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8elt Conveyor Ueslgn

F
rlctlonal and rolllng losses along a runnlng conveyor are dls-
cussed due to tbelr lmportant lnuence on wave propaga-
tlon durlng startlng and stopplng. |ybrld rrlctlon models
allow belt rubber losses and materlal exlng to be lncluded ln
tbe lnltlal tenslon calculatlons prlor to any dynamlc analysls.
Once runnlng tenslons are dened, a numerlcal lntegratlon
metbod uslng non-llnear stlness gradlents ls used to generate
translent rorces durlng startlng and stopplng. A modled Luler
lntegratlon tecbnlque ls used to slmulate tbe entlre startlng and
stopplng cycle ln less tban 0.! seconds. le procedure enables a
raster scrutlny or unroreseen conveyor deslgn lssues sucb as low
belt tenslon zones and blgb rorces at drlves.
1. Introduction
Uynamlc analysls or long conveyor belts wltb dlstrlbuted mass
and elastlclty depends on lnltlal condltlons and tbe tenslon dls-
trlbutlon around tbe runnlng belt. Conveyor belt tenslon ls a
complex runctlon or rrlctlon and gravltatlonal loads actlng on
every element or tbe belt. 1ranslent bebavlour or a belt occurs
durlng tbe starlng and stopplng pbase, leadlng to blgb and low
A. Harrison, USA
Transient conveyor belt behaviour if
often the course of belt failure. Many
belt tension calculation models used to
avoid such failure are likely to result in
an overestimate of belt running tension
and, thus, in expensive over dimension-
ing. Te hybrid model presented in this
paper provides a solution to this and
several other belt conveyor design
problems.
A Hybrid Model for Numerical
Belt Conveyor Simulation
Non-linear Belt
Transient Analysis
rorces along tbe belt tbat may bave deleterlous aects on tbe
belt and lts structure.
As a rst step ln tbe analysls or dynamlc rorces, tbe steady state
rorces need to be quantled. Many metbods exlst ror comput-
lng tbe tenslon dlstrlbutlon along a runnlng belt, bowever not
all models wlll bebave equlvalently because tbe speclcatlon or
rolllng and lndentatlon losses are orten dlcult to quantlry ln
practlce.
8aslc metbods ror calculatlon belt tenslons exlst ln tbe U|H
Standards [!] and CLMA [2]. le CLMA metbod bas advantages
ln analysls slnce ldler rolllng losses can be used as an lnput (tbe
K
x
ractor) bowever tbe exural and lndentatlon losses at tbe ldler
lnterrace (tbe K
y
ractor) ls not always easy to predlct. |or a dy-
namlc analysls to properly descrlbe tbe lnertlal uctuatlons along
a belt durlng tbe translent pbase, tbe statlc tenslons are a crltlcal
precursor to solvlng tbe problem.
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8elt Conveyor Ueslgn
Assumlng tbat a statlc analysls model can
provlde a suclent number or lnput varlables
tbat dene tbe losses, tbe lnltlal condltlons ror a
dynamlc analysls can be set. |nertlal uctuatlons
on startlng or stopplng are compounded by tbe up-
blll or downblll parts or tbe prole, as well as tbe addl-
tlonal non-llnear wave dlsperslon aects caused by blgb belt
sag at low tenslon areas. 1o male dynamlc models tractable, tbe
slmplest solutlon ls to ensure tbat belt sag ls controlled to wltbln
