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# CHEM 161-2007

## CHAPTER 1 CHEMISTRY: MATTER AND MEASUREMENT

PRACTICE PROBLEMS
DR. ED TAVSS

## Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis

Classification of matter
Significant Figures/Precision/Accuracy
Miscellaneous

UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL
ANALYSIS
31
.

## Chem 161-2007 Final exam

Hill, Petrucci et al.
CHAPTER 1 CHEMISTRY: MATTER AND MEASUREMENT
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis

## The value 0.289 lb/in3 expressed in g/cm3 is:

Note: 1 lb. = 453.6 g and 1 in. = 2.54 cm.
A. 51.6 g/cm3

B. 8.00 g/cm

C. 16.1 g/cm3
D. 45.2 g/cm3
E. 20.3 g/cm3
First convert numerator; then convert denominator; then divide num. by denom.
0.289 lb x 453.6 g/lb = 131.09 g
1 in3 x (2.54 cm/in)3 = 16.39 cm3
131.09 g/16.39 cm3 = 7.998 g/cm3

## Chem 161-2007 Exam I

Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis
4. Which of the following is not a base unit of the SI measurement system?
A. m
B. s
C. kg
D. A

E.

atm

## m (meters), s (seconds), kg (kilograms), and A (amperes) are basic SI units.

Atm is not an SI unit; the SI unit for pressure is newtons per meter squared (N/m2) and is called the Pascal
(Pa). One atmosphere is 101.325 Pa.
Chem 161-2007 Exam I
Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis
15. In the SI metric system, which power of ten is associated with the prefix n?
A. 109
B. 10-6

C.

10-9
D. 106
E. 10-12
n means nano which means 10-9; e.g., a nanometer is 1 x 10-9 m.

## Chem 161-2007 Exam I

Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis
24. What temperature is numerically the same in both oC and oF?
A. 0
B. 273

C.

-40
D. 212
E. -80
o

C = 5/9(oF 32)

A. oC = 5/9(oF 32)
o
C = 5/9(o0 32) = -18oC
0o -18o
B. oC = 5/9(oF 32)
o
C = 5/9(273 32) = 134oC
273o 134o
C. oC = 5/9(oF 32)
o
C = 5/9(-40 32) = -40oC
-40o = -40o

D. oC = 5/9(oF 32)
o
C = 5/9(212 32) = 100oC
212o 100o
E. oC = 5/9(oF 32)
o
C = 5/9(-80 32) = -62oC
-80o -62o

## Chem 161-2007 Exam I

Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis
13. What is the volume, in L, of a box that is 8.00 in on a side? 1 in = 2.54 cm exactly

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

8.39
1.30
31.2
0.0312
3.90
(8 in)3 x (2.54 cm/in)3 x (1 mL/cm3) x (1 L/1000 mL) = 8.39 L

12

## Chem 161-2006 Exam I

Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Unit conversions

The density of gold is 19.3 g/cm3. What is the density of gold in lb/in3?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

0.697
19.3
100
1000
1.20 103

453.59 g = 1 lb
2.54 cm = 1 in
19.3g x (1 lb/453.6 g) = 0.0425 lb
1 cm3 x (1 in/2.54 cm)3 = 0.06102 in3
0.0425 lb/0.06102 in3 = 0.696 lb/in3

## 23 Chem 161-2005 Final exam

Chapter 1 - Chemical Foundations
Unit conversions/dimensional analysis
The value of gold is \$472 per troy ounce. What is the value of the cube of gold 2.00 cm on
a side?
Given: 1 troy ounce = 31.1 g
density of gold: 19.3

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

g
cm3

\$2340
\$5460
\$1520
\$3410
\$4250

## The volume of a cube of gold = (2.00 cm)3 = 8 cm3.

Plan: Volume grams troy ounces \$
8 cm3 x (19.3g/cm3) x (1 troy ounce/31.1 g) x \$472/troy ounce = \$2343

## 21 Chem 161-2005 Final exam

Chapter 1 - Chemical Foundations
Unit conversions/dimensional analysis
Convert 251

m
m
into
.
min
s

A.
B.
C.
D.

4.18 x 10-6m/s
1.51 x 1010m/s
4.18 x 1012m/s
1.51 x 10-2m/s

E.

4.18 x 106m/s

## Plan: m m; min sec

251 m/min x (1 m/10-6m) x (1 min/60 sec) = 4.18 x 106 m/s

## 25 Chem 161-2005 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis
Diamonds have a density of 288 ct/in3. What is that density in g/cm3? 1 carat = 0.200g, 1 in. =
2.54 cm (exactly)
A. 0.285 g/cm3
B. 22.6 g/cm3
C. 17.6 g/cm3
D. 0.146 g/cm3

E.

3.51 g/cm3

## 24 Chem 161-2005 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis
Which of the following is not a fundamental unit of SI?
A. kg

B.

L
C. mol
D. m
E. K
kg, mol, m and K are all SI units. A dm3 is called a liter, but neither dm nor L is an SI unit.

## 15 Chem 161-2005 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis
Pressure is force/area. The SI unit for force is kg m s-2. Express pressure in terms of base SI
units.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

kg m-1 s-2
kg m2 s-2
kg m s-2
kg m-2 s-2
kg m-3 s-2

## Area would have units of m2.

Pressure = (kg x m x s-2)/m2 = kgs-2/m = kgm-1s-2

## 11 Chem 161-2005 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis
Which prefix is correctly associated with its power of ten?
A. m 10-6
B. M 103
C. 10-9

D.

G 109
E. p 10-15
m = milli = 10-3
M = mega = 106
= micro = 10-6
G = giga = 109
p = pico = 10-12

## 2 Chem 161-2005 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis
Convert 55.6 F to kelvins.
A. 13.1 K

B. 286.3 K
C. 315.7 K
D. 341.3 K
E. 68.1 K
Co = (5/9)(F-32) = (5/9)(55.6-32) = 13.11
K = 273 + Co = 273 + 13.11 = 286.11

11.

