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!"#$, %%!"#& For the &gyptian 'riter, see A((as Al)Akkad* For the +yrian film director, see ,oustapha Akkad* Ancient ,esopotamia &uphrates - .igris Cities / &mpires +umer: &ridu - 0ish - 1ruk - 1r - 2agash - $ippur - $girsu &lam: +usa Akkadian &mpire: Akkad - ,ari Amorites: 3sin - 2arsa 4a(ylonia: 4a(ylon - Chaldea 5ittites - 0assites - 5urrians/,itanni Assyria: Assur - $imrud - 6ur)+harrukin - $ineveh Chronology 5istory of ,esopotamia 5istory of +umer - 0ings of +umer 0ings of Assyria 0ings of 4a(ylon ,ythology &n7ma &lish - 8ilgamesh Assyro)4a(ylonian religion 2anguage +umerian - &lamite Akkadian - Aramaic 5urrian - 5ittite Akkad (Sumerian: Agade; Biblical Accad), was a city and its surrounding region (+umerian 1R3*03 or 031R3) in central ,esopotamia* Akkad also became the capital of the Akkadian Empire*9:; .he city 'as pro(a(ly situated on the 'est (ank of the &uphrates, (et'een +ippar and 0ish (in present)day 3ra<, a(out => km ( : mi) south'est of the center of 4aghdad)* 6espite an e?tensive search, the precise site has never (een found* Akkad reached the height of its power between the !th and con#uests of king Sargon of Akkad$ nd centuries B", following the

Because of the policies of the Akkadian Empire toward linguistic assimilation, Akkad also ga%e its name to the predominant Semitic dialect: the Akkadian language, reflecting use of akkad7 (@in the language of Akkad@) in the Ald 4a(ylonian period to denote the +emitic version of a +umerian te?t* Contents 9hide; : Arigin of the $ame B 5istory B*: Arigins of Akkad B*:*: +argon and his sons B*:*B $aram)+in B*B Collapse of Akkad B* .he curse of Akkad 8overnment % .he &conomy = Culture =*: Art

=*B Coet ) priestess &nheduanna =* .echnology =*% Achievements " +ee also D $otes E &?ternal 2inks F References

9edit; Arigin of the $ame .he form Agade is +umerian G appearing, for e?ample, in the +umerian king listH the later Assyro) 4a(ylonian form Akkad7 (@of or (elonging to Akkad@) 'as likely derived from this* &t is possible that the Sumerian name, despite its unetymological spelling of A$'A$(), is from A'A$(), meaning *"rown of +ire*, - in allusion to &shtar, @the (rilliant goddess@, 'hose cult 'as o(served from very early times in Agade* Centuries later, the neo)4a(ylonian king $a(onidus mentioned in his archaeological records9 ; that &shtar worship in Agade was later superseded by that of the goddess Anunit , 'hose shrine 'as at +ipparGsuggesting pro?imity of +ippar and Agade* (.here 'ere actually t'o cities named +ipparGone under the protection of +hamash, the sun)god, and the one under Anunit*) Ane theory holds that Agade 'as situated opposite +ippar on the left (ank of the &uphrates, and 'as perhaps the oldest part of the city of +ippar* Another theory is that the ruins of Akkad are to (e found (eneath modern 4aghdad* 6espite numerous searches, the city has never (een found* Reputedly it 'as destroyed (y invading 8utians 'ith the fall of the Akkadian &mpire* .he city of Akkad is mentioned once in the .anakh (4ook of 8enesis :>::>)* .he 8reek (2II) spelling is Archad* And the (eginning of his ($imrodJs) kingdom 'as 4a(el, and &rech, and Accad, and Calneh, in the land of +hinar (0JK)* 9edit; 5istory 9edit; Arigins of Akkad +emites seem to (e already present at the da'n of the historical record, and to have achieved preeminence 'ith the first 6ynasty of 0ish and numerous localities to the $orth of +umerG'here rulers 'ith +emitic names had already esta(lished themselves (y ca* the rd millennium 4C* Ane of these, contemporary 'ith the last +umerian ruler, 2ugal)Lage)+i of 1ruk, 'as Alusarsid (or 1rumus) 'ho @su(dued &lam and 4arahs (4arahsiM)@ thus (eginning the trend to'ards regional empire* .he first kno'n mention of Akkad is in an inscription of &nshakushanna of 1ruk, 'here he claims to have defeated Agade, indicating that it 'as in e?istence (efore the days of +argon of Akkad*9%; Sargon was traditionally cited as the first ruler of a combined empire of Akkad and Sumer, although more recently disco%ered data suggests there had been Sumerian e.pansions under pre%ious kings , including 2ugal)Anne),undu of Ada(, &annatum of 2agash, and 2ugal)Lage)+i*

