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1 REZUMAT

1.1 Introducere

Materialele compozite sunt tot mai folosite n cadrul aplicaiilor mecanice, termice sau
electrice, avnd o larg rspndire. Majoritatea materialelor folosite n viaa de zi cu zi sunt
compozii formai din unul sau mai muli constitueni. Cercettorii au fost atrai de-a lungul timpului
datorit proprietilor mecanice excelente ale materialelor compozite, n special datorit combinaiei
dintre densitatea sczut i rezistena ridicat. n general, compoziii dielectrici sunt reprezentai de
un sistem neomogem, iar n mod comun, compoziii dielectrici bifazici sunt alctuii dintr-un
material gazd cu o incluziune din alt material. Acest tip de dielectrici poate fi un amestec dintre
dielectric-dielectric, dielectric-conductor sau dielectric-semiconductor. La momentul actual de
producie i n dezvoltrile ulterioare, dielectricii au avantajul preciziei procesului de fabricaie care
a devenit din ce n ce mai exact, putnd fabrica materiale pentru scopuri speciale n condiiile dorite.
Chiar dac studiul dielectricilor a nceput cu multe decenii n urm, rezultnd un numr mare
de cri i studii de specialitate, nc este o dorin crescut din partea comunitii de cercetatori n a
explora n continuare acest domeniu. Acest lucru poate fi atribuit industriei software i implicit prin
folosirea calculatoarelor cu ajutorul crora putem obine proprietile dorite ale sistemelor de
izolaie, sau putem estima i corecta erorile prevzute prin simulri software.

1.2 Aspecte Teoretice

1.2.1 Proprietile dielectricilor

Studiul proprietilor dielectricilor utilizai ca izolani electrici prezint o deosebit
importan pentru utilizarea corect a acestora n diferite aplicaii. Introducerea ntr-un agregat a
unui material cu proprieti incompatibile cu mediul n care se afl poate duce la scurtarea duratei lui
de via i la prejudicierea instalaiilor electrice aferente. Solicitrile la care sunt supuse materialele
dielectrice sunt diferite i nu putem astfel s le clasificm n proprieti principale i secundare, fiind
necesar cunoaterea complet a tuturor proprietilor materialului.
Proprietile dielectricilor pot fi grupate n chimice, fizice generale, mecanice, termice i
electrice. Proprietile chimice definesc compatibilitatea materialului cu corpurile cu care vine n
contact, cum ar fi coroziunea, solubilitatea sau indicele de aciditate (caracteristic dielectricilor
lichizi). Printre proprietile fizice putem aminti: porozitatea, permeabilitatea fa de aer,
permeabilitatea la umiditate sau absorbia de ap.
Proprietile mecanice ce trebuie cunoscute sunt: rezistena la tractiune, lungirea specific,
rezistena la compresiune sau duritatea. Proprietile termice prin care se caracterizeaz materialele
dielectrice sunt: cldura specific, conductivitatea termic, coeficientul de transmisie a cldurii,
stabilitatea termic sau mbtrnirea termic.

1.2.2 Polarizaia electric. Constanta dielectric

Michael Faraday a descris pentru prima dat conceptual de polarizaie electric n 1837, cnd
a publicat i primele msurri numerice asupra dielectricilor. El a observat faptul c atunci cnd se
introduce un material dielectric ntre armturile unui condensator, valoarea capacitii sale va crete.
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Permitivitatea electric relativ (constanta dielectric) se definete ca fiind raportul dintre
capacitatea C a unui condensator cu dielectric ntre armtur i valoarea C
0
a aceluiai condensator
plasat n vid.

0
r
C
C
= (1.1)
Cunoscnd susceptivitatea electric ca fiind
0
0 0
e
C C C
C C


= = putem defini urmtoarea
relaie:
1
r e
= + (1.2)
Susceptivitatea electric i permitivitatea relativ sunt mrimi macoscopice, adimensionale.
Creterea capacitii condensatorului este strns legat de aptitudinea materialului de a se polariza n
cmp prin rotirea moleculelor sau prin deplasarea n sens opus a sarcinilor pozitive i negative. Mai
exact, vectorul polarizaie i permitivitatea relativ sunt legate prin urmtoarea relaie:

( 1) ( )
o e o r o
P E E E = = = (1.3)




Figura 1-1 Mecanisme de polarizare: a) polarizaie electronic b) polarizaie ionic c)
polarizaie de orientare d) polarizaie interfacial



1.2.3 Tipuri de amestecuri dielectrice

Dielectricii neomogeni sunt foarte mult utilizai n sistemele de izolaie i n alte aplicaii
practice, deoarece rspund mai bine la solicitarile de diferit natur crora trebuie s le fac fa
(electrice, mecanice, termice etc.) Un dielectric neomogen este un amestec ntre doi sau mai muli
dielectrici omogeni. Unii autori grupeaz amestecurile dielectrice dup distribuia componentelor lor
astfel: statistice, matriciale i compoziii structurale.
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n cazul amestecurilor statistice distribuia particulelor de natur diferit se face haotic,
putnd spune ca n acest fel nu se formeaz o structur regulat. n aceast categorie intr
amestecurile de lichide electroizolante sau glazurile ceramice.
La amestecurile matriceale se constat o matrice continu la o orice concentraie a fazei de
dispersie. Particulele nu au contact fizic ntre ele. Uneori amestecul matriceal poate fi considerat un
caz separat de amestec statistic de dou componente, n care o faz este n proporie foarte mic n
amestec i particulele acesteia nu au contact unul cu altul. Acest tip de amestec este specific
materialelor composite.
Compoziiile structurale formeaz structuri ordonate dup plane sau dup volum.
Principalele compoziii structurale cunoscute sunt stratificatele si materialele fibroase. Amestecul
omogen de dielectrici diferii prezint aceleai proprieti n orice volum suficient de mic din
materialul considerat.
Amestecul sub form de dispersie de particule este considerat ca fiind format dintr-un
dielectric de tip gazd n care sunt dispersate particule sferice de aceeai raz distribuite ordonat.
Sistemul este asemntor cu cel al amestecului matriceal. Cnd concentraia incluziunilor este foarte
mic poate fi considerat i amestec omogen de doi dielectrici.

1.2.3.1 Modelul dielectricului stratificat

Dintre toate tipurile de dielectrici neomogeni acesta este cel mai simplu de studiat. Se
consider un stratificat format din n straturi paralele de dielectrici omogeni cu caracteristici diferite
(grosime i permitivitate), dispuse fie paralel fie perpendicular fa de electrozii condensatorului
plan n care este introdus startificatul.
n funcie de dispunerea paralel sau perpendicular a straturilor, se definete permitivitatea
medie sau efectiv a amestecului ca fiind valoarea permitivitaii unui dielectric omogen fictiv care
dispus ntre armturile condensatorului produce aceeai capacitate ca i dielectricul neomogen pe
care l nlocuiete:


1
1
n
i
i
ms i
q

=
=

;
1
n
mp i i
i
q
=
=

(1.4)

n acelai mod Hasshin Shtrikman au gsit relaile de calcul pentru modele sferice n care o
sfer cu permitivitatea
1
este situat ntr-o sfer de permitivitate
2
, i invers:


2 1
1 2
1 2
1 2 1 1 2 2
1 1
3 3
ef
q q
q q


+ +
+ +

(1.5)

1.2.3.2 Modelul amestecului dielectric sub form de dispersie de particule

Expresia permitivitii medii (efective) pentru un amestec matriceal n care amestecul este un
solid dielectric care ncorporeaza incluziuni separate din al doilea dielectric a fost stabilit de
Maxwell Wagner. Se consider N incluziuni repartizate uniform n interiorul unei sfere S de raza
R>>r
2
. Daca densitatea incluziunilor n sfera S nu este prea mare se poate considera potentialul P
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ntr-un punct P din mediul gazd, ca o sum a contribuiilor fiecrei incluziuni luate separat. Dac se
consider punctul P suficient de departe de sfer, astfel ca R<<r, atunci potenialul n punctul P este:

3
2 1 2
2
1 2
cos
2
NP
r
V NE
r

=
+
(1.6)



Figura 1-2 N particule sferice repartizate uniform intr-o sfera de raza R situata in mediul 1

Considernd sfera S ca find constituit dintr-un dielectric omogen, de permitivitate
necunoscut
m
, contribuia acestei sfere la potenialul P este:


3
1
2
1
cos
2
m
NP
m
R
V E
r

=
+
(1.7)
Comparnd aceste dou relaii i notnd
3
2
3
Nr
q
R
= , raport ce reprezint concentraia volumic
a dielectricului 2 n amestec, rezult permitivitatea medie:


2 1 2 1
1
2 1 2 1
( 2 ) 2 ( )
2 ( )
m
q
q



+ +
=
+
(1.8)

1.2.3.3 Modelul amestecului dielectric cu incluziuni plane (Zaidel)

Zaidel a stabilit o alt expresie a permitivitii medii care a considerat incluziuni plane din
dielectricul de permitivitate
2
dispersate n dielectricul de permitivitate
1
. El a considerat aceste
incluziuni sub forma unor mici placue cu grosimea mult mai mic in raport cu celelalte dimensiuni.
Calculnd valorile medii ale D si E i nlocuind in expresia:


i m i
D E = , (1.9)

rezult expresia permitivitii medii care se poate generaliza pentru N tipuri de incluziuni plane:
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( )
1 1
1
1
1
2
3
1
1 1
3
N
i i
i
m
N
i
i i
q
q

=
=
+
=
| |
+
|
\

(1.10)

Dac se noteaz cu q
0
concentraia substanei de baza astfel nct,
0
1
N
i
i
q
=
=

, relaia de mai
sus se poate scrie sub forma:


2 1
1
1 2
1 2( / )
2 ( / )
m



+
=
+
(1.11)

1.3 Metode numerice utilizate n cazul amestecurilor dielectrice

n cazul amestecurilor dielectrice se disting dou tipuri de probleme: calculul polarizrii
dielectricilor plasai ntr-un camp dat sau determinarea distribuiei potenialului pentru un sistem de
conductoare ncarcate n prezena dielectricilor. n cazul amestecurilor dielectrice problema de cmp
este de primul tip. Pentru abordarea problemelor de calcul a cmpurilor electrice n medii
neomogene ceea mai indicat metod este metoda elementelor finite, att datorit facilitilor de
introducere a condiiilor la limit, a bunei sale precizii, ct i datorit invariaiei formulelor de calcul
cu configuraia geometric analizat.

1.3.1 Metoda elementelor finite

Principiul metodei elementelor finite este bazat pe formularea integral a problemelor cu
derivate pariale. Domeniul se partitioneaz n elemente de mici dimensiuni. La partiionarea
domeniului se respect urmtoarele dou reguli:
Dou elemente distincte nu pot avea n comun dect puncte situate pe frontiera lor comun,
dac aceasta exist. Aceasta condiie exclude suprapunerile. Frontierele pot fi puncte, curbe,
suprafee.
Ansamblul tututor elementelor trebuie s constitue un domeniu ct mai apropiat de domeniul
dat. Se exclude n special spaiile ntre elemente.



Figura 1-3 Elemente utilizate la partiia domeniului de calcul

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1.4 Rezultate experimentale

1.4.1 Date generale

Principalele aspecte studiate n cazul amestecurilor dielectrice sunt: determinarea
permitivitii amestecului cunoscnd permitivitatea componentelor omogene i concentraia lor n
amestec, rspunsul dielectricului n funcie de forma i poziia incluziunilor, precum i apariia
pierderilor maxime i determinarea erorilor. Materialele folosite n sistemele de izolaie sunt
amestecuri dielectrice (dielectrici neomogeni ca stratificatele, materiale compozite, mixturi etc.) care
rezist mai bine la diferite solicitri la care pot fi supuse, mai mult sau mai puin complexe. Se pune
problema realizrii unor materiale cu anumite proprieti mbuntite care s poat fi utilizate n
anumite condiii. Asta se poate realiza proiectnd un amestec care s satisfac cerinele aplicaiei
dorite.
S-a studiat n literatura de specialitate c permitivitatea amestecului este dependent i de
forma incluziunilor, dimensiunile lor, orientarea lor n cmpul electric aplicat i distribuia n
amestec. Simulrile computerizate au reprezentat un mare avantaj n rezolvarea tuturor acestor
probleme, inndu-se cont de toi aceti factori de influen.

