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1. A professional in any occupation is a person who is paid for a service with which they are providing.

Whether this service is under an exclusive contract from a particular company, or is being provided as work for hire, the professional is being compensated for their work monetarily. However, money by itself, as attractive as it can be, doesnt make a professional. More important than the financial rewards that can be allotted to a manager or their abilities, is a clear understanding of what it means to act in a professional manner. The building block around which a manager constructs his/her professionalism, is attitude. A positive attitude is the one thing that can benefit a manager more than anything else. A positive attitude can not be an imposed behavior modification on the part of any manager, or person for that matter. Rather, it is something that has to be learned through acquiring a competence for the correct way in which to behave, to present yourself, and to use criticism as a tool for advancement. It can be tailored to fit the individual, because not everyone who possesses a positive attitude, displays it in the same manner. The foremost ingredient to attaining a positive attitude, is self esteem. As a manager it is the crucial primary factor behind performance. If you dont take pride in yourself and your work, your work will suffer for it. An easy equation to remember is that your self esteem is almost equal to the value of your work. In a managers case his/her own performance and that of his/her unit/team. Another crucial factor in my definition of a professional manager, revolves around the ability to honor commitment. A manager who cant be depended on to honor commitments is unprofessional and intolerable. Finally, when I define a manager as professional, I think of a person who respects his/her profession and has the dedication to deliver competent performance time and again.

2. An individual who is in charge of a certain group of tasks, or a certain subset of a company. A manager often has a staff of people who report to him or her. As an example, a restaurant will often have a front-of-house manager who helps the patrons, and supervises the hosts; or a specific office project can have a manager, known simply as the project manager. Certain departments within a company designate their managers to be line managers, while others are known as staff managers, depending upon thefunction of the department. A manager's role is to manage and supervise the overall performance of employees in the

department. He/she also organises and controls the resources and expenditures of the organisation. The roles may also defer depending on the organisation. What do managers do? One good answer to this question comes from the late Peter Drucker, whose name that stands out above all others in the century-long history of managementstudies. A native of Vienna, Austria, Mr. Druckerwas an intellectual who worked as a journalist and studied economics. At some point in his studies he had an epiphany: economists, he realized, were interested in the behavior of commodities, while I was interested in the behavior of people. That led him to, in effect, create the modern study of management. Mr. Drucker divided the job of themanager into five basic tasks. The manager, he wrote: 1) Sets objectives. The manager sets goals for the group, and decides what work needs to be done to meet those goals. 2) Organizes. The manager divides the work into manageable activities, and selects people to accomplish the tasks that need to be done. 3) Motivates and communicates. The manager creates a team out of his people, through decisions on pay, placement, promotion, and through his communications with the team. Drucker also referred to this as the integrating function of the manager. 4) Measures. The manager establishes appropriate targets and yardsticks, and analyzes, appraises and interprets performance. 5) Develops people. With the rise of the knowledge worker, this task has taken on added importance. In a knowledge economy, people are the companys most important asset, and it is up to the manager to develop that asset. While other management experts may use different words and focus on different aspects of these responsibilities, Mr. Druckers basic description of the managers job still holds. Management in business and organizations means to coordinate the efforts of people to accomplish goals and objectives using available resources efficiently and effectively. Management comprises planning, organizing, staffing, leading or directing, and controllingan organization or initiative to accomplish a goal. Resourcing encompasses the deployment and manipulation of human resources,financial resources, technological resources, and natural resources. Since organizations can be viewed as systems, management can also be defined as human action, including design, to facilitate the production of useful outcomes from a system. This

view opens the opportunity to 'manage' oneself, a prerequisite to attempting to manage others.

3. STANDARDS A member's failure to comply with the following standards may result in disciplinary action. I. COMPETENCE Each member has a responsibility to: 1. Maintain an appropriate level of professional expertise by continually developing knowledge and skills. 2. Perform professional duties in accordance with relevant laws, regulations, and technical standards. 3. Provide decision support information and recommendations that are accurate, clear, concise, and timely. 4. Recognize and communicate professional limitations or other constraints that would preclude responsible judgment or successful performance of an activity. II. CONFIDENTIALITY Each member has a responsibility to: 1. Keep information confidential except when disclosure is authorized or legally required. 2. Inform all relevant parties regarding appropriate use of confidential information. Monitor subordinates' activities to ensure compliance. 3. Refrain from using confidential information for unethical or illegal advantage. III. INTEGRITY Each member has a responsibility to:

1. Mitigate actual conflicts of interest, regularly communicate with business associates to avoid apparent conflicts of interest. Advise all parties of any potential conflicts. 2. Refrain from engaging in any conduct that would prejudice carrying out duties ethically. 3. Abstain from engaging in or supporting any activity that might discredit the profession.