## Chem 161-2004 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Unit Conversions
The density of a diamond is 3.51 g/cm3 and 1 carat = 0.200 g. The mass of a diamond
8

## whose volume is 2.8 mL is

A.
B.

4.0 carats
2.0 carats

C.

49 carats
choose this choice if none of the others is correct
170 carats

D.
E.

1 cm3 = 1 mL
Begin with what you know, and end with what youre trying to find.
2.8 mL x (1 cm3/1 mL) x (3.51 g/cm3) x (1 carat/0.200 g) = 49.1 carats

25.

## Chem 161-2004 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Unit Conversions
Given that 1 inch = 2.54 cm and that 1 L = 1000 cm3 convert 0.092 ft3 to liters
A.
B.
C.
D.

3.2 x 10-3 L
26 L
0.40 L
1.8 L

E.

2.6 L

## Plan: ft3 in3 cm3 L

0.092 ft3 x (12 in/1 ft)3 x (2.54 cm/in)3 x (1 L/1000 cm3) = 2.605 L

## 2 Chem 161-2004 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis
Convert 55.6 F to kelvins.
A. 13.1 K

B. 286.3 K
C. 315.7 K
D. 341.3 K
E. 68.1 K
Co = (5/9)(F-32) = (5/9)(55.6-32) = 13.11
K = 273 + Co = 273 + 13.11 = 286.11

## 11 Chem 161-2004 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis
Which prefix is correctly associated with its power of ten?
A. m 10-6
B. M 103
C. 10-9

D.

G 109
E. p 10-15
m = milli = 10-3
M = mega = 106
= micro = 10-6
G = giga = 109
p = pico = 10-12

10

## 15 Chem 161-2004 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis
Pressure is force/area. The SI unit for force is kg m s-2. Express pressure in terms of base SI
units.

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

kg m-1 s-2
kg m2 s-2
kg m s-2
kg m-2 s-2
kg m-3 s-2

## Area would have units of m2.

Pressure = (kg x m x s-2)/m2 = kgs-2/m = kgm-1s-2
24 Chem 161-2004 Exam I
Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis
Which of the following is not a fundamental unit of SI?
A. kg

B.

L
C. mol
D. m
E. K
kg, mol, m and K are all SI units. A dm3 is called a liter, but neither dm nor L is an SI unit.

## 25 Chem 161-2004 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Units/unit conversions/dimensional analysis
Diamonds have a density of 288 ct/in3. What is that density in g/cm3? 1 carat = 0.200g, 1 in. =
2.54 cm (exactly)
A. 0.285 g/cm3
B. 22.6 g/cm3
C. 17.6 g/cm3
D. 0.146 g/cm3

E.

3.51 g/cm3

11

14.

## CHEM 161- 2004 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS

CHAPTER 1 - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
On a new temperature scale (Z), water boils at 120.0 Z and freezes at 40 Z. What is
the normal human body temperature in Z, given that it is 37.0 C?
A.
B.

57.0 Z
98.6 Z

C.

69.6 Z
77.0 Z
44.4 Z

D.
E.

Boiling point
Body temperature
Freezing point

C
100
37
0

Z
120
X
40

## This is a mathematical interpolation problem:

(100 - 37)/(100 - 0) = (120 - X)/(120 - 40)
X = 69.6oZ

7.

## Chem 161-2004 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Unit Conversions
The distance from the earth to the sun is 1.50 x 105 Mm. This distance expressed in nm
is
A.
B.
C.
D.

1.50 x 1014 nm
1.50 x 102 nm
1.50 x 1017 nm
1.50 x 1011 nm

E.

## M = mega = million = 106

n = nano = 10-9
1 Mm = 106 m
1 nm = 10-9 m
1.50 x 105 Mm x (106 m/1 Mm) x (1 nm/10-9 m) = 1.50 x 1020 nm

12

## ZUMDAHL 5TH EDITION

CHEM 161-2002 RECITATION 2ND WEEK-2
CHAPTER 1 - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

1-37
Perform the following unit conversion.
c. A rectangular solid measures 1.0 m by 5.6 cm by 2.1 dm. Express its
volume in cubic inches.
(c) 1 cm = 1 x 10-2 m
2.54 cm = 1 in
1 dm = 1 x 10-1 m
1.0 m x (1 cm/1 x 10-2 m) x (1 in/2.54 cm) x 5.6 cm x (1 in/2.54 cm) x 2.1 dm x
(10-1 m/dm) x (1 cm/1 x 10-2 m) x (1 in/2.54 cm) = 7.176 x 102 = 7.2 x 102 in3

13

TEMPERATURE
ZUMDAHL 5TH EDITION
CHEM 161-2002 RECITATION 2ND WEEK-2
CHAPTER 1 - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS

1-49
Many chemical quantities are specified as being measured at 25oC. What is
this temperature on the Fahrenheit scale? on the Kelvin scale?
F = ((9/5) C) + 32 = ((9/5)x25) + 32 = 77oF
K = C + 273.15 = 25 + 273.15 = 298.15 K = 298 K
The three key formulas are:
C = 5/9 (F-32)
F = (9/5 C) + 32
K = C + 273.15
The C and F formulas are sometimes difficult to remember. For example, does
C = 5/9 (F-32) or 9/5 (F-32) or ((5/9)F) -32?
A way to sort this out is to make certain that the equation you choose provides
answers that you already know are correct. So set up this table each time (or
just set up the BP part).
BP
FP

C
100oC
0oC

F
212oF
32oF

K
373.15K
273.15K

Lets say that we want the equation for F to C. The only equation for F to C
that makes sense is C = 5/9 (F-32). 100 = 5/9 (212-32).

14

3.

