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Honors Anatomy & Physiology Study Guide: Semester 1 Nervous System Neural Tissue: White Matter Myelinated Axons

Motor Neurons Multipolar Carry impulses away from CNS Carry impulses to effectors Efferent Types of Neuroglial Cells Schwann Cells PNS Myelin secreting cell Insulates axon (rolled up pancake) Speed up impulse Oligodendrocytes In the CNS Myelin secreting cell Brain & spinal cord

Gray Matter Contains unmyelinated structures Cell bodies, dendrites

Classification of Neurons MicrogliaBipolar Two processes Eyes, ears, nose In the CNS Phagocytic cell Cousin of macrophages Eats bacteria

Unipolar One process Ganglia

Astrocytes Located in the CNS Produce scar tissue (tumor causing cells) Fixes concussions Mop up excess ions, etc. Induce synapse formation Connect neurons to blood vessels

Multipolar Many processes Most neurons of CNS

Sensory Neurons Afferent Carry impulse to CNS Most are unipolar Some are bipolar (eyes, ears)

Ependymal Cells Located in CNS Ciliated (to move CSF by creating a current) Line central canal of spinal cord Line ventricles of brain Choroid Plexus

Interneurons Link neurons Multipolar In CNS

Brain Anatomy: Diencephalon- Creates the 3rd Ventricle Composed of the: Thalamus Hypothalamus Posterior pituitary gland Pineal gland Brain Stem- By which the brain stem attaches to the spinal cord Composed of the: Cerebrum Sulcus Gyrus mounds (gyri) groove (sulci) anterior body of the brain Midbrain Pons Medulla Oblongata

Hypothalamus between the optic chiasm and the mammillary body Regulates: heart rate/ blood pressure body temperature water/electrolyte balance movements/secretions of stomach and intestines controls pituitary gland sleep/wake Superior colliculus visual reflex center (turns your head toward something you see out of the corner of your eye)

Inferior colliculus auditory reflex center (turns your head toward something you hear)

Medulla oblongata Controls: heart rate blood vessels respiratory center Pons bulge on the brainstem relays sensory information to the higher brain helps medulla oblongata breathing rhythm during sleep

Cerebral cortex top layer of the cerebrum contains 75% of neurons

Cerebellum posterior body of the brain motor control coordination of voluntary muscles

Thalamus receives sensory impulses and relays them to the appropriate portion of the brain (gateway) sleep/wake cycle

Pineal body (gland) posterior to lateral ventricle secretes melatonin (neurotransmitter) for the sleep/wake cycle

Mammillary body round bodies on the underside of the brain recognition memory smell memory chewing reflex

Postcentral gyrus posterior to central sulcus sensory information

Central sulcus separates the parietal and frontal lobes

Fourth ventricle filled with CSF in the spinal cord

Temporal lobe responsible for hearing remember visual scenes, music, sensory patterns

Cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of sylvius) connects 3rd ventricle to the 4th ventricle

Frontal lobe controls skeletal muscle movement concentrating, planning, problem solving

Lateral ventricles Fornix forms the floor of the lateral ventricles 1st is on the left 2nd is on the right filled with CSF

Parietal lobe senses touch, temperature, pressure, skin pain understanding speech using words

Longitudinal (cerebral) fissure deep groove that separates the two hemispheres falx cerebri lies within it

Occipital lobe vision combine visual images with other senses

Transverse fissure divides the cerebrum from the cerebellum

Brocas speech area controls speech usually on left side between frontal and parietal lobes

Corpus callosum connects both the hemispheres interhemispheral communication forms roof of the lateral ventricles

Precentral gyrus anterior to the central sulcus motor actions

Meninges: Dura Mater dense CT outermost meninx several extensions falx cerebri falx cerebelli tentorium cerebelli

3rd ventricle enclosed by diencephalon cerebral aqueduct (aqueduct of sylvius) leads from 3 to 4 4th ventricle in the spinal cord 1 - 2- 3 - 4 Good indicator of infection 500 mL generated daily

Arachnoid Mater thin, web-like membrane 2nd meninx Possesses a sub-arachnoid space with CSF Olfactory (I)

Cranial Nerves:

sensory sense of smell bulbs on the frontal lobe

Pia Mater thin membrane contains numerous nerves and blood vessels innermost meninx

Optic (II) sensory sense of vision nerves arise from the optic chiasma in the midbrain

Ventricles: interconnected cavities within the cerebrum and the brain stem continuous with the central canal of the spinal cord filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) CSF bathes the brain in nutrients nutritive and protective clear fluid indicator of infection (meningitis) 500 mL made daily It is secreted by the choroid plexus capillary network of the pia mater single layer of ependymal cells most CSF formed in lateral ventricles lateral ventricles = (1 & 2)

Oculomotor (III) motor contains autonomic (parasympathetic) fibers moves eyes raise eyelids focus lens adjust light entering

