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uploaded by user Tashy Class: Lecture/Exam: School: Semester: Professor: BIO 354 Final Exam SBU Fall 2013 --

BIO354FinalReview byTashy Rapidevolutioncausesaresistancetotheantibioticinbacterium Increaseuseofantibioticstocombatresistance Theory Notamerespeculation Astatementthatiswellsupportedbygeneralprinciple,lawsorcausesofsomethingknowor observed Factandatheory ScalaNaturaeLadderoflifeGodCreations(permanentandunchanging Godisatthetopandthencomeseverythingbelowbasedonhiscreationnotevolution CarousLinnaeus Lamarkchangesinphenotypewhichleadstochangesingenotypeandthesetraitsarethen acquired(Giraffestretchingitsneck) Inheritanceofacquiredcharacteristics Darwinhad5majorhypothesis Descentwithmodificationallspecieshavedescendedwithoutinterruptionspeciesthat divergefromacommonancestorsareverysimilaratfirstbutaccumulatedifferencessothey canberadicallydifferentfromoneanother Characteristicchangesovertime Commondescent Gradualism Populationchange Naturalselection Neolamarckismtransformationalevolutionbyinheritancebyacquiredcharacteristics Orthogenesisvariationisheadedtowardafixedgoal Fundamentalprinciplesofevolution Phenotypeisdifferentfromgenotype Acquiredcharacteristicarenotinherited Variationisbasedongenesthatretaintheiridentityasitspassedon Variationarisesfrommutationandrecombination Evolutionarychangeisapopulationprocess Changeingenotypefrequenciescanberandomornonrandom Naturalselectioncanhaveslightorgreatdifferences Naturalselectioncanalterpopulationbeyondrangeofvariation Populationcanaccumulategeneticvariation Populationingeographicregionsdifferincharactericsthatgeneticbasis Differencebetweenspeciesandpopulationsarebasedondifferencesatthegenes Speciesofinterbreedingindividualsdonotexchangegenes Speciationoccursbygeneticdifferentiationofgeographicallysegregatedpopulations Highertaxabyprolongedaccumulationofsmalldifferences Allorganismshasdevelopedbythebranchingofacommonancestorintodiverselineage

throughspeciation Chiefcauseofnaturalselectionisthroughheredity Mutationisnotequivalenttoevolutionbecausetherateatwhichgenemutatesistoolowto accountforevolutionoftheentirepopulation Saltationismmanyevolutionarychangebysinglemutation Synapomophysharedderivedcharacter Molecularclocktimeatwhichlineagesdiverged Candeterminewhereevolutionisconstantevenwithoutinformationondivergenceoftime D=2rt Horizontalgenetransfer Incorporationofgenesfromonelineagetoanother Violatestheassumptionthatlineagehaveastricthistoryofseparationanddivergence Duetohybridization Featuresoforganismsalwaysevolvefrompreexistingfeaturesoftheirancestorex:middle earevolvedfromjawofreptiles Homologouscharactershavesimilargeneticanddevelopmentalunderpinningfoundations haveundergonedivergenceamongspecies Homoplasyindependentevolutionofcharacterstateindifferentevolutionarylineages Convergentevolutionthoughttobebasedondifferentdevelopment o Birdbilladaptedfornectarfeeding Parallelevolutionthoughttobebasedatleastpartlyonsamegenesordevelopmental pathways Evolutionaryreversalreversaltobiphasiclifecycles Mosaicevolutiondifferentcharactersevolveatdifferentrates Homoplasiousfeaturesadaptationsbydifferentlineagestosimilarenvironmental conditionscharactersindifferentgroupsandfeaturesoforganismsnicheisthebestinitial features Dolloslawcomplexcharacteristicsthatwelostcanberegained Mimicryfeaturesevolvedtoresembleotherspecies Batsianpalatableorinnocuousanimalsthatevolvedtoresembleadangerousanimal Mulleriantwoormoreunpalatableordangerousanimalthatevolvedsimilarcharacteristics toavoidattaching VonBaerlawfeaturesofhighertaxonomicleveldevelopbeforethoseoflowerlevel Evolutionofmorphologybasedonevolutionarychangesindevelopmentoftheindividual Heterochronyevolutionchangeintimeofdevelopmentoffeatures Padeomorphosisretentionoflarvalcharacterinreproductiveadults o Reducingthegrowthofsomaticcharacters o Progenesisformofpaedomorphosis,earlycessationofgrowth Peramorphosisdelayedmaturityresultsinreproductionatalargersizeex:humanbrain Allometerydifferentratesofevolutionarygrowthofdifferentpartsordimensionsofan organism o Ex:headgrowsslowerthantherestofthebody Heterotopyevolutionarychangeinthepositioninanorganismphenotypiccharacter

