri"% Commi ee for Ee)e%o#men 0or6 on 'e N>;* =re ori": ,'e Ee#"r men of Educ" ion* Eonen( N* +1999.* 7"nd" or/ #r"c ice se%f-"##r"is"%: mo)in$ o&"rds ou comes !"sed con inuin$ educ" ion* B%"c6&e%% Science* 2* 3*#297-303 E&e%%( =* +200<.* 8##%/in$ s uden %e"rnin$ ou comes conce# s "nd "##ro"c'es " @on$ 1on$ @i$'er Educ" ion Ins i u ions: Curren

Aune 24-2<( 2007 Oxford ?ni)ersi /( ?1

2007 Oxford Business & Economics Conference

ISBN : 978-0-9742114-7-3

s " us "nd fu ure direc ions* N" ion"% Cen er for @i$'er Educ" ion 7"n"$emen S/s ems* @"rden( C* 7*( Cros!/( A* C* & E")is( 7* @* +1999".* 87EE $uide No* 14: Ou come-!"sed educ" ion: ="r 1- 8n in roduc ion o ou come-!"sed educ" ion* 7edic"% ,e"c'er* 21*1* @"rden( C* 7*( Cros!/( A* C* & E")is( 7* @* +1999!.* 87EE $uide No* 14: Ou come-!"sed educ" ion: ="r 2- ;rom com#e enc/ o me "-com#e enc/: " mode% for 'e s#ecific" ion of %e"rnin$ ou comes* 7edic"% ,e"c'er* 21*<* 1i%%en( C* +2000.* Ou comes-B"sed Educ" ion: =rinci#%es "nd =ossi!i%i ies* ?n#u!%is'ed m"nuscri# * ?ni)ersi / of Ne&c"s %e( 8us r"%i": ;"cu% / of Educ" ion* Ce rie)ed Se# em!er 11( 2004 from ' #:HH&&&*sc'oo%s*n *edu*"uHcurric!rHcfHou comefocusH1i%%enN#"#er*#df* -orenFen( 7* +1999.* ?sin$ Ou come-B"sed Educ" ion in 'e =%"nnin$ "nd ,e"c'in$ of Ne& Inform" ion ,ec'no%o$ies* In -* 8* Doe sc' +ed*. Information Technology Planning. Edi ed !/* Bin$'"m on( NK: @"&or ' =ress( Inc( 141-122 7"nno( B* M* +1992.* ,'e 'i5"c6in$ of 'e ou come-!"sed "##ro"c'* Sc'oo% 8dminis r" or* 22* 3 2* 7"r$"re ( @* +1999.* Ou come-!"sed "c ion: "n in)i " ion o c'"n$e* Con em#or"r/ Educ" ion* 70*2* Coss( N* & E")ies( E* +1999. Ou come-!"sed educ" ion: ="r 4- ou come-!"sed %e"rnin$ "nd 'e e%ec ronic curricu%um " Birmin$'"m medic"% sc'oo%* 7edic"% ,e"c'er* 21+1.* #* 2<-30* Si)"n( 8* -eun$( C* 0*( 0oon( C* C* & 1em!er( E* +2000.* 8n im#%emen " ion of "c i)e %e"rnin$ "nd i s effec s oon 'e :u"%i / of s uden %e"rnin$* Inno)" ions in Educ" ion "nd ,r"inin$ In ern" ion"%* 37+4.( #*381-389* S6o$s!er$( 1*( & C%um#( 7* +2003.* Eo #s/c'o%o$/ "nd !io%o$/ m"5ors differ in 'eir s ud/ #rocesses "nd %e"rnin$ s /%esL Co%%e$e S uden Aourn"%( 37( 27-33* Smi '( S* N* & 7i%%ere( C* A* +2002.* -e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es: ex"min" ion /#e( disci#%ine of s ud/( "nd $ender* Educ" ion =s/c'o%o$/* 22+1.* =* 43-23 Sund"r( 8* N* +1999.* C'"n$ed "ssessmen ( c'"n$ed focus in curricu%um de%i)er/: &'" do e"c'in$ s "ff '")e o s"/L @ECES8 8nnu"% In ern" ion"% Conference( 7e%!ourne( 12-1< Au%/* ,o&ers( A* 7* +1994.* ,'e #eri%s of ou come-!"sed e"c'er educ" ion* ='i Ee% " 1"##"n( 72+8.* 0" 6ins( E* +199<.* ,'e inf%uence of soci"% desir"!i%i / on %e"rnin$ #rocess :ues ionn"ires: " ne$%ec ed #ossi!i%i /L* Con em#or"r/ Educ" ion"% =s/c'o%o$/* 21*#*80-82* 0i%%is( S* "nd 1iss"ne( B* +1992.* S/s em" ic 8##ro"c'es o 8r icu%" in$ "nd 7oni orin$ Ex#ec ed S uden Ou comes* Ce#or for 'e Educ" ion Ee#"r men of 0es ern 8us r"%i"* 0ee( 1* N* -* +2003.* =B--in-8c ion: @o& o im#%emen #ro!%em-!"sed %e"rnin$ in Business m"r6e in$* ,ri"nnu"% Ne&s%e er of Cen er for Ee)e%o#men of ,e"c'in$ "nd -e"rnin$* 7* 1* #*2 9'"n$( -* ;* +2000.* 8re %e"rnin$ "##ro"c'es "nd 'in6in$ s /%es re%" edL 8 s ud/ in &o C'inese #o#u%" ions* ,'e Aourn"% of =s/c'o%o$/* 134+4.* =4<9-489*