## CHEM 161-2000 EXAM I

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
A cube of an unknown metal measures 1.61 mm on one side. The mass of the cube is
35.8 mg. Which of the following is most likely the unknown metal?
metal
density g/cm3
rhodium
12.4
niobium
8.57
zinc
7.14
6.11
zirconium
6.51
A. zinc
B. rhodium

C.

niobium
E. zirconium

4.

## CHEM 161-2000 EXAM I

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
Consider the following data:
Mass of an empty flask = 38.1346 g.
Mass of the same flask filled with water = 63.1769 g.
Mass of the same flask filled with an unknown liquid = 75.5778 g.
Density of water = 1.000 g/mL.
Based on the above data, what is the density of the unknown liquid?
A. 0.6688 g/mL

B.

1.495 g/mL
C. 1.657 g/mL

15

D. 1.982 g/mL
E. 3.018 g/mL
5.

## CHEM 161-2000 EXAM I

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
Which of the following is the longest?
A. 2.0 x l0-10 cm
B. 2.0 nm

C.

2.0 x 10-4 m
D. 200 pm
E. 2.0 x 10-9 dm
Convert everything to the same unit. cm is a convenient unit.
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

2.0 x 10-10 cm
2.0 nm x (10-9 m/nm) x (1 cm/0.01m) = 2 x 10-7 cm
2.0 x 10-4 m x (1 cm/0.01 m) = 2 x 10-2 cm
200 pm x (10-12 m/pm) x (1 cm/0.01m) = 2 x 10-8 cm
2.0 x 10-9 dm x (0.1 m/dm) x (1 cm/0.01m) = 2 x 10-8 cm

xxxx
CHEM 161-2001 EXAM I + ANSWERS
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
Chem 161-Su01-Unit Conversions
2. The density of mercury is 13.6 g/cm3. What is its density when expressed in lb/in3?
A. 0.0762

B. 0.491
C. 2.04
D. 0.193
E. 376
453.59 g = 1 lb
2.54 cm = 1 in
(13.6 g/cm3) x (1 lb/453.59 g) x ([2.54 cm]3/[1 in]3) = 0.491 lb/in3

16

## CHEM 161-2001 EXAM I + ANSWERS

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
9. Which statement best reflects the relationship between hypothesis and experimentation?
A. An experiment can only prove a hypothesis is true.
B. The results of an experiment lead to a hypothesis.

## C. An experiment can disprove a hypothesis.

D. An experiment is another name for a hypothesis.
E. A guess becomes a hypothesis when an experiment proves it.

## CHEM 161-2001-HOURLY EXAM I + ANSWERS

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
20.
The speed, in SI base units, of a train traveling at 125 miles per hour is:
(1 mile = 5280 ft; 1 ft = 12 in; 1 in = 2.54 cm)
Strategy:
(1) miles ft in cm m
(2) hours min sec
(125 mi/hr) x (5280 ft/mi) x (12 in/ft) x (2.54 cm/in) x (0.01 m/cm) x (1 hr/60 min) x (1 min/60
sec)
= 55.88 m/sec
A.

125 m/s

B.

2200 m/min

C.
D.

671 m/s
201 km/hr

E.

55.9 m/s

## CHEM 161-2001-HOURLY EXAM I + ANSWERS

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
25.
The temperature at which the numerical value in Celsius or Fahrenheit is the same is:
A. 212
B. -24
C. -30
D. 100

17

E.
1.

-40

## CHEM 161- 2002 EXAM I + ANSWERS

CHAPTER 1 - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
The number of cubic nanometers in 1 km3 is
A.

1012

B.

1036
1027
10-24
10-27

C.
D.
E.

1 nm = 1 x 10-9 m
1 nm3 = (1 x 10-9 m)3
1 km = 1000 m = 1 x 103 m
(1 km)3 = (1 x 103 m)3
1 km3 x (1 x 103 m)3/1 km3 x (1 nm)3/(1 x 10-9 m)3 = 109 nm/10-27
= 1036 nm

18

## CHEM 161-1998 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
47. In the SI system of units, the prefix representing 10-6 is
A. c
B. m
C. p
D. k

E.
CHEM 161-1999 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
18. What is the area covered by 1.00 liter of paint when it is brushed on a wall
with a uniform thickness of 100 micrometer?
A. 0.100m2

B.

10.0 m2
C. 20.0 m2
D. 1.00m2
E. 2.00m2
Plan: Convert liters, which is volume, into m3, which is also volume. Convert micrometers into meters
(m), which is thickness. m3/m = m2, which is area. That is, area x thickness = volume. Therefore,
volume/thickness = area.
1 liter x (1000 mL/L) x (1 cm3/1 mL) x (0.01m/cm)3 = 1 x 10-3 m3
100 m x (10-6m/m) = 1 x 10-4 m
1 x 10-3 m3/(1 x 10-4 m) = 10 m2

## CHEM 161-2001 SUMMER FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
22. A hypothesis must be
A. unique and proven.
B. controlled.

19

## C. predictive and testable.

D. published.
E. an observation.

## CHEM 161-2001 SUMMER FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
29. Convert 75.0 g/m2 to oz./in2

A. 1.707 x 10

-3

B. 351.2
C. 6.720 x 10-2
D. 585.9
E. 4.101 x 103
6.
CHEM 161-2002 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
According to the SI which one of the following is a correct definition
A. 1 mol is 6.022 x 1023 entities
A is close to the correct answer, but not correct. The SI definition of the mole is
the amount of a substance that contains as many entities as there are in exactly 12 g
of carbon-12. It has been determined, through experimentation, that this number is
6.022 x 1023. Therefore, one mole is 6.022 x 1023 entities, but the latter isnt the SI
definition of a mol.
B. 1 L is 1.000 US quart
A L is not an SI unit. The SI unit of volume is m3. Furthermore, 1 L = 1.057 quart.
C. 1 kg is the length of a platinum iridium bar stored in France.
1 kg is the mass of a platinum iridium bar stored in France.