Adaptiveradiationmostcommonpatternofdiversity Paralogousoriginatedbygeneduplication Orthologousorginatedbygenespeciation GeologicTimescale EraAchean,Proterozoic,Paleozoic,Mesozoic,Cenozoic AlwaysPRintPurpleMonkeyColoringbooks Period Paleozoic(Purple) o Cambrian, Marinelifediversifies,appearanceofphylaandmanyclasses Mostdramaticadaptionbecauseittranspiredoverashortperiodoftimeandintervals o Ordovician Diversificationofechinoderms,massextinction Diversificationgivingmaynewclassesandorders Secondmajorextinction o Silurian, Diversificationofagnathans o Devonian Diversificationofbonyfish o Carboniferous Gondwanalandandsmallnortherncontinentsform,firstreptiles Firstwingedinsects o Permian ContinentsaggregatedinPangea,biggestmassextinction Greatestextinctionmarineanimals ChristmasOnlySavesDancingCarolPeople Mesozoic(Monkeys) o PangeabegantobreakapartintheJURRASICperiodandformedLaurasia(north)and Gondwana(south) Triassic Continentsbegintoseparate,Marinediversity,dinosaurs,firstmammals Pangeaformedagain Jurassic Continentsseparating,diversedinosaurs,Mesozoicmarinerevolution Cretaceous Massextinction,mostcontinentsseparated ThreeJumpingCrawlers Cenozoic(6epochs) o Tertiary Continentsnearingmodernpositions,cooldryclimates EpochsPaleocene,Eocene,Oligocene(1stmonkey),Miocene(1stape),Pliocene PleaseEnterOnlyMarriedPlatypus o Quartenary

Continentsinmodernpositions,Homoerectustohomosapiens o Holocene,Pleistocene o Pleistoceneberinglandbridge Incompletefossilrecords Organismsaretoodelicate Sedimentsformepisodically Fossilsmustbefoundinsolidifiedrocksoveronemillionyearsagowithoutbeingeroded, metamorphiedorsubdued Evolutionarychangeorinterestmaynothaveoccurredattheocalizedstratamigration Austrolopethicusanamensis Primativefeatures Lowerface,projectingeyes,largecanineteeth,longarms,smallbrainvolume,curvedbones Bipedal Homohabilis Resembleshumanbraincapacity,flatterface,teeth Bipedal Stonetoolds Neanderthals Densebones,thickskulls,projectingbrows Fullyerectandlargerbrains Multiregionalhypothesisarchaicsapiensevolvedinmodernhomosapienswhitgeneflow spreadingmoderntraitsamongvariouspopulations ReplacementhypothesisafterarchaicsapiensspreadfromAfricatoasiaandeurope,modern sapiensevolvedfromarchaicsapiensthroughouttheworldinsecondexpansionandreplaced thearchaiconeswithoutinterbreeding Punctuatedequilibriumpatternofchangeinfossilrecordandhypothsisaboutevolutionary processlongtimewhentherewasnochangeandthentherewasarapidshifts Punctuatedgradualismmanylineagesinfossilrecordsquicklyevolvebetweenlongstable states Purine=adenineandguanine=transitionsubsitutions Regulatoryregionisinthetransposition Noncodingregion=introns Codon=4^x Pseudogenes=sequencesthatresemblefunctionalgenesbutdifferatseveralbasepairsand arenottranscribed Mutationisinheritedifitoccursinthegermlinenewmutationentersthroughthesperm MUTATIONISNOTTHESAMEASEVOLUTION Intragenicrecombinationdifferattwoormoreloops=newDNAcombo TEinsertioninsequences Alterordestroyproteinfunctions Whennearthecontrolregion=altergeneexpressionoractasanenhancer Increasesmutationrates

