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Classification of Steels & Cast Iron and Associated Properties

Dr G Balachandran Chief Technical Officer Kalyani Carpenter Special steels Ltd., Mundhwa, Pune - 411036

Fe-C Phase Diagram


Acm A2 A3


Effect of Alloying Elements

What are Phases?

Single Phase
Ferrite (-Fe) Austenite (-Fe) Delta Iron (-Fe) Graphite (C) Martensite

Pearlite (-Fe + Fe3C ) Bainite -Fe + Fe3C -Fe + Fe3C

Dual Phase Austenite (-Fe) Duplex Phase Austenite (-Fe) + -Fe Carbides

Composition & Heat treatment modify the phase formation - This influences the mechanical properties

Understanding Phases & Crystal structure

Ferrite Iron Phase Body-center cubic crystal structure Stable up to 912C in Fe-C system Density: 7.86 grams/cm 3 at 20C Soft and very ductile phase

Austenite Iron Phase Face-center cubic crystal structure Stable from 740C to 1493C Density: 7.84 grams/cm 3 at 20C Strong, hard and tough phase

Delta Iron Phase Body-center cubic crystal structure Stable from 1394 C to 1538C Forms at very high temperatures

Understanding Phases
Dual Phase Structures Pearlite Ferrite + Fe3C

0.08%C Plate like cementite morphology


0.60%C Cementite as spherodite

Diffusion of Carbon in Pearlite

Pearlite Formation
Austenite precipitates Fe3C at Eutectoid Transformation Temperature (727C). When slow cooled, this is Pearlite (looks like Mother of Pearl)

(a) coarse pearlite

(b) fine pearlite 3000X

Bainite & Ausferrite

Bainite Microstructure transforms similar to martensite by shear but has carbides interspersed C > 0.1%. Transforms to ferrite + cementite with sufficient time & temp - semi-stable at <150C Upper bainite (550-350C) - Rods of Fe3C Lower bainite (350-250C) Plates of Fe High Si material bainite has austenite + carbide

Upper bainite

Lower bainite


Non Equilbrium Phase- Martensite

Martensite Phase Body centered tetragonal crystal structure C>0.1% At adequate time and temperature - forms ferrite + cementite Density: 7.8 g./cc at 20C Very hard & strong phase with minimal ductility Needle-like microstructure Tempered Martensite Precipitates C saturated in the matrix - forms equilibrium ferrite + carbide
Plate martensite+ Retained austenite Lath martensite

Non Equilbrium Phase- Martensite

Retained Austenite
If we end up heat treatment in between Ms and Mf then - Residual austenite transforms to bainite/pearlite as a f(cooling rate) Even below Mf some Retained austenite is present Amount of retained austenite = f( Ms-Mf) - If (Ms-Mf) is narrow retained austenite increases - increases with alloying element Mn, Cr, Ni & C Below Ms & close to Ms slower cooling enhances martensite formation Below Ms & close to Mf accelerated cooling enhances martensite formation

Graphite Phase in Iron

Graphite Carbon Phase Layered hexagonal structure Covalent bonded atoms in each layer Density: 2.25 grams/cm 3 at 20C Layers easily slide against each other and make graphite a solid lubricant Soft and low strength

Graphite distribution in gray cast iron, spheroidal & compacted

Carbide Phases in Iron

Non Carbide forming Elements : Si, Ni, Cu, Al Neutral Element : Co Carbide formers: Fe, Mn, Cr, Mo, W, Nb, V, Zr, Ti Carbides in Steels First Group : M3C M7C3 M23C6 + M6C ( M4C) - Cr, Mo, W - W3C, Mo2C Second Group: MC - V, Ti, Nb, Ta (bcc) - High Alloy Steels
Wt.%i <2% Cr (Fe,Cr)3C Mo W

(Fe,Mo)3C (Fe,W)3C


(Fe,Cr)3C+ (FeCr)7C3 Fe3Mo3C



10-20% (FeCr)23C6

If tempered for a long time, Fe3C forms spheres and grows inside Ferrite. Very soft, easy to machine

Austenite Transformation Diagrams

Transformation diagrams - predicts microstructures that forms from austenite - as a function of time, temperature and cooling rate Time-temperature transformation (TTT) diagrams - Extent of transformation with time at a constant temperature. Continuous cooling transformation (CCT) diagrams - Extent of transformation as a function of time for a continuously decreasing temperature.