D.
E.

1 is 10-3 m
1 is 10-6 m

## CHEM 161-2002 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
UNITS/UNIT CONVERSIONS/DIMENSIONAL ANALYSIS
11.
The number of cubic nanometers in 1 cm3 is
A.

108

20

B.
C.
D.

E.

10-27
1036
1027
1021

Strategy: Convert cm to nm; then cube both sides to change cm3 to nm3.
1 cm x (1 x 10-2 m/1 cm) x (1 nm/1 x 10-9 m) = 1 x 107 nm
1 cm = 1 x 107 nm
(1 cm)3 = (1 x 107 nm)3
1 cm3 = 1 x 1021 nm3
1.
Chem 161-2003 Exam I
Chapter 1 - Chemical Foundations
Unit conversions/dimensional analysis
The number of cubic nanometers in 1 cm3 is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

1027
1036
1021
108
10-27

## Plan: cm3 m3 nm3

1 nm = 1 x 10-9 m
1 nm3 = (1 x 10-9 m)3
1 cm = 1 x 10-2 m
1 cm3 = (1 x 10-2 m)3
1 cm3 x ((1 x 10-2 m)3/cm3) x ((1 nm)3/(1 x 10-9 m)3) = 1 x 1021 nm
25.
Chem 161-2003 Exam I
Chapter 1 - Chemical Foundations
Unit conversions/dimensional analysis
The speed, in SI base units, of an airplane traveling at 625 miles per hr is
(conversions: 1m = 39.4 inch, 1 mile = 5280 ft)
A. 3360 m/s
B. 279 m/s
C. 625 m/s
D. 11100m/min
E. 1010 km/hr
SI base units are meters and seconds.
mi/hr ft/hr in/hr m/hr m/min m/s

21

625 mi/hr x 5289 ft/mi x 12 in/ft x 1m/39.4 in x 1hr/60 min x 1min/60 sec = 280 m/s

6.

## Chem 161-2003 Final exam

Chapter 1 - Chemical Foundations
Unit conversions/dimensional analysis
Which setup is correct for the conversion of megagrams (Mg) to milligrams(mg)?
A.
B.

1 Mg = 1 mg

C.

## (1 Mg)(1 x 106 g/1 Mg)(1000 mg/1 g)

(1 Mg)(1 x 106 mg/1Mg)
(1 Mg)(1000 mg/1 Mg)

D.
E.

## mega = million = 1 x 106

milli = one one-thousandth = 0.001
1 Mg x (1 x 106 g)/Mg = g
1g x (1 mg/0.001 g) = mg
Doing this in one step: 1 Mg x ((1 x 106 g)/Mg) x (1 mg/0.001 g) = 1 x 109 mg
This is the same as: 1 Mg x ((1 x 106 g)/Mg) x (1000 mg/g) = 1 x 109 mg

CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
Chem 161-2007 Exam I
Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Classification of matter
16. A substance
A. is always a compound.

B.

## has definite composition and distinct properties.

C. is a mixture of known composition.
D. always has two or more elements.
E. is the fundamental building block of matter.

22

## A substance is an element or a compound.

A. It is not always a compound, because it may be an element or a compound.
B. A substance is an element or a compound; therefore, it has definite composition and distinct
properties.
C. A substance is either an element or a compound; therefore, it is not a mixture.
D. A compound always has two or more elements. Since a substance is an element or a compound, and
an element is single species, then a substance might not have two or more elements.
E. An element is the fundamental building block of matter, not a substance, because a substance might be
a compound, which is not a fundamental building block.

## Chem 161-2007 Exam I

Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Classification of matter
6. Which of the following is a heterogeneous mixture?
A. Distilled water.
B. Filtered air
C. Vinegar

D.

A fruit smoothie
E. A glass f Kool AidTM
(A) Distilled water is a single phase under a conventional laboratory microscope, and is therefore
homogeneous.
(B) Filtered air is a single phase under a conventional laboratory microscope, and is therefore
homogeneous.
(C) Vinegar is a single phase under a conventional laboratory microscope, and is therefore homogeneous.
(D) A fruit smoothie is a beverage made by blending fruit with yogurt, milk or ice cream until it's thick
and smooth. Under a microscope, or with the naked eye, particles of fruit in this concoction may be seen
among the ice and milk and ice cream. Therefore, this is heterogeneous.
(E) Kool Aid is a homogeneous sugar-enriched drink in fruity flavors.
Chem 161-2007 Exam I
Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1: Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Classification of matter
3. Which of the following is an example of a chemical change?
A. melting ice
B. adding carbon to iron to make steel
C. Carbon dioxide escaping from soda
23

D.

## Photosynthesis turning CO2 and water into glucose

E. Sugar crystallizing out of honey
A chemical change is one in which the structure of the molecule changes.
A. When ice melts, H2O(l) becomes H2O(g); hence the molecule doesnt change, so this is a physical
change, not a chemical change.
B. Adding carbon to iron to make steel does not result in a reaction of the iron in the steel. That is,
addition of carbon to the iron in steel only affects the physical property of the steel; it does not change the
structure of the iron. Therefore, it is a physical change, not a chemical change.
C. CO2 escaping from soda only causes the CO2 to go from a hydrated state to an unhydrated state; it
does not result in a change in the structure of CO2. Therefore, it is a physical change, not a chemical
change.
D. When CO2 is changed during photosynthesis, the structure of CO2 changes into a different structure,
such as glucose (C6H12O6) (upon reaction with H2O); hence this is a chemical change.
E. Sugar crystallizing from honey is just a separation of the sugar from the honey. It is not a chemical
change of sugar into another molecule. Therefore, this is a physical change.