9edit; +argon and his sons 5ead of an Akkadian ruler, ($ational ,useum of 3ra<).he fame of the early esta(lishers of +emitic supremacy 'as far eclipsed (y that of Sargon of Akkad (+harru)kin N @legitimate king@, pro(a(ly a title he took on gaining po'er9=;) (B rd century 4C), who defeated and captured /ugal01age0Si, con#uering his empire$

2he earliest records in Akkadian all date to the time of Sargon* Sargon was claimed to be the son of /a3ibum or &tti0Bel, a humble gardener, and possibly a hierodule, prostitute, or priestess to &shtar or &nanna$ Ane legend related of +argon in neo)Assyrian times says that @,y mother 'as a changeling (M), my father 3 kne' not* .he (rothers of my father loved the hills* ,y city is AOurpiranu (the 'ilderness her( fields), 'hich is situated on the (anks of the &uphrates* 4y changeling mother concei%ed me, in secret she bore me$ She set me in a basket of rushes, with bitumen she sealed my lid$ She cast me into the ri%er which rose not o%er me$ 2he ri%er bore me up and carried me to Akki, the drawer of water$ Akki, the drawer of water, took me as his son and reared me$ Akki the drawer of water, appointed me as his gardener$ 5hile & was gardener &shtar granted me her lo%e, and for four and (fiftyM) *** years 3 e?ercised kingship*@9"; Ariginally a cup(earer to a king of 0ish 'ith a +emitic name, 1r)La(a(a, +argon thus (ecame a gardener, responsi(le for the task of clearing out irrigation canals* .his gave him access to a disciplined corps of 'orkers, 'ho also may have served as his first soldiers* 6isplacing 1r)La(a(a, the cro'n 'as set upon +argonJs head, and he entered upon a career of foreign con<uest*9D; Four times he invaded +yria and Canaan, and he spent three years thoroughly su(duing the countries of @the 'est@ to unite them 'ith ,esopotamia @into a single empire*@ 5o'ever, +argon took this process further, con<uering many of the surrounding regions to create an empire that reached as far as the ,editerranean +ea and Anatolia, and e?tending his rule to &lam, and as far south as ,agan (Aman), an area over 'hich he reigned for =" years* .rade e?tended from the silver mines of Anatolia to the lapis laOuli mines in Afghanistan, the cedars of 2e(anon and the copper of Aman* .his consolidation of the city)states of +umer and Akkad reflected the gro'ing economic and political po'er of ,esopotamia* .he empireJs (read(asket 'as the rain)fed agricultural system of northern ,esopotamia and a chain of fortresses 'as (uilt to control the imperial 'heat production* &mages of Sargon were erected on the shores of the 4editerranean, in token of his %ictories, and cities and palaces were built at home with the spoils of the con#uered lands* &lam and the northern part of ,esopotamia (+u(artu) 'ere also su(Pugated and re(ellions in +umer 'ere put do'n* Contract ta(lets have (een found dated in the years of the campaigns against Canaan and against +arlak, king of 8utium* Sargon, throughout his long life, showed special deference to the Sumerian deities, particularly &nanna, his patroness, and 1ababa, the warrior god of 6ish$ 7e called himself *2he anointed priest of Anu* and *the great ensi of Enlil* and his daughter, Enheduanna the famous poet, was installed as priestess to 8anna at the temple in 9r$ 7e also boasted of ha%ing sub:ugated the *four #uarters*;the lands surrounding Akkad to the north (Subartu), the south (Sumer), the east (Elam) and the west (4artu) * +ome of the earliest te?ts credit him 'ith re(uilding the city of 4a(ylon (4a()ilu) in a ne' location* 2roubles multiplied toward the end of his reign* A later 4a(ylonian te?t states @3n his old age, all the lands revolted against him, and they (esieged him in Akkad (the city)@Q(ut @he 'ent forth to (attle and defeated them, he knocked them over and destroyed their vast army@* Also shortly after, @the +u(artu (mountainous tri(es of) the upper countryGin their turn attacked, (ut they su(mitted to his arms, and +argon settled their ha(itations, and he smote them grievously@* 2hese difficulties broke out again in the reign of his sons$ <e%olts broke out during the =0year reign of his son, <imush, who fought hard to retain the empire;and in the fifteen year reign of <imush3s elder brother, 4anishtushu$ 2he latter king seems to ha%e fought a sea battle against > kings who had gathered against him$ Both appear to ha%e been assassinated$

