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# van der Waals Equation

## An example of a non-ideal gas equation

van der Waals equation Not all gasses act ideally. This is especially true when one approaches the conditions for the gas to condense.

van der Waals equation One of the most widely known equations for deviation from ideality is the van der Waals equation. The following is a explanation.

van der Waals equation The ideal gas equation is modified. Starting with:

PV = nRT

van der Waals equation The ideal gas equation is modified. The volume term is modified to account for the volume of the molecules: P(V - nb) = nRT where b is the volume of the molecules per mole.

## volume per mole =b

van der Waals equation The ideal gas equation is modified. The attractions between the molecule are propoertional to the square of the number of molecules. So the pressure correction is: (P + n2a/V2)(V - nb) = nRT where n/V is the molar concentration.

van der Waals equation This gives the van der Waals equation for a gas: (P + n2a/V2)(V - nb) = nRT This is used to calculate some common gasses:

van der Waals equation This gives the van der Waals equation for a gas: (P + n2a/V2)(V - nb) = nRT This is used to calculate some common gasses:
acetone and ethyl alcohol at 500 K

moles in 1 L volume

van der Waals equation This gives the van der Waals equation for a gas: (P + n2a/V2)(V - nb) = nRT This is used to calculate some common gasses:
acetone and ethyl alcohol at 500 K

## Each gas has its own constants:

acetone: a = 13.91 atm L2 mol-2 b = 0.0994 L mol-1 ethyl alcohol: a = 12.02 atm L2 mol-2 b = 0.0841 L mol-1

moles in 1 L volume

van der Waals equation (P + n2a/V2)(V - nb) = nRT Example: Compare the van der Waals calculation of the pressure of 3.00 mol of ethyl alcohol in 2.00 L with the ideal gas calculation at 500 K.

van der Waals equation (P + n2a/V2)(V - nb) = nRT Example: Compare the van der Waals calculation of the pressure of 3.00 mol of ethyl alcohol in 2.00 L with the ideal gas calculation at 500 K. From the data on the previous slide:
a = 12.02 atm L2 mol-2 b = 0.0841 L mol-1

## Substituting (leaveing the units out to save space):

[P + (3.00)2(12.02)/(2.00)2][2.00 -(3.00)(0.0841)] = (3.00)(0.08206)(500)

van der Waals equation (P + n2a/V2)(V - nb) = nRT Example: Compare the van der Waals calculation of the pressure of 3.00 mol of ethyl alcohol in 2.00 L with the ideal gas calculation at 500 K. From the data on the previous slide:
a = 12.02 atm L2 mol-2 b = 0.0841 L mol-1

Solving for P: P = 43.4 atm from the van der Waals equation

van der Waals equation (P + n2a/V2)(V - nb) = nRT Example: Compare the van der Waals calculation of the pressure of 3.00 mol of ethyl alcohol in 2.00 L with the ideal gas calculation at 500 K. P = 43.4 atm from the van der Waals equation For the ideal gas calculation:
P(2.00 L) = (3.00 mol)(0.08206 L atm K-1 mol-1)(500 K)

van der Waals equation (P + n2a/V2)(V - nb) = nRT Example: Compare the van der Waals calculation of the pressure of 3.00 mol ethyl alcohol in 2.00 L with the ideal gas calculation at 500 K. P = 43.4 atm from the van der Waals equation Solving for P: P = 61.5 atm for the ideal gas equation.

van der Waals equation (P + n2a/V2)(V - nb) = nRT Example: Compare the van der Waals calculation of the pressure of 3.00 mol ethyl alcohol in 2.00 L with the ideal gas calculation at 500 K. P = 43.4 atm from the van der Waals equation P = 61.5 atm for the ideal gas equation. This difference can be seen from the graph below.
100 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0

0.40

0.80

1.20

1.60

2.40

2.80

3.20

## moles of ethyl alcohol

The End
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