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uploaded by user Tashy Class: Lecture/Exam: School: Semester: Professor: AAS 110 Final Exam SBU Fall 2013 --

AAS 110 - NW001 - Final Review

Melody- arrangement of notes in a linear fashion 1 note at a time The combination of different notes to create a specific mood/feeling Sa (Shadja); Re (Rishabh); Ga (Gandhar); Ma (Madhyam); Pa (Pancham); Dha (Dhaivat); Ni (Nishad) Tempo- fast or slow Pitch- vibration per second Amplitude- the loudness or softness of notes Duration- period of time in which a note is held or sounded Timbre- quality of the sound in relation to the vibration as well as the overtone quality Raga- musical notes and the combination of this notes Every Raga must contain at least 5 notes Every Raga must include Sa and Ma or Pa It must possess aesthetic potentialities Must employ the full rang e of octave and must cover both tetracords It must not take both flats and sharps of the same notes continuously Ex: Yamen Ma is the only Sharp Note Re, Ga, Dha, Ni are the only flat notes Piya Ki Najariya Jaadoo Bhari Moh Liyo Mann Prem Bhari Kawan Jatan Ab Kariye Aali Nahin Pare Mohe Chail Ek Ghari Consonance- pleasant sounding Consonance of 5th (PA) note or 4th (MA) notes Dissonance- unpleasant sounding Every half step- Re, Re Ten Parent Scales (That) Bilavel- all normal notes Kalyan- Ma sharp Khamaj- Ni flat Bhairav- Re flat and Dha flat

Poorvi- Re flat, Dha flat and Ma sharp (Khamaj + Bhairav) Marva- Re flat and Ma Sharp Kafi- Ga flat and Ni flat Aaswari- Ga flat, Dha flat and Ni flat Bhairavi- Re flat, Ga flat, Dha flat and Ni flat (Bhairav + Kafi) Todi- Re flat, Gha flat, Ma sharp and Dha flat VocabularyNad- musical sound Sangeet- music Swar- musical notes Shruti- microtonetotal of 22 shrutis Saptak- 7 note musical scale Aroh- ascending notes Avroh- descending notes Shuddha- Natural or Pure notes Komal- Flat note (Re, Ga, Dha, Ni) Tivra- Sharp note (Ma) Vikrit- Displaced or altered notes Mandra- lower resister or scale Madhya- Middle register Tara- Higher register Laya- rhythm Tala- Time measure Raga- Melodic Framework Khayal- singing style Bandish- composition set to Tala Sthayi- first part of the composition Antara- second part of the composition Varna- act of singing 4 Varnas- Sthayi(repetition), Avrohi (descending), Arohi (ascending), Sanchari (combination) Vadi- Sonant (most prominent and significant note) Sa, MOST CONSANANT NOTE Most vadi notes are in fifth combination such as Sa and Pa Usually paired with samvadi Important in setting raga; mood Amplified through beats Samvadi- Consanat (Sa, Pa or MA) complements the Vadi fifth note from the Vadi more than 5 notes Vivadi- Dissonant note (half note)

Anuvaid- following notes Jati- group of notes Sampoorn- combination of SEVEN notes Shadva- combination of SIX notes Audav- combination of FIVE notes Nyas- resting not Midh- glide note from one not to another Tan- Exposing or expanding the form of raga, sung faster Sapat- straight ascending or descending form Alankar- repetition of notes Kana- grace note having a duration Murki- two or three notes uttered within a short period of time Khatka- faster attack on the principle note Gamak- shaking note Kampan and Andolan- frequent oscillation between notes

There are two types of tetrachords; uttarang (higher) and purvang (lower) Tala Tritala(16)- DhaDhinDhinDha(X) DhaDhinDhinDha(2) DhaTinTinTa(0) TaDhinDhinDha(3) Ektala(12)- DhinDin(X) DhageTrikit (0) TuNa(2) KaTa(0) DhageTrikit (3) DhiNa(4) Choutala(12)- DhaDha(X) DinTa(0) KitDha(2) DinTa(0) ThitKata(3) GadiGana(4) Jhaptala (10)- DhinNa (X) DhinDhinNa(2) TinNa(0) DhinDhinNa(3) Kehrva(8)- DhaGeNaThi(X) NaKaDhiNa(0) Dadra(6)- DhaDhinNa(X) DhaTinNa(2) Roopak (7)- TinTinNa(X) DhinNa(2) DhinNa(2) Dhrupad Strictest form of raga Anibaddha- the open form in Dhrupad or Ala Nibaddha- fixed form of dhrupad or tala Religious or philosophical views Tala Jhoptala First its the alap and then the bandish follows Four parts- Udagraha, melapaka, dhruvapada, abhoga Four styles (banis)- Garahari, Nauhari, Dagari, Khandari One or two male soloist Accompanied by the tanpura, pakhawaj Four sections- sthayi, antara, sanchari, abhoga Sanchari- free flowing Sang in order of Sthayi and then antara

