You are on page 1of 55

Chapter IV Highway Drainage

- Er. Sunil Khyaju


7/30/2012 Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 1

OUTLINES
o Introduction and Importance of Highway Drainage System o Causes of Moisture Variation in Sub-grade Soil o Surface Drainage System Different types of Road Side Drain Cross drainage structures (Culverts and others) Different Types of Energy Dissipating Structures o Subsurface Drainage System Drainage of Infiltrated Water Control of Seepage Flow Lowering of Water Table Control of Capillary Rise
7/30/2012 Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 2

INTRODUCTION
o All highways are constructed on soil which is composed of different layers. Pavement rests on sub grade. o Serviceability of highway depends upon the moisture and measures for controlling the moisture. o Road are constructed either by cutting or embankment depending upon vertical profile of designed alignment with respect to original ground level which are exposed to the action of rain and sun. o Hence stability of road depends upon water content in soil.

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

Water bring about the destruction of highways by:


o Softening the road surface when constructed of soil or sand-clay or gravel or water bound macadam o Washing out unprotected areas of the top surface, erosion of slide slopes forming gullies, erosion of side drains etc. o Generally softening of ground above and below the road, where it goes along the high ground, giving rise to landslides of slips. o Softening the sub grade soil and decreasing its bearing power

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

MAIN 3 ENEMIES OF ROAD WATER. WATER.. WATER

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

Importance of highway drainage


Variation or increase in moisture content decreases the strength or stability of soil mass. Highway Drainage is important because:
Excess moisture in soil sub grade causes considerable lowering in its stability Increase in moisture content causes reduction in strength in of many pavement materials like stabilized soil and Water Bound Macadam. In clayey soil variation of moisture content causes considerable variation in volume of sub grade which may leads to pavement failure. Formation of waves and corrugations in flexible pavement is due to poor drainage.

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

Sustained contact of water with bituminous pavement causes failure due to stripping of bitumen lead to formation of pot holes. The prime cause of failure in rigid pavement by mud pumping is due to presence of water in fine sub grade soil. In places of freezing temperature, presence of water in sub grade soil causes damage due to frost action. Erosion of soil from top of unsurfaced road and slope of embankment, cut and hillside is due to the surface water.
7/30/2012 Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 7

Requirement of highway drainage system


Surface water from carriage way and shoulder should be effectively drained off laterally without allowing it to sub grade. The surface water from adjoining land should be prevented from entering the roadway. Side drain (Longitudinal Drain) should be of sufficient capacity and slope to carry all surface water collected. Flow of surface water across road and shoulders and along slopes should not cause erosion. Highest level of Ground Water Table should be kept well below the level of sub grade (at least 1.2 m) In water logged areas special precautions should be taken.
7/30/2012 Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 8

SOURCE OF MOISTURE VARIATION


1. By free water Seepage of water from higher ground adjacent to the road Penetration of water through the pavement Transfer of moisture from the shoulders and pavement edges. 2. By ground water Rise and fall of water table Capillary rise from lower soil level Transfer of water vapour through soil
7/30/2012 Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 9

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

10

Highway Drainage System:


It is the process of removing and controlling excess surface and sub surface within right of way. It includes interception and diversion of water from road surface and sub grade. The installation of suitable surface and sub surface drainage system is essential in highway design and construction. It may be divided into : Surface drainage system Subsurface drainage system

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

11

Surface drainage system Removal and diversion of surface water is surface drainage. The water is first collected in longitudinal drains and then the water is disposed off at the nearest stream, valley or water course. It consist of two operations: 1. Collection of surface water 2. Disposal of collected surface water 1. Collection of surface water Water from pavement surface is removed by providing the camber to the pavement. May by a) Drainage in rural highway b) Drainage in urban streets c) Drainage in hill roads

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

12

a)

Drainage in rural highway

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

13

b)
7/30/2012

Drainage in urban streets


Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 14

c)

Drainage in hill roads

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

15

Design of Surface Drainage System


The design of surface drainage is divided into two phases; Hydrologic analysis and Hydraulic analysis.

Hydrologic analysis
The main objective of hydrologic analysis is to estimate the maximum quantity of water expected to reach the element of drainage system under consideration. A portion of rain water gets infiltrated into ground as groundwater and a small portion gets evaporated.

