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# Test 1

## 1. a) Which attributes of particles affect their electromagnetic

interaction?
b) Explain the definition of electric field vector.
c) Explain the definition of electric potential.
d) Explain Gausss law for the electric field.

2. Two identical small charged spheres, each having a mass of m =30 g, hang in
equilibrium as shown in the included figure. The length of each string is L =15
cm, and the angle each string makes with the vertical direction is u =5.
a) Complete the free body diagram and identify all forces exerted on a (single)
sphere.
b) From the equilibrium condition, find the magnitude of the electrostatic
force
1
exerted by each sphere on the other sphere.
c) Determine the charge of each sphere.

3. An electron
2
is released from rest in a uniform electric field, produced by two
parallel plates separated by distance L =10cm, as shown in the figure. The
strength of the field is E =10 kN/C.
a) Mark the electric field lines and the electrostatic force exerted on the
electron. Determine both the magnitude of the electric field and the
electrostatic force (vector) exerted on the electron.
b) What should be the potential difference between the plates to produce the
electric field?
c) At what speed does the electron reach the other plate?

4. A uniformly charged insulating rod of length L is bent into the shape of a
t
=
L
r ). The total charge of the rod is Q. (See the
appropriate page).
a) Determine the linear charge density of this object.
b) Find the electric potential due to the object at the center of its curvature
(point O).
c) Find the electric field vector produced by the object at the same point.

1
Coulomb constant: k =910
9
Nm
2
/C
2
2
electron: charge -1.610
-19
C; mass 9.1110
-31
kg

Look, if it was electric, could I do this?
Some Indefinite Integrals

n 1
n
x
x dx
n 1
+
=
+
}
(provided n = -1)
2 2
dx x x
arcsin arccos
x
a a
a
= =

}
(for a
2
x
2
>0)
x ln dx x
x
dx
1
= =
} }

( )
2 2
2 2
dx
ln x x
x
a
a
= +

}

( )
dx 1
ln x
x
a b
a b b
= +
+
}

2 2
2 2
xdx
x
x
a
a
=

}

( )
xdx x
ln x
x
2
a
a b
a b b b
= +
+
}

2 2
2 2
xdx
x
x
a
a
=

}

( )
dx 1 x
ln
x x x
a
a a
+
=
+
}

2 2 2 2 2
1 x
x dx x x arcsin
2
a a a
a
| |
= +
|
\ .
}

( )
( ) b a b
b a
+
=
+
}
x
1
x
dx
2

( )
3 2
2 2 2 2
1
x x dx x
3
a a =
}

2 2
dx 1 x
arctan
x a a a
=
+
}

( )
2 2 2 2 2 2 2
1
x dx x x ln x x
2
a a a a
| |
= +
|
\ .
}

2 2
dx 1 x
ln
2 - x x
a
a a a
+
=

}
(for a
2
x
2
>0)
( )
3 2
2 2 2 2
1
x x dx x
3
a a =
}

2 2
dx 1 x-
ln
2 x x
a
a a a
=
+
}
(for a
2
x
2
<0)
x x
1
e dx e
a a
a
=
}

( )
2 2
2 2
xdx 1
ln x
2 x
a
a
=

}
( ) ln xdx xln x x a a =
}

( )
x
x
e
xe dx x 1
a
a
2
a
a
=
}
( )
2 x sin2 x
cos x dx
2 4
a
a
a
= +
}

( )
x
x
dx x 1
dx ln e
e
c
c
a b
a ac a b
= +
+
}

2
dx 1
cot x
sin x
a
a
a
=
}

1
sin xdx cos x a a
a
=
}

2
dx 1
tan x
cos x
a
a
a
=
}

1
cos xdx sin x a a
a
=
}
( ) ( )
2 1
tan x dx tan x x a a
a
=
}

( ) ( )
1 1
tan xdx ln cos x ln sec x a a a
a a
= =
}
( ) ( )
2 1
cot x dx cot x x a a
a
=
}

( )
1
cot xdx ln sin x a a
a
=
}

2 2
1 x
arcsin xdx xarcsin x
a
a a
a

= +
}

( )
1 1 x
sec xdx ln sec x tan x ln tan
2 4
a
a a a
a a
| | t | |
= + = +
| |
\ .
\ .
}

2 2
1 x
arccos xdx xarccos x
a
a a
a

=
}

( )
1 1 x
csc xdx ln csc x cot x ln tan
2
a
a a a
a a
| |
= =
|
\ .
}

( )
3 2
2 2 2
2 2
dx x
x
x
a a
a
=
+
+
}

( )
2 x sin2 x
sin x dx
2 4
a
a
a
=
}

( )
3 2
2 2
2 2
xdx 1
x
x
a
a
=
+
+
}

- 1 -

a) Electric charge and spin affect electromagnetic interaction.

b) The electric field vector at a certain
position r

is a vector ( ) r E

## such that the

electric force exerted on a particle with
charge q, placed at this position, would
be
E F
el

q =

c) Electric potential ( ) r

V at position r

## is a number such that the

electric potential energy ( ) r

## U of a particle with charge q placed at this

location would be

( ) ( ) r r

qV U =

d) The net electric flux through any closed
(Gaussian) surface is proportional to the
total charge inside the surface.