o Sthayi- focuses on the principle melodic line Lower tetracord of the middle register o Antara- high Sa which is treated as the concluding or stopping note 4 stages- vilambit, Madhya, drut alap Vilambit alap- free floating and avoids rhythmic movement to stress melody Madhya- middle and higher octaves and less noticeable embellishment Tala- choptala, jhaptala, shultala Khayal Mixing qawwali and dhrupad style More freer and more flowery Divine love, separation of lovers, seasons or praise to the kinds Influenced by singing techniques such as producing notes and the ornaments that are used to emelluse Uses tan is major difference between dhrupad Lyric is bipartitec consisting to the sthayi and the antara Bada and choota khayal Avanchar-short melodic entry of the raga instead of starting with alap Also sung in ekar or akar vocals re, na without rhythm, Alap or bandish is dealt with variety of ways in actual preformace, depending on style of khayal or gharana Use of tan distinguishes if from dhrupad Improvisation after antara Rhythm come in at the composistion or bandish which is sung in two parts and with bol banth tan = improvisation. Called gharana Second approach: using sthayi as a commanding form and developing it through badhat Gharana- restricts the badhat or the developing of raga to the sthayi and the antara is not sung Sthayi includes most of the notes from the parent scale Antata goes from Pa to high Sa to high Pa First phase of the sthayi is know as the mukhda and it is the most important part= repeated More time spent on the antara than the sthayi The main difference between bada and chotaa is the laya (tempo) Bada- sung in either slow or medium speed (vilambit or madha) Chotaa- sung in a fast tempo (drut)ektala Ustad bade ghulam ali khan Thumri Playful lover of lord Krishna , amatory, focusing on separation Invariably in the femal voicemood can be erotic Folk music ragas and folk rhythm as tals Sthayi and antara- mukhada is the most important part

Antara can be longer extending past two lines Antara is set in higher tetrachord Two sub genre- bol banao (break syllabols and then regroup them and bandish thumri Bandish was more lively Accompanied with the table or sarangi Similar to the chotaa khayal Abdul karim khan and bade Ghulam ali khan Dadra Short avancher to set the mood of the raga Gradual acceleration of the laggi- bol banao Ends with tiahi Tabla forms after theka

Dadra Related to thumri Rupak talas Gharana According of Deshpande, musical tradition can be consider gharana only if it has existed for more than three generations Gharana can be classified by the stress of the notes and rhythm Jhurmra tal is used for the original predilication Gwalior The oldest among all the khayal gayaki styles and the most extant style that can be traced back to the school of music The most famous duo was Hassu and Haddu Khan The distinctive feature of this style is its lucidity and simplicity, meaning that it is sung in a slow swinging pace Ragas include Alahya-bilawal, Yaman, Bhairav, Sarang, Multani, Shri, Bhup, Kamod, Hamir, Basant, Paraj, Gaud Malhar, Miya- Ki- Malhar, Shankara Does not resor to tirobhava, deliberate use of small melodic phrases Great attention to singing Khayal using the tranditional bandish Bandish provides guidance to how the raga should be sung, specifies where there are important notes and combinations Behlava are sung aggoring to raga arohi and avaroha and extra from Ma to Pa Behlava are divided into two parts sthayi and antara Combinations of notes forming the raga are taken in groups of two or four and sung at a faster pace without changing the tempo adapted for the tabla known as dugun ka alap Dugun ka alap is important for swara vistar Bol alap which the words of the chiz are played with different word combination are sung to different notes

Straight and simple tans, arogi-avoarohi, sapat tan used double notes Double notes are used for the sake of completeness in place of a notes whose use is prohibited in a raga Mundi dhrupad- all the features of the dhrupad form other than the mukhda with the sthayi and antara lasting for 4 cycles Extensive use of the midh to provide continuity between the wrods of the composition Avoids tempo and adopst the madhaya laya for singing khayal Tal- jhumra, ada, ek- tal

Patiala Famous duo- Ali Baksh and fateh Ali Was influenced largely by the qualities of bade ghulam ali voice and its wide span of 3 octaves Short and complex tans Speed and execution of the tans, also includes slow tans such as the gamak Use of greater rhythm play and by layakari with abundant use of bols Expressed Bade Ghulums experience in musical form present in the core of raga No sense of structure and lacking aestetic balance Ragas such as malkauns, bhupali, gunakali and such with transilient scales allowed the use of ornaments Used Ek tal and tin tal Considers thumri as its forte

Male Vocalist Pundit Bheemsain Joshi Ustad Bade Ghulam Ali Khan Ustad Ameer Khan Female Vocalist Kishori Amonkar Prabha Atre Parveen Sultana Sitar Player Ravi Shankar Nikhit Baneeji Santoor Player Shiv Kumar Sharma Tabla Player

Zakir Hussain Anindo Chatiorji ThumriShoba Guela Girija Devi Ragas Yaman o 7 notes o kalyan- Night o ma shart o Ni Re Ga, Ma(sharp) Pa, Dha Ni Sa (ascending) o Sa Ni Dha Pa Ma Ga Re Sa (decending) o Ga-Ni (vadi, Samvadi) o Pakad- Ga Re Sa, Pa Ma Ga Re Sa Bhoopali o 5 notes o Sa Re Ga Pa Dha o GA- Dha (vadi/ samvadi) o Kalyan- Night o Pakad- Ga Re Sa Dha, Sa Re Ga Pa Ga Dha Pa Ga Re Sa Malkolins o Bhairavi o 5 notes o Preformed late at night o Ni(flat) Sa Ga (flat) Ma, Dha (flat), Ni (flat) SA (ascending) o Sa, Ni (flat), Dha (flat), Ma Ga(flat), Ma, Ga (flat), Sa (descending) o Ma- Sa (vadi/ samvadi) o Pakad- Ma, Ga, Ma Dha Ni Dha, Ma, GA, Sa Bhairavi o Dawn Hours o Khayal o 7 notes o Sa, Re Ga Ma Pa Dha Ni Sa o Ma- Sa (vadi, Samvadi o Pakad- Ma, Ga, Sa Re Sa, Dha Ni Sa