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# Making Inferences Using Pictures

## Evidence + Schema = Inference

Evidence (what I see)

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## Making Inferences Using Pictures

Making inferences from a reading selection is a challenging skill. Sometimes students are unable to decode words, or there are unfamiliar words that convey no immediate meaning. Students who struggle with text have difficulty getting a complete picture of whats going on. If struggling readers are also trying to learn and practice a new skill, such as making inferences, the whole process can seem overwhelming. One way to simplify instruction is to teach inferences using only picture clues. Pictures can be decoded more quickly and are accessible to all readers. Once students understand how to find evidence, evidence apply schema, and make reasonable inferences, the skill can easily be transferred to written selections. First, students need to be able to tell what information is directly observed in a picture or graph, or stated in the text. This evidence is the foundation for making inferences. Next, students must consider the evidence in relation to their own experience. The evidence might be that the sidewalk is wet. However, unless a student has seen a wet sidewalk after it rains, he or she not be able to make an accurate inference. Using ones experience, or schema, to understand the evidence is the second step in making inferences
Whats happening?

## Making Inferences Using Pictures (contd)

Finally, students consider both the evidence and their personal schema to understand that the wet sidewalk suggests that it has recently rained. This leap of logic is called an inference. More simply stated, inferences are what we figure out based on evidence and personal experience, or schema. Once students understand how to make inferences using pictures, they will be better able to make inferences using text. This skill is needed for all sorts of school assignments, including reading, science and social studies. Inferential thinking is a complex skill that will continue to develop with additional practice.

## Now, I get it!

CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.3.7 Use information gained from illustrations (e.g., maps, photographs) and the words in a text to demonstrate understanding of the text (e.g., where, when, why, and how key events occur). CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.1 Refer to details and examples in a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.4.7 Interpret information presented visually, orally, or quantitatively (e.g., in charts, graphs, diagrams, time lines, animations, or interactive elements on Web pages) and explain how the information contributes to an understanding of the text in which it appears. CCSS.ELA-Literacy.RI.5.1 Quote accurately from a text when explaining what the text says explicitly and when drawing inferences from the text. 3

## Inference Packet Contents

Introductory Lesson Worksheets & Answer Keys (4)
These worksheets provide a step-by-step introduction to inferences.. Students learn how to make inferences, and practice the skill using three different pictures. 1. What is evidence? Evidence is a factual detail that you see in a picture or text. 2. What is schema? Schema is what you already know about the facts or evidence. 3. What is inference? An inference is a conclusion or opinion you form from considering evidence (facts) and schema (what you already know). 4. Evidence + Schema = Inference Students practice differentiating among evidence, schema, and inferences using pictures.

## Inference Worksheet & Answer Key (1)

This worksheet provides practice identifying evidence, adding schema, and making inferences using pictures of five familiar items.

## Inference Packet Contents (contd)

Inference Practice & Answer Key (3)
These worksheets each use the same picture to guide students through the steps needed for making inferences. 1. What is an inference? Students identify five facts, or evidence, from the picture. 2. What do you know about the evidence? Students tell what they know (schema) about the evidence theyve collected. 3. What can I infer about whats happening? Students make logical assumptions (inferences) based on the evidence and their schema.

## Practice Making Inferences & Answer Key (3)

These worksheets provide independent practice identifying evidence, adding schema, and making inferences. Each worksheet uses a different picture
.

1. Practice Making Inferences 1 Group of people paddling down a river. 2. Practice Making Inferences 2 Horse-drawn touring carriage outside historical building 3. Practice Making Inferences 3 Service dog holding an American flag in its mouth at a parade

## Inference Packet Contents (contd)

Inference Skills Sheets & Answer Keys (3)
These three worksheets give students practice independently identifying evidence, adding schema, and making inferences. Students have only one response area in which to logically explain the inferences they made including support of evidence and schema. Each worksheet uses a different picture. 1. Inference Skill Sheet 1 Illustration from The Wizard of Oz 2. Inference Skill Sheet 2 Photograph of a police car patrolling a flooded road 3. Inference Skill Sheet 3 Illustration of a doctor reading a report to a patient

## Inference Assessments & Answer Keys (2)

These assessments require students to study a photograph and then read a group of details to correctly identify which are evidence, schema, and inference. 1. Evidence, Schema, and Inference: Assessment 1 Photograph of a woman knocking down all the bowling pins 2. Evidence, Schema, and Inference: Assessment 1 Photograph of people taking part in a modern-day Medieval-themed activity

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

WHAT IS EVIDENCE?
Evidence is a factual detail that you see in a picture or text.
Directions: Look carefully at the picture below. Print an E in front of the set of details that is evidence.