0
in
S
q
c
=
}
A d E

(The proportionality constant c
0
is called the
permittivity of a free space.)

(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
F
+
E

-
E

F
- 2 -

b) There are three forces exerted on each particle
(sphere): gravitational force W exerted by the
earth, tension force T exerted by the string, and the
electrostatic force F
el
exerted by the other particle.
In equilibrium, the net force exerted on each
particle (sphere) has a zero value. Consistently with
the figure, this condition requires that the forces
exerted on the right hand side particle satisfy
| | | | | | | | 0 , 0 , 0 0 , cos T , sin T 0 , mg , 0 0 , 0 , F
el
= u u + +
This vector equation leads to two nontrivial equations with two
unknowns

el
F sin T = u
mg cos T = u
From which the magnitude of the electrostatic force is
( ) N 10 6 . 2 5 tan
s
m
8 . 9 kg 10 3 tan mg F
2
2
2
el

=
|
.
|

\
|
= u =

c) From Coulombs law, the electrostatic force exerted on the right
hand side particle depends on the charge of the particles and their
relative location. For the x-component of the force

( )
2
2
el
sin L 2
q
k F
u
=
Solving for the charge
nC 44
C
Nm
10 9
N 10 6 . 2
5 sin m 15 . 0 2
k
F
sin L 2 q
2
2
9
2
el
~

= u =

It is not possible to determine the sign of the charge. As long as the
charges of the spheres are like they will repel each other.

u u
u
L
L
x
y
T
W
F
el
(0.4)
(0.5)
(0.3)
- 3 -

a) The magnitude of the electric field is
given in the problem
C
kN
10 E =
Consistently with indicated coordinate
system, from the definition of the electric
field vector the force exerted on the electron
is
i i i E F

N 10 6 . 1

C
N
10 1 C 10 6 . 1

eE e
15 4 19
= = = =

b) Both electric potential and electric field vector describe electric field.
They are therefore related. If the electric field is known in certain region
(along a line between two points) the potential difference between these
two points is opposite the linear integral of the electric field along this
line. For simplicity we can consider a straight line from the initial to the
final location of the electron
kV 1 m 1 . 0
C
N
10 1 EL dx ) E ( V V V
4
L
0 line
= = = = = =
} } +
ds E

c) From the definition of potential and potential energy, the electrostatic
work performed on the electron is related to the potential difference
between the two plates
( ) ( ) eV V V e U W
el el
= = A = A
+

Assuming (reasonable) that the contribution of other interactions is
insignificant, the final speed can be determined from the work-energy
theorem and the definition of kinetic energy of a particle
s
m
10 8 . 1
kg 10 11 . 9
V 1000 C 10 6 . 1 2
m
eV 2
m
K 2
m
K 2
v
7
31
19
~

= =
A
= =

+

x
y
E
F
V
-
V
+
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
- 4 -

a) The linear charge density () of this
object is related to the charge (dq) of the
differential fragment of the object and the size
of this piece (length dl). For uniformly
charged bodies the ratio of differentials can be
replaced by the total values of both quantities.
L
Q
dl
dq
= =

b) In order to find the electric potential at a
certain location we must add electric potential due to all "point
charges" in the body. A contribution dV to the electric potential (with
the reference point at infinity), due to a differential fragment dl is
| =

= = d
L
kQ
dl
r
k
r
dq
k dV
Finding the total potential requires integration in limits from 0 to t.
L
kQ
d
L
kQ
dV V
0 body
t
= | = =
} }
t

c) In order to find the electric field we must add (vectorially) electric
fields created by all "point charges" in the body. A contribution E d to
the electric field, due to a differential fragment dl, can be found from
Coulomb's law.
| | | | | | | | |
t
= | |

= | | = d cos , sin
L
kQ
cos , sin
r
dl k
cos , sin
r
kdq
2 2 2
E d

Hence the electric field produced by the entire body is

| | | | 0 , 1
L
kQ 2
d cos , d sin
L
kQ
d cos , sin
L
kQ
2
0 0
2
0
2
object
t
=
(

| | | |
t
= | | |
t
= =
} } } }
t t t
E d E

x
y
O
dE
dV
|
r
dl
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
(0.3)
- 1 -
- 2 -

u u
- 3 -

- 4 -

x
y
O