a rew percent. Sucb a condltlon can be ensured ln tbe steady
state but not always ln tbe dynamlc state.
A number or metbods and tecbnlques bave been publlsbed tbat
descrlbe varlous aspects or dynamlc analysls. le reallzatlon tbat
startlng dynamlc eects could be mlnlmlzed uslng an S-curve
veloclty blstory ror startlng was publlsbed as early as !98! [!].
le solutlon applled a well lnown metbod ln tbe Calculus or
varlatlons to prove tbat a cyclold-sbaped veloclty curve wlll pro-
duce smootb belt startlng, rree or sudden belt element dlsplace-
ments tbat lead to wave propagatlon. |n tbls way, tbe dynamlc
startlng problem becomes tractable and a wave-equatlon model
[4] can be applled along wltb tbe convolutlon lntegral to predlct
tbe dynamlc response or tbe startlng motlon.
Stopplng and brallng are more complex to analyze slnce
tbls condltlon cannot be controlled ln most cases. ow-
ered stopplng uslng a reverse S-curve can be ap-
plled to smootbly brlng a belt to a stop, bowever
tbls solutlon does not cater to power outages.
Some aspects or tbe prole sucb as valleys
cause potentlal dynamlc problems tbat can
add to tbe lmpulse problem due to non-lln-
ear eects slmllar to jammlng. A conveyor
bavlng a slgnlcant materlal llrt compo-
nent or blgb rolllng reslstance, or botb,
wlll stop rapldly. le resultlng lmpulse
can be severe.
le lmpulse can be calculated as lr tbe en-
tlre belt were lnelastlc wltbout a dlstrlbuted
mass, as dened ln tbe !980s []. |n tbls rerer-
ence, crlterla were establlsbed to lnrorm tbe
belt deslgner wben tbe conveyor would bave a
blgb stress condltlon on stopplng. |n tbat worl, any
stopplng tlme qulcler tban wave cycles wlll present a
blgb-stress problem.
Clven tbat a statlc tenslon analysls can be acbleved wltb some
rellablllty, tbe addltlon or dynamlc rorces to tbe statlc condltlons
ls stlll an ongolng part or lnternatlonal researcb. Many papers
dlscuss alternatlves to wave solutlons, sucb as mass-sprlng mod-
els [6] and more recently non-llnear mass-sprlng models [7,8]. |n
tbe past, a closed-rorm wave solutlon was a convenlent way or
obtalnlng tbe modal osclllatlons ln a belt, but tbe problem bas
always been tbat posltlonal varlatlons ln damplng and straln are
very dlcult to treat wltb matbematlcally-based solutlons.
Wltb modern computers, slmulatlon or tbe dynamlc bebavlour
or multl-element dlstrlbuted mass systems can be rapld. Assum-
lng a mass-sprlng model can be rormulated to descrlbe a damped
belt element, tbere wlll be practlcal advantages over wave mod-
els partlcularly ln tbe way boundary condltlons are matbematl-
cally treated ln areas sucb as tale-ups and multlple drlves.
2. Hybrid Belt Friction Model
2.1 Friction Equations
As suggested ln tbe |ntroductlon, runnlng tenslons rorm tbe lnl-
tlal condltlons ror a dynamlc slmulatlon. 1o accommodate re-
cent developments ln low lndentatlon-loss rubber materlals, a
bybrld rrlctlon model [9] ls developed to comblne tbe baslc me-
cbanlcs or motlon wltb new metbods utlllzlng rubber propertles.
|or a bybrld rrlctlon model, lengtb segment L bas a tenslon
cbange F
j
dened by Lq. (!).
F
j
= L g [R + (B
|
+ B
|
) + M
|,z
+ V] + Q v + P + O (!)
wltb.
V = m


