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Chemical Bonding I. Groups - columns going down the periodic table.

Elements within a group have similar properties because they have the same number of valence electrons. a. Valence Electrons are in the highest occupied energy level (outer shell). They determine the physical and chemical properties of the element. i. The group number for the representative element tells the number of valence electrons. Group 1 has one valence electron. Group ! has two valence electrons. Group " has three valence electrons. Group # has four valence electrons. Group $ has five valence electrons. Group % has si& valence electrons. Group ' has seven valence electrons. Group ( has eight valence electrons (e&cept )elium with only !). b. Lewis Electron Dots show the valence electrons of the atom. i. Inner electrons and the nuclei are represented by the element*s symbol. ii. +ots representing electrons are arranged symmetrically around symbol. iii. +onds are formed between atoms using unpaired valence elecctrons 1. ,rite the electron dot structures for the following compounds ,ater )!mmonia .)" /ethane 0)# 0arbon 1io&ide 0-! .oble Gases are inert 2 they are e&tremely stable and do not react under normal laboratory conditions. They have eight electrons in their highest energy level 2 eight valence electrons is a stable electron configuration. a. Octet Rule - atoms in compounds tend to create the electron configuration of a noble gas 2 eight electrons in their highest occupied energy level. i. /etals lose electrons to obey this rule and become stable li3e a noble gas. ii. .onmetals gain or share electrons to obey the octet rule4 become stable. b. Cations - neutral atom lost valence electrons 5 became a positively charged ion. i. /etals with up to three valence electrons that can be easily removed. (Group 1 4 ! 4 " ) ii. 6nstable neutral atoms lose enough electrons to fulfill octet rule in the ne&t energy level down to become more stable as positively charged ions. iii. 7roton number never changes. neutral atom has e8ual numbers of protons and electrons. If electrons are lost then there are less electrons than protons and the atom is now positively charged and called a cation. iv. E&amples9 : loses 1e- to attain the stable noble gas configuration of rgon. l loses "e- to attain the stable noble gas configuration of .eon. (+oard Game nalogy) c. Anions - neutral atom gained valence electrons 5 became a negatively charge ion.

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i. .onmetals with up to three valence electrons that can be easily added. (Group $ 4 % 4 ' ) ii. 6nstable neutral atoms gain enough electrons to fulfill octet rule in their highest energy level and become more stable as negatively charged ions. iii. 7roton number never changes. neutral atom has e8ual numbers of protons and electrons. If electrons are gained then there are more electrons than protons and the atom is now negatively charged and called an anion. iv. E&amples9 0l gains 1e- to attain the stable noble gas configuration of rgon. . gains "e- to attain the stable noble gas configuration of .eon. (+oard Game nalogy) d. Polyatomic Ions 2 a group of atoms that acts as a unit with a single charge i. +egin memori;ing polyatomic ions<get the list from the website and ma3e flashcards. 1. :now the formula4 the charge4 and the correct spelling of the name of the seventeen polyatomic ions listed on the website. Ionic Compound 2 between metal (cation) and a nonmetal (anion) = (/)(./) a. Ionic +ond - 0ompletely transfer electrons. i. 7ositive charge 2 cation 2 lost electrons to the anion. ii. .egative charge 2 anion 2 gained electrons from the cation. b. 7ositive charge must e8ual and4 therefore4 cancel the negative charge. E&ample9 >odium 0hloride 2 sodium wants to lose one electron to become stable and chlorine wants to gain one electron to become stable. ,ill fulfill the octet rule once they combine. (?)(-) = @ c. ormula unit 2 a chemical formula of the smallest sample of an ionic compound. d! Properties o" Ionic Compounds i. 0rystalline solids at room temperature. rranged in repeating threedimensional patterns. Aery stable. >tructures determined by B-ray diffraction crystallography. E&ample9 In solid .a0l4 each .a is surrounded by si& 0l and each 0l is surrounded by si& .a. ii. )ave very high melting points. >eparates each ion from one another. )ard to brea3 the attraction between the ions. Aery stable. E&ample9 .a0l melts at (@@ C0elsius. iii. 0onduct electric currents when molten (li8uid) or dissolved in water (a8ueous). The cations and anions migrate freely. iv. Ionic compounds 2 are electrically neutral salts. (/any appear as minerals in the Earth*s crust.) e. Ionic Character i. Ionic compounds have the greatest ionic character with full on charged ions. The further the ions are apart in electronegativity4 the more the ionic character. ii. /olecular compounds have very low electronegativity. The closer the ions are in electronegativity4 the less the ionic character. #olecular Compounds - (./)(./) 2 are often are multiples of the lowest wholenumber ratios of nonmetals. E&amples9 0")% and 0#)1@ .ote9 1o not reduce molecular compounds.