24

## 40 Chem 161-2006 Final Exam

Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Classification of Matter
Which of the following is a heterogeneous mixture?
A. Clear apple juice
B. Filtered sea water

C.

Concrete
D. Vinegar
E. Table salt
A mixture contains two or more substances. Heterogeneous means that under a simple
laboratory microscope it exhibits at least two phases.
A. False. This is a mixture in that it contains at least flavorants, sweetener and water. It
is homogeneous under a laboratory microscope.
B. False. This is a mixture in that it contains at least sodium chloride and water. It is
homogeneous under a laboratory microscope.
C. True. This is a mixture in that it contains a mixture of at least various types of
silicates and water. It is heterogeneous to the naked eye and therefore under a simple
laboratory microscope.
D. False. This is a mixture in that it contains acetic acid and water. It is homogeneous
under a laboratory microscope.
E. False. This is a mixture in that it contains sodium chloride and sodium iodide. It is
homogeneous under a laboratory microscope.

20

## Chem 161-2006 Exam I

Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Classification and separation of matter

Which of the following physical quantities is not a base unit of the SI?
A. length

B.

volume
C. mass
D. temperature
E. time
Volume is not an SI base unit. Volume is a derived unit, in which length is cubed.

25

19

## Chem 161-2006 Exam I

Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Classification and separation of matter

## Which of the following statements is false?

A.

Only experimental results that are consistent with your hypothesis are
considered valid.
B. A hypothesis should be as simple as possible to account for the observations.
C. Scientific laws are brief statements summarizing large amounts of scientific
data.
D. A hypothesis is a tentative explanation or prediction which can be tested by
experiment.
E. A hypothesis must be consistent with all known information.
A. False. This means that if the experimental results are inconsistent with your
hypothesis then the experimental results are not valid. This is not true. If the
experimental results are inconsistent with your hypothesis then the hypothesis is
invalid, not the experimental results. Experimental results (assuming they are
reproducible) are always valid, regardless of the hypothesis. The hypothesis has to
change, not the experimental results.
B. True.
C. True.
D. True.
E. True.

26

17

## Chem 161-2006 Exam I

Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Classification and separation of matter

## Which of the following does not represent a physical property?

A. clarity
B. hardness
C. melting point

D.

flammability
E. color
A. A change in clarity can come about by heating a substance. This does not require
a change in the chemical structure of a molecule. Hence, clarity is a physical change.
B. A change in hardness can come about by heating a substance. This does not
require a change in the chemical structure of a molecule. Hence, hardness is a
physical change.
C. When a substance melts, there is no accompanying change in the chemical
structure of a molecule. Hence, melting point is a physical change.
D. Flammability is related to burning (combusting; reacting with oxygen) a molecule.
This results in a change in the chemical structure of a molecule. Hence, flammability
is chemical property, not a physical property.
E. A change in color can result from the type of incident light. This does not require
a change in the chemical structure of a molecule. Hence, color is a physical change.

## Chem 161-2006 Exam I

Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Classification and separation of matter

## Which of the following is a heterogeneous mixture?

A. vegetable oil
B. water
C. vinegar
D. WindexTM glass cleaner

E.

## A, B, C and D are all homogeneous solutions. E consists of ice-cream and soda. It

consists of many substances, (e.g., H2O, sucrose, flavorants, etc.) which makes it a
mixture of substances. Also, it consists of more than one phase, which makes it
heterogeneous.

27

## 9 Chem 161-2005 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Classification of matter
Which of the following is not a physical change?
A. Distilling gasoline from crude oil
B. Boiling water
C. Dissolving sugar in water

D.

## Fermenting grape juice to make wine

E. Crystallizing rock candy from a sugar solution
A physical change is a change in the form of a substance, but not in its chemical composition; e.g.,
H2O(s) H2O(l)
A chemical change is a change from one substance to another substance.
e.g., H2O H2 + O2
A. Distilling gasoline from crude oil is just separating one component from a mixture. This is a
physical change.
B. Boiling water is just changing liquid water into gaseous water. This is a physical change.
C. Dissolving sugar in water is just changing the surroundings of a sugar molecule from other
sugar molecules to water molecules. This is a physical change.
D. Fermenting grape juice to make wine involves converting sugar into ethyl alcohol. This is a
chemical change.
E. Crystallizing rock candy is just changing the surroundings of a sugar molecule from water
molecules to other sugar molecules. This is a physical change.

28

## 1 Chem 161-2005 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Classification of matter
Which list puts each material in the correct category?
Compound
Homogeneous
mixture
A.
Argon
Milk
B.
Marble
Jello
Water
Filtered sea water
C.
D.
E.

Granite
Iron

sand
Tomato juice

Heterogeneous
mixture
Clean air
steel
marble
Milk
Table salt

Compound: A substance that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes.
Argon is not a compound. It is an element. Marble is not a pure compound. It is CaCO3 (a
compound mixed with colored impurities. Water is a compound. Granite is a mixture of
several compounds (SiO2 and various silicates). Iron is an element. Hence, the only choice
that is a compound is C, water.
Homogeneous mixture: A mixture consists of two or more substances. Homogeneous means
having visibly indistinguishable parts. Milk is a mixture of several substances, including
water and carbohydrates, and may be homogeneous (if it is homogenized milk). Jello is made
from gelatin (a mixture of proteins), fruit flavoring and dyes, so it is a mixture and is
homogeneous. Filtered sea water contains water, salt, and other microscopic material. It is a
mixture and is homogeneous. Sand is made from several compounds, the major one being
silica (SiO2), so it is a mixture. I think that if we looked at sand under a microscope it would
not be homogeneous. Tomato juice contains water, carbohydrates, proteins and other
substances, so it is a mixture, but I think if we looked at it under a microscope it would not
appear to be homogeneous. So only A, B and C are homogeneous mixtures.
Heterogeneous mixture: A mixture consists of two or more substances. Heterogeneous means
having visibly distinguishable parts. Clean air consists of many compounds, including N2,
O2 and CO2, so it is a mixture. However, under a microscope clean air is homogeneous.
Steel is a mixture, containing mainly iron and carbon. It is homogeneous under a microscope.
Marble is a mixture of CaCO3 and dyes. Due to the colored bands, it is heterogeneous. Milk
is a mixture of several substances, including water and carbohydrates, and may be
homogeneous (if it is homogenized milk) or heterogeneous (if it is not homogenized milk).
Table salt is a mixture of NaCl and additives to make it free flowing. Under a microscope it is
homogeneous. The only heterogeneous mixtures are C (marble) and D, if the milk is nonhomogenized.
Only C (water, filtered sea water, marble) fit all three criteria.