Rearrangementresultingfromrecombination Ifitencodesreversetranscriptase,itcaninsertDNAcopiesintotheirownRNAandRNA transcriptaseofothergenes Resemebleexonsbutlackacontrolregionandintronpseudogene Increaseordecreasethesizeofgenome Singlebasepairmutation=sicklecell Recurrentmutationrepeatedoriginmeasuredbythenumberorindependentgeneoriginper genetation Backmutationmutantallelebacktothewildtypeallele Locusmutates10^6to10^5mutation Pseudogenemutationsareneutralbecausetheylackproteinandfunction Mutationisrandom Cannotpredictwithofthelargenumberofgenecopieswillundergomutations Thechancethataparticularmutationwilloccurisnotinfluencedbywhetherornotthe organismisinanenvironmentinwhichamutationwouldbewouldbeadvantageous Mutationisnotthecauseforevolution Controlregionareinthecispositionwhilethetranscriptionregionisinthetransposition Processedpseudogenesoriginatedbyreversetranscriptaseandlacksintrons Locussiteonthechromosomethatageneoccupiesthespace Alleleparticularformofagenethatisdistinguishedfromotherallelesandaffectsonthe phenotype Normofreactionvarietyofdifferentphenotypesthatcanbeproducedbyasinglegenotype underdifferentenvironments EpigeneticinheritancephenotypicdifferencethatarenotbasedonDNAsequencedifferences andaretransmittedamonggenerationofdividingcells Alterationofgenotypefrequencyinonegenerationwillalterthefrequencyofallelecarriedbythe populationgameteswhenreproductionoccurs HARDYWEINBERGDISTRIBUTION:p^2+2pq+q^2andp+q=1 Matingisrandom Populationisinfinitelylarge Nogeneflow Genesdonotmutate Allindividualshaveequalprobabilityofsurvivalandreproduction Inbreedingmatingamongindividuals Sympathricpopulationwithoverlappinggeographicdistribution Parapatricpopulationwithnonoverlappinggeographicdistribution Allopatricseparatedistribution Normofreactionthevarietyofdifferentphenotypicstatesthatcanbeproducedbyasingle genotypeunderdifferentenvironmentalphenotypicsites Maternaleffectsresultingfromtheamountofyolkintheeggs,maternalcareandherhormonal conditionorenvironment Frequencynumberofpair/total

Allelefrequency=((homozygotex2)+(heterozygote))/(totalx2) Inbreedingmatewithrelatives Linkagephysicalassociationofgenesonthesamechromosomes Linkagedisequilibriumtolociisincompleteandusedtolookfordiseaseinheritance Newmutation=1/2Ne Newmutationpergeneration=ux2N Probabilitythenewmutationthatarisesinthepopulationwillbefixed:1/2Ne Thenumberofneutralmuationsthatariseinanygenerationandwillbefixed:u Hamiltonlaw:rb>c Altrustictraitcanincreaseinfrequencyifthebenefitreceivedbythedonorsrelatives weightedbytheirrelationshiptothedonor,exceedthecostofthetraittothefitness Higherprobabilityofhelping Eusocialanimals Socialorganizationthathascoloniesofanimalshelping Somenumberofindividualsdontreproduce,sterilehelpers Evolutionofsterility Foreshadowinghamiltonsrule Individualhelpingtheirmotherproducemoreoffspring=sister=propagategenesforstability Haploideggdevelopintomale=nofathers Twosistersmustinheritthesamechromosomefromfather=.5 Male=.25relativenessbecausethereisnofather Workersmanipulatetheratioamongmalesandfemales Withholdthefood Producemorefemalesthanmalesespeciallyiftheyaremorecloselyrelated Infanticideandsilicidemaybeadaptive Lionsandkinselection Femalesstoplactatingwhichmakesfemalemoresusceptiblequicklysothemalescanmate withthemtoproducemoreoffspringsooner Siblicideisadvantageouswhenfoodsupplyisshort Parentoffspringconflict Americancootbrighterplumsmorefavored Geneticconflictwithinindividuals Mtpassedonthrougheggs somaticmutationcellswillbeanoffspringofaparticularmutation Paternalvsmaternalgenes Conflictbetweenrateofgrowth Mothergrowslowlywhichreducesmotherfiness Fatherhighgrowthandsurvival Epigeneticmodulationofgeneexpressiongeneinhertedbymotherorfathermaybeturnedoff andnotexpressed IGA2increasethegrowthofthefetus

Maternalissilencedandnotexpressedreducesgrowthrate H19reducesfetalgrowth=paternalalleleissilencedenhancinggrowthrate BeckwithWiedmannsyndromerapidgrowth Coevolution Enemiesvsvictims(predatorsvsprey) Antagonistic Chemicaldefensemilkweedwhitefluidwhichincludechemicalcompound Mutualism Symbiosislivingtogetherlivinginintimaterelationship Interactionbetweenspecieswhereeachbenefit Naturalcannotbuildaresponsethatisharmfultothespecies Kinselectionaltruisticbehavioreventhoughitmightbeharmfultothemselves ReciprocalExploitationtradegettingsomethingthatanotherpersonneedsfortheirbenefit Someofmutualismissymbiosisindividualorganismslivingtogetherforalongperiodoftime Fitnessoftheendosymbiotsdependontheotherhostsitcanaffecthorizontal Verticalmotherdaughtersothesymbiontsshoulddosomethinggoodtotheirhosts increasetheirfitness Mayhavearisedfromexploitedrelationship Mothevolveddifferently1.Laidtheireggsinthefloweranddevelopingeggfeedsonthe seedsandinanothermothpollinatetheflowerswhichallowsthefemaletolaytheireggsintothe overywhichensuresseedsbecauseitwasjustpollinated Cheatingflowersthathavealreadybeenpollinatedbyanotherspecies Pseudocopulatorypollinationorchidcheatinganddidntprovideanectorreward Forgivoryplantsproducingfoodthatbirdscaneat=mututalism Animalseatthefruitanddispersetheseeds Competitionbetweenspecies Everyspeciescanincreaseinnumbersbutthereissomethingthatlimitspopulationgrowth Limitedresourcesprimaryreason Redspeciesislikelytoevolvetohaveasmallerbeaksizebecausetheyhaveless competitionandthesamegoesforthegreenspecies(tendtogotowardsthebluespecies becauseofthelackofcompetiton) Specieshaveevolvedtobecomesspacedoutandusedifferentresources