9edit; $aram)+in 8aram0Sin (Belo%ed of Sin), Sargon3s grandson, who assumed the imperial title of *6ing 8aram0Sin, of the four #uarters (/ugal 8aram0Sin, ?ar kibrat 3arbaim)*, and, like his grandfather, was addressed as *the god (Sumerian @ (&8$'&<, Akkadian @ ilu) of Agade* (Akkad), also faced revolts at the start of his reign* $aram)+in also recorded the Akkadian con<uest of &(la and Armani (also read Armanum or Armanim)* 2he Assyrians, who are direct descendants of Akkadians, to this day refer to Armenians (y the inscription form Armani* .hey 'ere located (et'een Carchemish and &(la* .o (etter police this area, he (uilt a royal residence at .ell 4rak, a crossroads at the heart of the 0ha(ur (asin of the JeOirah* $aram)+in is supposed to have possessed an army of over ">,>>> men, the largest siOe of any state up until that date* 3t ena(led him to campaign against ,agan (thought to (e Aman) 'hich also revoltedH $aram)+in, @marched against ,agan and personally caught ,andannu, its king@* .he chief threat seemed to (e coming from the northeastern mountaineers* A campaign against the 2ullu(i led to the carving of the famous stele, no' in the 2ouvre* .his ne'found Akkadian 'ealth may have (een (ased upon (enign climatic conditions, huge agricultural surpluses and the confiscation of the 'ealth of other peoples*9E; .he economy 'as highly planned* After the advancing Akkadian forces from .ell 4rak took the massive (:>> acre) site of .ell 2eilan, they destroyed near(y villages and (rought the organiOation of farming and grain distri(ution into its (ureaucratic control* 8rain 'as cleaned, and rations of grain and oil 'ere distri(uted in standardiOed vessels made (y the cityJs potters* .a?es 'ere paid in produce and la(our on pu(lic 'alls, including city 'alls, temples, irrigation canals and 'ater'ays, producing huge agricultural surpluses*9F;

+tele of $aram)+in, king of Akkad, cele(rating his victory against the 2ullu(i from Lagros3n later 4a(ylonian te?ts, the name Akkad, together 'ith +umer, appears as part of the royal title, as in the +umerian 218A2 03*&$*83R03 1R103 or Akkadian Rar mt umeri u Akkadi,[10] translating to "king of Sumer and Akkad". This title was assumed b the king who sei!ed "ontrol of 8ippur,,AA- the intellectual and religious center of southern 4esopotamia * 6uring the Akkadian period, the Akkadian language (ecame the lingua franca of the ,iddle &ast, and 'as officially used for administration, although the +umerian language remained as a literary language* .he spread of Akkadian stretched from +yria to &lam, and even the &lamite language 'as temporarily 'ritten in ,esopotamian cuneiform* Akkadian te?ts later found their 'ay to far)off places, from &gypt (in the Amarna period) and Anatolia, to Cersia (4ehistun)*