1.4.2 Calculul numeric al permitivitii n cmp electrostatic

Avnd n vedere c n cazul amestecurilor dielectrice ne intereseaz n special comportarea
n domeniul frecvenelor joase s-a fcut calculul permitivitii n regim electrostatic, considerndu-
se dielectrici neomogeni plasai n cmp electrostatic uniform. Astfel, parametrul cheie ce trebuie
calculat pentru a determina proprietile dielectrice ale amestecurilor este distribuia cmpului
electric E(x,y,z) n domeniul de calcul. Aa cum s-a descris n partea teoretica a acestui rezumat, cea
mai indicat metod pentru a realiza acest calcul este metoda elementelor finite. Utiliznd produsul
software Maxwell Ansoft care se bazeaz pe metoda elementelor finite, s-a putut calcula cmpul
electric, respectiv inducia electric pentru a determina valoarea permitivitii medii a amestecului
folosind una dintre urmtoarele relaii:

m
D
E
= (1.12)


2
1 1 1
2 2
m
E E Dd


, (1.13)
unde reprezint domeniul de calcul:


1
E Ed


,
1
D Ed


(1.14)

Astfel prima metoda se bazeaz pe determinarea permitivitii medii prin determinarea
cmpului electric mediu i a inductiei electrice medii. Cea de-a doua metod implic calcularea
energiei electrostatice disipat n ntreg domeniul de calcul.
S-a utilizat prima metod iar ca domeniu de calcul s-a ales condensatorul plan n care exist un
cmp electric omogen. Condiiile de frontier aplicate n toate simulrile efectuate sunt prezentate n
figura urmatoare:
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Figura 1-4 Modelul de studiu utilizat si conditiile de frontiera

1.4.3 Modelarea amestecurilor dielectrice cu diferite forme de incluziuni

Cunoscnd faptul c permitivitatea depinde de forma i marimea incluziunii, am studiat n
acest scenariu amestecuri dielectrice cu diferite forme de incluziuni: cilindrice, dreptunghiulare,
ptratice, triunghiulare, elipsoid orientat vertical sau orizontal. Pentru toate cazurile, modelarea s-a
facut n 2D i am considerat o seciune printr-un cilindru, prism, paraleliped sau elipsoid.
Concentraia amestecului a fost considerat q=0.3 %, determinndu-se suprafaa incluziunii n
funcie de q i de suprafata materialului gazd care a fost considerat aceeai pentru toate simulrile.
n mod normal, concentraia depinde de raportul dintre volumele celor dou materiale. Aadar, am
considerat concentraia ca fiind raportul dintre cele dou suprafee:

gazda
/
i incluziune material
q S S =



Figura 1-5 Amestecuri dielectrice cu diferite forme de incluziuni, unde
1

reprezint
permitivitatea mediului gazd, iar
2

reprezint permitivitatea incluziunii




Suprafaa materialului gazd a fost acceai pentru toate simulrile: un ptrat cu latura de 10
m , rezultnd astfel din formula de mai sus o suprafa de 30 m pentru fiecare tip de incluziune.
Avnd desenat modelul de studiat, putem trece la modelarea acestuia. S-au facut dou tipuri de
simulri pentru fiecare dintre incluziunile descrise mai sus. S-a considerat polietilena ca fiind
materialul gazd iar pentru incluziuni s-au considerat dou situaii: o dat, sticla cu permitivitatea
=3.78 i o dat titanat de bariu cu permitivitatea =1000. Polietilena are o permitivitate de
=2.25.

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Tabel 1-1 Variatia permitivitii n funcie de forma i materialul incluziunii, unde
1 eff

reprezint permitivitatea
efectiv (medie) a amestecului format din polietilena cu incluziuni de sticl (
1

=2.25,
2

=3.78) , iar
2 eff


reprezint permitivitatea medie a amestecului format din polietilena cu incluziuni din titanat de bariu
(
1

=2.25,
2

=1000).
1

reprezint permitivitatea materialului gazd iar


2

permitivitatea incluziunilor.

/forma incluziunii
1 eff

2 eff

Cilindric 2.611893226 4.066342398
Dreptunghiular 2.626417563 4.589550387
Ptratic 2.615193870 4.278775943
Triunghiular 2.619990037 5.254818519
Elipsoid Orizontal 2.339934803 2.723327579
Elipsoid Vertical 2.328272277 2.519362426

Tabel 1-2 Variaia erorii n funcie de forma incluziunii i tipul amestecului

/forma incluziunii Eroarea% /
1 eff
Eroarea% /
2 eff

Cilindric 0.0595 0.4650
Dreptunghiular 0.0993 0.7690
Ptratic 0.1010 0.0572
Triunghiular 0.1000 0.3130
Elipsoid Orizontal 0.5470 0.0621
Elipsoid Vertical 0.6170 0.0543

1.4.4 Modelarea amestecurilor matriceale

Pentru amestecurile matriceale s-au considerat dou siutaii. Pentru prima situatie am
considerat o structur ordonat de incluziuni cilindrice, iar pentru a doua situaie o structur
dezordonat de incluziuni cilindrice. n cazul fiecrei dintre cele dou situaii am considerat
polietilena ca i material gazd, cu o permitivitate de 2.25, iar pentru incluziunile cilindrice am luat
din nou dou situaii: prima situaie cu incluziune din sticl de permitivitate 3.78, iar n a doua
situaie incluziuni din titanat de bariu cu permitivitatea de 1000.



a) structur ordonat b) structur dezordonat

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Figura 1-6 Amestecuri matriceale cu incluziuni: a) structur ordonat b) structur
dezordonat

Cunoscnd concentraia amestecului ca fiind de 0.4, i latura unui patrat ca fiind de 10
microni am putut afla, astfel, dimensiunea unei incluziuni cilindrice din urmtoarea formul:


2 2
/
i
q r l = [%] (1.15)
Tabel 1-3 Variaia permitivitii n funcie de concentraie i tipul incluziunii.
1 eff

reprezint permitivitatea
medie (efectiv) a amestecului cnd materialul gazd este polietilena iar incluziunile sunt din sticl
(
1

=2.25,
2

=3.78) , iar
2 eff

reprezint permitivitatea medie cnd materialul gazd este polietilena iar


incluziunile sunt din titanat de bariu (
1

=2.25,
2

=1000).
1

reprezint permitivitatea mediului gazd i


2

a
incluziunilor.

Concentraia q % /structur matriceal
1 eff

2 eff

0.4 Ordonat 2.752042924 5.085069146
0.4 Dezordonat 2.754186525 5.216091304
0.099 Ordonat 2.364426288 2.725865857
0.099 Dezordonat 2.364502187 2.727342757

Table 1-4 Variaia erorii n cazul unui amestec matriceal n funcie de concentraie i tipul incluziunilor

Concentraia q % /structur matriceal Eroarea % /
1 eff
Eroarea % /
2 eff

0.4 Ordonat 0.000605 0.002190
0.4 Dezordonat 0.000658 0.002290
0.099 Ordonat 0.000902 0.002200
0.099 Dezordonat 0.001160 0.002390



a) Structur Ordonat(Incluziuni din sticl) b) Structur Ordonat(Incluziuni din BaTiO3)
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c) Structur dezordonat(Incluziuni din stica) d) Structur Dezordonat(Incluziuni din BaTiO3)

Figura 1-7 Variaia erorii n funcie de numrul de pai, tipul incluziunii i concentraie

1.4.5 Modelarea amestecurilor dielectrice n funcie de distana dintre incluziuni

S-au considerat dou incluziuni cilindrice plasate ntr-un material gazd n form de
dreptunghi cu o lungime de 50 de microni i o lime de 25 microni. Materialul gazd a fost
considerat polietilena cu o permitivitate de 2.25, iar pentru cele dou situaii de incluziuni s-a
considerat sticla cu o permitivitate de 3.78, respectiv titanat de bariu cu o permitivitate mult mai
mare, 1000. Am studiat variaia permitivitii n funcie de distana dintre incluziuni, de la minimum
de 0 microni pn la o distan maxim de 12 ori raza unei incluziuni cilindrice. Raza a fost
considerat de 2 microni.


a) distana d=0 microni b) distana d=24 microni

Figura 1-8 Amestec dielectric cu dou incluziuni cilindrice aflate la o distan de: a) 0 microni
b) 24 microni

Tabel 1-5 Variaia permitivitii n funcie de distana dintre incluziuni, unde
1 eff

reprezint permitivitatea
medie (efectiv) cnd materialul gazd este polietilena iar incluziunile sunt din sticl (
1

=2.25,
2

=3.78) , iar
2 eff

reprezint permitivitatea medie cnd materialul gazd este polietilena iar incluziunile sunt din titanat de
bariu. (
1

=2.25,
2

=1000).
1

reprezint permitivitatea materialului gazd i


2

permitivitatea incluziunilor.

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/distana
1 eff


2 eff


d=0 2.278093619 2.431498328
d=r 2.277027228 2.365913617
d=2r 2.276761658 2.359967690
d=3r 2.276762259 2.357939643
d=4r 2.276782985 2.357184891
d=5r 2.276878173 2.357129213
d=6r 2.277005645 2.357362583
d=7r 2.277203074 2.357950836
d=8r 2.277402008 2.358622804
d=9r 2.277670073 2.359595494
d=10r 2.277932512 2.360597417
d=11r 2.278259099 2.361886507
d=12r 2.278593454 2.363191827


1.4.6. Modelarea amestecurilor dielectrice n funcie de concentraie

Cunoscnd concentraia amestecului am putut determina dimensiunile incluziunilor. S-a
considerat o concentraie de 0.05 a unui material gazd cu 5 incluziuni cilindrice. Permitivitatea
materialului gazd a fost luat de 2.25, aceasta fiind permitivitatea polietilenei, iar incluziunile au
fost alese drept sticla cu o permitivitate de 3.78, respectiv titanat de bariu cu o permitivitate de 1000.
Formula de mai jos prezint metoda folosit pentru determinarea razei unei incluziuni cilindrice:


2
2 2
5
incluziune i
i
gazda
N S q r
q r
S l l

= = = (1.16)
Tabel 1-6 Variaia permitiviti n funcie de concentraia incluziunilor, unde
1 eff

reprezint permitivitatea
medie (efectiva) a amestecului format din polietilena drept material gazd cu incluziuni din sticla
(
1

=2.25,
2

=3.78) , iar
2 eff

reprezint permitivitatea compozitului format din polietilen cu incluziuni din


titanat de bariu (
1

=2.25,
2

=1000).
1

reprezint permitivitatea materialului gazd i


2

a incluziunilor.

Concentraie/q %
1 eff

2 eff

0.1 2.364464817 2.733126868
0.15 2.425284262 3.000804975
0.20 2.490959193 3.103327554
0.25 2.553108290 3.702588906
0.35 2.683325479 4.530542638
0.45 2.824619176 5.863116344

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a) incluziuni din sticl b) incluziuni din BaTiO3

Figura 1-9 Variaia potentialului electric a unui amestec dielectric cu cinci incluziuni
cilindirce: a) incluziuni din sticl b)incluziuni din titanat de bariu


1.5 Concluzii

Avnd n vedere faptul c majoritatea tipurilor de materiale utilizate n sistemele de izolaie
sunt amestecuri formate din mai muli dielectrici omogeni, trebuie s remarcm faptul c fac fa
mai bine solicitarilor complexe la care sunt supuse (electrice, termice, mecanice etc.), avantajul lor
fiind posibilitatea de a fi proiectate pentru anumite scopuri sau condiii. Metodele experimentale
presupun timp i bani, dar printr-o modelare numeric folosind simularile computerizate se pot
estima proprietile materialelor dielectrice, respectiv corectarea, din timp, a eventualelor erori.
Folosind Maxwell Ansoft s-a facut n lucrarea de fa o modelare a amestecurilor dielectrice
plasate n cmp electrostatic omogen pentru determinarea permitivitii medii sau efective a
acestora. S-a studiat variaia permitivitii n funcie de forma incluziunii, concentraia incluziunilor,
distana dintre incluziuni sau poziionarea ordonat/dezordonat a incluziunilor ntr-un amestec de
tip matriceal. S-au verficat rezultatele numerice cu ajutorul metodelor analitice de tipul Maxwell
Wagner. S-a observat o cretere a erorii n cazut unei concentraii mai mici a incluziunilor, sau n
cazul unui amestec ordonat fa de cel ordonat. Pentru toate tipurile de simulari menionate mai sus
s-a calculat permitivitatea amestecului att pentru incuziuni de permitivitate apropiat de cea a
materialului gazda ct i pentru incluziuni de permitivitate foarte mare.