_____ 1. this is probably a baseball game; teammates cheer as a baseball player is sliding into home and the catcher attempts to catch the ball _____ 2. there are five people playing a game; one is on the ground and four have their arms in the air; the person trying to catch the ball is wearing a uniform, cap, and special shoes _____ 3. the outfits look like our Little League baseball uniforms; the catcher is wearing a special mitt thats usually used when playing baseball; baseball players sometimes slide in the dirt when they leap toward the home plate

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

WHAT IS EVIDENCE?
Evidence is a factual detail that you see in a picture or text.
Directions: Look carefully at the picture below. Print an E in front of the set of details that is evidence.

_____ 1. this is probably a baseball game; teammates cheer as a baseball player is sliding into home and the catcher attempts to catch the ball (inference) __E__ 2. there are five people playing a game; one is on the ground and four have their arms in the air; the person trying to catch the ball is wearing a uniform, cap, and special shoes _____ 3. the outfits look like our Little League baseball uniforms; the catcher is wearing a special mitt thats usually used when playing baseball; baseball players sometimes slide in the dirt when they leap toward the home plate (schema)

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

WHAT IS SCHEMA?
Evidence is a factual detail that you see in a picture or text. Schema is what you already know about the facts or evidence.
Directions: Look carefully at each picture below. Print an S in front of the set of details that is schema.

_____ 1. our dog has to wait in the car when we go someplace public where they dont allow animals; untrained dogs often try to jump out of cars if the windows are left completely open _____ 2. a dog is sitting in a parked car looking out the open window on the drivers side _____ 3. a well-trained dog is waiting in a parked car while the driver probably goes somewhere that the dog is not allowed to go

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

WHAT IS SCHEMA?
Evidence is a factual detail that you see in a picture or text. Schema is what you already know about the facts or evidence.
Directions: Look carefully at each picture below. Print an S in front of the set of details that is schema.

__S__ 1. our dog has to wait in the car when we go someplace public where they dont allow animals; untrained dogs often try to jump out of cars if the windows are left completely open _____ 2. a dog is sitting in a parked car looking out the open window on the drivers side (evidence) _____ 3. a well-trained dog is waiting in a parked car while the driver probably goes somewhere that the dog is not allowed to go (inference)

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

WHAT IS AN INFERENCE?
Evidence is a factual detail that you see in a picture or text. Schema is what you already know about the facts or evidence. An inference is a conclusion or opinion you form from considering evidence (facts) and schema (what you already know).
Directions: Look carefully at the picture below. Print an I in front of the set of details that states inferences.

_____ 1. a man with a wide-brimmed hat and microphone is standing on a raised platform; a womans arm is reaching toward the man; someone is holding up a round, white cap; another person has something sewed on the left shoulder of his shirt _____ 2. a male, country singer is reaching out to touch a fans hand at a music concert for men and women serving in the military _____ 3. when one person is on a platform raised above everyone else in a room, its usually a stage; when there are lots of people focused on someone standing on a stage, that person is usually a performer of some sort; the mans hat looks like the kind of hat cowboys might wear; country singers sometimes wear cowboy hats: some of the people watching the man are wearing clothing that looks like uniforms Ive seen people who are in the military wear Lessons4Now 2013 * All Rights Reserved * Single Classroom Use Only 11

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

WHAT IS AN INFERENCE?
Evidence is a factual detail that you see in a picture or text. Schema is what you already know about the facts or evidence. An inference is a conclusion or opinion you form from considering evidence (facts) and schema (what you already know).
Directions: Look carefully at the picture below. Print an I in front of the set of details that states inferences.