Time-Temperature Transformation

Continuous Cooling Transformation

34CrNiMo6 Steel

Slow Cooling

Time in region indicates amount of microconstituent!

Medium Cooling

Cooling Rate, R, is Change in Temp / Time C/s

Fast Cooling

This steel is very hardenable 100% Martensite in ~ 1 minute of cooling!

Influence of tempering temperature on Mechanical Properties

Tempering in 34CrNiMo6

Carbon Clustering Spinodal decompose

Retained austenite decompose Meta stable carbide Cementite Alloy carbides

Coarsening of carbides in ferrite

Tempered Martensite Embrittlement

300oC Embrittlement Stage 1: Forms very small Metastable carbides (10 nm) Hypoeutectoid steels forms -carbide (Fe2.4C) Hypereutectoid steels forms Hagg (Fe2.2C)+-(Fe2C) Stage 2: Retained austenite carbides + ferrite HC steel more Ret Aust Stage 3: Metastable carbides fine globular cementite

Relevant Material Properties

Discontinuous Yielding and Lders Lines YS, TS, el., K, n, and r
r value is used to express the anisotropy of materials

w r t

Planar anisotropy

r0 r90 2r45 4

Normal anisotropy

r0 r90 2r45 rm 4

Cast Irons

Cast Iron
2 to 4%C 1-3% Si improve castability C is in the form of graphite & cementite Features: Low melting temperature (1153C to 1400C) Low shrinkage Easily machinable Low impact resistance Low ductility

Materials Selection
Mechanical properties
Stiffness, strength, ductility, fatigue, creep

Machining, Mechanical working, Casting, Welding

Physical properties
Density, Melting point, Thermal conductivity

Availability, ease of processing

Cast Irons

Microstructure of cast iron modified by heat treatment Pearlite Ferrite Gray cast iron Fracture surface appears gray because of graphite flakes White cast iron Fracture surface appears white (shiny)

Cast Iron Family

Cast Iron Family

Cast Irons
Types Gray cast iron - Carbon as graphite flakes 2.5 - 4% C and 1 - 3% Si (Promotes formation of graphite) Nodular cast iron Carbon as spherical graphite nodules 3-4% C & 1.8 -2.8 % Si + Mg or Ce, and low impurities

Cast Irons
Types White cast iron Carbon as cementite Malleable cast iron Carbon as irregular graphite nodules Heat treating white cast iron

Gray Iron Microstructure

Spherodised Graphite Microstructure

Spherodised Graphite Iron Microstructure

Spheoridal Graphite Iron

Austempered Ductile Iron

Gray Iron Mechanical Properties

Gray Iron Mechanical Properties

Grade IS : 2101978 (Indian Std) FG 150 FG 200 FG 220 FG 260 FG 300 FG 350 FG 400 25 30 35 40 ISO / R 1851961 (Int. Std) 15 20 BS 1452 : 1961 (UK Std) 10 12 14 17 20 23 26 GG-25 GG-30 GG-35 GG-40 35A 45A 50A 60A DIN 16911964 (German Std) GG-15 GG-20 ASTM A-481976 (American Std.) 20A/25A 30A Tensile Strength (In MPa) 150 200 220 260 300 350 400 Hardness (BHN)

130-180 160-220 180-220 180-230 180-230 207-241 207-270

Ductile Iron Mechanical Properties


(ISO Standerd 1083, UK Standard B52789, Indian Standard IS 1862)