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2. STATE OF THE ART

3. THEORETICAL FUNDAMENTALS

3.1 Introduction

Nowadays, composite materials are widely used within mechanical, thermal or electrical
applications worldwide. Most of the materials often used in our daily life are actually composites
made up of at least two constituents. Researchers have been attracted along the time because of the
outstanding mechanical properties of composite materials, and especially the combination of low
density with high strength. In general, composite dielectrics are represented by a heterogeneous
system and commonly two-phase composite dielectrics consist of a host material with an inclusion
of another material. This type of dielectrics could be a mixture of dielectric-dielectric, dielectric-
conductor or dielectric-semiconductor. Composites have the advantage that during the current and
future developments, the precision of the manufacturing has become more and more precise which
implies the fact that we can fabric materials for very special purposes and desired conditions.
Even if the study of dielectrics has started many decades ago and resulted in a large body of
work, there is still an increasing thrill from the research community in further exploring this field.
This is attributed to the software industry and thus by using computers we can achieve the desired
properties of insulation systems, we can estimate them and correct the predicted errors.


3.2 Properties of the Dielectrics

Studying the properties of the dielectrics used as electrical insulators represents a particular
importance for the correct use within various applications. Introducing a material into an aggregate
having incompatible properties with the surrounding medium can shorten its life and affect the
corresponding electric installations. The stresses to which the dielectrics are under are widely
different and thus we cannot consider that dielectrics have principal or secondary properties, because
most of the times these properties are the main cause when choosing a dielectric. Therefore, it is best
to know all of their properties.
We can largely group the properties of the dielectrics into physical, chemical, mechanical,
thermal and electrical. The chemical properties define the compatibility of the material to interact
with other bodies. We can define: corrosion, solubility or acidity index I (characteristic to liquid
dielectrics). Physical properties which present the most interest are: porosity P, air permeability
P
a
, moisture permeability P
u,
humidity U, relative air humidity, water absorption A
a
etc.
Mechanical properties are the following: tensile strength , compressive strength
c
, ductility,
Brinell hardness, Vickers, Mohs or Rockwell (depending on the method used for measuring it)
Thermal properties defined for dielectrics can be the following: specific heat C, thermal
conductivity , thermal expansion , flammability temperature, thermal shock resistance or
thermal stability.
Electrical properties of the dielectrics, as electrical insulators depend on the phenomena
which take place when introducing them into an electric field: electric polarization, conductivity
and insulation pierce. The object of interest of this thesis represents the electrical properties of the
heterogeneous dielectrics, further implying the study of the above phenomena and corresponding
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14
properties: relative electric permittivity
r
, conductivity , volume and surface resistivity,
v
and
s
, loss factor tg and dielectric strength E
str
.


3.3 Electric Polarization and Dielectric Constant

The concept of electric polarization was described for the first time by Michael Faraday in
1837 when he published the first numerical measurements for dielectrics. He noticed the fact that
introducing a dielectric material between the plates of a capacitor with C
0
capacitance, its value will
rise to C. The growth rate is called electric susceptibility and is computed in the following way:


0
0 0
e
C C C
C C


= = (3.1)

The relative electric permittivity (also known as dielectric constant) is defined as the ratio
between the capacitance C of a capacitor with a dielectric material between its plates and the C
0

capacitance value of the same capacitor when placed in vacuum:


0
r
C
C
= (3.2)

From relations 3.1 and 3.2 it results the expression 3.3 which defines the dielectric constant
and the electric susceptibility as being dimensionless measures:

1
r e
= + (3.3)

The capacitance value depends on the ability of the material to get polarized in a field by the
moving of positive and negative charges in opposite directions. The polarization vector and
permittivity are connected through the following relation:

( 1) ( )
o e o r o
P E E E = = = (3.4)

Where
o
represents the permittivity of the vacuum,
r
represents the relative permittivity
and represents the absolute permittivity of the material used as a dielectric. The above relation is
also known as the law of temporal polarization.


3.3.1 Electric Polarization Mechanisms

We can consider as dielectrics the materials in which the electrons are tightly connected to
their atoms such that they are not responsible for a significant electric current. Having the fact that
the charges present in the dielectric materials are not free, it doesnt mean at all that they cannot
roam from each other under the action of an electric current, causing the occurrence of electric
dipoles, thus an electric polarization of the matter.
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Considering the atomic structure, all the matter consists of positive and negative charged
particles. Their charges are macroscopically balanced; therefore the lack of an internal electric field
leads to a neutral charge of the matter. When applying an electric field, the balance of the charges is
disturbed by the temporal polarization mechanisms. In this case the electric dipoles occur because of
the opposite direction movement of the positive and negative charges.
In the case of heterogeneous materials we can observe an interfacial polarization as a
consequence of the appearance of electric charges on the surfaces which separate the homogenous
parts, causing a supplementary electric field which creates an extra temporal polarization.
The electronic polarization is due to the movement of atomic electrons against the nucleus of
the atom. It is present in all materials, even if in some of them to such a small extent that it can be
neglected (the case of metals or materials made of atoms that have lost their bonding electrons), it is
also achieved in a very small amount of time and it maintains itself at very high frequencies (10
15

Hz), being also known as optical polarization. If the atoms no longer have electrons on their outer
electronic layer, the polarization that appears through the movement of the electrons from the inner
layers is very low (the inner atoms have very strong bonds with the nucleus) and the polarization can
maintain itself at even higher frequencies (10
19
Hz).
Ionic polarization can only be met in materials with ionic bonds, it is due to the opposite
movement of the positive and negative ions, it is achieved in a relatively longer period than the
electronic one and it maintains itself at 10
13
- 10
14
Hz.
In polar materials, the field tends to orient the spontaneous dipolar moment Pp (the electric
moment of molecules) to its direction, a situation in which the potential energy of the dipole is
minimum. Thermal agitation opposes the orienting action of the field and thus, not all the electric
moments of the molecules are oriented according to the direction of the field. This is called
orientation polarization and it is achieved in a significantly longer period than the one of the
movement polarizations. Beside this phenomenon of orientation, the electric field can modify the
dipolar moment of the molecule through its own and her orbital deformation.
Interfacial polarization is important in the dielectric materials that contain load carriers that
can migrate on a certain distance within the thickness of the material (for example, through
diffusion, rapid ionic conduction or interlacing) and, in this way, local accumulations of genuine
electrical load are achieved. Such a change is perceived by an observer as an increase in the capacity
of the assay and can be identified through a real growth in electric permittivity. Interfacial
polarization is the only type of polarization which is followed by a microscopic change of the load
transport (and if the load carriers that migrate are ions, there appears a macroscopic body of
transport. It is achieved in a long period which can be of a couple of minutes or even longer (days).
Movement and orientation polarizations can be studied in models. The diversity of the
mechanisms for the achievement of interfacial polarization do not permit the design of a generally
accepted model, a more profound study on this type of polarization being necessary. According to
the external factor that produces it, the permanent polarization can be: through thermal effect, also
known as spontaneous polarization or piezoelectric (through mechanical effects).
Spontaneous polarization is the dielectric organization that appears in certain temperature
domains, in structures without a centre of symmetry but with a polar axis, in the absence of the outer
field. Among the dielectrics that own this type of polarization, only the ferroelectric crystals have
practical usage, because in their case the direction or the sense of the polarization can be changed
under the action of an electric field.
Piezoelectric polarization appears in structures without a centre of symmetry for electric
loads, being caused by applied mechanical tensions. Under the action of the electric field and other
factors (temperature, luminous flux, radiations etc), quasi-permanent polarization states (of the
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electrets type) with a limit period of existence can appear. Permanent and quasi-permanent
polarizations are accompanied by temporary polarizations.

3.4 Ways to Calculate the Permittivity of Dielectric Mixtures

3.4.1 Types of dielectric mixtures

Heterogeneous dielectrics are widely used in isolation systems and other practical
applications as they have a very positive reaction to various loads (electrical, mechanical, thermal,
chemical etc) which they have to face. An inhomogeneous dielectric is a mixture of two or more
homogenous dielectrics. Their classification is needed for a thorough study of this type of mixtures.
Some authors group these mixtures according to the features of the components distribution in:

Statistical
Matrix
Structural Compositions

The distribution of the particles is done in a chaotic way in the case of statistical mixtures
(according to a statistical repartition), and thus, they do not form a regular structure. This is the case
of electro insulating liquid mixtures, ceramic glazes, compounds etc.
In the case of matrix mixtures, one phase forms a continuous matrix at each concentration of
the dispersed phase. There is no physical contact among the granules or the particles of the
dispersion phase. Sometimes, the matrix mixture can be considered a particular case of a statistical
mixture of two components in which a phase is, to a very little extent, in the mixture and its granules
do not come into contact. This type of mixture is known to be specific to composite materials but its
model can be also applied in the case of those with polycrystalline structure, such as ferrites,
ceramic oxides etc.
In the case of structural compositions the components form structures ordered according to
chains, plane or volume. The most widely known structural compositions are the stratified and the
fibrous materials.
The homogenous mixture of different dielectrics is the blend which exhibits the same
properties in any small enough volume of the considered material. The mixture in the form of
particles dispersion is considered as being formed from a host dielectric in which spherical particles
of the same radius are dispersed, orderly distributed. The system is similar to the matrix mixture.
When the concentration of the inclusions is low, it can be considered a homogenous mixture of two
dielectrics.
The way to calculate (analytically or numerically) the average or actual permittivity of the
mixture will be chosen according to the type of mixture, the analytical formulas suggested by
various authors being different for statistical mixture or the matrix ones.

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Figure 3-1 Different arrangements for combination of two media []


3.5 Analytical Calculation Methods for the Permittivity of Mixtures

3.5.1 Classical approaches

In classical approaches, the calculation of average or actual permittivity of the
inhomogeneous dielectric is done by either using equivalent schemes (in simple treatments,
available for the simple distributions of the phases) or theories of the average field (actual) or
theories similar to these with molecular approaches or considering a regular ordering of the
inclusions. It is considered a physical mixture, in which the components do not chemically interact.
Moreover, the granules that contain a high enough number of molecules are taken into consideration
(with the exception of molecular approaches) and which are also homogenous and isotropic, with
constant characteristics in their entire volume.
The calculation of the permittivity of mixture on the basis of the permittivity of the
components and their concentration is done by using various models.
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3.5.1.1 The Model of the Stratified Dielectric

This is the most simple and the easiest model to study among the ones suggested for
inhomogeneous dielectrics.
The following is taken into consideration: a stratified dielectric formed of n parallel layers of
homogenous dielectrics with different characteristics (thickness d
i
and permittivity
i
), arranged
against the electrodes of the plane condenser in which the stratified dielectric is introduced either
parallel to them ( figure 3-2. a) or perpendicularly (figure 3-2. b) The schemes that correspond to the
two types of arrangements contain: n condensers C
i
=
i
A/d
i
, connected in series or, in the second
case, n condensers of C
i
=
i
A/d
i
capacity, connected in parallel. In the written relations, A(A
i
) is the
area of the plates of the condenser and d(d
i
) is the thickness of the dielectric between the plates.



Figure 3-2 Stratified dielectric consisting of n layers. a layers are parallel with the
plates of the capacitor. b layers are perpendicular on the capacitors plates.

The average or actual permittivity of the inhomogeneous dielectric can be defined as the
value of the permittivity of a fictive homogenous dielectric that, if placed between the plates of the
condenser produces the same capacity as the inhomogeneous dielectric which it replaces.
The equivalent capacity that corresponds to a series connection of the condensers is:
1 1
1 1
n n
i
i i
s i i ms
d d
C C A A
= =
= = =

, out of which the following results:


1
1
n
i
i
ms i
q

=
=

(3.5)

In the above relation, q
i
is the volume proportion of the i dielectric in the mixture:
i i
i
V d
q
V d
= =
Similarly, in the parallel connection of the condensers, we have:
1 1
n n
mp
i i
p i
i i
A
A
C C
d d

= =
= = =

, out of which the following results:

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19

1
n
mp i i
i
q
=
=

(3.6)

where the volume proportion is calculated with the
i
i
A
q
A
= relation.
The 2.1. relation is the one used in the calculation of the average permittivity of most
stratified dielectrics in isolation systems: pertinax, pressboard, polymer paper, solid dielectrics
impregnated with dielectric liquids etc.
The model of the stratified dielectric with two components is also known as the Maxwell-
Wagner model because they were the ones to use it for the first time for the study of relaxation and
the models shown in figure 3-2 are also known as the Wiener models.
Similarly, Hashin-Shtrikman found the calculation relation in the case of the spherical
models in figures 3-3, a and b:



2 1
1 2
1 2
2 1 1 2 1 2
,
1 1
3 3
ef ef
q q
and
q q


= + = +
+ +

(3.7)


Figure 3-3 The models of Hashin-Shtrikman: a dielectric sphere with permittivity
1

situated in a sphere with permittivity
2
; b dielectric sphere with permittivity
2
situated in a
sphere with permittivity
1
.