9edit; Collapse of Akkad Within :>> years the &mpire of Akkad collapsed, almost as fast as it had developed, ushering in a 6ark Age* 4y the end of the reign of $aram)+inJs son, +har)0ali)+harri, the empire collapsed outright from the invasion of (ar(arians of the Lagros kno'n as @8utians@* 3t has recently (een suggested that the 6ark Age at the end of the Akkadian period (and First 3ntermediary Ceriod of the Ancient &gyptian Ald 0ingdom) 'as associated 'ith rapidly increasing aridity, and failing rainfall in the region of the Ancient $ear &ast, caused (y a glo(al centennial)scale drought*9:B; .he fall of the empire esta(lished (y +argon seems to have (een as sudden as its rise, and little is kno'n a(out the 8utian period* From the fall of Akkad until around B:>> 4C, there is much that is still dark* .he +umerian king list, for the period after the death of +harkalishari, states: @Who 'as kingM Who 'as not kingM 3gigi the kingH $anum, the kingH 3mi the kingH &lulu, the kingGthe four of them 'ere kings (ut reigned only three years* 6udu reigned B: yearsH +hudurul, the son of 6udu,

reigned := years* (A total of) :: kings reigned :FD years* Agade 'as defeated and its kingship carried off to 1ruk* 3n 1ruk, 1rnigin reigned D years, 3rgigir, son of 1rnigin, reigned " yearsH 0udda reigned " yearsH CuOur)ili reigned = years, 1tu)utu reigned " years* 1ruk 'as smitten 'ith 'eapons and its kingship carried off (y the 8utian hordes* (.hese kings of 1ruk may have (een contemporaries of the last kings of Akkad*) 3n the 8utian hordes, (first reigned) a nameless kingH (then) 3mta reigned years as kingH +hulme reigned " yearsH &lulumesh reigned " yearsH 3nim(akesh reigned = yearsH 3geshuash reigned " yearsH 3arlaga( reigned := yearsH 3(ate reigned yearsH Q reigned yearsH 0urum reigned : yearH Q reigned yearsH Q reigned B yearsH 3ararum reigned B yearsH 3(ranum reigned : yearH 5a(lum reigned B yearsH CuOur)+in son of 5a(lum reigned D yearsH 3arlaganda reigned D yearsH Q reigned D yearsH Q reigned %> days* .otal B: kings reigned F: years, %> days* &vidence from .ell 2eilan in $orthern ,esopotamia sho's 'hat may have happened* .he site 'as a(andoned soon after the cityJs massive 'alls 'ere constructed, its temple re(uilt and its grain production reorganised* .he de(ris, dust and sand that follo'ed sho' no trace of human activity* +oil samples sho' fine 'ind)(lo'n sand, no trace of earth'orm activity, reduced rainfall and indications of a drier and 'indier climate* &vidence sho's that skeleton)thin sheep and cattle died of drought, and up to BE,>>> people a(andoned the site, seeking 'etter areas else'here* .ell 4rak shrank in siOe (y D=S* .rade collapsed* $omadic herders such as the Amorites moved herds closer to relia(le 'ater suppliers, (ringing them into conflict 'ith farmers* .his climate)induced collapse seems to have affected the 'hole of the ,iddle &ast, and to have coincided 'ith the collapse of the &gyptian Ald 0ingdom* A relatively 'ell) kno'n king from that period is 8udea, king of 2agash* .his collapse of rain)fed agriculture in @the 1pper Country@ meant the loss to southern ,esopotamia of the agrarian su(sidies 'hich had kept the Akkadian &mpire solvent* Water levels 'ithin the .igris and &uphrates fell :*= metres (eneath the level of B">> 4C, and although they sta(ilised for a time during the follo'ing 1r 333 period, rivalries (et'een pastoralists and farmers increased* Attempts 'ere undertaken to prevent the former from herding their flocks in agricultural lands, such as the (uilding of a :E> km 'all (et'een the .igris and &uphrates under the neo)+umerian ruler +hu)+in* +uch attempts led to increased political insta(ilityH mean'hile, severe depopulation occurred to re)esta(lish demographic e<uili(rium 'ith the less favora(le climatic conditions* 3t has also (een suggested (4urroughs, B>>D) that the rapid climatic collapse, marking the Akkadian 6ark Age, may have (een responsi(le for the religiously prescri(ed prohi(ition against the raising and consumption of pigs that spread through the Ancient ,iddle &ast from the end of the third millennium 4C* 9: ; .he period (et'een ca* B:>> 4C and B>>> 4C is sometimes called the rd dynasty of 1r or @+umerian Renaissance@, founded (y 1r)$ammu (originally a general)* .hough documents again (egan to (e 'ritten in +umerian, this dynasty may also have (een +emiticH +umerian 'as (ecoming a purely literary or liturgical language, much as 2atin later 'ould (e in ,edieval &urope*