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a. Covalent Bonds - the sharing of electrons between two nonmetals 2 creates a molecular compound (or molecule). The goal is to attain eight valence electrons 2 stability 2 similar to a noble gas electron configuration. i. 1o not forget that )ydrogen is a nonmetal. ii. 1o not forget your diatomic molecules in Group ' 9 .!4 -!4 D!4 0l!4 +r!4 I!4 and )! iii! Lewis $tructures 1. >hared 7airs 2 both atoms can claim the electrons to achieve the octet rule and become li3e noble gas configurations. !. 6nshared 7airs - pairs of valence electrons that are not shared between atoms 2 also called lone pairs. E&ample9 D! iv. $ingle Covalent Bond - formed when one pair of electrons is shared between two atoms. E&ample9 )ydrogen 2 diatomic molecule<)! v. Dou%le Bond - involve two shared pairs of electrons. (-&ygen will form the double bond but be an e&ception to the octet rule.) E&ample9 -&ygen diatomic molecule<-! vi. &riple Bond - involve three shared pairs of electrons. E&ample9 .itrogen 2 diatomic molecule<.! b. $tructural ormulas - chemical formulas that show the arrangement of atoms in molecules. dash represents a pair of shared electrons (never used to show ionic bonds because ions do not share electrons). i. .o unshared 'lone( pairs visible. ii. $hared pairs9 represented with a line (dash) instead of two dots. iii. Resonance ) when two or more electron dot structures can be written for a molecular compound. E&ample9 .-! iv. E&ceptions to the -ctet Eule 1. It is impossible to fulfill the octet rule whenever the total number of valence electrons in the compound is an odd number. -&ygen and +oron tend to be satisfied with less than eight valence electrons. (%-') E&ample9 +D" 1. 7hosphorus and >ulfur tend to accept more than eight valence electrons because they have the d sublevel to e&pand into. (1@-1!) E&ample* >D% and 70l$ c! Properties o" #olecular Compounds i. 1o not conduct electricity. ii. >olids4 Fi8uids4 and gases. iii. Fow melting and boiling points that only separate one molecule from another as opposed to separating each atom from another. iv. Polar #olecules - has a polar bonds4 one end of the molecule has a slightly negative charge while the other end has a slightly positive charge. 1ipole 2 a molecule with oppositely charged ends. 1. Polar Covalent Bonds - when the atoms are of different types4 the bonding electrons are shared une8ually. The atom with the stronger electronegativity ac8uires a slightly negative charge as it draws the electrons toward itself. The atom with the lower electronegativity ac8uires a slightly positive charge as the electrons are drawn away

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from it. (Eeminder9 Electronegativity is the ability of the atom to attract electrons to itself.) 1. E&amples9 )0l has ! different types of atoms. 0hlorine is more electronegative than )ydrogen. 0hlorine pulls the shared pair closer to its own nucleus creating a partial negatively charge pole. )ydrogen allows the shared pair to be pulled farther from its own nucleus creating a partially positively charge pole. )!- has ! different types of atoms. -&ygen is more electronegative than )ydrogen. The bent shape due to the lone pairs creates oppositely charged ends. !. The greater the difference in electronegativity the greater the polarity. 1. E&ample9 >-! is less polar than )!-. >ulfur and -&ygen are located close together on 7T small difference in electronegativity slightly polar molecule. )ydrogen and -&ygen are located far apart on 7T large difference in electronegativity highly polar molecule. !. 7olar compounds are high in ionic character due to the partially charged poles on the molecule. 1. The greater the difference in electronegativity4 the greater the polarity on the molecule and the more ionic character the molecule has. v. +onpolar #olecules 2 Either the molecule has no oppositely charged ends or the ends cancel each other out. 1. 7olar 0ovalent +onds cancel each other out. .onpolar molecules may have polar bonds but the overall molecule is nonpolar because polar ends cancel. .ote9 It will be a nonpolar molecule if the molecule is symmetrical in "1 and all bonds are e&actly the same. E&ample9 0-! !. +onpolar Covalent Bonds - when atoms are the same type4 they share the bonding electrons e8ually. +ecause have same electronegativity. This is the case with all the diatomic molecules. )! -! .! etc. ". .onpolar compounds have very little ionic character as they sometimes e&hibit dispersion forces when their ions vibrate to create a momentary dipole. #etallic Bonding groups of closely pac3ed cations in a GseaH of free moving valence electrons a. Aalence Electrons create an attraction between the free moving valence electrons in the positively charged metal cations %! Properties o" #etals i. Good conductors of electricity 2 electrons enter one end of the metal bar and leave the other. ii. 1uctile 2 can be stretched into wires. iii. /alleable 2 can be pounded into shapes. /etals ions slide passed one another in a sea of drifting