The above mentioned models (for two components with a different arrangement against the
electrodes-figure 3-2 a and b) have the following limits:

Wienners inequalities:

1 2
1 1 2 2
2 1 1 2
ef
q q
q q



+
+
(3.8)

Hashin-Shtrikmans inequalities

2 1
1 2
1 2
1 2 1 1 2 2
1 1
3 3
ef
q q
q q


+ +
+ +

(3.9)
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3.5.1.2 Theories of the Average Electric Field

The theories based in the concept of actual electric field or main electric field are widely
used to interpret the experimental results on the permittivity of dielectric mixtures.
These approaches of the average field mean that out of the two phases, the inclusion one is
dispersed inside the other one which constitutes the matrix (the hosting medium). Thus, it is
included in the other phase in such a way that they are both imbedded in the same actual medium.
The average value of the electric filed in such a medium, supposedly organized, represents the
average field, on the basis of which the average value of the polarization in the dielectric mixture is
determined. The method of calculation implies the determination of the average value of the field
and of the electric induction in the inhomogeneous dielectric and the average permittivity of the
mixture is determined form the law of the binding between D, E and P, written for the supposedly
homogenous dielectric.
It is obvious that taken into account these suppositions, the resulted relations are thoroughly
experimentally verified for low values of the concentration of the inclusion phase or for the close
values of the dielectric constants of the two mediums. The relations obtained from this approach of
the problem of actual permittivity of the mixture are various, each researchers taking into
consideration other simplifying hypotheses.


3.5.1.3 The Model of the Homogenous Mixture of Two Dieletrics

A. Spherical Inclusions

Bttcher established a relation to calculate the average permittivity of such a mixture in the
hypothesis that the two mediums are formed from small spheres sunk in the permittivity dielectric

m
. He also considered that the second dielectric has a smaller concentration and the difference
between the permittivities of the two components is also small.
By calculating the average polarization in the homogenous mixture, with the following
relation:


0 0
( )
m e m
P E E = = (3.10)

we come to the conclusion that the former is the mean value of the polarizations in the two
mediums:


2 1
(1 )
m
P qP q P = + (3.11)

By solving the problem of the dielectric sphere of permittivity
1
or
2
, placed in the
dielectric with
m
permittivity in an initially uniform field of E intensity, and by integrating the
Laplace equation, the followings are obtained for the field inside the spheres:


1 2
1 2
3 3
, ,
2 2
m m
m m
E E and E E


= =
+ +
(3.12)

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By calculating the P
1
and P
2
polarizations of the two components and replacing in (3.11), the
followings result:


0 2 0 1 0
2 1
3 3
( ) ( ) (1 )( )
2 2
m m
m
m m
E q E q E



= +
+ +
(3.13)

thus obtaining the Bttcher relation:


1 2 1
2
3 2
m
m m
q



=
+
(3.14)




B. Ellipsoidal Inclusions

Starting form Bttchers hypotheses, an expression of the permittivity of the mixture with
inclusions of ellipsoidal form has been established. Identical ellipsoids with the big axis parallel to
the direction of the applied field have been considered. By integrating Laplaces equation, the
expression of the electric field of ellipsoids is obtained:


1 2
1 2
1 1
, ,
1 (0) 1 (0)
m m
m m
E E
E and E
A A


= =

+ +
(3.15)

The polarizations in the two mediums are calculated with the following relations:


1 0
1 1 0 1
1
1
( )
( )
1 (0)
m
m
E
P E
A


= =

+
(3.16)

2 0
2 2 0 2
2
1
( )
( )
1 (0)
m
m
E
P E
A


= =

+
(3.17)

where
1 2
0
(0)
2 ( )
abc d
A
a R

=
+

and a, b, c are the dimensions of the three axes of the ellipsoid.


The average polarization of the dielectric mixture is calculated with the (3.11) relation and
the expression of the permittivity results as the following:


1 2 1
2
( ) (0)
m
m m m
q
A



=
+
(3.18)


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3.5.1.4 The Model of the Mixture in the Form of Particle Dispersion

Maxwell-Wagner have established the expression of the average permittivity of a matrix
mixture in the situation of a mixture that is a solid dielectric incorporating the separate inclusions
(without physical contact) of the second dielectric. The hosting medium was considered to be of
1

permittivity and the dispersion one is formed of spherical particles of
2
permittivity.
Starting from the influence of a single particle on the dielectric medium, evaluated in terms
of a perturbation of the electric potential, the permittivity of the mixture is calculated by summing
up the effects produced by all the dispersed particles.
The case of the spherical inclusion in a uniform field of E intensity, a field established in the
hosting medium considered homogenous in the absence of the inclusion, is a problem of an
electrostatic field, a problem which can be solved by separating the variables.



Figure 3-4 N spherical particles with permittivity
2
uniformly distributed in a sphere
with radius R, situated in the medium with permittivity
1
.

When the permittivity of the hosting medium is bigger than the one of the inclusion, the
intensity of the electric filed in it is higher than in the matrix medium. This is of utmost importance
in the case of the gas bubbles (especially air) which are present in the dielectrics, because in these,
due to the intensifying of the field and the lower rigidity of the gases, partial discharges may appear
which, in time, lead to perforation.
Further on, the following is taken into consideration: N inclusions uniformly distributed
inside a S sphere with a R>>r
2
radius, situated in the medium of dispersion 1 (figure 3-4)
If the density of the S inclusions is not too big, the potential in a P point, inside medium 1
can be expressed, as a sum of the contributions of each inclusion taken separately. If the P point is
considered as far enough from the big sphere, in such a way that R<<r, then the potential in P is:


3
2 1 2
2
1 2
cos
2
NP
r
V NE
r

=
+
(3.19)

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Considering the S sphere as incorporating a homogenous dielectric of an unknown
m
permittivity, the contribution of this sphere to the potential in P is:


3
1
2
1
cos
2
m
NP
m
R
V E
r

=
+
(3.20)

By comparing the previous two relations, the following results:


3 3 1 2 1
2
2 1 1
2 2
m
m
Nr R



=
+ +
(3.21)

With the
3
2
3
Nr
q
R
= notation, a ratio that represents the volume concentration of dielectric two
in the mixture, the following results:


2 1 2 1
1
2 1 2 1
( 2 ) 2 ( )
2 ( )
m
q
q



+ +
=
+
(3.22)

The closer the dielectric constants of the components of the mixture are, the better the
experimental verification of the (3.20) equation, known as the Maxwell-Wagner relation becomes,
because in these conditions, the overlapping of the effects is better verified.


3.5.1.5 The Model of the Mixture with Fine Dispersion of the Inclusions (The
Landau-Lifchitz model)

L. Landau and E. Lifchitz took into consideration a homogenous mixture with fine
dispersion (emulsion, powder mixture etc) in which the electric field can be taken as a mean in high
volumes in comparison with the dimensions of the inhomogeneities. In comparison with the
considered average field, the mixture presents itself as a homogenous and isotropic medium,
characterized by an average
m
permittivity. If E and D are the average values of the field and the
induction, the following can be written:


m
D E = (3.23)

Considering all the components of the mixture as isotropic and with small differences
between their permittivities and against the average permittivity, the latter can be calculated in a
general form, with a precision that reaches rank 2 terms in relation to the mentioned differences.
The local value of the intensity of the electric filed can be written under the following
form: E E E = + , and the local value of the electric permittivity under the following form:

= + , where

can be defined as the following relation:



1
dv
v
=

(3.24)
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The (3.24) relation represents a mediation on volume v. In these conditions, the average
value of the induction can be obtained from the following expression:

( )( ) D E E E E = + + = + (3.25)

because, according to the definitions of and E , their mediated values are null. In the rank 0
approximation

m
= , the first corrective non-zero term is of rank 2 in relation to , as it is shown
in relation (3.25)
By writing the unmediated equation of the local form of the law of electric induction
0 divD = , for a precision that reaches rank 1 terms, the following can be obtained:

( )( ) 0 div E E div E E + + = + = , or by replacing E grad V = , it results that:

V E = (3.26)

By applying to the last relation the gradient operation, the following results:


1
( ) E E

= (3.27)

The mediation of the E product in the relation (3.25) can be done in two phases: a
mediation according to the volume of the particles of the same substance (taking a constant value for
) and then a mediation according to all the components of the mixture. The mediated value of
E can be easily obtained from the relation (3.27), because of the isotropy of the mixture in
general.
After the mediation of both terms of relation (3.27), the following is obtained:


1
3 3
E
E E E

= =

Multiplying with and mediating according to the components of the mixture, the
following results:

( )
2
3
E
E

=

Replacing in relation (3.25) and comparing with the expression in (3.23), the following
expression is obtained:

( )

2
3
m

= (3.28)

The expression in (3.28) can be presented in a different form if it is noted that for a precision
that reaches rank 2 terms:

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1/3 1/3
1
n
m i i
i
q
=
=

(3.29)


The Landau-Lifchitz relation was established without taking into consideration the form of
the inclusions and it is valid in the conditions of small concentration of the dispersed dielectric.


3.5.1.6 The Model of the Dielectric Mixture with Plane Inclusions (The Zaidel
Model)

Another expression of the average permittivity was obtained by R.M. Zaidel who took into
consideration plane inclusions from the dielectric of permittivity
2
dispersed in the dielectric of
permittivity
1
. He considered these inclusions under the form of small plates whose thickness was
far smaller than the other dimensions so that in their interior the electric field is identical to that from
the infinite plane stratum. In this approximation, the presence of the plane particles does not disturb
the homogenous field
0
E in the basic dielectric. Noting with n the unit normal at the surface of
separation, the E
1
field in the interior of the plane particle (which satisfies the conditions at the limit
on this surface) can be written as follows:

1
1 0 0
2
( 1) ( ) E E n E n

= +

or in Cartesian system:

1
1 0
2
( 1) ,
i i i k ok
E E n n E

= +

where i=1,2,3. The k index means the 1 to 3 summation. The components of the induction vector in
various fields are:


1 i oi
D E =
1 2 1 2
( )
i oi i k ok
D E n n E = +

In the mean calculation according to values
i
E and
i
D , the n vectors for various planes can
be considered as probably equally distributed in any direction. In this situation, the dielectric can be
considered isotropic, characterized by
m
average permittivity, determined by the following relation:


i m i
D E = (3.30)

The integration for separate domains which reunite comes to multiplying D or E with the
volume of the given. For a q concentration of the dielectric with plane inclusions, the following is
obtained:

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1
2
1 1
3
i oi
q
E E

( | |
= +
( |
\
(3.31)
( )
1 2 1
2
3
i oi
q
D E
(
= +
(

(3.32)

Replacing in (3.30) the expressions of the average field and of the average induction the
expression of the permittivity is obtained under the following form:


( )
1 2 1
1
2
2
3
1 1
3
m
q
q

+
=
| |
+
|
\
(3.33)

The (3.33) formula can be generalized for N types of plane impurities:


( )
1 1
1
1
1
2
3
1
1 1
3
N
i i
i
m
N
i
i i
q
q

=
=
+
=
| |
+
|
\

(3.34)

where
i
, q
i
are the permittivity and respectively, the concentration of the i component of the
dielectric mixture.
If we use q
0
to note the concentration of the basic substance, so that
0
1
N
i
i
q
=
=

and we
consider the following function:
1
( ) ( )
N
i i
i
f f q
=
=

the (3.34) relation can be expressed under the


following form:


2 1
1
1 2
1 2( / )
2 ( / )
m



+
=
+
(3.35)

The obtained results can be applied even when the particles of impurity are not plane but
their thickness is small in comparison to the radial curves. For the flat dielectric ellipsoid, if
i
>>
1
,
the obtained formulae will be correct if the dimensions of the i species plan respect the following
conditions:
1
i
H
i
i
L

<<






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3.6 Numerical methods for the calculation of the electric field in the dielectric
mixtures

