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CONTENTS

List of gures and tables Authors List of abbreviations Alphabetical list of techniques Preface 1 BUSINESS STRATEGY AND OBJECTIVES Introduction Strategy analysis external business environment Strategy analysis internal capability Strategy denition Strategy implementation Performance measurement References Further reading INVESTIGATE SITUATION Introduction Qualitative investigation Quantitative investigation Documenting the results References Further reading CONSIDER PERSPECTIVES Introduction Stakeholder identication Stakeholder analysis Stakeholder management References Further reading ANALYSE NEEDS Introduction Organisation modelling Business process analysis Business change identication References Further reading

vii xi xii xiv xix 1 1 3 9 14 17 21 24 24 25 25 26 42 53 59 60 61 61 63 66 81 90 90 91 91 92 101 118 121 122 v

CONTENTS

EVALUATE OPTIONS Introduction Identify options Shortlist options Prepare business case Present business case References Further reading DEFINE REQUIREMENTS Introduction Requirements elicitation Requirements analysis Requirements development Requirements modelling References Further reading MANAGE CHANGE Introduction Organisational change People change Benets management and realisation References Further reading Postscript which techniques do I really need? Index

123 123 124 125 133 151 155 155 157 157 160 173 184 205 227 227 229 229 230 237 244 250 251 253 257

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LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Figure 1.1 Figure 1.2 Figure 1.3 Figure 1.4 Figure 1.5 Figure 1.6 Figure 1.7 Figure 1.8 Figure 2.1 Figure 2.2 Figure 2.3 Figure 2.4 Figure 2.5 Figure 2.6 Figure 2.7 Figure 2.8 Figure 2.9 Figure 2.10 Figure 2.11 Figure 2.12 Figure 3.1 Figure 3.2 Figure 3.3 Figure 3.4 Figure 3.5 Figure 3.6 Figure 4.1 Figure 4.2 Figure 4.3 Figure 4.4 Figure 4.5 Figure 4.6 Figure 4.7 Figure 4.8 Figure 4.9 Figure 4.10 Figure 4.11 Figure 4.12 Figure 4.13

Porters Five Forces framework Resource Audit The Boston Box SWOT analysis Ansoffs matrix The McKinsey 7-S model The four-view model Balanced Business Scorecard The main stages of interviewing The structure of an interview Workshop process The elements of a questionnaire Activity sampling sheet (completed) Sampling analysis summary sheet Special-purpose record for complaints handling Detailed weekly timesheet Example of a document specication form Example rich picture (of a sales organisation) Example of a mind map Context diagram The stakeholder wheel Power/interest grid Extended power/interest grid Business Activity Model for a high-street clothing retailer RASCI chart ThomasKilmann conict mode instrument Systemic analysis approach Types of value proposition Porters value chain Partial value chain of primary activities example Value chain for an examination body Organisation Diagram showing external environment Completed Organisation Diagram Context diagram supporting event identication Business process notation set Business process model with detailed steps Business process model showing rationalised steps Decision table structure Example decision tree

6 11 13 14 16 18 20 23 26 27 30 43 47 48 50 51 52 54 56 58 65 67 68 78 79 85 91 94 95 97 98 99 100 103 106 109 109 113 117 vii

LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Figure 5.1 Figure 5.2 Figure 5.3 Figure 5.4 Figure 5.5 Figure 5.6 Figure 5.7 Figure 6.1 Figure 6.2 Figure 6.3 Figure 6.4 Figure 6.5 Figure 6.6 Figure 6.7 Figure 6.8 Figure 6.9 Figure 6.10 Figure 6.11 Figure 6.12 Figure 6.13 Figure 6.14 Figure 6.15 Figure 6.16 Figure 6.17 Figure 6.18 Figure 6.19 Figure 6.20 Figure 6.21 Figure 6.22 Figure 6.23 Figure 6.24 Figure 6.25 Figure 6.26 Figure 6.27 Figure 6.28 Figure 6.29 Figure 6.30 Figure 7.1 Figure 7.2 Figure 7.3 Figure 7.4 Figure 7.5 Figure 7.6 Figure 7.7 Figure 7.8 Figure 7.9