_____ 1. a man with a wide-brimmed hat and microphone is standing on a raised platform; a womans arm is reaching toward the man; someone is holding up a round, white cap; another person has something sewed on the left shoulder of his shirt (evidence) __I__ 2. a male, country singer is reaching out to touch a fans hand at a music concert for men and women serving in the military _____ 3. when one person is on a platform raised above everyone else in a room, its usually a stage; when there are lots of people focused on someone standing on a stage, that person is usually a performer of some sort; the mans hat looks like the kind of hat cowboys might wear; country singers sometimes wear cowboy hats: some of the people watching the man are wearing clothing that looks like uniforms Ive seen people who are in the military wear (schema) Lessons4Now 2013 * All Rights Reserved * Single Classroom Use Only 12

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## Evidence + Schema = Inference

Evidence is a factual detail that you see in a picture or text. Schema is what you know already about the facts or evidence. An inference is a conclusion or opinion you form from considering evidence (facts) and schema (what you already know).
Directions: Look carefully at each picture below. Print the correct letter in front of each detail: E for evidence, S for schema, and I for inference.

_____ 1. this is probably a baseball game _____ 2. the person trying to catch the ball is wearing a uniform and cap _____ 3. the outfits look like our Little League baseball uniforms

_____ 4. untrained dogs often try to jump out of cars if the windows are left completely open _____ 5. a dog is sitting in a parked car is looking out the open window on the drivers side _____ 6. a well-trained dog is waiting for its owner in a parked car

_____ 7. a man with a wide-brimmed hat and microphone is standing on a raised platform _____ 8. a male, country singer is reaching out to touch a fans hand at a concert _____ 9. when one person is on a raised platform facing an audience, theyre usually performing on a stage Lessons4Now 2013 * All Rights Reserved * Single Classroom Use Only 13

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## Evidence + Schema = Inference

Evidence is a factual detail that you see in a picture or text. Schema is what you know already about the facts or evidence. An inference is a conclusion or opinion you form from considering evidence (facts) and schema (what you already know).
Directions: Look carefully at each picture below. Print the correct letter in front of each detail: E for evidence, S for schema, and I for inference.

__I__ 1. this is probably a baseball game __E__ 2. the person trying to catch the ball is wearing a uniform and cap __S__ 3. the outfits look like our Little League baseball uniforms

__S__ 4. untrained dogs often try to jump out of cars if the windows are left completely open __E__ 5. a dog is sitting in a parked car is looking out the open window on the drivers side __I__ 6. a well-trained dog is waiting for its owner in a parked car

__E__ 7. a man with a wide-brimmed hat and microphone is standing on a raised platform __I__ 8. a male, country singer is reaching out to touch a fans hand at a concert __S__ 9. when one person is on a raised platform facing an audience, theyre usually performing on a stage Lessons4Now 2013 * All Rights Reserved * Single Classroom Use Only 14

Name ____________________________________________________________________________

INFERENCE
An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence. Learning to make inferences is fun. First you look for clues, or bits of information that seem important. Next, you think about everything you already know about those clues. Finally, you use the facts you have and what you know about those facts, to figure out whats going on in the picture or text.
Directions: Look at the numbered pictures below. Fill in the chart with details about what you see, what you know, and what you can infer. The first two have been done for you.

1. speedometer

## What I Know (Schema)

1. they measure how fast things go; Ive seen them in cars; the meter goes up to 80 mph 2. eggs are eaten without the shell and the egg looks raw; most people break eggs over a bowl or pan 3.

Inference
1. the speedometer is probably from a car or boat

## 2. this egg probably fell by mistake 3.

4.

4.

4.

5.

5.

5.

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Name ____________________________________________________________________________

INFERENCE

An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence. Learning to make inferences is fun. First you look for clues, or bits of information that seem important. Next, you think about everything you already know about those clues. Finally, you use the facts you have and what you know about those facts, to figure out whats going on in the picture or text.
Directions: Look at the numbered pictures below. Fill in the chart with details about what you see, what you know, and what you can infer. The first two have been done for you.