Speciation Speciationformsabridgebetweenevolutionofpopulationandtheevolutionoftaxonomic diversity Twoorthreedescendents Occurswheneverapopulationundergoesfixationofageneticdifference Reproductive(sexual)isolationfemaleofonespeciesdiscriminateagainstotherspecies evolvesgradually

o mayresultinsterilityofmortalitybetweenhybrids gameticisolationspermofonespeciesisincompatiblewiththeeggofanotherspecies geneticdifferencedistancethatspeciesdiffer methodforgeneticvariationextractproteinandsetittoanelectricfieldsotheywould migratetothenegativeandpositivepole=shapeoftheprotein Diversityoforganismisbecauseofcladogenesisbranchingormultiplicationoflineage,each ofwhichthenevolves o Anagenesisevolutionwithinspecies Themostimportantconsequenceofspeciationisthatdifferentspeciesundergoindependent divergence,maintainingseparateidentities,evolutionarytendenciesandfates Newmorphologicalandphenotypiccharacteristics Toofasttobefullydocumented Initialreductionofgeneexchangeisaccomplishedbyaphysicalbarrierextrinsictothe organismsinallopatricspeciation Individualsweremembersofagivenspeciesiftheysufficientlyconformedtothattypeoridealin certainmorphologicalcharactersthatwereessentialfixedpropertiesofthespecies Alldefinitionofspeciessharethenotionthatspeciesareindependentlyevolvinglineages=only differinthedefinitions,biologicalspeciesconceptorphylogeneticspeciesconcept Differinthephylogeneticspeciesconceptsemphasizespeciesastheoutcomeofevolution= productofahistoryofevolutionarydivergence Aphylogeneticspeciesisanirreduciblespecifiesifclusterscanbedistinguishablydifferentfrom otherclustersandthereisaparentalpatternofancestryanddescent Speciationwouldoccurwheneverapopulationundergoesafixationofageneticdifference Canundergofixationofageneticdifference Becauseofincompletelineagesorting,tworeproductivelyisolatedpopulationsmayundergo substantialgeneticdivergencesbeforecompletecoalescenceoccuratanyonelocus. BSCshowedthatmorphologicalsimilaritiesanddifferencedonnotsufficetodefinespecies Variationwithinspecies Geographicvariation Siblingspeciesreproductivelyisolatedpopulationsthataredifficultorimpossibleto distinguishbymorphologicalfeaturesbutareoftenrecognizedbydifferencesinecology, behavior,chromosomesorgeneticmarkers Domainsexualoutcrossingorganisms Limitedtoshortintervalsoftime Hybridzonesexistwheregeneticallydistinctpopulationsmeetandinterbreedtoalimited extent,butinwhichthereexistpartialbarrierstogeneexchange=semispecies