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

16

Remaining water which flow over the surface is surface runoff. Runoff depends upon
Intensity of rainfall Type of soil and moisture condition Topography of area Type of ground water like vegetation

Rational formula is widely used to estimate peak runoff water for highway drainage for the catchment area of 2-3 km2. Q=CiA/360
7/30/2012 Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 17

where, Q = Surface runoff, m3/s C= runoff coefficient, ratio of runoff to rate of rainfall i= intensity of rainfall, mm/hr A= Drainage area in Hectares

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

18

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

19

Hydraulic Analysis:
Once the design runoff Q is determined, the side drains and partially filled culvert are designed based on the principles of flow through open channel. Assuming the allowable velocity of flow, crosssectional area of drain is found from the relation,

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

20

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

21

Example 1: A culvert is to be designed to carry the runoff from a 40 hectare area. Some 24 hectare of catchment area is used for farming and remaining 16 hectare are on flood plain area. Determine the amount of water which the culvert must be capable of handling if intensity of rainfall is 24.50 mm/hr. Take C for farming area 0.4 and C for flood plain area 0.3

Example 2: The maximum quantity of water expected in one of the open longitudinal drain on clayey soil is 0.9m3/s. Design the cross-section and longitudinal slope of trapezoidal drain assuming the bottom width of trapezoidal section to be 1.0 m and crossslope to be 1.0 vertical to 1.5 horizontal. The allowable velocity of flow in drain is 1.2 m/s and mannings roughness coefficient is 0.02. Example 3: A side drain is to be designed to carry the runoff from a 4 hectare area. Design the cross-section and longitudinal slope of drain if intensity of rainfall is 106.9 mm/hr. Take C = 0.5.
7/30/2012 Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 22

Subsurface drainage
Stability and strength of road surface depends upon strength of sub-grade which is the foundation layer of road whose strength depends upon its moisture content. Variations of moisture content of sub-grade are caused by: Penetration of moisture through the pavement surface. Percolation of water from shoulder, pavement edges and formation slopes. Rise or fall of underground water table. Capillary rise of moisture in soil. Transfer of moisture vapour through soil

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

23

Control of subsoil water


Sub-surface drainage is the preventive measure to control excessive moisture in sub-grade soil and various pavements layers . By the provision of sub-surface drainage, only gravitational water can be drained off and vapor water, capillary water cannot be drained off by this system

1. Lowering water table 2. Control of seepage 3. Control of capillary rise

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

24

1.

Lowering water table

If the ground water table is more than 1.5 meter below the sub-grade of road, it does not require any sub-surface drainage. In the places where the water table is high, the best remedy is to take the formation of embankment of height not less than 1.2 m. For relatively permeable, longitudinal drainage trenches with drain pipes and filter sand For relatively less permeable, longitudinal along with transverse drains

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

25

For permeable soil

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

26

For Impermeable soil

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

27

2.

Control of seepage

When surface of ground and the impervious layer embedded below it are sloping towards the road, the seepage is likely to occur and reach road sub-grade to effect its strength characteristics. Seepage is likely to occur in hilly region or roads in cutting. If the seepage level reaches the road sub-grade, it should be intercepted to keep the seepage line at safe depth below the road sub-grade as shown in figure;

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

28

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

29

3.

Control of capillary rise

Capillary rise is the process of rising water in on sub-grade level or above which depends upon the permeability of soil (high for fine grained soil). If capillary rising is likely to the strength of sub-grade, steps should be taken to arrest the capillary rise of water which is called cutoff. Capillary cutoffs can be of following three types: a) Provision of granular layer of suitable thickness or of sand blanket. During construction of embankment it is provided between subgrade and highest level of Ground Water Table. Thickness of this granular layer should be such that capillary rise of water remains within this layer.
7/30/2012 Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 30

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

31

b) Provision of Impermeable Layer of Bituminous layer Here bituminous material is insert to arrest the capillary rise. 50% of straight run bitumen of 80/100 grade and 50% of diesel oil at the rate of 1 kg/m2 is used for this layer. Heavy duty Tar felt, polythene envelop sheet and other measures can be adopted.

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

32

Design of Sub-surface drain


The size and spacing of sub-surface drain depends on amount of seepage water they have to handle. These drains are surrounded by suitable type of filter material. For design of sub-surface drainage system, following steps are followed.
Determine the depth of the trench. Select back fill material for trench. Determine perforation in pipe. (Size and number) Determine the diameter of pipe.

