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# NEWTONS FIRST LAW

A force is neccessary to change the state of rest, or of uniform motion in a straight line of a body. If you are staionary you will remain stationary unless a resultant force acts upon you. If you want to change your direction of travel a resultant force must act upon you. If you want to speed up or slow down a resultant force must act upon you. If you are moving with constant velocity there is zero resultant force acting upon you.

The rate of change of momentum of an object is directly proportional to the resultant (net) for acting upon it.

## NEWTONS SECOND LAW

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THE NEWTON
One newton is the force that will give a mass of one kilogram an accelleration of one metre per second

change in momentum = force x time The mass of an object multiplied by its velocity

LINEAR MOMENTUM
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## NEWTONS THIRD LAW

When body A exerts a force on body B, body B exerts a force that is equal opposite in direction the same type

In any direction, in the absence of external forces the total momentum of a system remains constant.

CONSERVATION OF MOMENTUM
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IMPULSE
Impulse = Change in momentum of a body equal to area underneath a force - time graph

## In a perfectly elastic collison NO momentum or kinetic energy is lost

ELASTIC COLLISIONS
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One radian is the angle subtended at the centre of a circle by an arc of lenth equal to the circles radius.

## In an elastic collision momentum is conserved but kinetic energy is not.

INELASTIC COLLISIONS
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CENTRIPETAL ACCELERATION
The centripetal acceleration of an object travelling in a circle of radius r with constant velocity is given by the equation: acceleration = velocity squared / radius in a direction towards the centre of the circle

period = circumference/velocity In equation form it it is The period of an object in circular motion is the time taken for it to complete one revolution.

THE PERIOD
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## GRAVITATIONAL FIELD STRENGTH

The gravitational field strength at any point is the force acting per unit mass at that point

## The region in which a force operates

A FIELD
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GRAVITATIONAL FORCE
The gravitational force of attraction between two bodies is directly proportional to the product of their masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them.

The period of a planet squared equals the mean radius of its orbit

## KEPLARS THIRD LAW

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## TERMS TO DESCRIBE OSCILLATIONS

DISPLACEMENT - The distance an object has moved form its mean / rest position. AMPLITUDE - Maximum displacement FREQUENCY- The number of oscillations per unit time at any point PERIOD (OF OSCILLATION) - Time for one complete pattern of oscillation to take place at any point

- Accelerates in the opposite direction to the displacement - Has an acceleration proportional to its displacement from a fixed point An object undergoing simple harmonic motion:

## SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION

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RESONANCE
The build-up fo an large amplitude oscillation when the frequency of vibrating objects match

## Deliberately reducing the amplitude of an oscillation

DAMPING
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PHASE
Whether a substance is in the form of solid, liquid or gas

## Mass per unit volume

DENSITY
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INTERNAL ENERGY
The internal energy of a body is the sum of the random distributions within it and also all the potential energies of molecules in its body.

## Force per unit area

PRESSURE
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IDEAL GAS
A gas that has internal energy only in the form of random kinetic energy.

## Two objects at the same temperature

THERMAL EQUILIBRIUM
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## SPECIFIC HEAT CAPACITY

The quantity of thermal energy required to raise the temperature of a unit mass of a substance by a unit temperature rise.

The quantity of energy per unit mass required to change it at constant temperature from a solid to a liquid.

## SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT OF FUSION

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The volume of a fixed mass of gas is inversely proportional to the pressure exerted on it, provided that temperature is constant.

## SPECIFIC LATENT HEAT OF VAPOURISATION

The specific latent heat of vapourisation od a substance is the quantity of energy per unit mass required to change it at constant temperature from liquid to vapour.

BOYLES LAW
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## IDEAL GAS EQUATION

for a fixed mass of an ideal gas, at constant temperature, its volume V is proportional to the ideal gas temperature T. T will be in kelvin.

This can be used to determine the number of molecules in any quantity of any substance.

THE MOLE
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