20.

## Chem 161-2004 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
29

## Classification and Separation of Matter

How many of the following are pure substances? vitamin C, clean filtered air, pure
nonfat milk, a brand new quarter.
A.

three of them

B.

one of them
two of them
none of them
all of them

C.
D.
E.

## Vitamin C is ascorbic acid. That is a pure substance; i.e., common separation

experiments, e.g., boiling, freezing, filtration, microscopic examination will not separate
it into more than one component.
Clean filtered air can be separated by cryoscopic (freezing), or even filtration means,
into more than one component, e.g., nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, neon, etc.
Pure nonfat milk can be separated by distillation into water, proteins, carbohydrates,
lipids, etc.
A brand new quarter can be first melted, and then slowly cooled to show that it will
separate into components, such as copper(?), silver(?), chromium(?).

30

## 1 Chem 161-2004 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Classification of matter
Which list puts each material in the correct category?
Compound
Homogeneous
mixture
A.
Argon
Milk
B.
Marble
Jello
Water
Filtered sea water
C.
D.
E.

Granite
Iron

sand
Tomato juice

Heterogeneous
mixture
Clean air
steel
marble
Milk
Table salt

Compound: A substance that can be broken down into elements by chemical processes.
Argon is not a compound. It is an element. Marble is not a pure compound. It is CaCO3 (a
compound mixed with colored impurities. Water is a compound. Granite is a mixture of
several compounds (SiO2 and various silicates). Iron is an element. Hence, the only choice
that is a compound is C, water.
Homogeneous mixture: A mixture consists of two or more substances. Homogeneous means
having visibly indistinguishable parts. Milk is a mixture of several substances, including
water and carbohydrates, and may be homogeneous (if it is homogenized milk). Jello is made
from gelatin (a mixture of proteins), fruit flavoring and dyes, so it is a mixture and is
homogeneous. Filtered sea water contains water, salt, and other microscopic material. It is a
mixture and is homogeneous. Sand is made from several compounds, the major one being
silica (SiO2), so it is a mixture. I think that if we looked at sand under a microscope it would
not be homogeneous. Tomato juice contains water, carbohydrates, proteins and other
substances, so it is a mixture, but I think if we looked at it under a microscope it would not
appear to be homogeneous. So only A, B and C are homogeneous mixtures.
Heterogeneous mixture: A mixture consists of two or more substances. Heterogeneous means
having visibly distinguishable parts. Clean air consists of many compounds, including N2,
O2 and CO2, so it is a mixture. However, under a microscope clean air is homogeneous.
Steel is a mixture, containing mainly iron and carbon. It is homogeneous under a microscope.
Marble is a mixture of CaCO3 and dyes. Due to the colored bands, it is heterogeneous. Milk
is a mixture of several substances, including water and carbohydrates, and may be
homogeneous (if it is homogenized milk) or heterogeneous (if it is not homogenized milk).
Table salt is a mixture of NaCl and additives to make it free flowing. Under a microscope it is
homogeneous. The only heterogeneous mixtures are C (marble) and D, if the milk is nonhomogenized.
Only C (water, filtered sea water, marble) fit all three criteria.

31

## 9 Chem 161-2004 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Classification of matter
Which of the following is not a physical change?
A. Distilling gasoline from crude oil
B. Boiling water
C. Dissolving sugar in water

D.

## Fermenting grape juice to make wine

E. Crystallizing rock candy from a sugar solution
A physical change is a change in the form of a substance, but not in its chemical composition; e.g.,
H2O(s) H2O(l)
A chemical change is a change from one substance to another substance.
e.g., H2O H2 + O2
A. Distilling gasoline from crude oil is just separating one component from a mixture. This is a
physical change.
B. Boiling water is just changing liquid water into gaseous water. This is a physical change.
C. Dissolving sugar in water is just changing the surroundings of a sugar molecule from other
sugar molecules to water molecules. This is a physical change.
D. Fermenting grape juice to make wine involves converting sugar into ethyl alcohol. This is a
chemical change.
E. Crystallizing rock candy is just changing the surroundings of a sugar molecule from water
molecules to other sugar molecules.

## ZUMDAHL 5TH EDITION

CHEM 161-2002 RECITATION 2ND WEEK-2
CHAPTER 1 - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER

1-65
Classify each of the following as a mixture or a pure substance.
A pure substance is a pure element or chemical compound. A mixture is two or
more substances.
a. water is a pure chemical compound; hence it is a pure substance.
32

## b. blood is a mixture of numerous chemical compounds. It contains water,

hemoglobin, all of the proteins in red blood cells, etc.
d. iron is a pure substance (an element).
e. brass is an alloy; i.e., a mixture of the elements copper and zinc, with small
amounts of tin, lead, and iron.
1.

## CHEM 161-2000 EXAM I

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
If a sample of matter is uniform throughout and cannot be separated into other
substances by physical means, then this sample:
A. must be a compound

B.