H

__

L

P
Q
= v
b
v
l
wbere.
L lengtb or conveyor [m]
k kotatlng reslstance or all ldlers [lg}m]
g gravltatlonal acceleratlon, g = 9.8! [m}s
2
]
B
|
8elt lndentatlon [lg}m]
B
|
belt exure [lg}m]
M
|,z
Materlal exure reslstance [lg}m]
(z = c or z = r carry and return runs)
m mass to be llrted [lg}m]
H llrtlng belgbt, H can be negatlve [m]
P
Q
rorce to accelerate materlal [H]
Q mass ow [lg}s]
v
b
belt speed [m}s]
v
l
loadlng speed [m}s]
P rorce to rotate all pulleys [H]
O |orces ror all otber accessorles, scrapers and [H]
speclal losses (eg. turnovers)
Wltb respect to eacb element j, lt ls.
R(j) = Kt
a

[
Ks(j) + A
z
(j) (
v

_

2
)
b

e
c T


____

S
z
(j)

]

wbere a, b, c are rractlons.
B
|
(j) =
d tan v
e

________

g f(d
i,z
)

[
g
[
M
b
+ M
m,z
(j)
]
S
z
(j)
]

!.!!

wbere d, e are rractlons, and
tan rubber loss (T) = f(v,S
z
(j),t) + f(T) as runctlons.
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8elt Conveyor Ueslgn
t vlscoelastlc tlme constant or rubber cover at a [|z]
rrequency, t = v}S
z
f(d
l,z
) a runctlon or ldler dlameter d
l,z
,
f(d
l,z
) = k
!
. d
l,z
+ k
2

(z = c or z = r carry and return runs)
S ldler spaclng [m]
A ldler drag [lg]
v speed [m}s]
T temperature [C]
B
|
(j) = m* Kt
a
(M
b
+ M
m,z
)
S
z
(j)
n

____

L(j)

wbere m*, n are rractlons.
|or materlal on tbe carrylng slde lt ls.
M
|
(j) = [p + q v]
[
!.66
S
c
(j)

___

S
r
(j)

]