The process for evaluating options Options identication Shortlisting options Incremental options Elements of feasibility Force-eld analysis Types of cost and benet Storyboard for a travel agent Hothousing process Outer and inner timeboxes Example of the structure of a typical timebox Example requirements catalogue entry Links between requirements and other development elements Basic elements of a use case diagram Additional use case notation Use case description for Assign resources Examples of entities One-to-many relationship between entities Optional relationship Many-to-many relationship Resolved many-to-many relationship Extended data model Recursive relationship Many-to-many recursive relationship Exclusive relationship Separated exclusive relationship Named relationships Subtypes and super-types Example entity relationship model Partial library model An object class Association between classes Association class Additional linked classes Reexive relationship Generalisation Example class model Johnson and Scholess cultural web Kurt Lewins model of organisational change The SARAH model of change Kolbs learning cycle Honey and Mumfords learning styles Conscious competence model Benets map Bar chart showing changes and benets against timeline Benets realisation approach

123 125 126 127 128 132 134 166 173 174 177 189 204 206 207 210 212 212 213 213 213 214 214 215 215 216 216 217 218 218 220 221 222 223 223 224 225 233 236 238 240 241 243 245 246 249

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LIST OF FIGURES AND TABLES

Table 3.1 Table 4.1 Table 4.2 Table 4.3 Table 4.4 Table 4.5 Table 4.6 Table 4.7 Table 4.8 Table 4.9 Table 4.10 Table 4.11 Table 4.12 Table 5.1 Table 5.2 Table 6.1 Table 6.2 Table 6.3 Table 6.4 Table 6.5 Table 6.6

Example of a stakeholder management plan Examples of business events Example hierarchical numbering system Condition stub in a decision table Decision table condition entries one condition Decision table condition entries two conditions Decision table condition entries three conditions Action stub in a decision table Decision table with two conditions Decision table with three conditions Decision table with rationalised conditions Decision table with exclusive conditions Extended-entry decision table Payback or breakeven analysis Discounted cash ow / net present value calculation Scenario analysis by user population Scenario analysis by environment Scenario analysis by frequency of use Content of a typical requirements specication Considerations for verication and validation Example of a CRUD matrix (partial)

84 104 108 113 114 114 114 115 115 115 116 117 117 148 149 163 163 163 185 193 226

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AUTHORS

James Cadle has been involved in the field of business systems for over thirty years, first with London Transport, then with Sema Group and most recently with Assist Knowledge Development, of which he is a director. He has conducted methods studies and business improvement projects, and has led teams developing and maintaining corporate IT systems. James presents training courses in business analysis, consultancy skills and project management to a variety of public- and private-sector clients, as well as contributing to various publications. He is a Chartered Member of BCS and a member of the Association for Project Management. Debra Paul is the Managing Director of Assist Knowledge Development. Debra has extensive knowledge and experience of business analysis, business process improvement and business change. She was joint editor and author of the bestselling BCS publication, Business Analysis. Debra is a Chartered Fellow of the BCS. She is a regular speaker at business seminars and organisational forums. Debra is a founder member of the BA Management Forum, a group that has been formed to advance the business analysis profession and develop the BA internal consultant role. Paul Turner is a director of Business & IS Skills and of Assist Knowledge Development. He specialises in the provision of training and consultancy in the areas of business analysis and business change. He is an SFIA (Skills Framework for the Information Age) accredited consultant, and contributed the skills components related to business analysis in the latest release of this competency framework. Paul has a particular interest in the way the job role of the business analyst changes in an Agile development environment. He is a Fellow of BCS and has worked extensively with a range of organisations to raise the profile of professionalism within the business analysis discipline.

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

BA BAM BATNA BBS CASE CATWOE CBA CSF DCF ERM HR IRR IT JAD KPI MoSCoW MOST (analysis) NPV PESTLE (analysis) PIR

business analyst Business Activity Model Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement Balanced Business Scorecard computer-aided software engineering customer, actor, transformation, Weltanschauung or world view, owner and environment (analysis) costbenet analysis critical success factor discounted cash ow entity relationship model human resources internal rate of return information technology Joint Application Development (workshop IBM) key performance indicator must have, should have, could have, want to have but wont have this time mission, objectives, strategy and tactics (analysis) net present value political, economic, socio-cultural, technological, legal and environmental (or ecological) (analysis) post-implementation review

CRUD (matrix) create, read, update and delete (matrix)

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LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS

RASCI ROI SARAH (model) SSADM STROBE SWOT (analysis) UML

responsible, accountable, supportive, consulted and informed (charts) return on investment shock, anger, rejection, acceptance and hope (model) Structured Systems Analysis and Design Method STRuctured Observation of the Business Environment strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats Unied Modeling Language

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ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TECHNIQUES

