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Understanding the Motivation of Behavior

Presented by: Emma Ruiz & Amy Ingersoll, PBIS Coaches


Acknowledgements: Chris Borgmeier, PhD, Portland State University
cborgmei@pdx.edu

Training Objectives
!! Participants
"!Identify

will be able to:

ABCs of behavior "!Classify a students motivation for misbehavior "!Review indicated interventions that address the students motivation

Quote about behavior


If a child doesnt know how to read, we teach. If a child doesnt know how to multiply, we teach. If a child doesnt know how to swim, we teach. If a child doesnt know how to drive, we teach. If a child doesnt know how to behave, we ... teach? ! punish? Why cant we finish the last sentence as automatically as we do the others? - Herner, 1998

ed T rain ing for A ll St a

ff

CONTINUUM OF SCHOOL-WIDE POSITIVE BEHAVIOR SUPPORT

~5% ~15%

Tertiary Prevention: FBA#BSP for Students with High-Risk Behavior Secondary Prevention: Specialized Group Systems for Students with At-Risk Behavior

Mot iva

Primary Prevention: School / ClassroomWide Systems for All Students, Staff, & Settings

tion -Bas

~80% of Students

Reasons Students Commonly Misbehave


!! !! !! !!

Students dont know expectations Students dont know how to exhibit expected behavior Student is unaware he/she is engaged in the misbehavior Misbehavior is providing student with desired outcome:
$! $!

GREEN ZONE

Obtaining adult/peer attention or an item or activity Avoiding adult/peer attention or a difficult task or a non-desired activity

YELLOW & RED ZONE

Understanding Chronic Misbehavior


!!

If a student repeatedly engages in a problem behavior, he/she is most likely doing it for a reason, because it is paying off for the student. The behavior serves a purpose. Behavior is a form of communication. Unfortunately some students learn that problem behavior is the best way for them to get their needs met.

!!

ABCs of Understanding Chronic Behavior Patterns Antecedent Behavior


outCome
What happens before the behavior occurs? What is the trigger? What behavior do you observe? Behavior is specific and measurable. What happens after the behavior occurs? What is the outcome?

A%B%C

Learning and A%B%C: What did the student learn?


Antecedent
Jimi is asked to do a math problem in front of the class

Behavior

OutCome

Learning & A%B%C What did the student learn?


Antecedent Behavior OutCome
Jimi is asked to do Jimi tries to do a math problem in the problem at front of the class the board, but struggles.

Learning & A%B%C What did the student learn?


Antecedent
Jimi is asked to do a math problem in front of the class by Mr. Brown

Behavior
Jimi tries to do the problem at the board, but struggles

OutCome
Peers laugh at student and one says aloud, That one is so easy Negative OutCome

Learning & A%B%C


Antecedent
Jimi is asked to do a math problem in front of the class

Behavior
Jimi tries to do the problem at the board, but struggles

OutCome
Peers laugh at student and one says aloud, that one is so easy Negative OutCome

NEXT DAY Jimi is asked to do a math problem in front of the class


Jimi: What ! Hits a peer happens ! Calls teacher a name today??? ! Disrupts

Teacher calls on someone else and re u l i a F sends Jimi & to the K S A T office IDED!!!

AVO

Identifying the ABCs of Behavior


During reading, the teachers says, Please put away your notebooks and take out your reading book. Nancy glances up at the teacher and starts doodling on her notebook. The teacher repeats the directions. Nancy takes out her reading book and throws it. The teacher send her to the office.

Learning & A%B%C What did the student learn?


Antecedent
When:

Behavior
student does:

OutCome
because:

Video Sample
!! DVD

- Defusing Anger & Aggression (4:53-5:27, Jason scenario, first of two clips)

Learning & A%B%C What did the student learn?


Antecedent Behavior OutCome

Learning & A%B%C What did the student learn?


Antecedent
Teacher asks students to write down their homework assignment.

Behavior

OutCome

Learning & A%B%C What did the student learn?


Antecedent
Teacher asks students to write down their homework assignment.

Behavior
One student distracts peers and disrupts by throwing paper.

OutCome

Learning & A%B%C What did the student learn?


Antecedent
Teacher asks students to write down their homework assignment.

Behavior
Student distracts peers and disrupts by throwing paper.

OutCome
The other students laugh which reinforces the misbehavior and the teacher places undivided attention on the negative behavior. Motivation: obtaining attention from peers and adult

Behavior is Motivational! not GOOD or BAD


!!

Motivational = it pays off for the student in some way! so he does it again
"!We

may see the behavior as being good or bad, but the student does it because it is effective. It pays off for him. is most important to remember is that the student is obtaining or avoiding something by using this behavior.