1. speedometer

## What I Know (Schema)

1. they measure how fast things go; Ive seen them in cars; the meter goes up to 80 mph 2. eggs are eaten without the shell and the egg looks raw; most people break eggs over a bowl or pan 3. cooks wear aprons and chef hats like that; pots usually contain food like soup or sauce 4. smoke from the engine usually means something overheated; at times drivers get angry when cars break down 5. jewelry boxes can be small; the necklace has a heart pendant, usually girls wear heart jewelry; hearts = love

Inference
1. the speedometer is probably from a car or boat

2. uncooked, broken egg 3. personwearingan apronand puffyhat while pickingup a pot 4. blue car with smoke coming from the front; angrylooking man 5. small, blue box with a heart and chain inside

2. this egg probably fell by mistake 3. this person is probably a chef who has cooked something that is in the pot 4. the driver is angry that his car is overheated or broken down 5. maybe this necklace is a gift for a girl to show how much the giver loves her

16

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

WHAT IS AN INFERENCE?
An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence. Learning to make inferences is fun. First you look for clues, or bits of information that seem important. Next, you think about everything you already know about those clues. Finally, you use the facts you have and what you know about those facts, to figure out whats going on in the picture or text.
Directions: Look carefully at the picture below. Write down specific details about things you see (evidence) in the picture. Need more room? Write on the back of this paper.

## 1. ______________________________________________ 2. ______________________________________________ 3. ______________________________________________ 4. ______________________________________________ 5. ______________________________________________

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

WHAT IS AN INFERENCE?
An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence. Learning to make inferences is fun. First you look for clues, or bits of information that seem important. Next, you think about everything you already know about those clues. Finally, you use the facts you have and what you know about those facts, to figure out whats going on in the picture or text.
Directions: Look carefully at the picture below. Write down specific details about things you see (evidence) in the picture. Need more room? Write on the back of this paper.

child with his chin resting on fists 1. ______________________________________________ person outside with an open umbrella 2. ______________________________________________ baseball on the floor by the child 3. ______________________________________________ rain falling outside 4. ______________________________________________ no socks on childs feet 5. ______________________________________________

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## What do you know about the evidence?

After you list the specific things you see (evidence), you need to tell what you know (schema) about the clues youve gathered.
Directions: Study the clues or evidence listed on the chart below. Next to each detail tell what you know (schema). The first two details on the chart have been filled in as examples.

## What I See (Evidence)

1. child with his chin resting on fists

## What I Know (Schema)

1. sitting like that usually means that a person is upset, tired, or thinking about something serious 2. people hold open umbrellas over their heads to stay dry when its raining 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.
19

2. person outside with an open umbrella 3. rain coming down outside 4. baseball on the floor by the child 5. paper on the floor by the baseball 6. curtains hanging on the windows 7. no socks on childs feet

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## What do you know about the evidence?

After you list the specific things you see (evidence), you need to tell what you know (schema) about the clues youve gathered.
Directions: Study the clues or evidence listed on the chart below. Next to each detail tell what you know (schema). The first two details on the chart have been filled in as examples.

## What I See (Evidence)

1. child with his chin resting on fists

## What I Know (Schema)

1. sitting like that usually means that a person is upset, tired, or thinking about something serious 2. people hold open umbrellasover their heads to stay dry when its raining 3. when itrainsthe ground gets wet 4. people usually play with baseballs outside, not inside 5. paper is used for art, writing notes, and report cards 6. curtainsare used inside tocoverwindows 7. sometimes people wear slippers without socks
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2. person outside with an open umbrella 3. rain coming down outside 4. baseball on the floor by the child 5. paper on the floor by the baseball 6. curtains hanging on the windows 7. no socks on childs feet

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## What can I infer about whats happening?

Finally, use evidence and schema to figure out (infer) whats going on in the picture or text.
Directions: Using the specific things seen (evidence) and known (schema), what inferences could be made? Two are filled in as examples.

## What I See (Evidence)

1. child with his chin resting on fists 2. person outside with an open umbrella 3. rain coming down outside 4. baseball on the floor 5. paper on the floor 6. curtains on window 7. no socks on childs feet

## What I Know (Schema)

1. sitting like that usually means that a person is upset, tired, or thinking about something serious 2. people hold open umbrellas over their heads to stay dry when its raining 3. when it rains the ground gets wet 4. people usually play with baseballs outside, not inside 5. paper is used for art, writing notes, and report cards 6. curtains are used inside to cover windows 7. sometimes people wear slippers without socks 1.

Inference

2.