9edit; .he curse of Akkad 2ater material descri(ed ho' the fall of Akkad 'as due to $aram)+inJs attack upon the city of $ippur* When prompted (y a pair of inauspicious oracles, the king sacked the & (temple)&)kur temple, supposedly protected (y the god &nlil, head of the pantheon* As a result of this, eight chief deities of the Anunaki pantheon 'ere supposed to have come together and 'ithdra'n their support from Akkad*9:%; For the first time since cities 'ere (uilt and founded, .he great agricultural tracts produced no grain, .he inundated tracts produced no fish, .he irrigated orchards produced neither syrup nor 'ine, .he gathered clouds did not rain, the masgurum did not gro'*

At that time, one shekelJs 'orth of oil 'as only one)half <uart, Ane shekelJs 'orth of grain 'as only one)half <uart* * * * .hese sold at such prices in the markets of all the citiesT 5e 'ho slept on the roof, died on the roof, 5e 'ho slept in the house, had no (urial, Ceople 'ere flailing at themselves from hunger* For many years, the events descri(ed in @.he Curse of Akkad@ 'ere thought, like the details of +argonJs (irth, to (e purely fictional* 4ut no' the evidence of .el 2eilan, and recent findings of elevated dust deposits in sea)cores collected off Aman, that date to the period of AkkadJs collapse suggest that climate change may have (een the culprit*

9edit; 8overnment .he Akkadian government formed a @classical standard@ 'ith 'hich all future ,esopotamian states compared themselves* .raditionally, the ensi 'as the highest functionary of the +umerian city)states* 3n later traditions, one (ecame an ensi (y marrying the goddess 3nanna, legitimising the rulership through divine consent* 3nitially, the monarchical lugal (lu N man, gal N great) 'as su(ordinate to the priestly ensi, and 'as appointed at times of trou(les, (ut (y later dynastic times, it 'as the lugal 'ho had emerged as the preeminent role, having his o'n @U@ (N house) or @palace@, independent from the temple esta(lishment* 4y the time of ,esalim, 'hichever dynast controlled the city of 0ish 'as recognised as Var kiVVati (N king of 0ish), and 'as considered preminent in +umer, possi(ly (ecause this 'as 'here the t'o rivers approached, and 'hoever controlled 0ish ultimately controlled the irrigation systems of the other cities do'nstream* As +argon e?tended his con<uest from the @2o'er +ea@ (N Cersian 8ulf), to the @1pper +ea@ (N ,editerranean), it 'as felt that he ruled @the totality of the lands under heaven@, or @from sunrise to sunset@, as contemporary te?ts put it* 1nder +argon, the ensis generally retained their positions, (ut 'ere seen more as provincial governors* .he title Var kiVVati (ecame recognised as meaning @lord of the universe@* Ane strategy adopted (y (oth +argon and $aram)+in, to maintain control of the country, 'as to install their daughters, &nheduanna and &nmenanna respectively, as high priestess to +in, the Akkadian version of the +umerian moon deity, $anna, at 1r, in the e?treme south of +umerH to install sons as provincial ensi governors in strategic locationsH and to marry their daughters to rulers of peripheral parts of the &mpire (1rkush and ,arhashe)* With $aram)+in, +argonJs grandson, this 'ent further than 'ith +argon, 'ith the king not only (eing called @2ord of the Four Wuarters (of the &arth)@, (ut also elevated to the ranks of the dingir (N gods), 'ith his o'n temple esta(lishment* Creviously a ruler could, like 8ilgamesh, (ecome divine after death (ut the Akkadian kings, from $aram)+in on'ard, 'ere considered gods on earth in their lifetimes* .heir portraits sho'ed them of larger siOe than mere mortals and at some distance from their retainers*9:=;

9edit; .he &conomy .he population of Akkad, like all pre)modern states, 'as entirely dependent upon the agricultural systems of the region, that seem to have had t'o principal centres: the irrigated farmlands of southern 3ra< that traditionally had a yield of > grains returned for each grain so'n, making it more productive than modern farmingH and the rain)fed agriculture of northern 3ra<, kno'n as @the 1pper Country@* +outhern 3ra< during the Akkadian period seems to have (een approaching its modern rainfall level of less than B> mm per year, 'ith the result that agriculture 'as totally dependent upon irrigation* Crior to the Akkadian period the progressive salinisation of the soils, produced (y poorly drained irrigation, had (een reducing yields of 'heat in the southern part of the country, leading to the conversion to more salt)tolerant