Aune 24-2<( 2007 Oxford ?ni)ersi /( ?1

10

2007 Oxford Business & Economics Conference

ISBN : 978-0-9742114-7-3

TABL)S

Ta/0e 12 The comparison of 0earning approach# moti&e# and strategy ,/#e of -e"rnin$ 8##ro"c'es +Num!er of S uden s +N. O 212. Semes er 8 No* of S uden s Surf"ce 8##ro"c' -e"rnin$ 8##ro"c' 7o i)e S r" e$/ Eee# 8##ro"c' -e"rnin$ 8##ro"c' 7o i)e S r" e$/ 8c'ie)in$ 8##ro"c' -e"rnin$ 8##ro"c' 7o i)e S r" e$/ O 'ers -e"rnin$ 8##ro"c' 7o i)e S r" e$/ 33 133 <4 11: 79 17< 579 23< 204 ;6 <4 <8 1425 2<*0 12*2 5825 12*4 34*4 6923 4<*1 39*8 323 12*2 13*3 =ercen "$e B Semes er B No* of =ercen "$e S uden s 167 143 119 196 71 178 516 227 147 87 71 <8 8926 27*9 23*2 5926 13*9 34*8 ;529 44*3 28*7 429 13*9 13*3 B

Aune 24-2<( 2007 Oxford ?ni)ersi /( ?1

11

2007 Oxford Business & Economics Conference

ISBN : 978-0-9742114-7-3

Ta/0e 52 The Transference of Learning Approach Num!er ;rom +Sem 8. Surf"ce +88 s uden s. Eee# +119 s uden s. 81 32 78 12 12 5: 22 9 39 47 193 21 3 8 22 8 ,o "%: 141 PO 'ers: inc%udes 4 c" e$ories: e:u"% scores in dee# "nd surf"ce "##ro"c'es3 e:u"% scores in dee# "nd "c'ie)in$ "##ro"c'es3 e:u"% scores in surf"ce "nd "c'ie)in$ "##ro"c'es3 e:u"% scores in dee#( surf"ce( "nd "c'ie)in$ "##ro"c'es Ta/0e 82 The Transference of Learning !oti&e Num!er ;rom +Sem 8. Surf"ce +133 s uden s. Eee# +79 s uden s. ;1 18 <3 21 11 14 32 8 <1 32 194 27 20 12 31 3 ,o +Sem B . +NO212. Surf"ce +143 s uden s. Eee# +71 s uden s. 8c'ie)in$ +227 s uden s. O 'ersP +71 s uden s. ,o +Sem B . +NO212. Surf"ce +12< s uden s. Eee# +102 s uden s. 8c'ie)in$ +212 s uden s. O 'ersP +3< s uden s.

of s uden s

8c'ie)in$ +2<0 s uden s. O 'ersP +42 s uden s.

of s uden s

8c'ie)in$ +23< s uden s. O 'ersP +<4 s uden s.

,o "%: 148 PO 'ers: inc%udes 4 c" e$ories: e:u"% scores in dee# "nd surf"ce mo i)es3 e:u"% scores in dee# "nd "c'ie)in$ "##ro"c'es3 e:u"% scores in surf"ce "nd "c'ie)in$ mo i)es3 e:u"% scores in dee#( surf"ce( "nd "c'ie)in$ mo i)es

Ta/0e ;2 The Transference of Learning Strategy

Aune 24-2<( 2007 Oxford ?ni)ersi /( ?1

12

2007 Oxford Business & Economics Conference

ISBN : 978-0-9742114-7-3

Num!er ;rom +Sem 8.

,o +Sem B . +NO212.

Surf"ce +119 s uden s.

Eee# +178 s uden s.

8c'ie)in$ +147 s uden s.

O 'ersP +<8 s uden s.

of s uden s

Surf"ce +<4 s uden s. Eee# +17< s uden s.

13 38 49 14

23 76 <7 23

12 48 75 22

8 22 2< :

8c'ie)in$ +204 s uden s. O 'ersP +<8 s uden s.

PO 'ers: inc%udes 4 c" e$ories: e:u"% scores in dee# "nd surf"ce s r" e$ies3 e:u"% scores in dee# "nd "c'ie)in$ s r" e$ies3 e:u"% scores in surf"ce "nd "c'ie)in$ s r" e$ies3 e:u"% scores in dee#( surf"ce( "nd "c'ie)in$ s r" e$ies

,o "%: 16;

Aune 24-2<( 2007 Oxford ?ni)ersi /( ?1

13

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