3.6.1 A general presentation of the calculation methods for the dielectric fields

Two types of problems can be taken into consideration for the configuration of conductors
which are in electrostatic balance in a dielectric in which the load distribution is known. The first
one is a determination of the potential in any point of the dielectric and on the surface of the
conductors, the loads that charge them being known and the second one is the determination of the
loads of the conductors when their potentials are known. The methods that can be employed to solve
these problems of dielectric field can be classified in: analytical, numerical, graphical, and
respectively graphical-analytical and analogical methods.
The main analytical methods are: the direct method, the one of integrating the Poisson-
Laplace equations through the separation of the variables, the one of electrical images, of
geometrical inversion (Kelvin), of functions of complex variable, of conform transformations and
the one of Green functions.
The direct method is mainly applied for load repartitions in the isotropic dielectric, linear and
homogenous, of constant permittivity and which occupies the infinite space or finite domains edged
by equipotential surfaces. It is based on Coulombs experiments and uses the principle of action and
reaction and the one of superposition of the effects.
In the method of electrical images, the massive conductors are replaced with image loads
which are distributed inside their surfaces so that the field remains unchanged in the exterior of the
conductors.
The method of geometrical inversion uses the properties of geometrical inversion in plane or
space against a circle or sphere in order to determine the electrostatic field of some configurations of
conductors when the distribution of the potential in the reversed configuration is known.
The method of complex functions and conform transformations is applied when solving
problems of plane field the parallels, in domains where the Laplace equation is respected.
Separating the real and imaginary functions of a complex function and equating them with a
constant, the possible field configurations are determined. A conform transformation allows the
solving of relative problems at a girth which limits a certain domain through a transformation which
makes either the superior semi plane, or a circle to correspond to this domain. In particular, the
Schwartz-Cristoffel transformation gives correspondence between the superior semi plane and the
interior or the exterior of a polygon. The method of the Green functions uses the principle of
superposition in order to calculate the potential of a load repartition through the superposition of the
elementary potentials established by elementary loads.
The most widely used of the numerical methods are: the method of the finite differences and
the ones based on variational principles (Ritz-Galerkin, the method of finite elements etc). These
methods can be applied to any field configuration, the obtained precision varying according to the
method applied, the step of discretization and the capacity of the used calculator.
A clear distinction between the numerical and the analytical methods cannot be made.
Through the method of separating the variables differential equations are obtained whose
solutioning is possible only numerically or series of functions whose calculation needs the calculator
use. Solving integral equations can, often be made only numerically


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3.6.2 Numerical methods used in the case of dielectric mixtures

There are two types of problems in the study of the field in dielectrics: the calculation of the
polarization of the dielectrics placed in a given field or the determination of the distribution of the
potential for a system of loaded conductors in the presence of dielectrics. The latter is more
complicated because the dielectric acts on the initial distribution of loads on conductors.
In the case of dielectric mixtures there is a first type of field problem. If the components of
the mixture are considered to be linear, homogenous dielectrics, of constant permittivity, placed in a
given field, the electric potential will satisfy a Poisson or Laplace equation in any sub-domain
according to whether the dielectric is or is not electrically loaded.
The following models can be used in order to solve a field problem: the separation of the
variables, the complex functions, the conform transformation, the plane or geometrical inversion, the
numerical ones.
Except for some simple configurations (cylinder, sphere, dielectric ellipsoid in homogenous
field), the analytical solutions are difficult to obtain or even impossible. In the case of dielectric
mixtures the configuration being extremely complex the only way is the use of numerical
methods of calculation which permit the determination of the potentials in any point of the domain
and on their basis, the calculation of the electric field and of the polarization of the dielectrics.
Out of these, the method of finite differences is not really applicable to the modeling of
systems of complex form because of the difficult writing of the conditions on the interface.
Establishing the equations with finite differences for the points on the interface becomes
difficult in the case of curves and especially, of complex surfaces. Often, each point constitutes a
particular case which needs a separate analysis. These equations were written for the points on the
surface of a sphere by using an approximation of Poisson equation in spherical coordination and
then writing the equations with finite differences for both the regular points of the network of
division and those on the border.
The method of finite elements is preferable when approaching problems of calculation of the
electric fields in inhomogeneous mediums, thus in the case of dielectric mixtures too, due not only
to the facility of introducing limit conditions, its good precision but also to the invariation of the
calculation formulae with the analyzed geometrical configuration.


3.6.3 The method of finite elements

3.6.31 The principle of the method

This method, firstly employed in mechanics, where O. C. Zienkiewics and his team obtained
important results, was later introduced in electromagnetism too by P. Silvester and M. V. K. Chari in
1970. It then significantly developed due to the successive improvements brought by the university
teams led by Mc. Gill in Canada, Rutherford in Great Britain and some other brought by some
industrial research labs.
The principle of the method of finite elements is based on the integral formulation of the
problems with partial derivates. This formulation can be of a variation type when an equivalence
between the solution of the differential problem and the function that optimizes a functional, usually
a Lagrange function of the system, is done. When such a functional cannot be found, the so-called
Galerkin method is used, also known as the method of ponderous residua , which involves the
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minimization within the studied domain of the error integral which is obtained by replacing the
exact solution through a function of attempt, conveniently chosen.
The domain places itself in small-sized but finite elements, on which the known function is
approximated with the help of a function of linear attempt (for elements of first rank), polynomial
(elements of second rank) or more complex (macroelements).
The F functional for the whole domain is equal to the sum of contributions brought through
F(e) functional, particular to every finite element. If on each element where the potential V(x,y,z) is
defined according to the V potentials of the nodes of the elements:


1
( , , ) ( , , )
k
i i
i
V x y z N x y z V

(3.36)
The defined integral associated to the functional is calculated, the latter becoming a function
of Vi potentials:
( ) ( )
1 2
( , ,..., )
e e
k
F F V V V =

When the summing up of the elementary functions is done by taking into consideration the
common sums to several elements, the global F functional becomes a function:
( )
1 2
, ,..., ,
n
F F V V V =

Of potentials in all the nodes of the division in finite elements. It is, then, written that the
complex of
1 2
, ,...,
n
V V V
values which optimizes the functional has to verify the equations:
0
i
F
V


where i=1,2,..n, which represents a system of algebraic equations. The solving of this system
through an appropriate method allows us to know Vi values in every point of the domain.
The method of finite elements are generally characterized through the order and nature of the used
elements and through the formulation of variation used. In general, the finite element method is
characterized by the following process.
One chooses a grid for . In the preceding treatment, the grid consisted of triangles, but one
can also use squares or curvilinear polygons.
Then, one chooses basis functions. In our discussion, we used piecewise linear basis functions, but it
is also common to use piecewise polynomial basis functions.
A separate consideration is the smoothness of the basis functions. For second order elliptic boundary
value problems, piecewise polynomial basis function that are merely continuous suffice (i.e., the
derivatives are discontinuous.) For higher order partial differential equations, one must use smoother
basis functions. For instance, for a fourth order problem such as u
xxxx
+ u
yyyy
= f, one may use
piecewise quadratic basis functions that are C1.
Another consideration is the relation of the finite dimensional space V to its infinite
dimensional counterpart, in the examples above
1
0
H
. A conforming element method is one in which
the space V is a subspace of the element space for the continuous problem. The example above is
such a method. If this condition is not satisfied, we obtain a nonconforming element method, an
example of which is the space of piecewise linear functions over the mesh which are continuous at
each edge midpoint. Since these functions are in general discontinuous along the edges, this finite
dimensional space is not a subspace of the original
1
0
H
.


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3.6.3.2 The partition of the domain in finite elements. Triadic functions of
approximation
The following two rules are respected at the partition of the
v

domain in disjunctive sub


domains, called finite elements (vl)
Two distinct elements can only have in common points which are situated on their common
border, if the latter exists. This condition rules out overlapping. The borders can be points,
curves, surfaces.
The complex of all
1
v

elements must constitute a domain as close as possible to the given


one. The spaces between elements are particularly excluded.
When the border of the domain is represented by curves or surfaces which are more complex
than the ones that define the borders of elements, an error is inevitable. This error is called error of
geometrical syncretizing and can be reduced by diminishing the size of the elements (fig. 3.5., b) or
using more complex elements (fig. 3.5, c)

Figure 3.5. Elements used in the partition of the calculation domain

The finite elements are characterized through their geometrical form and the number of the
degrees of freedom equal to the number of the nodes belonging to the element in which the values of
the triadic function are prescribed.
The one-dimensional elements are especially used on the border of the domain. The most
widely used elements in the analysis of the bi-dimensional problems are the linear triangular
elements and the curvilinear square ones in which the geometry is approximated through the same
square functions as the unknown size. In the tri-dimensional problem, the linear tetrads are widely
used because of their high practicability; it seems that the hexahedral curvilinear elements have the
advantage of a better representation of the phenomena in many problems.
They also have the advantage that the division of the domain can be more easily done and
the errors of numbering the nodes are unlikely. First rank elements have the advantage of a higher
simplicity of the concept and permit the usage of formulae of analytical integration for the
calculation of functionals. However, they need a very careful division in order to obtain an
appropriate precision.
The second rank curvilinear elements need an important work process and the use of
methods of numerical integration for the calculation of functionals, a thing that can be, however,
programmed without difficulties. These elements have the advantage that at an equal precision, the
discretization is far less smooth than when using first rank elements.
Moreover, the curvilinear nature of the elements allows for a well adapted presentation of the
geometrical forms which are to be found in the conception of electrical tools and machines.
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The triadic functions of approximation in the method of finite elements are Lagrange,
Hermite etc polynomials of interpolation. In the case of approximation with Lagrange polynomials
of interpolation, the precision increases through the increase in the number of nodes per element,
thus, a higher order of the element. When approximating through Hermite polynomials with the
same purpose, the number of modal variables attached to each node is increased.
We will illustrate the finite element method using two sample problems from which the
general method can be extrapolated. P1 is a one-dimensional problem:
( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( )
"
in 0,1 ,
0 1 0,
u x f x
u u
=
= =

where f is given and u is an unknown function of x, and u'' is the second derivative of u with respect
to x. The two-dimensional sample problem is the Dirichlet problem:
( ) ( ) ( ) , , , in
=0 on ,
xx yy
u x y u x y f x y
u
+ =


where is a connected open region in the (x,y) plane whose boundary is
,
(e.g., a smooth
manifold or a polygon), and u
xx
and u
yy
denote the second derivatives with respect to x and y,
respectively.
The problem P1 can be solved "directly" by computing antiderivatives. However, this
method of solving the boundary value problem works only when there is only one spatial dimension
and does not generalize to higher-dimensional problems or to problems like u + u'' = f. For this
reason, we will develop the finite element method for P1 and outline its generalization to P2.
Our explanation will proceed in two steps, which mirror two essential steps one must take to solve a
boundary value problem using the finite element method.
In the first step, one rephrases the original boundary value problem in its weak, or variational
form. Little to no computation is usually required for this step. The transformation is done by hand
on paper.The second step is the discretization, where the weak form is discretized in a finite
dimensional space.
After this second step, we have concrete formulae for a large but finite dimensional linear
problem whose solution will approximately solve the original boundary value problem. This finite
dimensional problem is then implemented on a computer.

3.6.3.3 Variational formulation

The first step is to convert P1 and P2 into their variational equivalents, or weak formulation.
If u solves P1, then for any smooth function v that satisfies the displacement boundary conditions,
i.e. v = 0 at x = 0 and x = 1, we have

( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
''
0 0
f x v x dx u x v x dx =


Conversely, if u with u(0) = u(1) = 0 satisfies (1) for every smooth function v(x) then one
may show that this u will solve P1. The proof is easier for twice continuously differentiable u (mean
value theorem), but may be proved in a distributional sense as well. By using integration by parts on
the right-hand-side of (1), we obtain

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( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( ) ( )
( ) ( ) ( )
1 1
''
0 0
1
1
' ' '
0
0
1
' '
0
'

,
f x v x dx u x v x dx
u x v x u x v x dx
u x v x dx u v
=
=
= =



where we have used the assumption that v(0) = v(1) = 0.
We can loosely think of
( )
1
0
0,1 H
to be the absolutely continuous functions of (0,1) that are
0 at x = 0 and x = 1.
If we integrate by parts, we see that if u solves P2, then for any v,

( ) , fvds u vds u v

= =



where

denotes the gradient and denotes the dot product in the two-dimensional plane. Once more

can be turned into an inner product on a suitable space


( )
1
0
H
of "once differentiable" functions
of that are zero on.

. We have also assumed that


( )
1
0
v H
. Existence and uniqueness of the
solution can also be shown.

3.6.3.4 Discretization


Figure 3-6 A function in
1
0
H , with zero values at the endpoints (blue), and a piecewise
linear approximation (red).

