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In the case of an innitely extended square law medium,(Inhomogeneous Planar Waveguide) we have the refractive index prole variation with x is given by x 2 n2 (x) = n2 1 (x)[1 2 ( ) ] a The scalar wave equation in x can be written as d 2 (x ) 2 2 + [Ko n (x) 2 ] (x) = 0 dx2 The scalar wave equation in x is re written as d2 ( ) + [ d 2 where we have

2

] ( ) = 0

1

The above dierential equation is same as that of Linear Harmonic Oscillator in that of Quantum Mechanics, whose solution is well known to us. By power series method we obtain the solution as. u( ) = [ ar on simplication we obtain 2r + 2 s + 1 ar+2 = ar (r + s + 1)(r + s + 2) also requiring that = 2m + 1 for modes to be bound and propagating. Where m is an integer. To summarize the modal equation is given by

2 2 2 m = Ko n1

1 Ko n1 (2 ) 2 (2m + 1) where m = 0, 1, 2, 3 a

r +s

]=

[ao + a1 + a2

+ ]

WKB Analysis

We now use the Wentzel, Kramers and Brillouin i.e. (WKB) analysis to obtain the same result for an inhomogeneous planar waveguide. The WKB method becomes applicable when the fractional variation of the refractive index is very small in the distances of order of the wavelength . The propagating mode in any waveguide, can be considered as a standing wave, in the transverse direction to propagation vector of the mode. The energy travels along the propagation vector. If we consider the scalar wave equation for TE modes.The modal propagation vector when propagates from a point to another point, it encounters phase change. There are two cases possible in the analysis. One case is where, there is no discontinuity at the turning points. Another case is where, there is an abrupt phase change at the turning points. For two points containing the full cycle between them, the phase change will be an integral multiple of 2. The condition which determines value of will be

B B

K (x)dx 21 22 =

A A

2 2 [ko n1 2 ] 2 dx = 2m

Where m is an integer, 21 and 22 are abrupt phase changes suered at points A and C. This is known as WKB Quantization condition. Case1: The rst case corresponds to the n2 (x) variation, such that there is no discontinuity n2 (x) at the turning points. For such a case 1 = 2 = . By symmetry we have 4

B C B

K (x)dx = 2

A A

K (x)dx =

A

2 2 [Ko n1 2 ] 2 dx = (2m + 1)

x 2 For an innetely extended parabolic prole we have, n2 (x) = n2 1 (x)[1 2 ( a ) ], for which the turning points are

x12 = {

+ 2 2 [Ko n1 2 2 m 2n2 (x/a)2 ] 2 dx 1 Ko

1 1

2 2

which on simplication

1 1 2 ]2 ]2 2 a2 n2 ko 1

which is exactly the same as that of from the solution of the scalar wave equation. Case2: The second case where there would be an abrupt change in the refractive index at the turning point, there would be reection. The phase change on reection is given by 2 = 2 tan1 [{

2 2 1 2 Ko ns 2 } )] 2 2 Ko nf 2

2 2 1 2 Ko ns 2 } )] 2 2 Ko nf 2

The above condition along with the WKB Quantization condition yields

2 2 d{Ko nf 2 } 2 = tan1 [{

1

2 2 1 2 Ko ns 2 } )] + m where m = 0, 1, 2, 3, 2 2 Ko nf 2

Which is once again the same result as that of a solution of scalar equation. In case of parabolic prole, the integral was easy to evaluate. But in general cases, we resort to numerical methods to solve the integral. In conventional Finite Element Methods, a differential equation is to be solved. This gives the WKB analysis an edge as there is no need to solve the scalar wave equation. The drawback of the WKB analysis is that it fails for cut-o modes, as it does not consider the refractive index gradients discontinuity at the core-cladding boundary. To deal with this, various corrections have been proposed to the WKB analysis. The modied Airy functions are used in core region and the conventional WKB trial solution in the cladding region, respectively, so as not to diverge at turning points and to ensure almost exact solution in cladding regions where elds decay. Modied WKB Method is widely used in study of graded index optical ber.

References:

(1) Analysis of Graded-Index Optical Fibers by the Rigorous WKB, Chang-Min Kim and Min-sub Chung, University of Seoul, Department of Electrical Engineering, IEEE/1042/CLEO/PacicRim/99/P2.111 (2) Optical Electronics by A. Ghatak and Thyagarajan. Cambridge University Press, 1989.

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