## may be either an element or a compound

C. must be a homogeneous mixture
D. must be a heterogeneous mixture
E. must be an element
2.

## CHEM 161-2000 EXAM I

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
Which of the following are chemical processes?
1.
2.
3.
4.

rusting of a nail
freezing of water
decomposition of water into hydrogen and oxygen gases
compression of oxygen gas

A. 2, 3, & 4
B. 1, 3, & 4

C.

1&3
D. 1 & 2
E. 1 & 4

33

xxxx
CHEM 161-2001 EXAM I + ANSWERS
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
1. For which of the following can the composition vary?
1. pure substance
2. element
3. homogeneous mixture
4. heterogeneous mixture
A. 1 only
B. 2 only
C. 3 only
D. 4 only

E. Both 3 and 4
CHEM 161-2001-HOURLY EXAM I + ANSWERS
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
1.Consider the following:
W.an 8 oz glass of orange juice.
X.an 8 oz glass of Coca-Cola.
Y.1 L of clean air.
Z.8 oz of steel.
Which are homogeneous?
A.none of them
B.all of them
C.W and X
D.W, X, and Y

E.Y and Z
2.

## CHEM 161- 2002 EXAM I + ANSWERS

CHAPTER 1 - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
Which of the following is not a pure substance?
A.
B.

Choose this choice if all the other choices are pure substances
dinitrogen pentoxide

C.

## pure, dry air

iron chips of various shapes

D.

34

E.

## naturally occurring boron containing 10B and 11B

All substances are either elements or compounds. A pure substance is one consisting
only of an element or a compound. H2O is a substance, but sea water, which also
contains other substances (e.g., NaCl) is not a pure substance. Air (pure or impure)
consists of a mixture of nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide, argon and other substances.

## CHEM 161-1998 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
31. Which one of the following statements is false?
A. Mixtures can be either homogeneous or heterogeneous.
B. A mixture can be separated by making use of the physical properties of its components.
C. Matter can be gas, liquid or solid.

## D. Elements can be obtained from compounds by physical techniques.

E. Isotopic mixtures of elements contain elements with different masses.
CHEM 161-2001 SUMMER FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
CLASSIFICATION OF MATTER
3. Which of the following is not a physical change?
A. Boiling water

## B. A metal dissolving in an acid

C. Making sugar water
D. Filtering air to remove soot
E. Distilling whiskey

35

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES/PRECISION/ACCURACY
10.

## Chem 161-2007 Final exam

Hill, Petrucci et al.
CHAPTER 1 CHEMISTRY: MATTER AND MEASUREMENT
Significant Figures/Precision/Accuracy

C.

## Which has the most significant figures?

A. The distance from Busch to Douglass is 6.54 km.
B. The value of 12 tickets at 8 dollars each

C.

## The product of 6.022 x 1023 and 3.011 moles

D. The quotient of 2.50 cm and 1.50 cm
E. The sum of 12.0 and 1.01
A. Distance is measured. It has 3 S.F.s.
B. 12 tickets is something that is counted, so it is an exact number; i.e., it has
an infinite number of significant figures. The meaning of 8 dollars is
controversial. Some consider a list price of 8 dollars as having one significant
figure. That is, if 8 dollars is the list price then it is possible that you would be
charged \$7.95 or \$8.15 for a ticket. With this interpretation the value of 12
tickets at 8 dollars each is \$1 x 102, which is one significant figure. Others (me)
consider that if 8 dollars is the list price then there is an understanding that it is
an exact quantity with an infinite number of significant figures, i.e., that the total
price is the product of two exact numbers, or \$96.0000000000000000000, and
that it would be unacceptable to be charged a penny more or a penny less than
this amount. The latter interpretation results in an infinite number of significant
figures.
C. 6.022 x 1023 is derived from measurements; therefore, it is not exact;
therefore, it contains 4 S.F.s. 3.011 moles presumably is also from a
measurement. It has 4 S.F.s. The S.F.s in the product of two numbers is the
smallest number of S.F.s in each of the multipliers, which is 4 S.Fs.
D. These are presumably measured numbers. Three S.F.s divided by 3 S.Fs
has 3 S.F.s.
E. The number of significant figures in a sum is dependent on the least number
of digits to the write of the decimal point in each of the two numbers being
added. 12.0 has one digit to the right of the decimal point; 1.01 has two digits to
the right of the decimal point; therefore the correct answer is 13.0, having one
figure to the right of the decimal point, which is three significant figures.

## Chem 161-2007 Exam I

Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
36

## Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement

Significant Figures/Precision/Accuracy
9. To how many significant figures can the answer to the follow equation be reported? Note: none of the
numbers is exact.
(27.053-26.557)/(15.90-15.887)

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

1
2
3
4
5

27.053
- 26.557
0.496 This has three significant figures.
15.90
- 15.887
0.013 Since 15.90 has only two digits to the right of the decimal point, the significant figures of
this answer must have only two digits to the right of the decimal point. Hence, we would round off 0.013
to be 0.01, which has only one significant figure.
0.496/0.013 = 38.15. Since 0.013 really only has one significant figure, then 38.15 must have only one
significant figure. Hence, the answer is 4 x 101, which is one significant figure. (Answer A).

## Chem 161-2007 Exam I

Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Significant figures/Precision/Accuracy
19. Three students each measured five nickels. Nickels actually have a mass of 5.00g, on average.
Student
A
B
C

Mass (g)
4.95, 5.05, 4.00, 6.26, 4.75
4.25, 4.27, 4.22, 4.23, 4.29
5.00, 4.00, 3.00, 3.50, 2.00

A. Student A is most precise. Student B is most accurate. Student C was neither precise nor accurate.

B.

Student A is most accurate. Student B is most precise. Student C was neither precise nor accurate.
C. Student A is both accurate and precise. Student B is least precise. Student C is accurate.
D. Student A was least sensitive. Student B was more precise. Student C was most accurate.
E. One of Student As nickel was dirty. Student B was most accurate. Student C was most precise.

