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Master Plan for Hampi Local Planning Area

Administrative and planning process for Managing a World Heritage Site

Aravind Srivastava, I.A.S

Hampi village Virupakshapura

Site having multiple meanings Sacred, Aesthetic, Scientific value, Architectural Value.

Pre-Historic Site

Vernacular Architecture

Traditional Craft Coracles

Theppa or Nadadoni / Coracle

Hampi: Uniqueness
Scale
Geographical expanse Number of monuments and cultural resources

Interplay
Cultural and natural heritage Living community and monuments

Evolving
Archeologically living site Largely unexplored

The current criterion for inscription that highlights the authenticity and integrity of the site is as follows: Criteria I: Masterpiece of human genius The sophistication of the varied urban, a royal and sacred system is evident from the surviving complexes, structures and remains. This represents an act of human genius a highly developed City of the 16th century with unique cultural landscape. The recognition of the potential of natural landscape as the Capital and achieving it as a cultural product.

Criteria III: Exceptional testimony to a civilization, which has disappeared


The site today is predominantly a vast Archeological area whose entire extents can be discerned. The capital city was planned with core area, suburbs and spatial hierarchy articulated on the basis of its occupants accommodating the emperors, noblemen, and ordinary people giving identity to various zones. The Sacred center, Royal center, Noblemens Quarters and ceremonial areas like Mahanavami Dibba were where the royalty and nobility resided. There were puras for general public, Central Avenue, Bazaar. These remains bear testimony to a last Civilization

Criteria IV: Outstanding example for a type of building or architectural ensemble


Vijayanagara Empire developed the Dravidian Architecture and took it to its ultimate form. The Vithala Temple undoubtedly represents its ultimate achievement. The Stone Chariot in front is a Testimony of a prevalent religious system. Another unique contribution to Dravidian Architecture is the Rath Street. The Virupaksha Bazaar is one of the most magnificent Rath Street at a grand scale. Vijayanagara Architecture is also known for its adoption of Indo-Islamic Architecture for secular buildings like Queens Bath and Elephants Stables, which is in contrast to the pure Dravidian style employed for religious Architecture. The defense architecture was also prevalent during Vijayanagara period with seven lines of fort wall.

Other Values and Significance of Hampi as per IMP at National, Regional and Local levels

Geological value Pre-historic value Historic and Architectural value Hampi as Sacred Landscape Intangible heritage and Traditional knowledge systems

Hampi World Heritage Area Management Authority: Mandate


Conservation of cultural heritage and natural environs of Hampi and its surroundings Preservation of historical and cultural identity of Hampi as WH site Preventing uncontrolled development and commercial exploitation of the area Sustained development of the area which is conducive to the above objectives

HWHAMA: Beginning
Strength:
Legally clear existence Clear goals and objectives

Weakness:
Lost time Organizationally weak

Challenge:
No experience No suitably trained manpower

CHALLENGES

Managing Hampi- Legal Framework


Hampi World Heritage Area Management Authority Act, 2002 (HWHAMA Act) The Mysore Ancient and Historical Monuments and Archeological Sites and Remains Act, 1961 (SAD Act) Ancient Monuments and Historical Sites and Remains Act, 1958 (ASI Act) Karnataka Country and Town Planning Act, 1961 (KTCP Act) Karnataka Panchayat Raj Act, (KPR Act) Karnataka Municipalities Act, (KMA Act) UNESCO Inscription

Defining Heritage
SAD Act
Archeological Site and Remains means any area which contains ruins or relics of historical or archeological importance including area required for fencing, covering, preserving and accessing it. Protected Area No construction, mining, quarrying, excavating, blasting or any operation of like nature in such an area or utilize any area in any other manner without permission of the government.

Defining Heritage
1988 Notification- An area of 41.80 sq.km. was declared as protected area under SAD Act. The same area has been designated as Core Zone under HWHAMA Act. Buffer Zone is 1 km beyond Core Zone boundary and Peripheral Zone is 1kms from the Buffer Zone boundary. Under ASI Act, 56 monuments have been declared as Protected monuments and 100 meters around it is declared as Prohibited area and further 200 meters is declared as Regulated area.

Defining Heritage
HWHAMA Act
Heritage Area means a Core Area Zone, Buffer Zone and Peripheral Zones but excluding areas protected under ASI Act. Cultural Heritage means and includes (list of monuments) being conserved by ASI and SAD. Constitution of the Authority
Authority containing Chairman and members from various departments Commissioner- Chief Executive and Administrative Officer State Level Advisory Committee Authority Security Force

Defining Heritage
HWHAMA Act
Functions of Authority
Carry out survey of Heritage Area Prepare Development Plan of the Heritage Area Formulate schemes and carry out works as envisaged in the development plan To raise finances for such projects and schemes Secure coordination in execution of development plan between various agencies To raise awareness and promote and encourage research to understand archeological, historical and environmental values of the Hampi World Heritage Site.

Defining Heritage
HWHAMA Act
No development to be undertaken by anyone and no local body shall grant permission without previous permission of the Authority Development means
Carrying out of building, engineering or other operations; Making any material change in any building or land; Making any material change in the use of of any building or land; Redevelopment and forming of layouts, subdivision of any land.

Defining Heritage
KTCP Act:
Heritage Building means a building possessing Architectural, Aesthetic, Historic or Cultural values which is declared as a Heritage Building by Planning Authority or any other Competent Authority Heritage Precinct means an comprising heritage buildings and precincts thereof or related places declared as such by the Planning or such other competent Authority.