"!What

Motivation of Behavior
Avoid ! Peer Attention ! Adult Attention ! Object/Activity Obtain ! Peer Attention ! Adult Attention ! Object/Activity

So the question is! what is the effect of our response to student problem behavior?
!! Is

our response increasing the chances of the problem behavior occurring again in the future? OR !! Will our response decrease the likelihood of the problematic behavior occurring in the future?

Will this response Increase or Decrease the Problematic Behavior?


!! !! !! !! !! !! !!

Suspension Verbal Reprimand Reflection activity Responsibility Center Detention

IT DEPENDS ON THE STUDENT MOTIVATION!! We often assign value to consequences, based on what we think!. BUT!
What we need to do is look thru the students eyes (Motivation of Behavior) "! What is the impact of our response on the students behavior?
"!

Proactive Interventions based on Motivation

Proactive Interventions
Antecedent
Prevention Interventions occurring before the behavior occurs

Behavior
Teach

OutCome

Response to Behavior Replacement Intervention occurs behaviors instead of after (in response to) the problem behavior positive or negative behavior

PBIS (Positive Behavior Intervention & Support)


Emphasis on interventions to prevent problem behavior Emphasis on explicitly teaching alternate, desired behavior Emphasis on positive reinforcement of desired behavior

Proactive Interventions ~ AVOID TASK


Antecedent: Prevention
Interventions occurring before the behavior occurs Modify the task or provide support:
!

! ! !

! !

Modify assignments to meet student instructional/skill level (adjust timelines, provide graphic organizers, break in to smaller chunks, etc.) Assign student to work with a peer Provide additional instruction/support Provide visual prompt to cue steps for completing tasks student struggles with Provide additional support focused on instructional skills (Homework Club, study hall, etc.) Pre-teaching content Pre-correct - frequently & deliberately remind student to ask for help

Proactive Interventions ~ AVOID TASK


Behavior: Teach
Behaviors to use instead of the problem behavior
! ! ! !

Teach student more appropriate ways to ask for help from teacher or peers Provide additional instruction on skill deficits Role play (use students for examples; adults nonexamples) Identify and teach specific examples of ways to ask for help
! !

Raise hand and wait patiently for teacher to call on you Likely need to differentiate (large group, small group, work time, etc.)

Proactive Interventions ~ AVOID TASK


OutCome: Response to Behavior
Intervention occurs after (in response to) positive or negative behavior
&! &!

&!

Respond quickly if student asks for help or for a break Reward students for being on task, trying hard, work completion, and for asking for a break or help appropriately Eliminate/minimize the amount of missed instructional time or work provided to a student for engaging in problem behavior
&!

However, need to make sure student is capable of doing work! or provide support/instruction so student can complete the work

Proactive Interventions ~ ATTENTION SEEKING


Antecedent: Prevention
Interventions occurring before the behavior occurs Prevention (give attention early for positive):
!Check-in

provide adult attention immediately upon student arrival !Give student leadership responsibility or a class job that requires the student to interact with staff !Place student in desk where they are easily accessible for frequent staff attention !Give student frequent intermittent attention for positive or neutral behavior !Pre-correct - frequently & deliberately remind student to raise their hand and wait patiently if they want your attention

Proactive Interventions ~ ATTENTION SEEKING


Behavior - Teach
Behaviors to use instead of the problem behavior
! ! !

Teach student more appropriate ways to ask for adult attention Explicitly teaching desired behavior Identify and teach specific examples of ways to ask for attention
! !

Raise hand and wait patiently for teacher to call on you Likely need to differentiate (large group, small group, work time, etc.)

Proactive Interventions ~ ATTENTION SEEKING


OutCome: Response to Behavior
Intervention occurs after (in response to) positive or negative behavior
! ! ! !

Respond quickly if student asks appropriate for adult attention Give the student frequent adult attention for positive behavior Student earns lunch with teacher when student earns points for paying attn in class & asking appropriately for attention Eliminate/minimize the amount of attention provided to a student for engaging in problem behavior
! !

Limit verbal interaction create a signal to prompt the student to stop the problem behavior Avoid power struggles

Proactive Interventions ~ Attention Seeking


OutCome: Response to Behavior
Intervention occurs after (in response to) positive or negative behavior
! ! !

Sometimes students need additional encouragement to engage in the desired behavior When using additional incentives to encourage student positive behavior If students desire adult attention, use it as an incentive:
! ! ! !

Lunch with teacher 1:1 game with favorite staff, etc. Be a special teacher assistant Behavior chart

Video Sample #2
DVD - Defusing Anger & Aggression (6:16-7:12, Jason scenario, second of two clips)

Scenario
What is the behavior? What does it look like? What happens after the behavior?

What happens before the behavior?

ABCs, Motivation, and Proactive Interventions


Antecedent Behavior OutCome

Possible Motivation: Interventions: Prevention Teach Response to Behavior