s

wltb.
(0.00! < m < 0.008), (n =!}2), (0.2 < p < !),
(0.02 < q < 0.6), (! < s < !) ls a real value
2.2 Application
|n tbe above equatlons, M
b
and M
m
represent belt and materlal
mass ln lllogram per meter, respectlvely. 1o determlne tbe drlv-
lng power P
e
and maxlmum belt tenslon I
!
ln relatlon to slacl
slde tenslon, a summatlon or eacb element or rorce F
j
around tbe
belt results ln.
P
e
= v T
e
= v (T
!
T
2
)
excludlng tbe drlve eclency.
One way or demonstratlng bow a bybrld tenslon model com-
pares wltb results or otber more common metbods sucb as
U|H22!0! and CLMA ls to dlsplay an example or tbe bybrld
model output. Conveyor program 8eltvS9C ls a deslgn program
wrltten ln-bouse tbat produces grapblcal solutlons
ror U|H, CLMA, CMod (modled CLMA), vlscoA|
and Hon-Lln, wblcb are lndlvldually resldent codes
embedded ln tbe slngle program ror belt analysls.
rogram outputs lnclude proles, curves and belt
tenslons ror a large varlety or lnputs sucb as belt
type, rubber type, ldler type, materlal type and
drlve types. le Hon-Lln bybrld model uses tbe
results or tests and measurements over many years,
as lndlcated by tbe above equatlons.
|lg. ! sbows tbe grapblcal prole or a !6.8 lm long
belt wltb a low angle slope. Uslng tbe rubber type
cbaracterlstlcs ror tbe belt, and tbe predlctlve
equatlons ror belt and materlal exure, tbe results
ror tbe Hon-Lln model are sbown separated on
tbe prole grapb.
|t ls not necessary to sbow belt tenslons around tbe conveyor
prole, slnce tbey are somewbat obvlous rrom |lg. !. |owever, a
dlsplay or power as a runctlon or temperature ror varlous model
types ls lnstructlve. |lg. 2 sbows tbe relatlonsblp between power
(eectlve tenslon) and temperature ror tbe bybrld model ln rela-
tlon to tbe otber models used ror comparlson. On examlnatlon
or tbe analysls ror tbe partlcular example, one notes tbat.
a) CLMA and vlscoA| metbods over estlmate tbe power by a
slgnlcant amount. A deslgn based on CLMA would result ln
large expenslve drlves and tbe belt cost would be substantlal.
le consequence would be a larger tban requlred startlng
lmpulse, wblcb would substantlally lncrease startlng ten-
slons, rurtber lmpactlng pulley loads, spllce loads and tbe
development or more severe tale-up osclllatlons.
b) le Hon-Lln solutlon ls slmllar to a U|H solutlon wben tbe
U|H lnput rrlctlons are set to F
c
= 0.0! and F
r
= 0.008. |n ract,
slte measurements or tbls conveyor ylelds a U|H = 0.007.
c) Wben empty, a Hon-Lln model requlres less power tban U|H
would predlct. lls ndlng may explaln some unpredlctable,
almost cbaotlc low tenslons and dynamlc slacl at tbe tall un-
der certaln operatlng condltlons. Low tall-zone tenslon wlll
cause non-llnear dynamlc eects tbat stem rrom wave dls-
perslon ln tbls zone or tbe conveyor.
Fig. 1: Prole of a long belt with tensions determined using the non-linear hybrid
model.
Fig. 2: Comparison of power consumption of a 5 % slope conveyor,
using various models, including CEMA, DIN and non-lin.
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8elt Conveyor Ueslgn
Some or tbe computed varlables related to Hon-Lln are sbown ln
tbe rlgbt wlndow or |lg. 2. Speclcally, computed values or B
|
, B
|
,
M
|
and ldler drag A
z
are sbown, togetber wltb tbe lnown U|H
ractors used as an lnput to sbow tbe slmllarlty between Hon-Lln
grapbs and eld results.
3. Dynamic Simulation
One way or conductlng a translent analysls ls to superlmpose
translent wave model solutlons on tbe statlc tenslon analysls
[!0], treatlng a belt as a contlnuum. Applylng tbe superposltlon
prlnclple to add modal vlbratlons to statlc condltlons durlng
translent pbases can be matbematlcally problematlcal wben
tbere ls a mlsmatcb or wave velocltles near zero or tbe lmpulse