chromosome(leftandright)mustbecarryinggenomestodecreasefertilityinhybridmales

allopatricspeciation speciesareformedinothergeographicareasthatareseparate.Nogeneflowbecauseofa barrier becomingsympatricwhentheymeet2specieslivingtogetherwithoutbreeding(vicarious) sterilityevolveswithinteractionbetween2genes frequencyofA2increasesbecauseitisadvantageous locichangingtobecomeincompatible=sterility advantageousistheymatewiththesamespeciessothattheyarewelladaptingandgenes willbepassedon PSCdistinguishesallopatricpopulationsbyfixedcharactersarespecies BSCmayrecognizethepopulationsasgeographicvariants Isolatingbarriersgeneflowbetweenbiologicalspeciesislargelypreventedbybiological differences M=0anditsmaxis.5missolowthatdivergencesbyveryweakselectionorgeneticdriftis possible9 Physicalbarrierreducesgeneflowenoughforgeneticdifferencestoevolvetopreventgene exchangebetweenpopulations Vicariantallopatricspeciationisbasedongeneticdrift,naturalselectionandthecombination o Causedbynaturalselectionwhichcausesprezygoticorpostzygoticisolation Naturalselectionfavorsprezygoticreproductivebarriersbecauseoftheirisolatingfunction becausetheypreventtheirbearersfromhavingunfitprogeny o Selectionwouldthenresultinreinforcementofreproductiveisolation Ecologicaldivergencereducesgeneflowintwoways. o 1.Habitatisolationreducesgeneflowbecauselargepatchesaredominantbyonevegetation o 2.Immigrantinviabilityresultsfromthehighmortality reinforcementcanactasacauseofreproductivecharacterdisplacement,apatternwhereby charactersdiffermorewheretwotaxaaresympaticthatwheretheyareallopatic o rarelyinprezygoticisolation Prezygoticbarriersareprematingbarriers Interspecificmatingmayoccuratlowratesorhybridoffspringmayhavereducedfertilitybut notentirelysterile Ifchiefbarrierstogeneexchangeareprezygoticandtheenvironmentisaltered,reproductive isolationcansometimesbreakdownandspeciationmaybereversed Transferofgametestomembersofotherspecies Ecologicalisolationmechanismsthatreducetheopportunitiesforcloselyrelatedsympatric speciestomeetandmate Immigrantinviabilityifindividualsofonespeciesorpopulationfailtosurvivewhenthey disperseintothehabitatoftheotherspeciesorpopulationandfailtomatewiththeresidents Sexualisolationisanimportantbarriertogeneglowamongsympatricspeciesthat frequentlyencountereachotherbutdontmate differencesinsuchsignalsunderliesexualisolationcourtshipsignalshavenotbeen identified measuresexualisolationbycomparingthefrequencyofconspecificandheterospecific

matinginexperimentalsetting Postmating,prezygoticbarrier Conspecificmalesalwaysbeatsheterospecificmale Gameticisolationoccurswhengametesofdifferentspeciesfailtounite Postzygoticbarrier Reducedsurvivalorreproductiveratesofhybridzygotesthatwouldotherwisebackcrossto theparentpopulations Hybridinvariabilityhybridshavealowersurvivalrate o Mortalityisintrinsic,occurringintheembryonicstagesbecauseoffailureofproper development o Extrinsichavereducedsurvivalratesinsomeenvironmentsbutnotinotherenvironments Hybridsterility o Reducedfertilityinmanyhybridsisanintrinsicbarrierthatcanbecausedbytwotypesof differencesbetweentheparentspecies o Structuraldifferencesbetweenthechromosomesinheritedfromthetwoparentscancause segregationofsomeaneuploidygametesduringmeiosis o Canbecausedbydisharmoniousinteractionsbetweenthedifferentgenesinheritedfromthe twoparents o Oftenlimitedtotheheterogameticsextwodifferentsexchromosomeshomogameticsex twoofthesamesexchromosomes=haldanesrule o Coadaptedallelesatdifferentlociwithinthesamepopulationshavepresumablybeen selectedtoformharmoniouscombinations o Locusinasinglepopulationwithrandommatingshouldconformcloselytothehardy Weinberggenotypefrequency o twoormorelocishouldbenearlyatlinkageequilibriumunlessverystrongselectionor suppressionofrecombinationexists o affectamoreorlessadditivelyinheritedcharacter,variationwillhaveasinglepeaked,normal distribution o ifasampleorganismincludestworeproductiveisolatedpopulationswithdifferentallele frequency,thenaisnglelocusshouldshowadeficiencyofheterozygouscomparedwiththe hardyWeinbergexpectationvariationinapolygeniccharactermayhaveabimodaldistribution andvariationindifferentgeneticallyindependentcharactersmaybecorrelated o twoormorelocicanprovideindicationofreproductiveisolationthanphenotypictraits o anycharacterdifferencemayhaveevolvedpartlyingeographicallysegregatedpopulation becauseofspeciation o geneticdifferencesbetweenspeciesaregenerallygreaterthanthoseamongconspecifics populations o geneticdistanceismeasuresbythedegreedifferenceinallozymeallelefrequenciescan approximatethemolecularclock Geneticdistancebetweenpopulationismeasuredbythedegreeofdifferencesintheirallozyme allelefrequenciesorDNAsequencescanbeusedtoapproximatemolecularclocktoestimate therelativetimesofdivergencesofvariouspairofpopulationsorspecies