Trochlear (IV) motor moves the eyes arise from the ventral transverse fissure

Trigeminal (V) mixed sensory to eyes, tears, scalp, forehead, eyelids, teeth, gums, lips, palate, face

motor to muscles of mastication

Hypoglossal (XII) motor motor to tongue

Abducens (VI) motor moves the eyes

Facial (VII) mixed autonomic (parasympathetic) fibers sensory to anterior 2/3 tongue motor to muscles of facial expression, tear glands, salivary glands Ascending Tracts

Spinal Cord:

fasciculus gracilis fasciculus cuneatus spinothalamic (lateral and anterior) spinocerebellar (posterior and anterior)

Vestibulocochlear (VIII) sensory sense of hearing equilibrium receptors of ears

Descending Tracts corticospinal (lateral and anterior) reticulospinal (lateral, anterior, and medial) rubrospinal

Glossopharyngeal (IX) mixed autonomic (parasympathetic) fibers sensory to pharynx, tonsils, posterior 1/3 of tongue motor to salivary glands and muscles of pharynx

Fasciculus Gracilis & Cuneatus sensory impulses associated with touch, pressure, and movement of skeletal muscles posterior funiculi

Vagus (X) mixed autonomic (parasympathetic) fibers motor to muscles of speech and swallowing motor to viscera of thorax and abdomen sensory from pharynx, larynx, esophagus, and viscera Spinothalamic (lateral & anterior) sensory impulses associated with pain, temperature, touch, and pressure lateral and anterior funiculi

Spinocerebellar (posterior & anterior) sensory impulses associated with coordination of skeletal movements lateral funiculi

Accessory (XI) motor motor to muscles of palate, pharynx, larynx, neck and back

Corticospinal (lateral & anterior) motor impulses associated with voluntary movements of skeletal muscles

lateral and anterior funiculi

Autonomic Nervous System: Functions without conscious effort Controls visceral activities Efferent (motor) fibers lead to ganglia outside the CNS 2 divisions; sympathetic & parasympathetic Preganglionic fibers axons located in cell bodies in the CNS Postganglionic fibers axons located in visceral effectors (organs, glands, vessels)

Reticulospinal (lateral, anterior, & medial) motor impulses associated with muscle tone and sweat glands lateral and anterior funiculi

Rubrospinal Funiculi 3 divisions of white matter created by the dividing gray matter Anterior, posterior, and lateral Each contains bundles of longitudinal nerve fibers called nerve tracts motor impulses associated with muscular coordination and posture lateral funiculi

Gray Commissure Horns Pattern of gray matter produces a figure that resembles a butterfly Posterior horns, anterior horns, lateral horn Motor neurons that control skeletal muscles are in the gray matter Horizontal bar that connects the wings of the gray matter Surrounds the central canal, which is continuous with the ventricles

Reflex Arcs Begins with a receptor at the end of a sensory neuron Impulse goes to interneurons Communicates with motor neurons whose fivers pass outward from the CNS to effectors Reflexes are automatic, subconscious responses to changes within or outside the body

Sympathetic Division Fight or flight; emergency situations Thoracolumbar division thoracic & lumbar (location of preganglionic neurons)

Somatic Nervous System: Sensory Receptors specialized cells or multicellular structures that collect information specialized cells or multicellular structures that collect information stimulation of receptor causes local change in its membrane amount of electricity reflects intensity of impulse receptor either generates an action potential or transfers its potential to a neuron to trigger an action potential peripheral nerves transmit impulses to CNS

Chemoreceptors preganglionic fibers leave spinal nerves through white rami and enter paravertebral ganglia preganglionic fibers leave spinal nerves through white rami and enter paravertebral ganglia respond to changes in chemical concentrations smell and taste

Pain receptors respond to tissue damage

Thermoreceptors respond to changes in temperature

Mechanoreceptors respond to mechanical forces

Parasympathetic Division resting and digesting (wine and dine) cranio-sacral division location of preganglionic neurons; cranium and sacrum ganglia are near or within organs CN III, VII, IX, X

Photoreceptors respond to light

Somatic Senses sense associated with skin, muscles, joints, and viscera exteroceptive, proprioceptive, visceroceptive

Exteroceptive Senses sense associated with body surface, touch, pressure, temperature, pain

Proprioceptive Senses senses associated with changes in muscles and tendons

Cerebral Cortex judges intensity of pain locates source of pain produces motor response to pain produces emotions to pain

Visceroceptive Senses senses associated with changes in viscera

Pain Inhibiting Substances enkephalins serotonin endorphins

Touch and Pressure Senses: Free Nerve Endings common in epithelial tissues detect touch and pressure

Stretch Receptors send information to CNS concerning lengths and tensions of muscles 2 main kinds of stretch receptors Muscle spindles in skeletal muscles Golgi tendon organs in tendons