3. the child probably cant play baseball because its raining 4. 5. maybe he was drawing and got bored 6. 7.
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Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## What can I infer about whats happening?

Finally, use evidence and schema to figure out (infer) whats going on in the picture or text.
Directions: Using the specific things seen (evidence) and known (schema), what inferences could be made? Two are filled in as examples.

## What I See (Evidence)

1. child with his chin resting on fists 2. person outside with an open umbrella 3. rain coming down outside 4. baseball on the floor 5. paper on the floor 6. curtains on window 7. no socks on childs feet

## What I Know (Schema)

1. sitting like that usually means that a person is upset, tired, or thinking about something serious 2. people hold open umbrellas over their heads to stay dry when its raining 3. when it rains the ground gets wet 4. people usually play with baseballs outside, not inside 5. paper is used for art, writing notes, and report cards 6. curtains are used inside to cover windows 7. sometimes people wear slippers without socks

Inference

2. its raining hard outside 3. the child probably cant play baseball because its raining 4. the child has the baseball near hoping the rain will clear 5. maybe he/she was drawing and got bored 6. the curtainsare openbecause
the child was looking outside

## 7. thechild plans tostayinside so he/she iswearing slippers

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Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## Practice Making Inferences 1

An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence. Learning to make inferences is fun. First you look for clues, or bits of information that seem important. Next, you think about everything you already know about those clues. Finally, you use the facts you have and what you know about those facts, to figure out whats going on in the picture or text. Directions: Look carefully at the picture and then write down what you see (evidence), what you know (schema), and what you figured out about whats going on in the picture (inference).

## What I Know (Schema)

Inference

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Name _________________________________________________________________________________

Practice Making Inferences 1

An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence. Learning to make inferences is fun. First you look for clues, or bits of information that seem important. Next, you think about everything you already know about those clues. Finally, you use the facts you have and what you know about those facts, to figure out whats going on in the picture or text. Directions: Look carefully at the picture and then write down what you see (evidence), what you know (schema), and what you figured out about whats going on in the picture (inference).

## What I See (Evidence)

an orange boat with a man and girl sitting in it; a second, yellow boat in the distance; all the people are looking in the direction the boats seem to be moving; paddles with oars on both ends; water surrounded by trees; at least three of the four people are wearing lifejackets

## What I Know (Schema)

the boats look like canoes; the water and trees look more like a river than a lake or the ocean; the girl isnt paddling and shes smiling, so maybe this is a recreational activity four people on vacation are paddling their canoes along a river

Inference

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Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## Practice Making Inferences 2

An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence. Learning to make inferences is fun. First you look for clues, or bits of information that seem important. Next, you think about everything you already know about those clues. Finally, you use the facts you have and what you know about those facts, to figure out whats going on in the picture or text. Directions: Look carefully at the picture and then write down what you see (evidence), what you know (schema), and what you figured out about whats going on in the picture (inference).

## What I See (Evidence) What I Know (Schema)

Inference

25

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

Practice Making Inferences 2

An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence. Learning to make inferences is fun. First you look for clues, or bits of information that seem important. Next, you think about everything you already know about those clues. Finally, you use the facts you have and what you know about those facts, to figure out whats going on in the picture or text. Directions: Look carefully at the picture and then write down what you see (evidence), what you know (schema), and what you figured out about whats going on in the picture (inference).

## What I See (Evidence)

an open carriage with four old-fashioned wheels; a white horse connected to the front of the carriage; an old-fashioned, white building in the background; a yellow car behind the carriage
the building may be old, but the carriage must be new because there is a car in the picture and cars were manufactured long after carriages were the main mode of transportation; this looks like a carriage that people rent to take tours in historical or scenic locations

## What I Know (Schema)

Inference

this old-fashioned, horse-drawn carriage is used to take people on tours around an historical location like Charleston or Atlanta
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Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## Practice Making Inferences 3

An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence. Learning to make inferences is fun. First you look for clues, or bits of information that seem important. Next, you think about everything you already know about those clues. Finally, you use the facts you have and what you know about those facts, to figure out whats going on in the picture or text. Directions: Look carefully at the picture and then write down what you see (evidence), what you know (schema), and what you figured out about whats going on in the picture (inference).