The basic idea is to replace the infinite dimensional linear problem:
Find
1
0
u H
such that
( )
1
0
, , v H u v fv =


with a finite dimensional version:
Find
u V
such that
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( ) , , v V u v fv =


where V is a finite dimensional subspace of
1
0
H
. There are many possible choices for V (one
possibility leads to the spectral method). However, for the finite element method we take V to be a
space of piecewise linear functions.
For problem P1, we take the interval (0,1), choose n values of x with 0 = x0 < x1 < ... < xn <
xn + 1 = 1 and we define V by
[ ]
[ ]
( ) ( )
{ }
1
: 0,1 : is continuous, is linear for 0,... , and 0 1 0
k k
x x
V v v v k n v v
+
= = = =

where we define x0 = 0 and xn + 1 = 1. Observe that functions in V are not differentiable according
to the elementary definition of calculus. Indeed, if then the derivative is typically not defined
at any x = xk, k = 1,...,n. However, the derivative exists at every other value of x and one can use
this derivative for the purpose of integration by parts.



Figure 3-7 A piecewise linear function in two dimensions.

For problem P2, we need V to be a set of functions of . In the above figure, we have
illustrated a triangulation of a 15 sided polygonal region in the plane (below), and a piecewise
linear function (above, in color) of this polygon which is linear on each triangle of the triangulation;
the space V would consist of functions that are linear on each triangle of the chosen triangulation.
One often reads Vh instead of V in the literature. The reason is that one hopes that as the
underlying triangular grid becomes finer and finer, the solution of the discrete problem (3) will in
some sense converge to the solution of the original boundary value problem P2. The triangulation is
then indexed by a real valued parameter h > 0 which one takes to be very small. This parameter will
be related to the size of the largest or average triangle in the triangulation. As we refine the
triangulation, the space of piecewise linear functions V must also change with h, hence the notation
Vh. Since we do not perform such an analysis, we will not use this notation.

3.6.3.5 Comparison to the finite difference method

The finite difference method is an alternative way of approximating solutions of partial
derivative equations. The differences between finite element method and finite difference method
are:
The most attractive feature of the finite element method is its ability to handle complicated
geometries (and boundaries) with relative ease. While finite difference method in its basic
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form is restricted to handle rectangular shapes and simple alterations thereof, the handling of
geometries in finite element method is theoretically straightforward.
The most attractive feature of finite differences is that it can be very easy to implement.
There are several ways one could consider the finite difference method a special case of the
finite element method approach. One might choose basis functions as either piecewise
constant functions or Dirac delta functions. In both approaches, the approximations are
defined on the entire domain, but need not be continuous. Alternatively, one might define the
function on a discrete domain, with the result that the continuous differential operator no
longer makes sense, however this approach is not finite element method.
There are reasons to consider the mathematical foundation of the finite element
approximation more sound, for instance, because the quality of the approximation between
grid points is poor in finite difference method.
The quality of a finite element method approximation is often higher than in the
corresponding finite difference method approach, but this is extremely problem dependent
and several examples to the contrary can be provided.





























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4. DESIGN AND EXPERIMENTAL RESULTS

4.1 General Data

This section presents software simulations for various dielectric mixtures. The main aspects
to be studied in the case of dielectric mixtures are: the determination of the permittivity of the
mixture knowing the permittivity of the homogenous components and their concentration in the
mixture, the feedback of the dielectric regarding the shape and position of the inclusions or when the
maximal losses appear. The materials used in isolation systems are usually, dielectric mixtures
(inhomogeneous dielectrics such as stratified, composite materials, mixtures etc) which have a high
resistance to solicitations they are subjected to. The problem of creating materials with improved
properties which could be used in certain conditions has also been suggested. This can be achieved
by creating a mixture which would meet all the requirements of the target application.
A computerized simulation would obviously represent a big advantage in solving this
problem. However, what should be set as priority is the checking of the correctness of the numerical
modeling which is not always easily done due to the fact that there are not analytical solutions which
would permit the verification of the results accuracy.
It has also been noted that the permittivity of the mixture depends on the form of the
inclusions, on their size, orientation within the applied electric field and their distribution in the
mixture. The simulations on statistical and matrix mixtures were done by taking into consideration
all these factors of influence.

4.2 Software Presentation and Choice Reasoning

For all the simulations and solving the equations presented in Chapter 3 we have chosen
Maxwell 2D Student Version (SV), version 9. Maxwell is designed by Ansoft, an US based
company and its a software package used for analyzing electromagnetic fields in cross-section
structures. Given the fact that are a lot of solutions out there on the Internet market, choosing
Maxwell has proven to be a smart decision due the fact that the Student Version is free with no trial
or other costs involved. Plus that it supplied all the needed results or graphics for solving
electrostatic problems. Maxwell SV uses finite element analysis (FEA) to solve two-dimensional
(2D) electromagnetic problems. To analyze a problem, you need to specify the appropriate
geometry, material properties, and excitations for a device or system of devices. The Maxwell
software then does the following:

automatically creates the required finite element mesh.
calculates the desired electrostatic or magnetostatic field solution and special quantities of
interest, including force, torque, inductance, capacitance, and power loss. Provides the ability
to analyze, manipulate, and display field solutions.
provides the ability to analyze, manipulate and display field solutions.






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4.3 Steps to be Performed for Solving an Electrostatic Problem

Our goal is to simulate the behavior of the dielectric mixtures in low frequency domain. We
have computed the dielectric permittivity by considering inhomogeneous dielectrics placed in an
uniform electrostatic field. In order to solve the desired problem the following steps have to be
completed:

Use the Solver command to specify which of the following electric or magnetic field
quantities to compute:electrostatic, magnetostatic, DC conduction, AC conduction etc.
Use the Drawing command to select one of the following model types: XY Plane or RZ
Plane.
Use the Define Model command to access the following options: Draw Model, Group
Object, Couple Model.
Use the Setup Materials command to assign materials to all the objects in the geometric
model
Use the Setup Boundaries/Sources command to define the boundaries and sources for the
problem.
Use the Setup Executive Parameters command to instruct the simulator to compute the
following special quantities: matrix, force, torque, current flow
Use the Setup Solution Options command to specify how the solution is computed.
Use the Solve command to solve for the appropriate field quantities. For electrostatic
problems, the simulator computes, the electric potential, from which it derives E and D.
Use the Post Process command to analyze the solution, as follows: plot the field solution and
then use the calculator.




Figure 4-1 Maxwell Control Panel

In the following flowchart there are presented the necessary steps for solving an electrostatic
problem. The commands shown on the Executive Commands menu must be chosen in the sequence
in which they appear. For example, you must first create a geometric model with the Define Model
command before you specify material characteristics for objects with the Setup Materials command.
A check mark appears on the menu next to the completed steps:
:

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Figure 4-2 Flowchart for solving a Maxwell 2D electrostatic problem


4.4 Modeling of Dielectric Mixtures with Various Inclusion Shapes

Knowing that the permittivity of the mixture depends on the shape and size of the inclusions,
we have studied at first dielectric mixtures with various shapes of the inclusions: cylindrical,
rectangular, squared, triangular, horizontal ellipsoid and vertical oriented ellipsoid (Figure 4-3). For
all the cases, the modeling was done in 2D and we considered a cross section through a cylinder, a
prism, parallelepiped, cuboid or ellipsoid. For all the mixtures studied in this section we have
considered a plane capacitor in which we have a homogenous electric field. The concentration of
the mixture was considered q=0.3, and we have determined the surface of the inclusion based on q
and the surface of our host model which was the same for all simulations (a square with a side
l=10 m ). Normally the concentration depends on the ratio between the volumes of the two
materials. In our case, Maxwell provides data for when a cross section through the dielectric is
considered, and which represents the object of our study. Hence, we will consider the concentration
as a ratio between the areas of the two surfaces. The formula used is:

Inclusion Surface / Host Surface
i
q = ,
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where the host surface represents the area of the square with the side of 10 m , resulting an
inclusion area of 30 m for every type of inclusion. Knowing the area and using exiting geometrical
formulas we can compute the radius of the cylindrical inclusion, the side of the triangular inclusion
or the axis of the ellipsoid. Having drawn our model we can proceed to the modeling of the desired
dielectric.
We have considered polyethylene as the host material with a permittivity of =2.25 and for
the inclusions we considered two situations: once glass with a permittivity of =3.78 and once
barium titanate which has a permittivity of =1000.



Figure 4-3 Dielectric models with various shapes of the inclusions, where
1

represents the
permittivity of the host medium and
2

represents the permittivity of the inclusion



Table 4-1 Permittivity variation with respect to inclusion shape and material, where
1 eff

represents the effective


(average) permittivity when having polyethylene as host material and glass inclusions (
1

=2.25,
2

=3.78) , and
2 eff

represents the average permittivity when having polyethylene as host material and barium titanate
inclusions (
1

=2.25,
2

=1000)

/shape
1 eff

2 eff

Circle 2.611893226 4.066342398
Rectangle 2.626417563 4.589550387
Square 2.615193870 4.278775943
Triangle 2.619990037 5.254818519
Ellipsoid H 2.339934803 2.723327579
Ellipsoid V 2.328272277 2.519362426

In Figure 4-4 we can observe the error variation depending on the number of steps, when
having polyethylene as host material and glass forming up the inclusions. We can notice that for the
vertical oriented ellipsoid we have the highest error in the first two steps and the cylindrical
inclusion has the most obvious error variation with respect to the number of steps. In Table 4-2 we
can find the errors for each type of dielectric composite. In the case of glass inclusions the highest
error is obtained for squared inclusion and in the case of barium titanate inclusions, the highest error
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is obtained for the rectangular inclusion. It can be easily observed how the error varies depending on
the type of inclusion and its permittivity.

Table 4-2 Error variation with respect to the shape of the inclusion, for each average permittivity

/shape Error% /
1 eff
Error% /
2 eff

Circle 0.0595 0.4650
Rectangle 0.0993 0.7690
Square 0.1010 0.0572
Triangle 0.1000 0.3130
Ellipsoid H 0.5470 0.0621
Ellipsoid V 0.6170 0.0543



a) Cylindrical b) Rectangular

c) Squared d) Triangular

e) Horizontal Oriented Ellipsoid f) Vertical Oriented Ellipsoid

Figure 4-4 Error dropdown with respect to the number of steps when having polyethylene as
the host material and quartz glass as the inclusion. Inclusions have the following shape: a)
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cylindrical, b) rectangular, c) squared, d) triangular, e) horizontal oriented ellipsoid and f)
vertical oriented ellipsoid

a) Cylindrical b) Rectangular
c) Squared d) Triangular
e) Horizontal Oriented Ellipsoid f) Vertical Oriented Ellipsoid

Figure 4-5 Error dropdown with respect to the number of steps when having polyethylene as
the host material and barium titanate (BaTiO3) as the inclusion. Inclusions have the following
shape: a) cylindrical, b) rectangular, c) squared, d) triangular, e) horizontal oriented ellipsoid
and f) vertical oriented ellipsoid

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a) Triangle(quartz glass) b) Triangle(barium titanate)

Figure 4-6 Electric potential variation when the inclusion is triangular shaped: a) quartz
glass and b) barium titanate BaTiO3

a) Square (quartz glass) b) Square (barium titanate)

Figure 4-7 Electric potential variation when the inclusion is squared shaped: a) quartz glass
and b) barium titanate BaTiO3

a) Rectangle (quartz glass) b) Rectangle (barium titanate)

Figure 4-8 Electric potential variation when the inclusion is rectangular shaped: a) quartz
glass and b) barium titanate BaTiO3
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a) Horizontal oriented ellipsoid (quartz glass) b) Horizontal oriented ellipsoid (barium titanate)

Figure 4-9 Electric potential variation when the inclusion has the shape of a horizontal
ellipsoid: a) quartz glass and b) barium titanate BaTiO3


a) Vertical oriented ellipsoid (quartz glass) b) Vertical oriented ellipsoid (barium titanate)

Figure 4-10 Electric potential variation when the inclusion has the shape of a vertical
ellipsoid: a) quartz glass and b) barium titanate BaTiO3


a) Circle (quartz glass) b) Circle (barium titanate)

Figure 4-11 Electric potential variation when the inclusion is circular shaped: a) quartz
glass and b) barium titanate BaTiO3

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4.5 Modeling of Matrix Structured Dielectric Mixtures

For this scenario we have considered a matrix structured dielectric with cylindrical
inclusions arranged once as an ordered structure and once as a disordered structure. It can be
observed in the first figure below that the geometrical center of an inclusion is the same with center
of the square in which the inclusion is situated. If the centers of 4 neighboring inclusions are
connected with each other, they will make up a square, which makes our structure an ordered one.
The second part of this scenario involves the modeling of the same matrix structured dielectric but
with its cylindrical inclusions randomly placed within their corresponding host squares. For each of
the two models there were made a pair of two simulations. The first case was considered having
polyethylene as the host material and glass as the inclusions, and the second case involved
polyethylene as host material and barium titanate (BaTiO3) as the inclusion type. Simulations were
also made for different concentrations of our dielectric composite.


a) ordered structure b) disordered structure

Figure 4-12 Matrix structured dielectric mixture: a) ordered structure b) disordered structure

The concentration for these two models was calculated based on the ratio between the area of
the circle which actually represents a cross section through a cylindrical inclusion and the area of the
host square from the matrix structure. Therefore, knowing the side of the square with a side of and
the radius of the cylindrical inclusion, the concentration q resulted by applying the following
formula:
2 2
/
i
q r l = [%]


Table 4-3 Permittivity variation with respect to concentration and incusions type, where
1 eff

represents the
effective (average) permittivity when having polyethylene as host material and glass inclusions (
1

=2.25,
2

=3.78)
, and
2 eff

represents the average permittivity when having polyethylene as host material and barium titanate
inclusions (
1

=2.25,
2

=1000).
1

represents the permittivity of the host medium and


2

of the inclusions.