(arley gro'ing* 1r(an populations there had peaked already (y B,">> 4C&, and ecological pressures 'ere high, contri(uting to the rise of militarism apparent immediately prior tothe Akkadian period (eg As seen in the stele of the vultures of &annatum)* Warfare (et'een city states had led to a population decline, from 'hich, temporarily Akkad provided a 'elcome respite9:";* $evertheless, it 'as this high degree of agricultural productivity in the south that ena(led the gro'th of the highest population densities in the 'orld at this time, giving Akkad its military advantage* .he 'ater ta(le in this region 'as very high and replenished every year (y 'inter storms in the head'aters of the .igris and &uphrates from Acto(er to ,arch, and from sno')melt from ,arch to July* Flood levels, that had (een sta(le from a(out ,>>> to B,">> 4C& had staterted falling and (y the Akkadian period 'ere (et'een half and one meter lo'er than that recorded previously* &ven so, the flat country and 'eather uncertainties made flooding much more unpredicta(le than in the case of the $ileH serious deluges seem to have (een a regular feature, re<uiring constant maintenance of irrigation ditches and drainage systems* Farmers 'ere recruited into regiments for this 'ork (et'een August to Acto(erGa period of food shortage Gunder the control of city temple authorities, this acting as a form of unemployment relief* +ome have suggested that this task for the king of 0ish 'as the original employment of +argon and gave him his e?perience in (eing effectively capa(le of organising large groups of menH a ta(let reads, @+argon, the king, to 'hom &nlil permitted no rivalG=,%>> 'arriors ate (read daily (efore him@* 5arvest 'as in the late spring and during the dry summer months* $omadic ,artu or Amorites from north'est 'ould pasture their flocks of sheep and goats to graOe on the stu((le and (e 'atered from the river and irrigation canals* For this privilege nomad shepherds 'ould have to pay a ta? in 'ool, meat, milk, and cheese to the temples 'ho 'ould distri(ute these products to the (ureaucracy and priesthood* 3n good years all 'ould go 'ell, (ut in (ad years 'ild 'inter pastures 'ould (e in short supply, nomads 'ould seek to pasture their flocks in the grain fields, and conflicts 'ith farmers 'ould result* 3n fact it 'ould appear the su(sidisation of southern populations (y the import of 'heat from the north of the Akkadian &mpire, temporarily overcame this pro(lem and it seems to have allo'ed economic recovery and a gro'ing population 'ithin this region*

,ure? (earing the name of Rimush, king of 0ish, ca* BBD> 4C, 2ouvre, traded from the ,editerranean coast 'here it 'as used (y Canaanites to make a purple dyeAs a result, +umer and Akkad had a surplus of agricultural products, (ut 'as short of almost everything else, particularly metal ores, tim(er and (uilding stone, all of 'hich had to (e imported* .o some degree, the spread of the Akkadian state to the @silver mountain@, the @cedars@ of 2e(anon, and to the copper deposits of ,agan (modern Aman), seems to have (een motivated (y the opportunity to secure control over these imports* Ane ta(let reads @+argon, the king of 0ish, triumphed in thirty)four (attles (over the cities) up to the edge of the sea (and) destroyed their 'alls* 5e made the ships from ,eluhha (the 3ndus civiliOation), the ships from ,agan (and) the ships from 6ilmun (4ahrein) tie up alongside the <uay of Agade* +argon the king prostrated himself (efore (the god) 6agan (and) made supplication to himH (and) he (6agan) gave him the upper land, namely ,ari, Xarmuti, (and) &(la, up to the Cedar Forest (and) up to the +ilver ,ountain@* .he location of the @+ilver ,ountain@ is uncertain, (ut it is (elieved to have (een in the .aurus ,ountains, in southern Anatolia* 3nscriptions from much later tell of a campaign as far as Curushkanda, (elieved to have (een on one of the tri(utaries of 2ake 4eyYehir* .he same inscription tells of securing the trade from 0aptara, (elieved to have (een the Akkadian version of the location kno'n to the &gyptZ&gyptians as 0eftiu, and thought to have (een Cyprus or the ,inoan civilisation of Crete, or (oth* .his concern 'ith trade may have led the Akkadian forces to attack 4y(los, denying Ancient &gypt the cedars of 2e(anon in the latter part of the &gyptian "th 6ynastyGan important chronological correspondence (et'een the t'o civilisations*

