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Development of Microstructure and d Importance I t of f Microstructure Mi t t in Materials Selection

B.S. Murty
Dept. of Metall. & Mater. Engg. IIT Madras

murty@iitm.ac.in

Use of Materials over ages

Some Design Criteria in the S l ti of Selection f Materials M t i l

Materials-Processing Pyramid

Precipitation Hardening in the First Aerospace Alluminum Alloy: The Wright Flyer Crankcase
An aluminum copper alloy (with a Cu composition of 8
wt%) was used in the engine that powered the historic g of the Wright g brothers in 1903. first flight

In 1906, Wilm, accidentally discovered age hardening. 1938: Guinier and Preston (x-ray); 1950-60 TEM

High Temperature Applications: Turbine Blades

Grain vs. Grain Boundary BCC vs. vs FCC Precipitation vs. Dispersion Hardening

Low Temperature Applications

Strengthening by G i Refinement Grain R fi t


As Cast Columnar Structure As Cast Fine Grain Structure

Grain Boundary Strengthening


grain size, d (mm)
200 10-1 10-2 5x10-3

yield(M MPa)

slip plane grain A

in a gr
b ain gr

150 100 50 0 0 4 1 8 12 16 ky

yield = o + k y d

y ar nd ou

0.5 [grain size (mm)]-0.5

1/ 2

Effect of Grain refinement on the Wear resistance

Al

Combined Grain Refinement & Modification of Al Al-7Si 7Si alloy


Without Grain Refinement/ Modification
8000X

200X

8000X

With Grain Refinement and Modification (1M13+ 0.02Sr) (5min)

200X

Load Bearing Capacity of Al-7Si alloy during Dry Sliding Wear


450 400 Wear Re esistance (m/ mm3) 350 300 250 200 150 100 50 0 50N 60N 70N 100N 120N 150N 200N Normal Load
No GR/MOD GR MOD GR+MOD

1 Sliding V Slidi Velocity l it 1 1ms-1 Distance 1.8 Km

Fe-Fe3C Phase Diagram

Microstructure evolution in Eutectoid steel

Microstructure evolution in Hypoeutectoid steel

Microstructure evolution in Hypereutectoid steel

Effect of C on microstructure of steels

0% C

0.2% C

0.4% C

0.8% C

0.6% C

1.2% C

Pearlite

Bainite

Upper Bainite

Lower Bainite

Martensite

Lath Martensite

Plate Martensite

Spheroidite

Effect of C on Mech. Properties

Effect of Microstrcture on Mech Properties Mech.

Effect of Microstructure on Mechanical Properties

Effect of Microstructure on Mechanical Properties

Al-Cu Microstructures

GP zones

Design of Microstructure in Ti alloys

/ microstructure

High Strength Al based Nanocomposites


Al94V4Fe2 Alloy Al-Al3Ti Nanocomposite p

Al-Al3Fe In-situ Nanocomposites by MA


14 12

Al100-XFeX- 20h MA
Ageing time, 2hrs green compact 473K 573K 673K

Ha ardness, GPa a

10 8 6 4 2 0 0

100nm
5 10 15 20
5000

Composition (at % Fe)


Yield Strength h, MPa

Al100-XFeX- 20h MA
Ageing time, 2hrs as compacted 473K 573K 673K

Hardness

4000

3000

2000

1000

Yield Strength

0 0 5 10 15 20

Composition (at % Fe)

High Strength Conducting Cu Based Nanocomposites


HR R ratio normaliz zed with OFHC C Cu

Nanocomposite Microcomposite

Cu-W

0 5 10 15 20 25 wt.% Tungsten 30

1200 Nanocomposite Com mpressive stren ngth (MPa)


HP

900

Microcomposite
30nm

600
117nm

60nm

300

Cu-20%Ta at 500oC

0 5 20 Wt. % Tungsten 30

Development of Nanostructured Ferritic ODS Alloys

As-received s ece ved Y2O3 ~40 0 nm

500 nm

Fe-9Cr-1Mo-0.5Y2O3

Microstructure Development

Polishing Emery Paper polishing Cloth Polishing

Etching Electropolishing

Polishing

Principle of Etching

Effect of Grain
O i t ti Orientation

Functioning of an Optical Microscope

Resolution = / 2 NA

NA = sin

Effect of wavelength

680nm

550nm

470nm

Effect of Numerical Aperture

1.25

0.65

Bright Field Image

Dark Field Image

Scanning Electron Microscope at IIT Madras

Transmission Electron Microscope at IIT Madras

High resolution micrograph from an icosahedral quasicrystal showing five fold symmetry (Courtesy K. I. Hiraga)

Crystal vs. Amorphous

Aberration corrected TEM

Atom Probe Tomography: LEAP

AlCrCuNiZnCo compacted at 600C & 650MPa


1 Million atoms

AlCrCuNiZnFe compacted at t 600C & 650MP 650MPa

20 Million atoms