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Concentration q % /matrix structure
1 eff

2 eff

0.4 Ordered 2.752042924 5.085069146
0.4 Disordered 2.754186525 5.216091304
0.099 Ordered 2.364426288 2.725865857
0.099 Disordered 2.364502187 2.727342757

Table 4-4 Average permittivity calculated with Maxwell-Wagner formula for the two types of dielectric mixtures
and concentration modification:
1 eff

represents the effective (average) permittivity when having polyethylene as


host material and glass inclusions (
1

=2.25,
2

=3.78) , and
2 eff

represents the average permittivity when having


polyethylene as host material and barium titanate inclusions (
1

=2.25,
2

=1000)

Concentration q% /matrix structure
1 eff

2 eff

0.4 Maxwell-Wagner model 2.589201877 5.051742649
0.099 Maxwell-Wagner model 2.321874655 2.667206000

Table 4-5 Error variation with respect to the dielectric structure and concentration

Concentration q % /matrix structure Error % /
1 eff
Error % /
2 eff

0.4 Ordered 0.000605 0.002190
0.4 Disordered 0.000658 0.002290
0.099 Ordered 0.000902 0.002200
0.099 Disordered 0.001160 0.002390


a) triangular mesh b) triangular mesh close up

Figure 4-13 Triangular mesh for an ordered matrix structured dielectric mixture a) general
view b) close up view

We can visualize the elements (triangles) of the mesh in the figure above, observing that the
density of triangles is much higher in the interest area. When simulating this scenario the elements
of the network reached to a number of 22200 triangles, depending on the structure deploy
(ordered/disordered) on the permittivity of the inclusions and concentration of the mixture. We
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obtained the highest number of triangles (22975) when having a disordered matrix structured
dielectric mixture, barium titanate inclusions and a concentration of 0.4%.

a) Ordered structure(Glass Inclusions) b) Ordered structure(BaTiO3 Inclusions)

c) Disordered structure(Glass Inclusions) d) Disordered structure(BaTiO3 Inclusions)

Figure 4-14 Error dropdown with respect to the number of steps, inclusions type and
concentration

When simulating with a concentration of 0.4% of the dielectric composite we obtained the
error variation graphs from above. The error drops down under 0.001% or varies around this value,
which was our initial target value for this scenario, but differs, depending on the permittivity of the
inclusions, the number of triangles of the network and in our case, if the composite is an ordered or
disordered one. The initial error, between the first three iterations of a simulation is much higher in
the case of the ordered composites with glass inclusions, but at the end the error is much higher in
the case of disordered mixtures and it can be observed in Table 4-5.
In the following pages of this scenario we can observe the variation of the electric potential
and electric field along our mixture. Regarding the electric potential, the changes are not very
significant when the inclusions have low permittivity (Figure 4-15, Figure 4-17), but we can notice
significant differences in the case of inclusions with higher permittivity (Figure 4-16, Figure 4-18),
especially in the case of disordered placement of the inclusions.
The electric field records the highest values between the inclusions and much lower values
within the inclusions. In the case of disordered placement of the inclusions we can notice the value
of E significantly increases when the inclusions are very close to each other (Figure 4-20).
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Figure 4-15 Electric potential variation for an ordered structured dielectric mixture with
glass inclusions and polyethylene as host material



Figure 4-16 Electric potential variation for an ordered structured dielectric mixture with
BaTiO3 inclusions and polyethylene as host material

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Figure 4-17 Electric potential variation for a disordered structured dielectric mixture with
glass inclusions and polyethylene as host material



Figure 4-18 Electric potential variation for a disordered structured dielectric mixture with
BaTiO3 inclusions and polyethylene as host material

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Figure 4-19 Electric field plot for an ordered matrix structured dielectric composite having
polyethylene as host material and inclusions made up of barium titanate


Figure 4-20 Electric field plot for a disordered matrix structured dielectric mixture having
polyethylene as host material and inclusions made up of barium titanate


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4.6 Modeling of Dielectric Mixtures Based on the Distance Between the
Inclusions

In this chapter we considered two cylindrical inclusions placed in a rectangle with a length of
50 microns and a width of 25 microns. We considered the host material as polyethylene with a
permittivity of 2.25 and for the inclusions we considered two separate situations: once glass
inclusions with a permittivity of 3.78 and once barium titanate inclusions (BaTiO3) with a
permittivity of 1000. The radius of an inclusion was considered to be r=2 microns. We studied the
permittivity variation by varying the distance between the two inclusions, from the minimum of d=0
to the maximum of d=12r (24 microns).


a) distance d=0 microns b) distance d=24 microns

Figure 4-21 Dielectric composite with two cylindrical inclusions spaced at: a) 0 microns b) 24
microns

Table 4-6 Permittivity variation with respect to distance between the inclusions, where
1 eff

represents the
effective (average) permittivity when having polyethylene as host material and glass inclusions (
1

=2.25,
2

=3.78)
, and
2 eff

represents the average permittivity when having polyethylene as host material and barium titanate
inclusions (
1

=2.25,
2

=1000).
1

represents the permittivity of the host medium and


2

of the inclusions.

/distance
1 eff

2 eff

d=0 2.278093619 2.431498328
d=r 2.277027228 2.365913617
d=2r 2.276761658 2.359967690
d=3r 2.276762259 2.357939643
d=4r 2.276782985 2.357184891
d=5r 2.276878173 2.357129213
d=6r 2.277005645 2.357362583
d=7r 2.277203074 2.357950836
d=8r 2.277402008 2.358622804
d=9r 2.277670073 2.359595494
d=10r 2.277932512 2.360597417
d=11r 2.278259099 2.361886507
d=12r 2.278593454 2.363191827

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For both of the calculated average (effective) permittivities in Table 4-5 we considered
polyethylene as the host material. When the inclusions consisted of glass, we noticed a maximum
average permittivity when the inclusions were spaced at 0 microns apart. However, the average
permittivity increased when the distance between the inclusions reached to d=11r, and obtained the
maximum for d=12r. In the case of barium titanate inclusions the maximum average permittivity is
obtained for d=0 microns, after which the permittivity has a significant decrease until d=5r. When
reaching the maximum distance of d=12r, the permittivity increases only with 0.01 units, noticing
that the average permittivity has a significant decrease with respect to distance in the case of
inclusions with very high permittivity.




a) distance d= 0 microns b) distance d=12 x r = 24 microns

Figure 4-22 Triangular mesh for a dielectric composite with inclusions spaced at: a) 0 microns
b) 24 microns




a) distance d= 0 microns b) distance d=12 x r = 24 microns

Figure 4-23 Distribution network elements increase with respect to the number of steps
increase: a) Inclusions are spaced at 0 microns b) Inclusions are spaced at 24 microns

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The number of the network elements (triangles) increases in the interest area, even when the
inclusions are widely spaced apart as can be seen in Figure 4-22. Judging from the graphs in Figure
4-23, the network has approximately the same number of elements when the inclusions are spaced at
0 microns and when at 24 microns. Verifying the actual results from Maxwell, we recorded a
number of 1548 triangles when the distance is minimum and a number of 1571 when the distance is
maximum, in case of glass inclusions. When having BaTiO3 inclusions the number of triangles is
1582 for the minimum distance and 1591 for the maximum distance. Therefore, the number of
network elements is much higher when the permittivity is much higher, but not significantly higher.



a) Glass inclusions spaced at d= 0r b) BaTiO3 inclusions spaced at d=0r

Figure 4-24 Error dropdown with respect to distance and inclusions type: a) glass inclusions b)
barium titanate inclusions


a) Glass inclusions spaced at d= 12r a) BaTiO3 inclusions spaced at d= 12r

Figure 4-25 Error dropdown with respect to distance and inclusions type: a) glass inclusions b)
barium titanate inclusions

The targeted error was 0.01%, and we obtained error values of 0.0135% and 0.0141% for the
minimum and maximum distances in case of glass inclusions, and 0.0129% and 0.0170% for the
minimum and maximum distances in case of barium titanate inclusions. Thus, the error increases
with the distance and with the permittivity of the inclusions.
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a) Glass inclusions spaced at d= 0r b) BaTiO3 inclusions spaced at d=0r

Figure 4-26 Electric potential variation when the inclusions are spaced at 0 microns apart:
a) glass inclusions b) barium titanate inclusions


a) Glass inclusions spaced at d= 12r b) BaTiO3 inclusions spaced at d= 12r

Figure 4-27 Electric potential variation when the inclusions are spaced at 24 microns apart:
a) glass inclusions b) barium titanate inclusions

The electric potential varies based on the voltage applied on the plates of the capacitor. For
our model we have considered 10V on the left plate and 0V on the right plate and, as can be seen in
Figures 4-26, 4-27, the electric potential varies from 10V represented by dark red to 0V represented
by dark blue. The distance between the inclusions does not affect the values of the electric potential
along our model. The permittivity of the inclusions modifies the values of the electric potential
across the model, in the case of barium titanate inclusions. The change is noticeable in both cases:
when the inclusions have no space between them, and when they are spaced at 24 microns. In the
first case the two inclusions have the same effect that a bigger cylindrical inclusion would have on
the electric potential. In the second case the value of the electric potential along the inclusion
extends towards the neighboring values narrowing them.
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a) Inclusions with low permittivity

b) Inclusions with high permittivity

Figure 4-28 Permittivity variation with respect to distance and average permittivity: a) glass
inclusions b) barium titanate inclusions
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4.7 Modeling of Dielectric Mixtures Based on the Concentration of the Inclusions


Figure 4-29 Dielectric composite with five
cylindrical inclusions
Figure 4-30 Dielectric composite with five
cylindrical inclusions distribution mesh

The last scenario involved the modeling of a dielectric composite with five cylindrical
inclusions based on varying the concentration of the inclusions. We considered polyethylene as the
host material with a permittivity of 2.25. We implemented two types of simulations: once for glass
inclusions with a permittivity of 3.78 and once for barium titanate inclusions with a permittivity of
1000. The inclusions were placed in a square with a side of 10 microns. Having known the
concentration, the radius of the cylindrical inclusions was computed with following formula:

2
2 2
5
inclusion i
i
host
N S q r
q r
S l l

= = =

Table 4-7 Permittivity variation with respect to inclusions` concentration, where
1 eff

represents the effective


(average) permittivity when having polyethylene as host material and glass inclusions (
1

=2.25,
2

=3.78) , and
2 eff

represents the average permittivity when having polyethylene as host material and barium titanate
inclusions (
1

=2.25,
2

=1000).
1

represents the permittivity of the host medium and


2

of the inclusions.