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

33

The filter material used should have sufficient permeability offering negligible resistance to flow. It should also resist piping of the foundation material. Hence the grain size distribution of the filter material is decided based on criteria of permeability and piping. To fulfill the permeability conditions lower limit of D15 size of material is determined from relation; D15 of filler material / D15 of foundation material > 5
7/30/2012 Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 34

to prevent piping, the upper limit of D15 size of filter material can be calculated from following relation; D15 of filter / D85 of foundation < 5

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

35

Cross Drainage Structure


1.Causeway During flood, the water flows over the road and traffic on both direction is stopped Total period of interruption to traffic has however to be kept as low as possible, not exceeding about 15 days/year.

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

36

2.Culvert:
According to Nepal Bridge Standard 2067, the drainage structures having span length up to 6 meters is called culvert. If the span is greater than 6 meters then it is bridge. A culvert is a close conduit placed under embankment to carry across the roadway. The common types of culvert are slab culvert, box culvert, arch culvert and pipe culvert. Choice of culvert on particular site depends upon cost of construction and availability of materials and labors.
7/30/2012 Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 37

a. In slab culvert, RCC slab is placed over abutments made of masonry and span is limited to 3 meters.

b. Box Culvert is square or rectangular shape made of RCC. It is used in place of high debris and discharge.

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

38

c. Arch culvert is generally built using bricks and stone


masonry and used when depth of embankment is high.

d.

Pipe culvert of minimum diameter 75 cm and made of


steel or prefabricated RCC, and is used when discharge is low.

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

39

3. Aqueduct:
An aqueduct is a open or closed conduit, depending upon nature of water, sufficiently above the roadway provided to drain water across road. The normal position of placing of aqueduct in roadway is cutting. If a road is in cutting exceeding 5 meters and the water either of natural drainage course or irrigation canal has to be drained or taken to irrigate the land, aqueduct is best.

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

40

4. Inverted Siphon:
A pressure pipeline crossing a depression or passing under highway is called inverted siphon.

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

41

5. Scupper:
It is the cheapest type of culvert, used to decrease per km cost of road in low cost pavement. It is of 0.9 to 1.0 meter wide.

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

42

Erosion control
Water emerging out of culverts and other cross drainage structures will have higher velocity than non-scouring velocity for the soil around it. Also the construction of highway bring damage in natural stream bed, existing stable hill slopes and involves the removal of top vegetation covers. So erosion control measures have to be adopted. The erosion depends upon several factors such as intensity and duration of rainfall, type and condition of soil, height and angle of slope and climatic condition. Some of the erosion control measures are:
7/30/2012 Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 43

a) Lining of drains
If the mean velocity exceeds the permissible velocity for particular type of soil, the road drain should be protected against scouring. The slope of drain is lined with turf and bottom is covered by cobbles and gravels of desired size. Grass lining are valuable where grass can be supported. For higher velocity type of lining should be stone masonry or brick masonry throughout the perimeter and length of drain. Pre-cast concrete blocks can be used if local stone materials are not available.
7/30/2012 Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 44

b)

Vegetation

It is the process of application of grass on top surface of exposed soil. Soil erosion control is improved by allowing vegetation to grow in fill slope or shoulder portion. Bio-Engineering is other alternative which has proved more effective with sustainable development of age.

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

45

c) Stone pitching, lining and protection works:


Due to various reasons slope of cut and fill should be provided higher than angle of repose of soil. In such cases various types of slope protection works are provided.

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

46

Energy Dissipating Structures


Due to higher kinetic energy of water, it causes erosion of soil. So the use of energy dissipating structures is to dissipate the energy of flowing water before letting out on the natural bed so that velocity at that point will be less than eroding velocity. Some of the important Energy Dissipating Structures are:
7/30/2012 Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 47

a) Road Rapid:
Road channels having bed slopes generally higher than the critical slope are rapids. It is provided at the end of the catch drain.

b) Ditch Check:
In case of large rapid slope, the flowing water has high energy having capacity to erode the bed and side slope of drain. The energy of flowing water can be reduced by providing falls at certain interval. This type of structure is called ditch checks.

c) Fall or Drop structure:


In the design of road drainage system in hill road, it is often necessary to provide drop structures. Such structures are provided frequently in hill roads where the bed slope of existing drainage is high. Some of the drop structures are shown below:
Ch 4 Highway Drainage Er.Sunil Khyaju 48

7/30/2012

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

49

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

50

Typical side drain

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

51

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

52

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

53

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

54

7/30/2012

Ch 4 Highway Drainage

Er.Sunil Khyaju

55