1.Strengthofbothprezyogticandpostzygoticisolationincreasesgraduallywithtime.Speciation isagradualprocess 2.thetimerequiredforfullreproductionisolationtoevolveishighlyvariable. 3.prematingisolationisastrongerbarriertogeneexchangethanpostzygoticisolation.This effectisentirelyduetosympatrictaxa.Prezygoticisolationwasstrongeramongsympatricthan allopatricpairsoftaxa 4.hybridsterilityorinviabilityisalwaysseeninmalesandseeninfemalesonlywhentheyare older=prezygoticisolationevolvesmorerapidlyinmalesthaninfemales geneticdifferenceaccrueafterspeciation maleshadlowerfertilitywhentheycarriedtwoormoresuchsegments sterilitycausingmutationsaccumulateafterspeciation epistaticinteractionscontributetopostzygoticisolation Xchromosomehasthebiggesteffectthananyotherautosome Xlinkedgenesdivergefasterthanautosomalgenesbecausefavorablexlinkedrecessivealleles aremostexposedtonaturalselection Malesterilityhavedivergedfasterthanfemalesterilitybecauseofsexualselection Postzygoticmatingisbasedonpolygenictraits Reproductiveisolationrequiresthatapopulationdivergebyatleasttwoallelesubstitutions Populationsthatareintheprocessofspeciationarelikelytosharevariationatthesameloci becausetheyretainvariationthatwassegregatedintheircommonancestorortheymay continuetoexchangesomegenesthroughinterbreeding Twospeciesthatbecomeisolatedfromeachotherwillfirstsharegenelineageinheritedfrom theirpolymorphiccommonancestor Coalescenttheorygeneticdriftineachspecieseventuallyresultsinthelossofallancestral genecopyoccursineachspecies Genelineagesarelostbygeneticdriftatarateinverselyproportionaltotheeffectivepopulation size Onewillbecomemonophyleticwhiletheotherwillmaintainandothergenelineages Population2willbecomeparaphyleticandpopulation2willbemorecloselyrelatedto population1genecopiesthanfromcopiesinpopulation2 Hybridizationoccurwhenoffspringsareproducedbyinterbreedingbetweengeneticallydistinct populations Clineacharacterorlocusthatchangesacrossahybridzone Primaryhybridzonesoriginatedinsituasgeographicdifferencesinnaturalselectionalterallele frequenciesinseriesofmoreorlesscontinuouslydistributedpopulations Secondaryhybridzonestwoformallyallopaticpopulationsthathavebecomegenetically differentiatedexpandsothattheymeetandinterbreed peripatricspeciation colonizedbyafewindividualsbythemainbodyofthespecies andwhenitrecolonizesitreestablishessympatry divergenceofasmallpopulationfromawidelydistributedancestralform

sympatricrandomlymatingindividualswhereyougettwoformsthatisbecomingmore differentfromoneanotherandbecomereproductivelyisolated 0<m<.5 separatedpopulationofsnailsonasmallisland=greatervariationofspecies hybridspeciation(polypoid)nochangeinchromosomenumberjustcrossingover ifheterozygoteshavealowerfitnessthanhomozygotesowningtoreducedfertilityby aneuploidy,thenachromosomethatisintroducesbygeneflowfromonepopulationtoanother shouldincreaseinfrequencybecausetheinititalfrequencywillbelowandwouldoccurmostlyin heterozygotecondtionandeliminatedbyselection Chromosomerearrangementreducegeneexchangebetweenpopulations Anyfactorthatreducesrecombinationwillstrengthentheassociationbetweenneutralalleles betweentheneutralsitesandselectedlocidecreasingthediffusionofneutralallelesbetween thehybridizingpopulations Parapatricspeciation Geneflowbetweenpopulationsthatoccupyadjacentregionswithdifferentselective pressuresisweakerthandivergeneselectionfordifferentgenecombination punctuatedequilibrium partofthepopulationhasnochange,whiletheotherhasgradualbutfastchangewhichhas morphologicalchangeswhichlastsforalongtimeandreplacestheoldone changesinmorphologyarelargelyassociatedwithspeciation changesofalongperiodoftime,thereisnotaccumulatedchangeuntilyougetto10^6,huge accumulationofchange divergingspeciesthatlosesitsspecificcharacteristicbecauseofachangeinenvironment (ancestralform) exceptforsexualevolutioncantinterbreedandthereforethecharacteristicstays Taxonomicratestheratesatwhichtaxawhichdifferentcharacteristicsoriginate Longperiodoflittlechangeinterruptedbybriefepisodesofrapidchange Rateofchangepergenerationisthesameasorlessthanevolutionsratesofcharacteristics thathavebeenalteredbynovelselectionpressures Theaveragerateofevolutionofmostcharacteristicsismuchlowerbecausethelongterm ratemasksbotherthepunctuationalepisodesorrapidevolutionandfluctuationsaroundalong termmean Stasiscouldbecausedbygeneticconstraints Geographicvariationwithinspeciesandtherapidadaptiveevolutionofpopulationsexposed tonewselectionpressuresshowthatspeciationisnotrequiredforadaptivephenotypicchanges Stasisiscausedbyinternalgeneticconstraingswhichwouldbemanifestsesbythelackof geneticvariationofbygeneticcorrelationstoostrongtopermitcharacterstoevolve independentlytonewoptima Stasisisastabilizingselectionforaconstantoptimumphenotype Habitattrackingtheshiftingofthegeographicdistributionofspeciesinconcertwiththe distributionoftheirtypicalhabitat Mostevolutionarychangesinlocalpopulationstonotcontributetolongtermchangebecause