Meissners Corpuscles abundant in hairless portions of skin detect light touch

Pacinian Corpuscles common in deeper tissues, tendons, and ligaments detect heavy pressure Sense of Pain: free nerve endings widely distributed brain lacks pain receptors stimulated by tissue damage, chemicals/mechanical forces, extremes in temperature do not adapt

Nerve Plexus - complex networks formed by anterior branches of spinal nerves; fibers of various spinal nerves are sorted and recombined Dermatome area of the skin that the sensory nerve fibers of a particular spinal nerve innervate

Cervical Plexus: C1 C4 Lies deep in the neck Supply muscles and skin of the neck Contribute to phrenic nerve Above is composed of levels C3, C4, C5 and keeps the diaphragm alive

Visceral Pain may exhibit referred pain (two pain impulses meet from different areas exhibiting pain in a different spot {ex. pain in the bladder is felt in the shoulder}) not well localized

Thalamus allows person to be aware of pain

Brachial Plexus: C5-T1 lies deep within shoulders musculocutaneous nerves supply muscles of anterior arms and skin of forearms ulnar nerves supply muscles of forearms and hands supply skin of hands radial nerves supply posterior muscles of arms and skin of forearms and hands axillary nerves supply muscles and skin of superior, lateral, and posterior arms

supply muscles and skin of thighs and legs sciatic nerves supply muscles and skin of thighs, legs, and feet

Limbic System: Consists of portions of frontal lobe portions of temporal lobe hypothalamus thalamus basal nuclei other deep nuclei

Functions controls emotions produces feelings interpret sensory impulses reacts to life-threatening experiences in a persons physical or psychological condition by causing unpleasant or pleasant feelings about experiences, it guides behavior that may increase the chance of survival

Lumbosacral Plexus: T12 S5 extend from lumbar region into pelvic cavity obturator nerves supply adductors of thighs femoral nerves

Spinal Nerve Anatomy: Dorsal Root axons of sensory neurons in the dorsal root ganglion

Femoral nerves motor and sensory to muscles of the thighs and legs Sciatic nerves pass into the buttocks and into the thighs were they divide into the Tibial and Common Fibular nerves which supply muscles of the thighs, legs, and feet Pudendal nerves muscles of the perineum Inferior and superior gluteal nerves gluteal muscles and the tensor fasciae latae muscle Intercostal nerves enter the ribs and supply motor impulses to the upper abdominal wall muscles Disorders: Shingles (Herpes Simplex II)

Dorsal Root Ganglion cell bodies of sensory neurons

Ventral Root axons of motor neurons whose cell bodies are in spinal cord

Spinal Nerve union of ventral root and dorsal root

Major Peripheral Nerves: Musculocutaneous nerves muscles of the anterior arms Ulnar Nerves - muscles of the forearms and the hands Median nerves muscles of forearms and the hands Radial nerves muscles of the posterior arms Axillary nerves muscles of the superior, lateral, and posterior arms Lateral and Medial Pectoral nerves pectoralis major and pectoralis minor Dorsal Scapular nerve rhomboideus major and levator scapulae Lower Subscapular nerve subscapularis and teres major Thoracodorsal nerve latissimus dorsi Suprascapular nerve supraspinatus and infraspinatus Obturator nerves adductor muscles of the thigh


herpes virus attacks neurons within dorsal roots of spinal nerves produces chicken pox rash rash follows dermatomes

decline in hip nerve function (sciatic nerve) usually caused by large wallets lumbar/gluteal pain weakness of leg muscles sensory loss

Epilepsy seizures, usually no obvious cause Grand mal seizure epileptic attack involving contractions of face, eyes, limbs, muscles drops to the floor, unconscious several contractions

Petit mal seizure brief attacks (less than 10 seconds) loses consciousness, small contractions usually in children 100s of times per day

Horners Syndrome Sympathetic postganglionic innervation to 1 side of face gets interrupted Result of injury, tumor, multiple sclerosis Flushed face No sweating in affected region Constricted pupil

Accounts for 50 80% of dementia Common in elderly patients Worsens over time

Guillain Barre Syndrome Affects PNS Immune response to foreign antigens Muscle paralysis Areflexia (no fever) Rubbery legs Facial weakness Deep aching pain

Raynauds Disease Common in young women Fingers, toes, ears, nose deprived of circulation Affected areas take on a blue/pale white discoloration Sympathetic system orders excessive constriction

Meningitis Inflammation of the meninges due to infection Typically affects the pia mater or arachnoid mater Usually in children and infants Blindness, deafness, paralysis, mental retardation, death Caused by meningococcal bacteria

Huntingtons Disease Inherited disease Progressive deterioration of mental debilities Early adulthood Problems performing voluntary/involuntary movements

Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis

Parkinsons Disease Usually caused by blows to the head or brain trauma Uncontrollable shaking Resting tremor Mostly in the elderly

Tay-Sachs Disease Abnormal metabolism of gangliosides Affects infants Muscular weakness, blindness, seizures, death before age 4 Genetic disorder

Alzheimers Disease Most common form of dementia