Ferritic grade 350/22 370/17 400/18 400/15 400/12 420/12

ASTM A 536 (American Standard)

SAE J434C (American Standard)

Tensile Strength (In MPa)

Yield Strengt h (In MPa)


Hardne ss (BHN)

350 370 60-40-18 D4018 400 400 400 60-42-10 420

215 230 259 250 250 278

22 17 18 15 12 12

107-130 <179 120-140 130-180 <201 140-155

Ductile Iron Mechanical Properties

Grade (ISO Standerd 1083, UK Standard B52789, Indian Standard IS 1862) 450/10 500/7 Tensile Strength (In MPa) Yield Strengt h (In MPa) Elongat ion % Hardne ss (BHN)

ASTM A 536 (American Standard)

SAE J434C (American Standard)

Intermediate grade (Ferrite + Pearlite) 65-45-12 70-50-05 80-55-06 Intermediate grade (Pearlite + Ferrite) 600/3 80-60-03 100-70-03 120-90-02 D7003 600 700 800 900 372 416 471 526 3 2 2 2 216-247 247-265 245-335 280-360 D5506 D4512 450 500 552 305 339 379 10 7 6 150-172 172-216 187-255

Pearlitic grade
700/2 800/2 900/2

White Cast Irons

White Cast Iron

Mottled Cast Iron

Malleabled Cast Iron

Classification of Steels

Nomenclature of Steels
Common nomenclature AISI/SAE and ASTM The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) Society of Automotive Engineers (SAE) American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) Others GOST, Japan, Russia, DIN, AFNOR etc. Universal/Unified Numbering System (UNS)

ASTM Specification
ASTM A 582/A 582M-95b (2000), Grade 303 Se Free maching bar

A- Means Ferrous Metal includes steels, cast iron, alloy & stainless steels No.582 Arbitrary no relevance to properties M- Metric or SI units, Absence of N => fps units 95 => year of adoption or last revision B => third revision in the std 2000 => year of last approval Grade 303 Se => indicates grade

ASTM Specification
Grade: describes chemical composition Type : indicates the type of deoxidation followed Class: Indicates strength level or surface finish Sometimes this may not be followed ASTM A 106-02a Grade A, Grade B, Grade C Seamless Carbon pipe for high temp service Grade A :0.25%C (max) ; >45 ksi Tensile strength Grade B :0.30%C (min) ; >60 ksi Tensile strength Grade A :0.35%C (max) ; >70 ksi Tensile strength ASTM A 276-03, Type 304, 316, 410 Stainless and Heat resisting Bars and shapes Type 304, 316, 410 are based on SAE designation for stainless steel

ASTM Specification
In Pipes-P, Tubes-T and Forging-F products ASTM A 335/A 335M-03, Grade P22 Seamless Ferritic Alloy Steel Pipe for High temperature service ASTM A 213/A 213M-03a, Grade T22, Seamless Ferritic and Austenitic Alloy Steel Boiler, superheater and Heat Exchanger Tubes ASTM A 312/A 312M-03, Grade TP304, Seamless and Welded Austenitic stainless steel Pipes ASTM A 336/A 336M-03a, Grade F22 Steel Forgings, Alloy for pressure and High Temperature Parts

UNS Designation
Alpha numeric with a letter followed by five numbers Represents only chemical composition Not a specification SAE 1040 is represented as UNS G 10400 G is prefix for Carbon and alloy steel Next four numeric degits are SAE designation of the steel The intermediate letters B & L is replaced by the fifth digit Prefix E EAF makes 5th digit SAE Grades with hardenability requirement are given by H HXXXXX Carbon and Alloy Steels not referred to in SAE system categorized prefix K

ASTM Specification
ASTM A 582/A 582M-95b (2000), Grade 303 Se Free maching bar

A- Means Ferrous Metal includes steels, cast iron, alloy & stainless steels No.582 Arbitrary no relevance to properties M- Metric or SI units, Absence of N => fps units 95 year of adoption or last revision B=> third revision in the std 2000 => year of last approval Grade 303 Se => indicates grade