theyremainspatiallylocalized Ifadaptivechangearisesinageographicallylocalizedpopulationitwillbecomeafeatureof theentirespecies,onlyifitisspreadtootherpopulationbygeneflowandisadvantageous Adaptationthatarisesinonelocalpopulationsmaynoteasilyspreadtootherplaceswhereit wouldbeadvantageousifmigrantsinterbreedwithinterveningpopulationsthatareadaptedto theancestralresource Ifthegeographicdistributionofpatcheswiththenewresourcesshifts,thedivergent characterstatemaybelostasaresultofinterbreedingwiththeancestralphenotype Specuesandhighertaxaarisenotfromgeneticvariationthatresideswithinspecies,but singleevolutionarysteamsasnewgeneticsystems MACROEVOLUTION Evolutionabovethespecieslevel Wheredidnewcharastericsticscomesfrom,howdoyougetthem,trends Morphologicalevoluationisbasedongeneticchangesofpathways Paedomorphisiskeeplarvalstagesduringlifetimes Onlygonadskeepevolving Individualizationofcharacteristics Morphologicalchangesisfromchangesfromthegenes Homeoticmuattionschangestotakeonidentityofanotherpartofthebody Thirdsegementchangesfromhavingnowingstohavingwings Ultrabithoraxwhenactiveandtranscribedmakethethirdsegmentandhavebalancewings nd o Notactivesoitsnotturnedondefaultincharacteristic,2 thoraxicsegementwithwings o Thirdthoraxicsegmentintoareplicatedsecondsegmentthereforeincludingasecondsetof forewings o Mutationthatreducesthefunctionofthismastercontrolgeneinterferewithcomplex developmentalpathwayandisroutedintoadefaultpathwaythatproducesthefeatureofthe secondthoracicsegment Homeoboxencodethatproteinandunlockthemsotheycanbetranscribed HOXwhatformthebodywilltake Distallessevaginationinanimalembryos Pax6geneeyedevelopmentbyregulatingdownstreamgenes NeoDarwinismacceptedthatcharacterscanevolvefromminorjumpsbymutationthat havefairlylargeeffects Evolutionofnovelcharacteristic Vipersinsnakesevolvedfromnonvenomoussnakes Bonesonroofoftheskullcanbeseparatedtofitpray Nichesremaininconservativetotwomajorinteractingreason Otherspeciesoftenascompetitorsmaypreventaspeciesfromshiftingorexpandingits niches,lineagesmayevoleandradiatewhencompetitionisalleviated Geneexchangeamongindividualsthatinhibitanovelnicheandifthereisafitnesstradeoff betweenthecharacterstatesthatimprovefitnessintwoenvironmentthentheselectionwillfavor

theancestralcharacterstatebecausemostofthepopulationoccupytheancestralenvironment Thedegreeofadaptationtoanyoneenvironmentincreasesthedifferentialinfitnessbetweenthe twoenvironmentalsoincreasessothattheadaptationtoanalternativeenvironmentmay becomeunlikely Speciesmaylosetheabilitytovaryinfeaturesthatwouldbenecessaryinanecologicalshift Genetictoolkitindifferentplacesinthebody Pandalargebearthateatsbamboohave6digits o Sesamoidboneusedathumbtomanipulatebamboo o Organsofextremeperfectioncreationistrandomprocessofevolutionandnaturalselection canleadtocomplexorganism Changesinthecisregulatoryelementcanchangedtherelationshipbetweencontrollingand controlledgenes Functionalintermediateseyeallcomplexpartsthatworkstogethertoenableacutevision Earthwormcandetectlightbyreceptorsbuttheydontreallyhaveaneye Gastropodeyecupthatisilluminatedbylightthatshowsthedirectionoflight,orienting Closedeyeregisteringpreciseimages Apoptosisfragmentationofclutsterbycelldeath Turtlecomplexity Shellofturtlecontainsribstoformonebonysurfacepectoralgirdleisundertheribs Odontichelysribshadadifferentfunction o Ribsarepointedbackwards o FGF10induceslateralgrowthorribprimodium o Originofanewcenterofsignalingthatisresponsibleforgenesofribs IrreversibilityDolloslaw Pseudogenesthatcanaccumulatetomakeanonsensetypeofchange Animalincaveswhereeyeshavedegeneratedortotallygone Teethinbirdstograbfish o Cretaceouslostteeth o Somehasevolvedtoevolveteethsubstitutepseudoteeth o Stoppedunlesstwoproteinsareinitated Ecologicialniche Wayoflifebasedontheirenvironment,lineagetoexistwithoutchange Keepingtheirenvironmentadaptationbymigrating/dispersingbasedonthetemperature bandadaptationisthesamebutgeographicallydifferentdonthavetoevolve Trendsorprogressinthehistoryoflife Trendhastwomeanings o Differentlineageevolvethesamecharacteristicindependently o Inaparticularlineagewholecladeofspecies Activeshiftoftheentirespeciestotherightandsmallerspeciesalsoshifttotherightone direction

