You are on page 1of 2



VOL. 5, NO. 10

1=5.0 Amp, Tg=Tw=l200K



0.02 Xc

Fig. 6 Anode loss vs seed ratio.

Downloaded by I S A E on May 24, 2013 | | DOI: 10.2514/3.4335

pated, it was experimentally verified that the dependence of Ep on Tg was not affected by Tw ^ Tg. When viewed from directly downstream, the discharge was typically 0.7 cm wide, steady, straight, in the center of the channel, and parallel to the probe axis. Without the probe, the current took unsteady paths in the slower gas layers near the walls, which resulted in unsteady total electrode voltages Vei = 100-120 v for I ~ 5 amp. Thus, the total voltage losses increased to AT = 80-100 v by comparison with the equivalent case using the probe (AV < 10 v). It appears reasonable to conclude that the controlled discharge is seated in the small low-velocity wake region behind the probe, which acts as a discharge holder; and that its presence prevented the effect of the flow velocity from doing nothing more than moderately modifying Ellington's static-diode results. During March 1967, the application of this discharge holder technique was extended to a channel containing eleven electrode pairs operated in a magnetic field up to 22,500 gauss. Preionization from externally applied electric fields occurred progressively through the first four electrode pairs, and steady power of the order of watts was extracted from each of the self-sustained discharges at the last seven electrode pairs, with the generated Faraday electric field being 95% of the theoretical value. These results, demonstrating the basic feasibility of extracting steady power from a plasma in a state of significant nonequilibrium ionization, will be reported in a subsequent paper.

Several methods have been employed for simulating gusts in subsonic wind tunnels. For example, a facility using flapping vanes to generate a periodic gust environment has been operating in a large subsonic and transonic wind tunnel at Langley Research Center1; and the British have driven a sled-mounted wing past an open-jet wind tunnel to obtain a suddenly applied gust.2 At supersonic speeds, the frequency range of interest is too high for successful application of flapping vanes or other oscillating mechanical systems. We have therefore investigated the feasibility of using pulsating air jets for the simulation of a periodic gust in a supersonic wind tunnel. The design, construction, and operation of this gust generator are described in some detail in Ref. 3. The tests demonstrate the feasibility of the method, although quantitative gust load data have not yet been obtained. In the remainder of this note, the design and calibration of the equipment will be briefly reviewed.
II. Description of Gust Generator

In its operation, the gust generator produces a continuous periodic vertical gust that moves with the supersonic stream in the wind-tunnel test section. The amplitude of the induced angle of attack in the test section is measured at the fundamental frequency of the gust generator while noise and higher harmonics are filtered out. Next, the vertical forces or pressures are measured on a model placed in this calibrated gust; again all signals outside of the fundamental gust frequency are discarded. Thus the model response to the fundamental sinusoidal gust is determined. Accurate measurements require gust-induced angles of attack that are as large as possible, while remaining within the range of linear variation of force with angle (about 3 would be suitable). In order to simulate conditions in which the gust velocity varies in both space and time on the model, reduced frequencies up to k = (7T/2) would be desirable. Here the reduced frequency is defined by k = (wC/2U) where co = angular gust frequency (rad/sec) C model length U = stream velocity In the facility! in which the gust generator was installed, a reduced frequency of ir/2 would correspond to over 500 cps atM = 3.0. To meet the high-frequency requirement, the periodic gust was generated by injecting streams of high-pressure air alternately upward and downward. These pulsating jets were controlled by a cylindrical rotor with an odd number of slots nearly spanning the wind tunnel. When a slot coincides with an upward-directed, stationary, two-dimensional nozzle, a pulse of air deflects the oncoming flow upward; whereas the corresponding downward-pointing nozzle is sealed. The operation of the device is shown schematically in Fig. 1. Rotation of the inner cyclinder by a d.c. motor produces the alternating vertical pulses of air at any desired frequency up to about 600 cps.

Ellington, H. I., United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority, Harwell, England, AERE-M1616 (July 1965).

Supersonic Gust Simulation Experiments

Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, Mass.
I. Introduction

EW measurements of gust loads obtained under controlled stream conditions are available in the supersonic speed range. The preliminary development of a facility in which such data may be acquired is described in this note.


Received May 8, 1967. This work was supported by the Air Force Flight Dynamics Laboratory under Contract AD 33(615)3600. The authors also acknowledge the help of their colleagues, especially W. G. Bousman and N. A. Durando. [7.10, 10.14] * Senior Research Engineer. Member AIAA. t Research Engineer. Student Member AIAA.