AISI/SAE Classification of Steels

Four digit First two digits identify the alloy type Last two digits indicate the carbon content Example AISI/SAE 1020 - Plain carbon steel (10xx) which has 0.20 wt.% carbon (xx20) Plain carbon steel (10xx) are inexpensive, limitations include Poor hardenability because the critical cooling rate is very high Rapid cooling leads to distortion and cracking Poor corrosion resistance Poor impact resistance at low temperature Alloy steels were developed to address these issues Alloying changes the eutectoid composition, the eutectoid carbon content and the critical cooling rate These alloys are more expensive, but a better combination of properties is obtained

Plain Carbon Steels

1015 AISI/ SAE Classification 1040 1095


Plain Carbon AISI Grades 10XX Mn =1% Max 15XX Mn=1.0 to 1.6% 13XX Mn=1.6-1.9% 11XX Resulfurised 12XX Resulphurised & rephosphorised Generally when alloying elements >1.5% it is low alloy steel (13XX ) Above alloying elements >8% high alloy steel

European Standard
Comite Europeen de Normalisation [CEN] for steels is EN 10027 Part 1 Steel Names Part 2 Steel Numbers EN 10027-1 Based on application and mechanical or physical properties A letter indicates application a number follows qualifying properties S structural steel L- Line pipe steel R Rail steel P- Pressure related EN 10028-3 steel name P275N

EN 10027-2 Steel designated based on chemical composition Divided into 4 sub-groups EN 10222-2 steel name 13CrMo4-5 EN 10250-4 steel names X2 CrNi18-9

European Standard
EN 10027-2 - system for assigning number Steel Numbers 1.XXXX 1 refers to steel First two digits represent steel group number EN 10222-2 Steel Name 18CrMo4-5, steel number 1.7335 EN 10250-4 Steel Name X2CrNi18-9, steel number 1.4307

Carbon & Alloy Steels

Cr & Cr-Mo Steels

Ni-Cr-Mo Steels

Cr-Mo-Al, Cr-V & B Steels

Structural Steel Plates

Structural Carbon Steel Plates

Structural Carbon Steel Plates

Alloy Steel & HSLA Plates

Pressure Vessel Steels

Pressure Vessel Plate Steels

Further Specification in Steels

Similar specification exists for different steel grades High alloy steel [stainless steels] Specification exists for steel Tubes, Pipes, Forgings, Bars, Strips Application based steels - Springs, bearings, valves, etc.

Further Classification of Steels

Classification of Steels
Classification by Commercial name or application
Steel Alloys without Eutectic (<2%C) Plain Carbon Ferritic Low Carbon Steel (<0.2) Ferrite - pearlitic

Classification by structure

Medium Carbon Steel (0.2-0.5)

Pearlitic High Carbon Steel (0.2-0.5) Martensitic Low alloy steel (<8%) High alloy steel (>8%) Corrosion resistant steels Heat Resistant steels Wear resistant steels Bainitic Austenitic

Precipitation Hardened
AusteniticFerritic Duplex structure

Carbon and Alloy steels

Composition & Processing are controlled - to meet property requirements of different applications Alloying elements are added to steels for Hardenability Strength Hardness Toughness Wear resistance Workability Weldability Machinability

Steel Classification
Nb, Ti, V, Al, Cr, Ni, Mo Co, Cu, Mo, W, Mn, Si, Alloy Steel Low Carbon Steel C<0.2 Flat products Structural Rolled steels Low Alloy Steel High Alloy Steel Alloying Element >5%

Plain Carbon Steel High Carbon Steel C>0.9 Tool steel Wear, abrasion Heat resistance Corrosion resistance Medium Carbon Steel C=0.2-0.5 Machine parts Heat treatable