o Changesinonedirectionismorelikelythantheother Passivenearthemininiumeitheritdoesnthappenatalloritmovestotheright o Lineageincladeevolveinbothdirectionswhithequalprobabilitybutifthereisaboundaryin onedirectionthevariationcanexpandonlyintheotherdirection Minimalsizetobeamammalbecauseofthelossofbodyheat Neutralevolutionbymutationandgeneticdrivesresultsinincreasingvariance Notnecessitythatevolutionhappensinonedirection Lineagethatsurvivedalongertimeisjustaslikelytogoextinct Fitnessvaluesarealwayscontextdependent. LossofgenefunctionisbasisofDOLLOsLAWgeneralizationthatacomplexcharacteriflost isseldomregainingitsoriginalform Decouplingofmultiplefeaturesancestralfeaturesfreesitfrogunctionalconstraintsandmay leadtoelaboration Exsalamanderabletobreathefficientlybymusclesinsertedontheribs Tongueformovinairinandoutofthelungs Duplicationwithdivergencerisetodiversityatthemorphologicallevelasitdoesatthelevelof genesandproteins Ex:diversityofmultipleteeth Changeoffunctionfeaturealterstheselectiveregimeleadingtoitsmodification Robustnessandadaptabilityandestablishmentofanewregulatoryinteractioncancause variation Geneticsandenvironmentcancauseevolutionofcomplexcharacteristic Evolvabilitytheideathattheproductionofgeneticandphenotypicvariationisstructuredinaway thatmakesadaptiveevolution Genomeabilityofadaptivevariation Costofcomplexitydecreasestherateofadaption Canevolvethroughthechangesinrelationshipbetweengenotypeandphenotype Pleiotrpycanevolveifonelocusaffectstheactionofanotherlocusontowormoredifferent characters

Cambriananimalswereasgreatasthatoflivingformsandmanycharacte4ristichaveevolved towardsimplificationorlossininnumerable Applicationandimplicationofevolution Managingnaturalpopulation o Exploitedpopulations Fisherieslifehistoryeffectsofselectiveharvesting Declineinhorn

o Conservation Inbreedingdepressionofsmallpopulation Geneticdriftcancauseincreaseindeleteriousalleles o Climatechange Dependsonhowquicklyaspeciescanevolveitstemperaturetoleranceinrespecttothe speedthattheclimateischanging o Agricultureandpestmanagement Pestmanagement Findingusefulgenesinwildspecies Geneticallymodifiedcrops:Transgenicplants Introduceresistancegenesfromonespeciesintocrops Btbacteriumlethaltoinsects Managingresistanceevolution Combinedifferentbtgenes Maintainsusceptiblegenotypesinpestpopulationbyprovidingrefugeswithnonresistanthost plants Wolbachiamakesitdifficultforthedenguefevertoinfecttheinsectalthoughtheymighthave ashorterlife,betterthanhavingthefever o Humanhealthanddisease Infectiousdiseases Phylogenytracingthesource,originandspreadofinfectiousdisease Fluhorizontaltransfer Verticaltransferparasitewillevolvetobecomelessharmful Deathofhosttransferoflessharmfulvirulencestrains Antibioticallowingselectionofavirus/bacteria Lateralgenetransfer o Lifestockusesantibioticstoincreasegrowthrate Geneticdisease Genesmostsimilarbetweenchimpsarethosethatevolvecancauseinheriteddiseasesin humans Culturalchangeandgeneticchangeinordertomakeadultstoleranttolactose(Africa) Hygienehypothesishumanevolveinwhichweareingestingbacteria(haveotherliving organismslivingonyou) Autoimmunedisease(asthma)moreexposedtomicroorganisms,lessautoimmune disease Naturalselection OnlypeopleinTURKEYdontbelieveinevolution USbeingthesecondlowestinbelievinginevolution Evolutionisanaturalmechanismbywhichgodhasenabledcreationtoproceed TheisticevolutionGodestablishednaturallaws

Evolutionisscientificfact