## What I Know (Schema)

Inference

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

Practice Making Inferences 3

An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence. Learning to make inferences is fun. First you look for clues, or bits of information that seem important. Next, you think about everything you already know about those clues. Finally, you use the facts you have and what you know about those facts, to figure out whats going on in the picture or text. Directions: Look carefully at the picture and then write down what you see (evidence), what you know (schema), and what you figured out about whats going on in the picture (inference).

## What I See (Evidence)

a dog with an American flag in its mouth; a collar around its neck and a strap across its chest; legs of at least two people standing nearby; buildings and a stoplight in the background It looks like a city along a busy road; dogs and people dont usually carry flags unless its a special patriotic holiday; the straps look like harnesses Ive seen on service dogs who help people with disabilities the dog could be someones service dog who is with its owner who is watching a downtown parade on Veterans Day, the Fourth of July, or Memorial Day
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## What I Know (Schema)

Inference

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## Inference Skill Sheet 1

An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed using evidence and schema.
Directions: Look carefully at the picture and then tell what inference ,or inferences, you can make. Give specific details about the evidence and schema you used to make each inference.

## Evidence + Schema = Inference

29

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

Inference Skill Sheet 1

## An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed using evidence and schema.

Directions: Look carefully at the picture and then tell what inference ,or inferences, you can make. Give specific details about the evidence and schema you used to make each inference.

## Evidence + Schema = Inference

This looks like an illustration from the book ,The Wizard of Oz. I think this because that book was written a long time ago, and the picture looks kind of old-fashioned. Also, I think the characters are the same as the ones in the movie, The Wizard of Oz, that I watched with my family. I see the Tin Man, the Scarecrow, the Cowardly Lion, the dog, Toto, and Dorothy carrying a basket. Also, I notice there is a brick road just like from the song, Follow the Yellow Brick Road.

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## Inference Skill Sheet 2

An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed using evidence and schema.
Directions: Look carefully at the picture and then tell what inference ,or inferences, you can make. Give specific details about the evidence and schema you used to make each inference.

## Evidence + Schema = Inference

31

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

Inference Skill Sheet 2

## An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed using evidence and schema.

Directions: Look carefully at the picture and then tell what inference ,or inferences, you can make. Give specific details about the evidence and schema you used to make each inference.

## Evidence + Schema = Inference

I think the road is flooded and the police have come to investigate. I think this because the water seems to be covering one whole lane, and then crosses over the middle line into the left lane, too. Its not raining in the picture, so its unlikely that the road is just wet from rain. Also, roads are usually not covered with large amounts of standing water, so it seems like a river or lake nearby may have overflowed. I can tell its a police car because there is a shield on the right, passenger door, and theres a dark bank going from the front to the back of the car. This car looks like police cruisers in our community.

32

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## Inference Skill Sheet 3

An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed using evidence and schema.
Directions: Look carefully at the picture and then tell what inference ,or inferences, you can make. Give specific details about the evidence and schema you used to make each inference.

## Evidence + Schema = Inference

33

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

Inference Skill Sheet 3

## An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed using evidence and schema.

Directions: Look carefully at the picture and then tell what inference ,or inferences, you can make. Give specific details about the evidence and schema you used to make each inference.

## Evidence + Schema = Inference

I think a doctor is giving some information to a patient. I think this because there is a desk between the men, and the framed pictures on the walls look like they have seals and signatures. My moms college diploma looks like that. Our doctor has her diplomas hanging on the wall behind her desk, so thats what made me think the man with the paper was a doctor. Also, the man behind the desk has a round thing the hangs below his collar. That looks like it might be a stethoscope. Stethoscopes are used by doctors to listen to patients hearts. I think the paper might be a medical report. I think this because both men look serious, not like theyre talking casually or having fun.

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## Evidence, Schema, and Inference: Assessment 1

An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence. Learning to make inferences is fun. First you look for clues, or bits of information that seem important. Next, you think about everything you already know about those clues. Finally, you use the facts you have to figure out whats going on in the picture or text.
Directions: Look carefully at the picture. Study each statement and decide whether its evidence (what you see), schema (what you know), or inference (what you figure out using evidence and schema). Print E for evidence, S for schema, and I for Inference.