Alloying Element <5%

Automotive Panels

Steel Low Carbon Very Low Carbon Extra Low Carbon Ultra Low Carbon

wt.%C < 0.25 <0.10 <0.06 <0.005

Advanced High Strength Steels

Advanced High Strength Steels

Hot Rolled Plates HSLA (Microalloyed Bainitic) steel Grades YS=350 / 586 UTS=407 / 676 %E=52 / 17 n=0.17 / 0.12 r=1.1 / 1.0 / NA

Advanced High Strength Steels

5 Grades YS=280/500 UTS=600/800 %E=30/20 n=0.21 to 0.14 r=1.0 YS=700 UTS=800 %E=10/15 n=0.13 r=1.0

Dual Phase Steel Complex Phase Steel

Cold Rolled Plates

TRIP Steel TWIP Steel

Martensitic steel YS=950/1250 UTS=1200/1520 %E=5/4 n=0.07/0.065 r=1.0

HSLA steel Grades YS=352 / 586 UTS=469 / 676 %E=52 / 17 n=0.15 / 0.12 r=1.1 / 1.0 / NA

YS=450 UTS=800 %E=26/32 n=0.24 r=0.9

YS=200/324 UTS=800/1750 %E=90 n=0.5 r=1.0

Development of Austenitic Stainless Steels

305 18Cr/12Ni Increased Ni Lower work hardening 17Cr/7Ni 301 Lower Cr,Ni Work Hardening improved 18Cr/9Ni-0.07(S+Se) 303 S added Improved Machinability

0.15C/18Cr/5Ni 302

302B Si added for scale resistance

304 Lower C Reduce carbide



308 to 310 316 Cr, Ni increase Mo Corrosion Resist. Corrosion Resist Scael Resist High temp. strength
317 More Mo Better corrosion Resist 317L Welding

201 347 303Se Ni, replaced partly Nb, Ta Se added By Mn & N stabilisers Improved Cost savings machine surface

304L Welding

321 Ti stabilisers

308 Cr, Ni increase Corrosion Resist Scael Resist

348 Nb, low Ta, Co Nuclear application

Precipitation Hardened Stainless Steels

Low C Lath martensite aged
Precipitation Hardened

Precipitates : Cu, NiTi, Ni3Al, Ni3Mo

Martensitic 17-4 PH 0.07C-0.2Mn-16Cr -4Ni-0.2Nb-3.4Cu 17-4 PH C Cr Ni Mo Co Ti Cb Cu Al 0.04 16.5 4.2 ---0.3 3.3 0.01 15-5 PH 15.0 4.0 ---0.3 3.5 -13-8 0.05 12.7 8.0 2.3 ----1.2

Semi Austenitic 17-7 PH 0.07C-0.6Mn -17Cr-7Ni-1.15 Al 17-7 PH 0.07 17 7 -----1.15 11-10 PH 0.03 11 10 2.0 -0.9 --0.2 Custom 450 0.05 14.8 6.5 0.8 --0.6 1.5 --

A286 0.08C-1.4Mn-15Cr -26Ni-1.3Mo- 2 Ti0.35Al-0.3V-0.003B Custom 455 0.05 11.5 8.6 --1.3 0.3 2.2 -Custom 465 0.05 12.0 11.0 1.0 -1.7 ---Custom 475 0.05 11.0 8.0 5.0 8.5 ---1.25

Martensitic Stainless Steels

0.12C-16Cr-0.07Se 440F Se added improved machinability

0.15C-13Cr 420

0.15C-12Cr 420F 440C S added C increased Improved For quench hadness Machinability Cr increased for Corrosion resist 440B C decreased Toughness improved 440A C decreased Toughness improved 403 Same alloy Higher quality 405 Al added Minimise air hardening Non-hardenable 410 Lower C Corrosion Resist.