Defining Heritage
KTCP Act:
Declaration of certain areas as Area of Special Control subject to regulations with regards to Building Line Height of the Building Floor Area Ratio Architectural Features

Master Plan shall indicate Heritage Buildings and Heritage Precincts and shall include regulations for conservation of the same

Issues in Management
Definition of Area
Inscribed Area Protected Area Prohibited and Regulated Area Core Zone Buffer and Peripheral Zone Heritage Area Archeological Area

Issues in Management
Interspersed habitations
Core Zone-10 villages ,Pop. 29000 Heritage Area-28 villages, 1 town, Pop.65000 Heritage Zones within Habitations Issue of relocation and rehabilitation Housing and Public Infrastructure Issues
Plan and Design Time frame

Regulation of undesirable economic activities Role and jurisdiction of local bodies

Hampi: Extent
Habitations Population Area (sqkm) GP Municipality

Core

29111

109.65

3 full 2 part 5 part

Buffer

10

9702

59.87

Peripheral

11

23344

66.92

6 part

TOTAL

29

59941

236.45

Issues in Management
Managing Monuments (SAD)
Dependence of master plan Incomplete inventory of monuments Inadequate information about monuments Ownership and accessibility issues No comprehensive management and conservation plan Insufficient manpower for security and maintenance Linking conservation with tourism

Issues in Management
Managing Cultural Features
Inadequate inventory of features Lack of understanding of management and conservation issues Issues of natural features Issue of Intangible Heritage Lack of technical manpower Lack of coordination among departments Lack of link with tourism

Issues in Management
Managing Visitors
Lack of comprehensive circulation plan
Visitors needs versus local needs

Inadequate facilities
Hotel rooms Connectivity

Information and Interpretation needs

Hampi: Monuments
Typology of structure Sculptures Shrine Temples Temple Complexes Street of special functions River side features Caves and Cavern Mosque Mandapas Memorial Structures Rock Paintings Fragments Water Structures Gate ways Defense Structures Total Number 336 157 352 96 6 16 64 6 81 79 10 163 80 62 92 1600 Number of accessible monuments 119 106 241 55 4 2 32 5 28 66 7 71 47 39 45 867

Action taken

The Master Plan addresses the following:

Planned development of the area by addressing


the needs of the population (Physical and social infrastructure) future expansion of the settlement in a planned manner

Conservation of the cultural and natural heritage


Identification of the cultural and natural heritage (including intangible heritage) other than protected by ASI and state archaeology Development of appropriate mechanism for promotion and protection of heritage

Development of infrastructure for tourism

Map protocol
ISRO (Geographical Natural Features) Revenue maps (Legal reference)

Habitations

Cultural Heritage Features

Buildings

Monuments

Heritage Structures

SAD

ASI

Cadastral Overlay

Remote sensing application for Heritage Management

Mapping of an Archaeological Area - Vittala Temple Complex

Hampi: Possibilities
Multi-disciplinary complexity
Archeologists Conservationists Architects Town Planners Cultural Researchers Tourism Experts Social Scientists Engineers

Master Plan: Needs


Site is exciting enough to get disoriented. Liberty cannot be taken with time as we are dealing with living community
Baseline data changes Equations change Needs and requirements change Standards change

Master Plan: Needs


Uni-dimensional approach vs. multidimensional approach Reconciling perspectives e.g. Land
To an architect To a land administrator To the owner Legal vs. spatial identity

Optimized rather than maximized solutions

Master Plan: Needs


Professed goals to be translated into accomplishable tasks Complexity of research and academic pursuit vs. operationally simple and legally consistent plan Defining Principles
Are we consistent? Are we fair?

Master Plan: Resources


Limited budget support Lack of necessary expertise
Town Planning- concept and application of heritage concepts Not available in government either

Political and administrative will Thinking as an administrator

Master Plan: Communication


Complex concepts Language Lack of window for a dialogue Differing sometimes conflicting interests Aspirations- economic and social Ignorance resulting in reactionary responses Prospective vs. Retrospective effect

Master Plan- Consultative process


Translation of the master plan document into Kannada Notifying as per the provisions of the KTCP Act Display in the Authority notice board Sale of Master plan upon request Posting of the document in a Web site State level Authority meeting District level officers meeting Village level workshops Tourism stakeholders meet

Master Plan: Implementation


More challenging than preparation Mechanism
Regulatory Investment

Creating genuine stakeholders interest Political and administrative will


Priorities Visibility Role of UNESCO, GoI

Master Plan: Implementation


Role of Archeological departments Need for coordination among departments
Collective responsibility Procedures and standards to be in place Sector sub-plans

Sensitization of various levels of decision makers

Achievements
Integrated Site Management Plan
Master Plan under KTCP Act.
Zoning Regulations including Natural Heritage Preservation Building and Architectural Guidelines

Tourism Project Outlines


Circulation Network Development of Tourism nodes Interpretation Intangible Heritage Vernacular Architecture

Conservation of Monuments

Sanction of scheme for product/ infrastructure development for tourism destination and circuit by Ministry of Tourism, Govt of India based on the D.P.R prepared by HWHAMA 33 Crores and State Government sanction 8 crores as state share for 2008-09 Approval of Master Plan 2021 for Hampi Sanction of 17 posts and funding by the Government to further strengthen HWHAMA
Appointment of Engineer for building center Appointment of consultants for development of Nodes and tourism strategy

Total station survey of 29 revenue villages Structure survey of settlements Integrated Information system
Installation of work by ISRO on a GIS Platform Integration of information regarding revenue, administrative, archaeological, cultural and natural features, socio economic data

Finalization of Management Plan Implementation of Master Plan Enhancement of security force Implementation of solid waste management at Hampi Development of Tourism Hub Finalization of the scheme by I-Deck

Security plan 30 security posts police beats

8f) Officially adopt traffic regulations banning heavy duty vehicular traffic from the Word Heritage Area and submit these regulations to the World Heritage Center

Traffic barricade

Thank You