Names and numbers of techniques in standard type indicate the main name that has been used in the book. Techniques shown in italics and with sufxes on the numbers (for example, 17c) indicate an alias or variant on the main name. Number 58 17a 7a 7 29b 24b 24 12 28a 44a 71 72 5 5a 5b 28 49 48 36 37 36b Chapter 6 2 1 1 3 3 3 1 3 5 7 7 1 1 1 3 5 5 4 4 4 Page 188 46 16 16 78 63 63 22 75 133 244 248 12 12 12 75 154 151 101 105 101 Name Acceptance criteria denition Activity sampling Ansoffs Box Ansoffs matrix ARCI charts Background reading Background research Balanced Business Scorecard Business Activity Model (BAM) Benetcost analysis (BCA) Benets management Benets realisation Boston Box Boston Consulting Group matrix BCG matrix Business activity modelling Business case presentation Business case report creation Business event analysis Business process modelling Business process triggers

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ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TECHNIQUES

Number 38 27 64 21c 28b 70 38a 22 44 10 65 66 39 19 63a 63 15e 14a 42 43 9 40 53 45 26a 13 47 14c 14b 11 69a

Chapter 4 3 6 2 3 7 4 2 5 1 6 7 4 2 6 6 2 2 5 5 1 4 6 5 3 2 5 2 2 1 7

Page 110 71 219 55 75 242 110 57 133 21 225 230 112 51 211 211 39 30 128 132 20 118 171 141 66 26 146 30 30 21 239

Name Business rules analysis CATWOE Class modelling Concept maps Conceptual model Conscious competence model Constraints analysis Context diagram Costbenet analysis (CBA) Critical success factors CRUD matrix Cultural analysis Decision tables and decision trees Document analysis Entity relationship diagrams (ERDs) Entity relationship modelling Ethnographic study Facilitated workshops Feasibility analysis Force-eld analysis Four-view model Gap analysis Hothousing Impact analysis Inuence/interest grid Interviewing Investment appraisal Joint Application Development Workshops (IBM) Joint requirements planning workshops Key performance indicators Kolb cycle

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ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TECHNIQUES

Number 67 69 69b 28c 63b 8 21 55 3 64a 15 41 35 35a 1a 1b 1 1c 26b 26c 26 16 27b 2 32 37b 15d 52 29a 29 17c

Chapter 7 7 7 3 6 1 2 6 1 6 2 5 4 4 1 1 1 1 3 3 3 2 3 1 3 4 2 6 3 3 2

Page 235 239 239 75 211 17 55 176 9 219 39 124 98 98 3 3 3 3 66 66 66 42 71 6 87 105 39 167 78 78 46

Name Kurt Lewins model of organisational change Learning cycle Learning styles Logical activity model Logical data modelling/models (LDM) McKinseys 7-S Mind maps MoSCoW prioritisation MOST analysis Object class modelling Observation Options identication Organisation Diagram Organisation model PEST analysis PESTEL analysis PESTLE analysis PESTLIED analysis P/I grid Power/impact grid Power/interest grid Questionnaires PARADE Porters Five Forces framework Principled negotiation Process maps Protocol analysis Prototyping RACI charts RASCI charts Record sampling

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ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TECHNIQUES

Number 24a 57 60 56 61 59 4a 4 20 46 46b 46a 27c 17 68 50 21a 15c 18 30 30a 23 25 1d 51 15b 15a 16a 37a 6 36a

Chapter 3 6 6 6 6 6 1 1 2 5 5 5 3 2 7 6 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 1 6 2 2 2 4 1 4

Page 63 184 198 180 203 192 10 10 53 143 143 143 71 46 237 160 55 39 49 81 81 63 64 3 165 39 39 42 105 14 101

Name Report analysis Requirements documentation Requirements management Requirements organisation Requirements traceability matrix Requirements validation Resource analysis Resource Audit Rich pictures Risk analysis Risk identication Risk management Root denition Sampling SARAH model Scenarios Semantic networks Shadowing Special-purpose records Stakeholder management planning Stakeholder map Stakeholder nomination Stakeholder wheel STEEPLE analysis Storyboarding STROBE Structured observation Surveys Swimlane diagrams SWOT analysis System event analysis

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ALPHABETICAL LIST OF TECHNIQUES

Number 31 31b 31a 9a 54 18a 6a 62 34 33 3a 27a 21b 17b 14

Chapter 3 3 3 1 6 2 1 6 4 4 1 3 2 2 2

Page 84 84 84 20 173 49 14 205 95 92 9 71 55 46 30

Name ThomasKilmann conict mode instrument ThomasKilmann conict model ThomasKilmann instrument (TKI) Three-view model Timeboxing Timesheets TOWS analysis Use case diagrams and use case descriptions Value chain analysis Value proposition analysis VMOST analysis VOCATE Webs Work measurement Workshops

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