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Example: Simply supported secondary composite beam EN 1994-1-1 Laurent Narboux Charles King

Date Date

This example deals with a simply supported secondary composite beam under a uniformly distributed loading. The following distributed loads are applied to the beam. self-weight of the beam concrete slab imposed load

Created on Friday, January 09, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

The beam is a UKB profile in bending about the strong axis. This example includes : the classification of the cross-section, the calculation of the effective width of the concrete flange, the calculation of shear resistance of a headed stud, the calculation of the degree of shear connection, the calculation of bending resistance, the calculation of shear resistance, the calculation of longitudinal shear resistance of the slab, the calculation of deflection at serviceability limit state.

This example does not include any shear buckling verification of the web. Partial factors

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Example: Simply supported secondary composite beam EN 1994-1-1 Laurent Narboux Charles King

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Basic data Design a composite floor beam of a multi-storey building according to the data given below. The beam is assumed to be fully propped during construction. The profiled steel sheeting is transverse to the beam.

Created on Friday, January 09, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

This is a bit of a cop out. Most UK construction is unpropped and would require construction condition (noncomposite) calculations too. See primary beam example.

Try UKB 254x146x37 Depth Width Web thickness Flange thickness Fillet Mass ha = 256.0 mm b = 146.4 mm tw = 6.3 mm tf = 10.9 mm r = 7.6 mm 37.0 kg/m Aa = 47.2 cm2 Iy = 5537 cm4

tf

BS4

tw

Corus Advance

y ha

z b

Section area Second moment of area /yy Elastic modulus /yy Plastic modulus /yy Modulus of elasticity of steel

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Example: Simply supported secondary composite beam EN 1994-1-1 Laurent Narboux Charles King

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Profiled steel sheeting Thickness of sheet Slab depth Overall depth of the profiled steel sheeting b1 = 62 mm Connectors Diameter Overall nominal height Ultimate tensile strength Number of shear connectors studs Number of studs per rib

Created on Friday, January 09, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

h0 e h hsc hp 0,5hp b1 b2

Concrete parameters : C 25/30 Value of the compressive strength at 28 days Secant modulus of elasticity of concrete fck = 25 N/mm2 Ecm = 31 476 N/mm2

To take into account the troughs of the profiled steel sheeting, the weight of the slab is taken as : 25 3.0 (0.12 5

0.101 + 0.062 0.058) = 7.2 kN/m 2

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Permanent load : G = 0.363 + 7.2 + 0.75 3.0 = 9.81 kN/m Variable load (Imposed load) : Q = 2.5 3.0 = 7.50 kN/m ULS Combination : EN 1990 6.4.3.2

Moment diagram

M 172.19 kNm

Created on Friday, January 09, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Maximum moment at mid span : My,Ed = 0.125 24.49 7.502 = 172.19 kNm Shear force diagram

91.84 kN

Maximum shear force at supports : Vz,Ed = 0.5 24.49 7.50 = 91.84 kN Yield strength Steel grade S355 The maximum thickness is 10.9 mm < 40 mm, so : fy = 355 N/mm2 Note : The National Annex may impose either the values of fy from the Table 3.1 or the values from the product standard. EN 1993-1-1 Table 3.1

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Section classification : The parameter is derived from the yield strength : = Note :

The classification is made for the non composite beam. For the (sheet 2 of 3) composite beam the classification is more favourable.

Internal compression part :

Created on Friday, January 09, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

The class of the cross-section is the highest class (i.e the least favourable) between the flange and the web, here : Class 1 So the ULS verifications should be based on the plastic resistance of the cross-section since the Class is 1.

Effective width of concrete flange At mid-span, the total effective width may be determined by :

beff,1 = b0 + bei

EN 1994-1-1 5.4.1.2

b0 is the distance between the centres of the outstand shear connectors, here b0 = 0 ;

(figure 5.1) Only applicable if bei is the value of the effective width of the concrete flange on each side of the there is more than web and taken as bei = Le / 8 but bi = 3.0 m one shear connector for each beff,1 = 0 + 7.5 / 8 = 0.9375 m, then beff = 2 0.9375 = 1.875 m < 3.0 m rib At the ends, the total effective width is determined by :

beff,0 = b0 + ibei

With i = (0.55 + 0.025 Le / bei) but 1.0 = (0.55 + 0.025 7.5 / 0.9375) = 0.75 beff,0 = 0 + 0.75 7.5 / 8 = 0.703 m, then beff = 2 0.703 = 1.406 m < 3.0 m

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0.8 f ud 2 / 4 0.29d 2 f ck Ecm PRd = k t Min ; V V

EN 1994-1-1 6.6.3.1

Reduction factor (kt)

For sheeting with ribs transverse to the supporting beam, the reduction factor for shear resistance is calculated by :

kt =

Created on Friday, January 09, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

kt = 0.7 82 100 1 = 0.717 ktmax = 0.75 1 58 58

0.8 450 19 2 / 4 0.29 1 192 25 31476 10 3 PRd = 0.717 Min ; 1.25 1.25

Shear stud resistance calculation is semiempirical with lots of 'fudge' factors derived from experiments.

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=

Where :

Nc N c,f

Nc is the design value of the compressive normal force in the concrete flange Nc,f is the design value of the compressive normal force in the concrete flange with full shear connection

At mid-span :

The compressive normal force in the concrete flange represents the total connection.