Concentration/q %
1 eff

2 eff

0.1 2.364464817 2.733126868
0.15 2.425284262 3.000804975
0.20 2.490959193 3.103327554
0.25 2.553108290 3.702588906
0.35 2.683325479 4.530542638
0.45 2.824619176 5.863116344

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a) glass inclusions with q=0.1% b) BaTiO3 inclusions with q=0.1%

Figure 4-31 Error dropdown with respect to concentration and inclusions` type: a) glass
inclusions b) barium titanate inclusions



a) glass inclusions with q=0.45% b) BaTiO3 inclusions with q=0.45%

Figure 4-32 Error dropdown with respect to concentration and inclusions` type: a) glass
inclusions b) barium titanate inclusions

Table 4-8 Error variation with respect to concentration and inclusions` type

Concentration/q %
Error/
1 eff
% Error/
2 eff
%
0.1 0.00962 0.01190
0.15 0.01020 0.01060
0.20 0.00887 0.01180
0.25 0.00739 0.01110
0.35 0.00741 0.01070
0.45 0.00785 0.00923

The error drops down with the growth of the concentration. This is due to the fact that the
number of triangles (the elements of the mesh) is higher when the concentration is maximum,
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leading to a lower error. Therefore the more elements the network has, the smaller the energy error
will be (see Table 4-8). The error is much higher for the composite with the barium titanate
inclusions, especially in the first two iteration steps, ranging between 7-8% when having a
concentration of 0.1%, and between 10-12% when having a concentration of 0.45% (Figure 4-31b,
Figure 4-32b). In case of glass inclusions the error for the first two iterations ranges between 4-4.5%
for both type of displayed concentrations: 0.1% and 0.45%. The minimum error is 0.00785% for the
dielectric composite with glass inclusions and 0.00923 for the dielectric composite with barium
titanate inclusions.
The following plots display the electric potential variation across the dielectric composite.
The value of the electric potential is much higher in the left part of the mixture, where a voltage of
10V was applied on the plate of the capacitor. The value of the electric potential continues to drop
down from left to right, reaching 0V in the area represented with dark blue. In Figure 4-34b we can
observe how inclusions with high permittivity (BaTiO3) and concentration (0.45%) affect the value
of the electric potential along the mixture. These modifications are less significant with the
dropdown of the concentration as can be seen in Figure 4-33b.



a) glass inclusions with q=0.1% b) BaTiO3 inclusions with q=0.1%
Figure 4-33 Electric potential variation for a dielectric composite with five inclusions
having a concentration of 0.1%: a) glass inclusions b)barium titanate inclusions


a) glass inclusions with q=0.45% b) BaTiO3 inclusions with q=0.45%
Figure 4-34 Electric potential variation for a dielectric composite with five inclusions
having a concentration of 0.45%: a) glass inclusions b)barium titanate inclusions
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a) glass inclusions a) glass inclusions
Figure 4-35 Dielectric composite with five glass cylindrical inclusions having q=0.45%: a)
Electric field plot b)Electric Induction plot




a) BaTiO3 inclusions b) BaTiO3 inclusions

Figure 4-36 Dielectric composite with five BaTiO3 cylindrical inclusions having q=0.45%: a)
Electric field plot b)Electric Induction plot

The plots from above present the variation of the electric field E and induction D along the
dielectric composite with five cylindrical inclusions. The values of E and D are much higher when
the concentration of the mixture is higher. The values of E are much smaller within the inclusions,
growing between the inclusions and in the area where the inclusions are close to the edges of the
host material. However, the opposite thing happens in the case of electric induction. The value of D
is much higher within the inclusions and on the area where the inclusions are very close to the edge
of the host medium. The value continues to drop on the area between the inclusions (across the
diagonals of the host medium if we can say so), reaching the lower values where the inclusions are
further from each other. (see Figure 4-36b)

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Figure 4-37 Dielectric composite with five BaTiO3 cylindrical inclusions having q=0.45%:
Electric Induction plot 3D view


Figure 4-38 Dielectric composite with five BaTiO3 cylindrical inclusions having q=0.45%:
Electric field plot 3D view



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5. CONCLUSIONS AND FUTURE WORK

5.1 Conclusions
5.2 Future work

6. REFERENCES

[1] Brendan Kevin Patrick Scaife, Monographs on the physics and chemistry of materials
Principles of Dielectrics, Oxford University Press 1989
[2] Steven A. Boggs, Chathan M. Cooke, R.J. Densley, Edward Sacher, James E. West, Committee
on Dielectrics, Assembly of Engineering, National Research Council, Annual Report, Conference
on Electrical Insulation and Dielectric Phenomena, National Academy of Sciences Washington
D.C. 1979
[] Robert, P. Materiaux de lelectrotechnique , Laussannes, Press Polytechniques Romandes, 1989
[3] Ari Sihvola, Electromagnetic mixing formulas and applications, The Institution of Electrical
Engineers, London, United Kingdom 1999
[4] Perambur S. Neelakanta, Handbook of Electromagnetic Materials, CRC Press LLC 1995
[5] Enis Tuncer, Yuiry V. Serdyuk and Stanislaw M. Gubanski, Dielectric mixtures electrical
properties and modeling, Chalmers University of Technology, 412 96 Gothenburg Sweden
[] Bottcher, C.J.F. Theory of Electrical Polarization, Amsterdam, Elsevier, 1978
[]
[6] Mailadil T. Sebastian, Dielectric Materials for Wireless Communication, Elsevier B.V. 2008
[7] Hermann A. Haus, James R. Melcher, Electromagnetic Fields and Energy, Sep 1989
[8] Gorur G. Raju, Dielectrics in Electric Fields, Marcel Dekker, Inc 2003
[9] Enis Tuncer, A formula for dielectric mixtures, March 30 2005
[10] Enis Tuncer, The Landau-Lifshitz/Looyenga dielectric mixtures expression and its self-similar
fractal nature, March 31 2005
[11] Enis Tuncer, Analogy between dielectric relaxation and dielectric mixtures: Application of the
spectral density representation, February 24 2005
[12] Enis Tuncer, On micro-structural effects in dielectric mixtures, IEEE Trans Diel Elec Insul,
February 2
nd
2008
[13] David A. De Wolf, Essentials of Electromagnetics for Engineering, Cambridge University
Press 2001













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APPENDIX A

15 15 15
0
12
0
10 10 10
8.854187817 10
r r
D D D D
E E E E


= = = =




3
10 / 8.854187817 ......
eff
D E

=

I. INCLUSION SHAPE

Cylindrical glass
eff
= 2.3188370965801
3
10

/ 0.0008877993452=2.6118932269067

Cylindrical BaTiO3
eff
= 3.757104838470646
3
10

/ 0.000923951913003=4.06634239898

Rectangular glass
eff
= 2.33051820298678
3
10

/ 0.00010021667635228=2.6264175631

Rectangular BaTiO3
eff
= 4.30500414972669
3
10

/ 0.00093800128248907=4.589550387

Ellipsoid V glass
eff
= 2.06717606453431
3
10

/ 0.00088785838500054=2.328272277

Ellipsoid V BaTiO3
eff
= 2.25248582939458
3
10

/ 0.00089406978771589=2.519362426

Ellipsoid H glass
eff
= 2.07794149088439
3
10

/ 0.0008880339263369=2.339934803

Ellipsoid H BaTiO3
eff
= 2.47883811533557
3
10

/ 0.00091022399728328=2.723327579

Triangular glass
eff
= 2.32621525789178
3
10

/ 0.000887871795080=2.619990037

Triangular BaTiO3
eff
= 5.01208477335928
3
10

/ 0.000953807396991=5.254818519

Squared glass
eff
= 2.32033350113327
3
10

/ 0.00088725164743568=2.615193870
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Squared BaTiO3
eff
= 3.97053635136942
3
10

/ 0.0009279608008757875=4.278775943

II. MATRIX MIXTURES

25 ordered glass/0.4%
eff
= 1.221188326390147
2
10

/ 0.00443738836819546=2.752042924

25 ordered BaTiO3/0.4%
eff
= 2.366177637481008
2
10

/ 0.00465318674998849444=5.085069146

25 disordered glass/0.4%
eff
= 1.222784036804622
2
10

/ 0.0044397284836772735=2.754186525

25 disordered BaTiO3/0.4%
eff
= 2.492232813743497
2
10

/ 0.004777970070604490=5.216091304

25 ordered glass/0.099%
eff
= 1.048488665258468
2
10

/ 0.004434431601109071=2.364426288

25 ordered BaTiO3/0.099%
eff
= 1.233041658575903
2
10

/ 0.00452348698214127=2.7258653853

25 disordered glass/0.099%
eff
= 1.048546168223899
2
10

/ 0.00443453245176056=2.3645021873

25 disordered BaTiO3/0.099%
eff
= 1.234413414890217
2
10

/ 0.00452606630171551=2.7273427577


III. DISTANCE BETWEEN INCLUSIONS

0r glass
eff
= 4.04747075999408
3
10

/ 0.001776692022735=2.2780936190

1r-glass
eff
= 4.04546911441329
3
10

/ 0.001776645032436=2.2770272285

2r glass
eff
= 4.04506745896210
3
10

/ 0.001776675851883=2.2767616583

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3r glass
eff
= 4.04513717552922
3
10

/ 0.001776706004019=2.2767622591

4r glass
eff
= 4.04520501646790
3
10

/ 0.001776719626862=2.2767829855

5r glass
eff
= 4.04542341110569
3
10

/ 0.001776741266862=2.2768781738

6r glass
eff
= 4.04566836975588
3
10

/ 0.001776749380457=2.2770056450

7r glass
eff
= 4.04608080742898
3
10

/ 0.001776776455843=2.2772030742

8r glass
eff
= 4.04648946380284
3
10

/ 0.00177680069141689=2.2774020087

9r glass
eff
= 4.04705735279930
3
10

/ 0.00177684090451992=2.2776700730

10r glass
eff
= 4.04760357269992
3
10

/ 0.00177687598333170=2.2779325122

11r glass
eff
= 4.04839455678819
3
10

/ 0.00177690845725213=2.2782590992

12r glass
eff
= 4.04912343798827
3
10

/ 0.00177702759150242=2.2785934542

0r BaTiO3
eff
= 4.36076515912331
3
10

/ 0.00179344773087430=2.4314983280

1r BaTiO3
eff
= 4.22167157631382
3
10

/ 0.00178443734149670=2.3659126172

2r BaTiO3
eff
= 4.21093784539389
3
10

/ 0.00178432012570200=2.3599676900

3r BaTiO3
eff
= 4.20780265551438
3
10

/ 0.00178452517511900=2.3579396436
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4r BaTiO3
eff
= 4.20685328863310
3
10

/ 0.00178469381159700=2.3571848914

5r BaTiO3
eff
= 4.20716331456986
3
10

/ 0.00178486749468000=2.3571292138

6r BaTiO3
eff
= 4.20795669578505
3
10

/ 0.00178502735424500=2.3573625837

7r BaTiO3
eff
= 4.20950331678200
3
10

/ 0.00178523794954300=2.3599508366


8r BaTiO3
eff
= 4.21108712515542
3
10

/ 0.00178540083502603=2.3586228047

9r BaTiO3
eff
= 4.21347948066819
3
10

/ 0.00178567872774000=2.3595954953

10r BaTiO3
eff
= 4.21576477924430
3
10

/ 0.00178588867754280=2.3605977417

11r BaTiO3
eff
= 4.21892124573502
3
10

/ 0.00178625516067190=2.3618805

12r BaTiO3
eff
= 4.22210725047182
3
10

/ 0.00178661215988699=2.3631918

IV. CONCENTRATION

0.1% - glass
eff
= 2.10209970447112
3
10

/ 0.000889038267152=2.364464817

0.1% - BaTiO3
eff
= 2.48337742560883
3
10

/ 0.000908621350311=2.733126868

0.15% - glass
eff
= 2.15726025093500
3
10

/ 0.000889487589014=2.425284262

0.15% - BaTiO3
Technical University of Cluj-Napoca



64
eff
= 2.76822298265124
3
10

/ 0.000920271674869=3.000804975

0.2% - glass
eff
= 2.21735249396401
3
10

/ 0.000890160103508=2.490959193

0.2% - BaTiO3
eff
= 3.10332755428766
3
10

/ 0.000932033466726=3.103327554

0.25% - glass
eff
= 2.27270278253110
3
10

/ 0.000890170930326=2.553108290

0.25% - BaTiO3
eff
= 3.49185476184248
3
10

/ 0.000943084649680=3.702588906

0.35% - glass
eff
= 2.3899553575059
3
10

/ 0.0008906691997180=2.683325479

0.35% - BaTiO3
eff
= 4.3552389312603
3
10

/ 0.0009613062448920=4.530542638

0.45% - glass
eff
= 2.5164213054786
3
10

/ 0.0008908886998239=2.824619176

0.45% - BaTiO3
eff
= 5.7427166780152
3
10

/ 0.0009794570344117=5863163442