9edit; Culture

9edit; Art A (as relief representing $aram)+in, and (earing a striking resem(lance to early &gyptian art in many of its features, has (een found at 6iar(ekr, in modern .urkey* 4a(ylonian art, ho'ever, had already attained a high degree of e?cellenceH t'o cylinder seals of the time of +argon are among the most (eautiful specimens of the gem)cutterJs art ever discovered*

9edit; Coet ) priestess &nheduanna +umerian 'ritten literature achieved a high degree of e?cellence in the Akkadian period, principally in the 'ork and e?ample of &nheduanna* &nheduanna, the @'ife (+umerian @dam@ N high priestess) of $anna 9the +umerian moon god; and daughter of +argon@9:D; of the temple of +in at 1r, 'ho lived ca* BBE=)BB=> 4C, is the first poet in history 'hom 'e kno' (y name* 5er kno'n 'orks include hymns to the goddess 3nanna, the &?altation of 3nanna and 3n)nin sa)gur)ra* A third 'ork, the .emple 5ymns, a collection of specific hymns, addresses the sacred temples and their occupants, the deity to 'hom they 'ere consecrated* .he 'orks of this poetess are significant, (ecause although they start out using the third person, they shift to the first person voice of the poet herself, and they mark a significant development in the use of cuneiform* As poetess, princess, and priestess, she 'as a personality J'ho set standards in all three of her roles for many succeeding centuries***J, according to William W 5allo9:E; 3n the &?ultation of 3nanna, @&nheduanna depicts 3nanna as disciplining mankind as a goddess of (attle* +he there(y unites the 'arlike Akkadian 3shtarJs <ualities to those of the gentler +umerian goddess of love and fecundity* +he likens 3nanna to a great storm (ird 'ho s'oops do'n on the lesser gods and sends them fluttering off like surprised (ats* .hen, in pro(a(ly the most interesting part of the hymn, &nheduanna herself steps for'ard in the first person to recite her o'n past glories, esta(lishing her credi(ility, and e?plaining her present plight* +he has (een (anished as high priestess from the temple in the city of 1r and from 1ruk and e?iled to the steppe* +he (egs the moon god $anna to intercede for her (ecause the city of 1ruk, under the ruler 2ugalanne, has re(elled against +argon* .he re(el, 2ugalanne, has even destroyed the temple &anna, one of the greatest temples in the ancient 'orld* Further, he has dared to e<uate himself as an e<ual to the ne' high priestess and))in the most ancient recorded instant of se?ual harassment))made se?ual advances to the high priestess, his sister)in)la'*@9:F; 9edit; .echnology Ane ta(let from this period reads, @(From the earliest days) no)one had made a statue of lead, ((ut) Rimush king of 0ish, had a statue of himself made of lead* 3t stood (efore &nlilH and it recited his (RimushJs) virtues to the idu of the gods@* Akkadian artists also discovered the @lost 'a?@ method of (ronOe casting, previously (elieved to have (een discovered much later, at the time of classical 8reece*

9edit; Achievements .he empire 'as (ound together (y roads, along 'hich there 'as a regular postal service* Clay seals that took the place of stamps (ear the names of +argon and his son* A cadastral survey seems also to have (een instituted, and one of the documents relating to it states that a certain 1ru),alik, 'hose name appears to indicate his Canaanite origin, 'as governor of the land of the Amorites, or Amurru as the semi)nomadic people of +yria and Canaan 'ere called in Akkadian* 3t is pro(a(le that the first collection of astronomical o(servations and terrestrial omens 'as made for a li(rary esta(lished (y +argon* .he @limmu@ calendrical system, used henceforth in ,esopotamian history, 'here(y 'hich years 'ere named (y one significant event, and these 'ere listed, also (egan in the Akkadian period*

9edit; +ee also 4a(ylonia and Assyria

2ist of monarchies