Created on Friday, January 09, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Ac is the cross-sectional area of concrete, so at mid-span Ac = beff hc with hc = h - hp = 120 58 = 62 mm, Ac = 1875 62 = 116250 mm2 So,

N c, f = 0.85 Ac f cd = 0.85 Ac f ck 25 3 10 = 1647 kN 1.5

= 0.85 116250

The resistance of the shear connectors limits the normal force to not more than : Number of shear connectors. Nc = 0.5 n PRd = 0.5 36 53.27 = 959 kN 0.5 as peak moment at midspan. Note even number of N 959 So, = c = = 0.582 studs on beam. If an odd N c, f 1647 number, stud at mid-span would carry no load and The ratio is less than 1.0 so the connection is partial. would be ignored, as in primary beam example. Verification of bending resistance

Minimum degree of shear connection

The minimum degree of shear connection for a steel section with equal flanges is given by :

EN 1994-1-1 6.6.1.2

min = 1 -

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Le is the distance in sagging bending between points of zero bending moment in metres, for our example : Le = 7.5 m So, Then,

min = 1 (355 / 355) (0.75 0.03 7.50) = 0.475 min = 0.475 < = 0.582 OK

EN 1994-1-1 6.2.1.2 and 6.2.1.3

The design value of the normal force in the structural steel section is given by : Npl,a = Aa fy / M0 = 4720 355 10 / 1.0 = 1675 kN

-3

So, Npl,a > Nc = Nc,f = 959 kN With the ductile shear connectors and the cross-section of the steel beam in Class 1, the resistance moment of the critical cross-section of the beam MRd at mid span is calculated by means of rigid-plastic theory except that a reduced value of the compressive force in the concrete flange Nc is used in place of the force Ncf. Here, the plastic stress distribution is given below :

9 Nc= Nc,f = 959 kN

Created on Friday, January 09, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

hp 364 kN

MRd

hn

Na = 1316 kN

The position of neutral axis is : hn = 249 mm Then the design resistance for bending of the composite cross section is : MRd = 298.6 kNm So, My,Ed / MRd = 172.2 / 298.6= 0.58 < 1 OK

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Shear Resistance

The shear plastic resistance depends on the shear area of the steel beam, which is given by: Av,z = A 2 b tf + (tw + 2 r) tf Av,z = 4720 2 146.4 10.9 + (6.3 + 2 7.6) 10.9 = 1762 mm2 But not less than hw tw

conservatively taken equal to 1.0 hw tw = 1.0 234.2 6.3 = 1475 mm2

OK

Created on Friday, January 09, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Vpl, z, Rd =

Av, z ( f y / 3 )

M0

EN 1994-1-1 6.2.2.2

Vz,Ed / Vpl,z,Rd = 91.84 / 361 = 0.254 < 1 OK Nota that the verification to shear buckling is not required when : hw / tw 72 / EN 1993-1-1 6.2.6 (6)

hw / tw = 234.2 / 6.3 = 31.2 < 72 0.81 / 1.0 = 58.3 OK

Longitudinal Shear Resistance of the Slab

The plastic longitudinal shear stresses is given by : vEd = Fd hf x EN 1992-1-1 6.2.4 (figure 6.7)

Where x = 7.5 / 2 = 3.75 m The value for x is half the distance between the section where the moment is zero and the section where the moment is maximum and we have two areas for the shear resistance. Fd = Nc / 2 = 952/ 2 = 476 kN hf = h - hp = 120 58 = 62 mm Fd 476 103 = 2.05 N/mm2 vEd = = hf x 62 3750

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To prevent crushing of the compression struts in the concrete flange, the following condition should be satisfied : vEd < f cd sin f cos f with = 0.6[1 f ck / 250] and f = 45 25 25 0.5 = 4.5 N/mm2 vEd < 0.6 1 250 1.5

OK

The following inequality should be satisfied for the transverse reinforcement : Asf fyd / sf vEd hf / cot f where fyd = 500 / 1.15 = 435 N/mm2 Assume the spacing of the bars sf = 250 mm and there is no contribution from the profiled steel sheeting

Created on Friday, January 09, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Asf

We can take 10 mm diameter bars (78.5 mm2) at 250 mm cross-centres extending over the effective concrete breadth.

Serviceability Limit State verification SLS Combination

EN 1990 6.5.3

5 (G + Q ) L4 384 E I y

Where Iy depends on the modular ratio (n) depending on the type of loading. By simplification, we can take : n0 = Ea / Ecm = 210 000 / 31476 = 6.67 for primary effects (Q) So Iy = 23573 cm4 at mid span And n = 3Ea / Ecm = 20.02 for permanent loads (G) So Iy = 17979 cm4

w= 5 7 .5 4 9.81 7.50 + = 16.9 mm 8 384 210000 17979 10 23573 10 8

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Note 1: The limits of deflection should be specified by the client. The National Annex may specify some limits. Here the result may be considered as fully satisfactory.

EN 1994-1-1 7.2.1

Note 2 : The National Annex may specify limits concerning the frequency. of EN 1993-1-1 vibration. Here the total deflection is low and the mass fairly high 7.2.3 and by experience there is no problem of vibration.

Created on Friday, January 09, 2009 This material is copyright - all rights reserved. Use of this document is subject to the terms and conditions of the Access Steel Licence Agreement

Quality Record

RESOURCE TITLE Reference LOCALISED RESOURCE DOCUMENT Name Created by Technical content checked by Editorial content checked by Laurent Narboux Charles King D C Iles Company SCI SCI SCI Date Oct 2006 Oct 2006 19/2/07 Example: Simply supported laterally unrestrained beam SX014a-EN-GB

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