Fig. 1

Schematic diagram of gust generator installation.

t The Naval Supersonic Wind Tunnel at Massachusetts Institute of Technology.




modes in the frequency range of interest, and hence could not be reliably calibrated.
Fig. 2 Output of pressure transducers on calibrating wedge a) difference between top and bottom surface pressures ; b) sum of top and bottom surface pressures.
0 5 10 15 20 25 30 35 40 45 50 t(ms)

Future Developments

.2 0

i ~ir

i i i i i i i i i

As shown in the figure, the gust generator is installed at the entrance of the Mach number 3 nozzle (upstream of the throat). It is supplied with air at about 60 psi, while the main windtunnel flow is expanded from an adjustable stagnation pressure of about 1 atm.
Downloaded by I S A E on May 24, 2013 | | DOI: 10.2514/3.4335

The accuracy of the gust calibration can probably be greatly improved by the application of correlation techniques to separate the fundamental sinusoidal signal from the background noise. With this provision, the facility should be suitable for measurements of gust loads on simple wing shapes that can be compared with existing theories. More complex models can also be examined. A stiff model support would be required to eliminate balance resonance. Semiconductor strain gages could be used to retain sensitivity with the more rigid support. Larger gust amplitudes may also be obtained by making minor modifications to the air supply system.


The angle of attack was measured by the instantaneous pressure difference across a small calibrated wedge probe. A typical trace of the transducer signal measuring the pressure difference as a function of time is shown in Fig. 2a. The lower trace, Fig. 2b, shows the signal representing the sum of the two surface pressures which is indicative of fluctuations of total pressure caused by the injected flow. The variation of the sum was negligibly small compared with that of the difference. The amplitude of the fundamental frequency was estimated from such data and also after filtering by a wave analyzer. The results, in terms of measured angle of attack as a function of frequency, are plotted in Fig. 3. The curve drawn on the figure illustrates the resulting variation in amplitude when the product of amplitude and frequency is assumed to be constant. Some such decrease in amplitude with frequency would be expected since the duration of each impulse of air diminishes as the rotor speed, and hence the frequency, is increased. The unfiltered data may indicate too large an amplitude since noise peaks are sometimes confused with the actual signal. Small shifts in frequency of the d.c. motor, on the other hand, would cause the amplitude of the filtered data to appear too low. The scatter of the points on Fig. 3 gives an indication of the accuracy of the data. The brackets around the points show the probable range of data reading errors. Surveys of the 18- X 18-in. test section revealed a uniform region (within the accuracy of the measurements) at least 6 in. wide and 4 in. high. The axial extent of the uniform flow was not determined. The problem of measuring the forces on a wing in this known gust field was investigated. Quantitative information was not obtained because the strain gage balance had several resonant

Oilman, J., Jr. and Bennett, R. M., "A. wind-tunnel technique for measuring frequency-response functions for gust load analysis," J. Aircraft 3, 535-540 (1966). 2 Hunt, G. K., Robert, D. R., and Walker, D.; "Measurements of transient pressures on a narrow-delta wing due to an upward gust," Aeronautical Research Council, CP 624 (1964). 3 Borland, C. J., Bousman, W. G., Durando, N. A., and Schindel, L. H., "An experimental simulation of gust loading of supersonic vehicles/7 Air Force Flight Dynamics Lab. Rept. TR-67-12 (March 1967).

Minimum Mass Bar for Axial Vibration at Specified Natural Frequency

J. E. TAYLOR* University of California at Los Angeles, Los Angeles, Calif.


200 300 400 GUST FREQUENCY, fg (CPS)

500 1.2 1.4

N a recent paper, Turner1 obtained the solution for the minimum mass design of a bar, fastened at one end with a mass attached at the other end, for which the frequency of the lowest mode of axial vibration is specified. The problem was formulated as a Lagrange problem in the calculus of variations, where the mass functional is to be minimized within constraints that reflect the equation of motion and associated boundary conditions. Variation of the constrained functional leads to two differential equations that, together with the constraint equation, are solved explicitly for the design of the bar and its eigenfunction. The present note illustrates an alternate approach to the same problem. The development of the first section is based on the use of a functional related to the energy of the system. The functional reflects the optimization problem stated in the form: determine the design for which the lowest eigenvalue is a maximum, within the constraint of specified total mass; i.e., in the form of an isoperimetric problem. A concise statement of the governing equations is obtained directly. A proof is given in the second section that the solution of these equations is, in fact, the design that minimizes the mass of the bar for specified lowest eigenvalue. The technique is shown in brief for another problem: the determination of the optimum design for the lateral vibration of a beam with a distributed mass load.
Received May 8, 1967. The research reported herein received support from the NASA contract NsG 237-62. [6.04] * Assistant Professor of Engineering; Senior Research Fellow in Aeronautics, California Institute of Technology, JanuaryJune, 1967. Member AIAA.


0 . 4 0 . 6 0 . 8 1.0 REDUCED FREQUENCY, k = cuC/2


Fig. 3 Gust amplitude in test section as a function of