410 Nb Nb easens Heat treatment Improve prop

416 414 S added Ni added Corrosion Machinability reist 431 Cr increase Corrosion resist

Ferritic Stainless Steels


13%Cr 409 Cr reduced Cost saving Ti added for improved fabrication 430 Ti Ti added Improved Fabricability

18%Cr 430F S added Improved machinability

25%Cr 442 Cr added improved Scale resist

446 Cr increased Scale resist improved

Classification of Tool & Die Steels

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Cold Work Tool steels

Alloy classification of tool steels W water hardening O oil hardening A air hardening D high %C (1.5-2.25%C); high %Cr (~12%Cr) (cold work dies really a stainless steel; excellent wear resistance)

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Classification of Tool steels

Grade Cold Work Prefix W- water hardened O- Oil hardened A- Air hardened Med alloy D- High C, High Cr S H Specific grades W1, W2, W5 O1,O2, O6, O7 A2, A4, A6, A7, A8, A9, A10, A11 D2, D3, D4, D5, D7 S1, S2, S4, S5, S6, S7 H10-H19 Cr type H20-H39 W type H40-H-59 Mo type M1, M2, M3-1, M3-2,M4, M6, M7 M10, M33, M34, M36, M41, M42, M56, M50 T1, T4, T5, T6, T8, T15 Mold steel P6, P20, P21 Die Steel: L2, L6

Shock Resistance Hot Work

High Speed M (Mo) T (W) Special purpose P L

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Elements in Tool steels

Element Nickel Silicon Manganese Chromium Dissolved in ferrite Ni Si Mn ------Cr-------Mn Cr (Fe,Mn)3C (FeCr)3C Cr7C3 Cr23C6 Mo2C MnS; MnOSiO2 Combined in carbide Combined as carbide Compound Ni3Al SiO2.MxOy Elemental




Vanadium Titanium Columbium Aluminium Copper Lead 77
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W------V------Ti------Cb --------Al Cu (small) Pb

V Ti Cb

V4C3 TiC CbC Al2O3:AlN Pb

Shock Resistant Tool Steels

Shock resistance (cold applications) Medium %C Toughness is the main concern <5% total alloys High speed tool steels Tx tungsten Mx Molybdenum Up to 25% total alloy content High %C sharpness held e.g. HSS drills for metal

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Tool steels Shock Resistant

Requirements: Used at low temperature toughness Cold-work tool steels include all class S alloys. Among the toughest of the tool steels, Typically used for screw driver blades, shear blades, chisels, knockout pins, punches, and riveting tools.

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Cold Work Tool Steels

Cold work tool steels: use limited cold conditions will soften if over tempered 17-95C Up to ~5% total alloy content; high %C High %C steels: High hardness therefore good sharpness and wear resistance All high-chromium class D, Medium-alloy air-hardening class A alloys, Water hardening W alloys Oil hardening O alloys Typical applications include cold working operations such as stamping dies, draw dies, burnishing tools, coining tools, and shear blades

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Hot Work Tool Steels

Requirements: Used at high temperature toughness Hot-work tool steels include All chromium, tungsten, and molybdenum class H alloys They are typically used for forging, die casting, heading, piercing, trim, extrusion, and hot-shear and punching blades.

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Hot Work Tool steels

Hot work tool steels: Hot application H1x, H2x, H3x Cr, Mo, W main alloy elements H1x Cr H2x, H3x W H4x, H5x Mo Medium carbon Up to 25% alloy content Toughness at high temperature is main requirement

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Special Purpose Tool Steels

Plastic Mold Steel P6, P20, P21 series, NAK 52 Die Steels :L2, L6

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High Speed Steels

Requirements: Used at high temperature sharpness High-speed alloys include molybdenum class (M1 to M52) tungsten class (T1 to T15) Up to 25% Total alloy content High C gives sharpness High-speed tools steels are hardened to 62-67 HRC Maintains hardness in service temperatures as high as 540 C very useful in high speed machinery. Typical applications are end mills, drills, lathe tools, planar tools, punches, reamers, routers, taps, saws, broaches, chasers, and hobs.

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Basic Classification of steel grade has been introduced

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