How is Portland Cement manufactured?

The manufacturing process consists of grinding the raw materials intimately in certain proportions, mixing & burning them in a kiln at a temperature of about 1300-15000C. At this temperature, the material sinters and partially fuses to form nodular shaped Clinker. The clinker is cooled & ground to fine powder with addition of 3-5% gypsum. The scheme can be schematically represented as below:-

The process can also be represented by a simple flow diagram as shown below:-

There are mainly two processes viz. “Wet process” & the “Dry process”. In “Wet process” the mixing & grinding of raw material is done in wet condition. In “Dry process” the mixing & grinding of raw material is done in dry condition. There is also a “Semi-dry process” in which raw materials are ground dry and then mixed with 10-14% of water and then further burnt to clinkering temperature. The processes of manufacture can also be categorized as "Traditional Process of Manufacture" & "Modern Dry Process of Manufacture". What are the “Wet”, “Dry” & “Semi Dry” processes of manufacture of Portland Cement ? There are mainly two processes viz. “Wet process” & the “Dry process”. In “Wet process” the mixing & grinding of raw material is done in wet condition. In “Dry process” the mixing & grinding of raw material is done in dry condition. There is also a “Semi-Dry process” in which raw materials are ground dry and then mixed with 1014% of water and then further burnt to clinkering temperature.

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