runctlon. Wave energy tbat remalns actlve arter tbe belt mass
comes to rest durlng startlng or stopplng bas to be properly
treated otberwlse tbe predlcted belt dynamlc rorce blstorles may
be lncorrectly modeled.
On tbe otber band, nlte element models used to slmulate tbe
dynamlc motlon or a belt requlre tbe addltlon or boundary
condltlons tbat bave to be tracled and malntalned tbrougbout
tbe calculatlons. Cumulatlve errors ln velocltles or dlsplace-
ments at element boundarles can result ln erroneous dynamlc
solutlons.
Contlnuous slmulatlon durlng tbe entlre process or startlng and
stopplng uses numerlcal lntegratlon wltb a small tlme step. le
modellng presented bere uses tlme steps or between 0.00! s to
0.0! s. |n tbe past, slower computers meant tbat longer tlme
steps were requlred so tbat modellng tlme was manageable. |n
tbat sltuatlon, well lnown tborder kunge-kutta approxlma-
tlons were devlsed to reduce lool-rorward error ln tbe slmu-
lated dlsplacements and velocltles.
Modern computers are now slgnlcantly raster and blgber precl-
slon processors reduce computatlonal truncatlon. |n eect, tbese
comblnatlons or tecbnologlcal development enable mucb small-
er tlme steps ln numerlcal lntegratlon, reduclng tbe need ror er-
ror correctlon. Slmpler and raster Luler-type numerlcal lntegra-
tors now worl as well, lr not better, tban approxlmatlng metbods
or tbe past.
3.1 Elemental Forces
Luler-x ls tbe term used to dene an lntegratlon englne devel-
oped ror tbe purpose or blgb-speed slmulatlon or tbe entlre
startlng and stopplng process or a conveyor belt. 1o begln, |lg. !
sbows a typlcal element or tbe slmulatlon, ln wblcb body and
external rorces are accommodated.
Long belts can be dlvlded lnto j dlstrlbuted mass-elastlc seg-
ments, wbere j > 6. Lacb segment j ls dened ln terms or lts
mecbanlcal cbaracterlstlcs sucb as mass M
j
, posltlonal depend-
ent non-llnear stlness K
j
connectlng elements relatlve to posl-
tlon U
j
, body rorces W
j
, external tlme-dependent rorces F
j
(t) ap-
plled to mass M
j
, veloclty damplng C
j
between masses and rolllng
rorce R
j
ror eacb mass, wltb.
R
j
= f(R(j), B
|
(j), B
|
(j), M
|
(j))
Lacb element or a belt loop ls analyzed by summlng tbe lnertlal,
body, restorlng, damplng and externally lmposed rorces. le so-
lutlon contalns a dlagonal mass matrlx [M], non-llnear stlness
and damplng matrlces [K] and [C] respectlvely, as well as a col-
umn matrlx array ror external and body rorces [F + W + R]. Col-
umn arrays ror all elements or tbe problem lnclude tbe accelera-
tlon [a], veloclty [V] and dlsplacement [U]. Hote tbat tbe accel-
eratlon ror eacb element ls a
j
=
j
.
1wo approacbes are avallable to slmulate belt runnlng wltb ln-
cluded dynamlc osclllatlons or all elements. |n a relatlve motlon
solutlon, a drlvlng rorce F
j
(t) ls applled to one or tbe masses ln
tbe F matrlx (tbe drlve).
[M] [a] + [C] [V] + [K] [U] = [F + W + R] (2)
Alternatlvely, tbe belt loop motlon can be slmulated uslng a
movlng support wbere applled motlon ls lndependent or tbe ele-
ment motlon (wave actlon). Support dlsplacement (or selected
masses) ls dened by a new array []. Uerlvatlves or [] rorm tbe
support veloclty array []. Absolute element motlon ls tbe re-
sult.
[M] [a] + [C] [V] + [K] [U] = [C] [] + [K] [] + [W + R] (!)
3.2 Simulating the Dynamic Motion
1o slmulate tbe motlon or eacb element j along a belt by tbe
relatlve motlon metbod, Lq. (2) ls used. Lacb elements dlsplace-
ment U
j
and veloclty V
j
ls computed ln a program loop by lncre-
mentlng varlable s.
f(U
j
(s)) = 2 U
j
(s) U
j-!
(s) U
j+!
(s) (4a)
f(V
j
(s)) = 2 V
j
(s) V
j-!
(s) V
j+!
(s) (4b)
a
j
(s) =
W
j
+ R
j
K
j
f(U
j
(s)) C
j
f(V
j
(s)) + F
j
(t)