IV. CREDIBILITY Each member has a responsibility to: 1. Communicate information fairly and objectively. 2. Disclose all relevant information that could reasonably be expected to influence an intended user's understanding of the reports, analyses, or recommendations. 3. Disclose delays or deficiencies in information, timeliness, processing, or internal controls in conformance with organization policy and/or applicable law. RESOLUTION OF ETHICAL CONFLICT In applying the Standards of Ethical Professional Practice, you may encounter problems identifying unethical behavior or resolving an ethical conflict. When faced with ethical issues, you should follow your organization's established policies on the resolution of such conflict. If these policies do not resolve the ethical conflict, you should consider the following courses of action: 1. Discuss the issue with your immediate supervisor except when it appears that the supervisor is involved. In that case, present the issue to the next level. If you cannot achieve a satisfactory resolution, submit the issue to the next management level. If your immediate superior is the chief executive officer or equivalent, the acceptable reviewing authority may be a group such as the

audit committee, executive committee, board of directors, board of trustees, or owners. Contact with levels above the immediate superior should be initiated only with your superior's knowledge, assuming he or she is not involved. Communication of such problems to authorities or individuals not employed or engaged by the organization is not considered appropriate, unless you believe there is a clear violation of the law. 2. Clarify relevant ethical issues by initiating a confidential discussion with an IMA Ethics Counselor or other impartial advisor to obtain a better understanding of possible courses of action. 3. Consult your own attorney as to legal obligations and rights concerning the ethical conflict. 4. Leadership and management must go hand in hand. They are not the same thing. But they are necessarily linked, and complementary. Any effort to separate the two is likely to cause more problems than it solves. Still, much ink has been spent delineating the differences. The managers job is to plan, organize and coordinate. The leaders job is to inspire and motivate. In his 1989 book On Becoming a Leader, Warren Bennis composed a list of the differences: The manager administers; the leader innovates. The manager is a copy; the leader is an original. The manager maintains; the leader develops. The manager focuses on systems and structure; the leader focuses on people. The manager relies on control; the leader inspires trust. The manager has a short-range view; the leader has a long-range perspective. The manager asks how and when; the leader asks what and why.

The manager has his or her eye always on the bottom line; the leaders eye is on the horizon. The manager imitates; the leader originates. The manager accepts the status quo; the leader challenges it. The manager is the classic good soldier; the leader is his or her own person. The manager does things right; the leader does the right thing. Perhaps there was a time when the calling of the manager and that of the leader could be separated. A foreman in an industrial-era factory probably didnt have to give much thought to what he was producing or to the people who were producing it. His or her job was to follow orders, organize the work, assign the right people to the necessary tasks, coordinate the results, and ensure the job got done as ordered. The focus was on efficiency. But in the new economy, where value comes increasingly from the knowledge of people, and where workers are no longer undifferentiated cogs in an industrial machine, management and leadership are not easily separated. People look to their managers, not just to assign them a task, but to define for them a purpose. And managers must organize workers, not just to maximize efficiency, but to nurture skills, develop talent and inspire results. The late management guru Peter Drucker was one of the first to recognize this truth, as he was to recognize so many other management truths. He identified the emergence of the knowledge worker, and the profound differences that would cause in the way business was organized. With the rise of the knowledge worker, one does not manage people, Mr. Drucker wrote. The task is to lead people. And the goal is to make productive the specific strengths and knowledge of every individual. Leadership is a facet of management Leadership is just one of the many assets a successful manager must possess. Care must be taken in distinguishing between the two concepts. The main aim of a manager is to maximise the output of the organisation through administrative implementation. To achieve this, managers must undertake the following functions:

organisation

planning staffing directing controlling

Leadership is just one important component of the directing function. A manager cannot just be a leader, he also needs formal authority to be effective. "For any quality initiative to take hold, senior management must be involved and act as a role model. This involvement cannot be delegated." [1] In some circumstances, leadership is not required. For example, self motivated groups may not require a single leader and may find leaders dominating. The fact that a leader is not always required proves that leadership is just an asset and is not essential. Managers think incrementally, whilst leaders think radically. "Managers do things right, while leaders do the right thing." [2]. This means that managers do things by the book and follow company policy, while leaders follow their own intuition, which may in turn be of more benefit to the company. A leader is more emotional than a manager . "Men are governed by their emotions rather than their intelligence" [3]. This quotation illustrates why teams choose to follow leaders. "Leaders stand out by being different. They question assumption and are suspicious of tradition. They seek out the truth and make decisions based on fact, not prejudice. They have a preference for innovation." [4] Subordinate As A Leader Often with small groups, it is not the manager who emerges as the leader. In many cases it is a subordinate member with specific talents who leads the group in a certain direction. "Leaders must let vision, strategies, goals, and values be the guide-post for action and behaviour rather than attempting to control others." [5] When a natural leader emerges in a group containing a manager, conflict may arise if they have different views. When a manager sees the group looking towards someone else for leadership he may feel his authority is being questioned. Loyalty Groups are often more loyal to a leader than a manager. This loyalty is created by the leader taking responsibility in areas such as:

Taking the blame when things go wrong. Celebrating group achievements, even minor ones. Giving credit where it is due.

"The leader must take a point of highlighting the successes within a team, using charts or graphs, with little presentations and fun ideas" [6] "Leaders are observant and sensitive people. They know their team and develop mutual confidence within it." [7] The Leader Is Followed. The Manager Rules A leader is someone who people naturally follow through their own choice, whereas a manager must be obeyed. A manager may only have obtained his position of authority through time and loyalty given to the company, not as a result of his leadership qualities. A leader may have no organisational skills, but his vision unites people behind him. Management Knows How It Works Management usually consists of people who are experienced in their field, and who have worked their way up the company. A manager knows how each layer of the system works and may also possess a good technical knowledge. A leader can be a new arrival to a company who has bold, fresh, new ideas but might not have experience or wisdom. Conclusion Managing and leading are two different ways of organising people. The manager uses a formal, rational method whilst the leader uses passion and stirs emotions. William Wallace is one excellent example of a brilliant leader but could never be thought of as the manager of the Scots!