___ 1. a person jumping ___ 2. bowling alleys have bowling pins and bowling lanes ___ 3. countries usually only display their own flag ___ 4. an Australian flag ___ 5. bowling lanes ___ 6. this is probably a bowling alley ___ 7. countries usually only display their own flag ___ 8. bowling pins painted on the wall ___ 9. bowling alleys have bowling pins and bowling lanes ___ 10. this bowling alley is probably in Australia ___ 11. my dad jumps and hollers when he knocks over a lot of bowling pins ___ 12. this person is jumping for joy because he or she probably knocked down a lot, or all of the pins ___ 13. persons arms are flung out above his or her head

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## Evidence, Schema, and Inference: Assessment 1

An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence. Learning to make inferences is fun. First you look for clues, or bits of information that seem important. Next, you think about everything you already know about those clues. Finally, you use the facts you have to figure out whats going on in the picture or text.
Directions: Look carefully at the picture. Study each statement and decide whether its evidence (what you see), schema (what you know), or inference (what you figure out using evidence and schema). Print E for evidence, S for schema, and I for Inference.

_E_ 1. a person jumping _S_ 2. bowling alleys have bowling pins and bowling lanes _S_ 3. countries usually only display their own flag _E_ 4. an Australian flag _E_ 5. bowling lanes _I_ 6. this is probably a bowling alley _S_ 7. countries usually only display their own flag _E_ 8. bowling pins painted on the wall _S_ 9. bowling alleys have bowling pins and bowling lanes _I_ 10. this bowling alley is probably in Australia _S_ 11. my dad jumps and hollers when he knocks over a lot of bowling pins _I_ 12. this person is jumping for joy because he or she probably knocked down a lot, or all of the pins _E_ 13. persons arms are flung out above his or her head

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## Evidence, Schema, and Inference: Assessment 2

An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence. Learning to make inferences is fun. First you look for clues, or bits of information that seem important. Next, you think about everything you already know about those clues. Finally, you use the facts you have to figure out whats going on in the picture or text.
Directions: Look carefully at the picture. Study each statement and decide whether its evidence (what you see), schema (what you know), or inference (what you figure out using evidence and schema). Print E for evidence, S for schema, and I for Inference.

___ 1. people riding horses ___ 2. historical people and cars dont seem like they belong together ___ 3. the riders outfits are old-fashioned, but the cars are modern ___ 4. jousting poles and metal helmets ___ 5. trailers and cars are parked behind the horses and people ___ 6. the people are probably modern-day people in costume ___ 7. in Medieval times, people jousted with poles and wore helmets ___ 8. old-fashioned, design is sewn on the horses decorated blanket ___ 9. cars and campers can only exist in current times ___ 10. the people on horses are probably pretending to joust ___ 11. people sometimes dress in costumes to put on shows ___ 12. the riders are probably performing for an audience or competing in a modern-day Medieval-themed contest of some sort ___ 13. there is a modern-looking gate between the horses and cars

Name _________________________________________________________________________________

## Evidence, Schema, and Inference: Assessment 2

An inference is a conclusion or opinion that is formed because of known facts or evidence. Learning to make inferences is fun. First you look for clues, or bits of information that seem important. Next, you think about everything you already know about those clues. Finally, you use the facts you have to figure out whats going on in the picture or text.
Directions: Look carefully at the picture. Study each statement and decide whether its evidence (what you see), schema (what you know), or inference (what you figure out using evidence and schema). Print E for evidence, S for schema, and I for Inference.

_E_ 1. people riding horses _S_ 2. historical people and cars dont seem like they belong together _E_ 3. the riders outfits are old-fashioned, but the cars are modern _E_ 4. jousting poles and metal helmets _E_ 5. trailers and cars are parked behind the horses and people _I_ 6. the people are probably modern-day people in costume _S_ 7. in Medieval times, people jousted with poles and wore helmets _E_ 8. old-fashioned, design is sewn on the horses decorated blanket _S_ 9. cars and campers can only exist in current times _ I _ 10. the people on horses are probably pretending to joust _S_ 11. people sometimes dress in costumes to put on shows _ I _ 12. the riders are probably performing for an audience or competing in a modern-day Medieval-themed contest of some sort _E_ 13. there is a modern-looking gate between the horses and cars

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