_________________________

M
j
(4c)
V
j
(s + h}t
s
) = V
j
(s) + a
j
(s) t
s
. U
j
(s +
h

__

t
s
) = U
j
(s) + V
j
(s) t
s
(4d)
|nltlal condltlons on U(s) and V(s) are requlred berore a
j
ls calcu-
lated. Lacb calculatlon ls separated by a unlt tlme step t
s
wltb a
perturbatlon h (a varlable). Wben Lq. (!) ls used, support dls-
placement (t) ln tbe [] array ls requlred. |or a llnear veloclty
ramp or constant acceleratlon on startlng and stopplng, tbe
runctlon tales tbe rorm (t) = f(at, bt
2
), a and b are constants.
Lacb element may bave dlerent mass, stlness and damplng
Fig. 3: Model of a simulation element j.
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8elt Conveyor Ueslgn
values. Wben stlness ls auto-adjusted to accommodate small
cbanges ln element sag lengtb over a xed span, wave dlsperslon
may result as noted elsewbere [8]. A wavelengtb cbange ln low
tenslon elements may occur wben belt sag exceeds about ! +,
caused by a locally lower K
j
value.
3.3 Example Results
Slmulatlon or a !2 element belt model ls sbown ln |lg. 4, wblcb
emulates tbe complete dynamlcs, runnlng reslstance and body
rorces ln a slngle cllcl operatlon or tbe belt program. |lg. 4 ls
sbown to demonstrate tbe metbod ratber tban tbe detalls or tbe
belt. Uslng 8 elements per strand produces rrequencles and wave
propagatlon delays wltbout tbe need to lnput separate wave
speed calculatlons [!!].
Suce to say tbat tbe slmulatlon ls ror a rabrlc-type belt wltb a
! lm lengtb and an lnltlal slope or 8 degrees ror balr tbe lengtb,
and a reduced slope to tbe tall wbere a gravlty tale-up exlsts.
|or tbls deslgn, normallzed carry mass elements are approxl-
mately 8 tlmes larger as tbe return mass elements, and tbe stl-
ness-to-mass ratlo ls normallzed to tbe belt stlness. Hormall-
zatlons result ln computed values tbat are scalable to actual
values arter tbe slmulatlon ls completed. On tbe grapb, tbe
blgbest tenslons represent T
!
, and tbe lowest tenslons occur at
tbe tall. le group or tenslons between extremltles represent
tbe T
2
and return tenslons. Only 8 traces are sbown to slmpllry
presentatlon.
|rom |lg. 4, tbe reader wlll observe some partlcular cbaracterls-
tlcs or tbe deslgn, sucb as sllgbt run-bacl at tbe tall area on lnltlal
startlng, and a startlng veloclty surge on startlng. le tale-up
bas been set to ensure tbat low tenslons do not occur at tbe tall.
8elt tenslons start and end at tbelr stopped (steady-state) values.
otentlally problematlcal condltlons can be revlewed, allowlng
modlcatlons to be easlly re-slmulated.
|lg. sbows a slmulatlon or stopplng a downblll steel cord belt.
Uetalls or tbe belt and masses are not essentlal slnce tbe lntent ls
to sbow result or slmulatlon. |or example, on power o, tbe belt
ls lnltlally regeneratlve, rollowed by a 20 s brale rorce to stop tbe
mass. lls type or modellng ls used to slze brales and ensure tbat
low tenslons do not occur at tbe dlscbarge (bead) or tbe down-
blll conveyor.
4. Conclusions
1ranslent bebavlour ln conveyor belts ls orten tbe cause or belt
rallure. 1ranslent analysls durlng startlng and stopplng ls most
reallstlc wben tbe actual statlc baclground tenslons are well de-
ned. le problem wltb many belt tenslon calculatlon metbods,
sucb as CLMA, ls tbat an over estlmate or belt runnlng tenslon ls
lllely. As a result, larger equlpment ls specled wblcb ln turn may
negatlvely aect dynamlc belt rorces.
|n many otber sltuatlons, runnlng tenslon models generally wlll
not predlct low-tenslon operatlon wltb rellablllty, slnce tbe mod-
els tbemselves do not treat lssues sucb as sag gradlents along a
belt llne. le bybrld model used ln tbe paper dlscusses tbe
mecbanlsms beblnd non-llnear models ror predlctlng runnlng
rrlctlon, and ln some cases tbe belt tenslon predlcted by tbe by-
brld metbod ls lower tban would be tbe case wltb otber models.
Wben low tenslons occur at a partlcular part or a conveyor, even
tbougb standard rrlctlon models do not predlct sucb condltlons,
actual translent bebavlour can be problematlcal lr unsuspected
ln a deslgn. |n addltlon, any wave actlon tbat dlsperses ln low
tenslon zones rurtber compllcates tbe stablllty or tbe belt.
Wltb some eort, translent slmulatlon uslng a modled Luler al-
gorltbm produces a rast convergent solutlon ror a multl-element
belt. Any error ln denlng tbe mecbanlcal equatlons or motlon wlll
cause slmulatlon crasb. tbe slmulatlon ls very sensltlve to tbe
matbematlcal preclslon or tbe model. Lacb belt segment allows
tbe addltlon or non-llnear lnuences caused by low belt tenslon
and wave dlsperslon. Wben a complete dynamlc slmulatlon ls con-
ducted ln a slngle sweep, as sbown ln |lg. 4, all tenslon and veloclty
curves are produced tbat contaln botb tbe statlc and dynamlc so-
lutlons. 8y tbls approacb, superposltlon metbods or solutlons are
not requlred, reduclng tbe cbance or lncorrectly addlng wave solu-
tlons to tbe statlc condltlons. |urtbermore, non-llnear eects can-
not generally be matbematlcally determlned ln a closed-rorm ana-
lytlcal wave equatlon solutlon, and so a slmulatlon tbat bandles
tbese eects ls superlor ror deslgn evaluatlon. n
Fig. 4: Example simulation, showing a complete start and stop
sequence for a unit length, lightly loaded 1 km elastic belt.
Fig. 5: Expanded view of dynamic oscillations on stopping, braked
downhill belt.
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8elt Conveyor Ueslgn
References
[!] U|H 22!0!. Stetigfrderer - Gurtfrderer fr Schttgter
(Continuous Conveyors - Belt Conveyors for Bulk Materials;
in German). Ueutscbes |nstltut rr Hormung, August
(2002).
[2] Convrvoa Lquirtrn+ Mtnurtc+uars Associt+ion. Belt
Conveyors for Bulk Materials. Ld. 6, (200).
[!] |taaison, A.. Criteria for Minimizing Transient Stress in
Conveyor Belts. 1rans. |nst. Lng. Aust. vol. ML8. pp. !29-!4,
(!98!) and 8eltcon 2, Soutb Arrlca (!98!).
[4] |taaison, A., |tvrs, .W. tno koara+s, A.W.. Te Feasibil-
ity of High-speed Narrow Belt Conveyors for Bulk Solids
Handling. Transactions. |nst. Lng. Aust. vol. ML7, pp. !90-
200, (!982).
[] |unkr, |.. Zum Dynamischen Verhalten von Frderban-
danlagen beim Anfahren und Stillsetzen (About the Dy-
namic Behaviour of Belt Conveyor Systems during Starting
and Stopping; in German). 1U |annover, Ulssertatlon
(!97!).
[6] Hoaort, L.k. tno Ciozot, 7... Transient Belt Stresses dur-
ing Starting and Stopping: Elastic Response Simulated by
Finite Element Methods. bull sollds bandllng, vol. 4 (!984)
Ho. !, p. 9!-98.
[7] 8rtvras, U., Moaaison, U. tno krt, U.. Non-Linear Model
for Dynamic Analysis of Conveyors. 9tb |C8M| 2007, Hew-
castle, Australla, Oct. 9 - !! (2007).
[8] Li, C.. Belt Conveyor Dynamic Behaviour and Associated
Problems. bull sollds bandllng, vol. 2! (200!) Ho. , pp.
!22-!27.
[9] |taaison, A.. A Comparison of Friction Models for Con-
veyor Design. 9tb |nt. Conr. on 8ull Materlal |andllng.
Oct. 9-!!, Hewcastle HSW Australla (2007).
Dr. A. Harrison, USA
Ur. Alex |arrlson, CLng, ||LAust.,
bas a 8A(|ons) ln Matbematlcs and
byslcs (Maqu), a 8Lng ln Llectrlcal
Lglneerlng and a bU ln Mecbanlcal
Lnglneerlng rrom Hewcastle Unlver-
slty Australla ln !984, on tbe subject or conveyor dy-
namlc analysls. |ormerly roressor or Mecbanlcal Lngl-
neerlng and tbe Merz-1unra Cbalr ln 8ull Sollds |an-
dllng and Conveylng at Hewcastle, HSW, Australla. res-
ently, tbe autbor consults wldely to tbe lnternatlonal
mlnlng lndustry, and manages computer-based remote
non-destructlve testlng or belts rorm lnternatlonal loca-
tlons. |e ls tbe presldent or Sclentlc Solutlons, |nc. and
Manager or Conveyor 1ecbnologles Ltd., a subsldlary or
Sclentlc Solutlons |nc. Ur. |arrlson bas publlsbed over
!00 papers on conveyor related toplcs and ls an Ldlto-
rlal Advlsory Member on 8ull Sollds |andllng.
Contact.
Sclentlc Solutlons, |nc.
200 Cbambers koad, 8ldg. ., Aurora, CO 800!!, USA
1el.. +! !0! !44 9024
|ax. +! !0! !44 9!02
L-Mall. abarrlson@conveyorsclence.com
About the Author
[!0] |taaison, A. tno koara+s, A.W.. Future Design of Belt
Conveyors using Dynamic Analysis. roc. 1ransport. Conr.
|.L.(Aust), ertb, Oct. !0 - Hov. !, pp. 47-!, (!984).
[!!] |taaison, A.. Stress Front Velocity in Elastomer Belts with
Bonded Steel Cable Reinforcement. bull sollds bandllng,
vol. 6 (!986) Ho. !, pp. 27-!!.
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