37

Average
Mean difference from the average

Student A
5.00
0.52

Student B
4.25
0.02

Student C
3.50
0.80

Accuracy means the closeness of the average to the correct answer. Student As average is very accurate,
in that the average is the correct answer. The accuracies of Student B and Student C are poor.
Precision means reproducibility, or closeness to its own average. Student Bs reproducibility is excellent,
while the reproducibilities of Student A and Student C are quite poor.
B. Student A is the most accurate. Student B is the most precise. Student C is neither precise nor
accurate.

## 41 Chem 161-2006 Final Exam

Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Significant figures; Precision; Accuracy
Which best matches the term with the phrase that describes the term?

A.

## Precision: consistency of results; accuracy: closeness to the true value.

B. Precision: closeness to the true value; accuracy: consistency of results.
C. Precision: number of times the experiment is repeated; accuracy: care taken with
the data.
D. Precision: number of significant digits you can read on the equipment; accuracy:
consistency of results.
E. Precision and accuracy both mean closeness to the true value.

A.

## True. Precision is consistency (reproducibility) of results; accuracy is closeness

to the true value.
B. False. Precision is not closeness to the true value; thats accuracy. Accuracy is
not consistency of results; thats precision.
C. Precision: number of times the experiment is repeated; No. Thats replication;
Accuracy: care taken with the data; No. Thats good scientific methodology.
D. Precision: number of significant digits you can read on the equipment; No. You
can do replica experiments in which each time you read the equipment to several
significant digits, but in which each time the answers are far from each other. Thats
poor precision. Accuracy: consistency of results; No. Thats precision.
E. Precision and accuracy both mean closeness to the true value; No. Thats accuracy
and accuracy.

38

## 25 Chem 161-2006 Final Exam

Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Significant figures

Perform the following calculation and express the answer to the correct number of
significant figures.
0.05
8.9782
3
5.98 10
A. 0.6
B. 0.62
C. 0.617
D. 0.6170

E.

## 0.05/0.00598 = 8.3612 = 1 significant figure

8.9782 8.3612 = 0.6170
Since 0.05 has only one significant figure, then 8.3612 has only one significant figure.
Therefore, only the 8 is significant. 8.9782 8.3612 can be thought of as 8.9782 8.
Hence, 0.6170 has to be rounded to no digits after the decimal point. This is 1.

39

## Chem 161-2006 Exam I

Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Significant figures

What are the results of the following two calculations, expressed respectively, to the
correct number of significant figures?
Calculation A: 8103.5/23.0
Calculation B: 2.63 + 0.0006 + 1.4
A. 352.3, 4.04

B.

352, 4.0
C. 352.33, 4.03
D. 3.5x103, 4.04
E. 352.3, 4.036
Calculation A: 5 significant figures divided by 3 significant figures 3 sig. figures
8103.5/23.0 = 3.52326 x 102 = 3.52 x 102 = 352
Calculation B: 1.4 has only one figure to the right of the decimal point. 2.63 + 0.0006
+ 1.4 = 4.0306 = 4.0

## Chem 161-2006 Exam I

Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 1 Chemistry: Matter and Measurement
Significant figures

## The precision of a data set is considered to be poor, if

A. the data do not stray from the average value.
B. the accuracy is low.

C.

## the data vary widely from the average value.

D. the data are a set of closely spaced numbers.
E. the accuracy is high.
A. If the data do not stray from the average value, then, by definition, the precision
(the reproducibility) is good.
B. Accuracy means truth, or correctness. It is not related to precision (i.e.,
reproducibility).
C. The data varying widely from the average value is poor precision.
D. If the data are a set of closely spaced parameters, this is good precision.
E. Accuracy means truth, or correctness. It is not related to precision (i.e.,
reproducibility).

40

## 48 Chem 161-2005 Final exam

Chapter 1 - Chemical Foundations
Significant figures
To how many significant figure(s) should the result of the following calculation be reported?
0.108 0.05431
( 4.31 1.2)

A. 1

B.

2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5
0.108 x 0.05431 = 0.00586548 (three significant figures, based on mult/div rule)
4.31 1.2 = 3.11 (two significant figures, based on addition/subtraction rule)
0.00586548/3.11 = 1.88601 x 10-3 = 1.9 x 10-3 (two sign. figures, based on mult/div rule)

## 10 Chem 161-2005 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Significant figures/Precision/Accuracy
The average atmospheric pressure at sea level is 101,325 Pa or 1 atm. What is the pressure in Pa
expressed in scientific notation if the pressure were 0.875 atm?
A. 88.7 103 Pa
B. 1.16 105 Pa

C.

8.87 104 Pa
D. 8.64 10-6 Pa
E. 8.75 10-1 Pa
0.875 atm x (101,325 Pa/atm) = 8.87 x 104 Pa
Although 88.7 x 103 Pa is exactly the same as 8.87 x 104 Pa, scientific notation requires only one
digit to the left of the decimal point.

41

## 6 Chem 161-2005 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Significant figures/Precision/Accuracy
Three students were measuring the density of a compound, whose actual density is 7.13g/cm3.
Each measured the density 4 times. From the data below, which statement best characterizes their
results?
Student
Density (g/cm3)
1
7.04, 7.28, 6.99, 7.27
2
7.09, 7.03, 7.04, 7.08
3
4.11, 4.02, 5.54, 6.41
A. Student 3 was most accurate; student 1 was most precise; student 2 was inaccurate and
imprecise.
B. Student 1 was most accurate; student 3 was most precise; student 2 was inaccurate and
imprecise.
C. Both students 1 and 3 were accurate, Student 1 was most precise; student 2 was inaccurate
and imprecise.
D. Both students 1 and 3 were precise, Student 1 was most sensitive; student 2 was inaccurate
and imprecise.

E.

## Accuracy is correctness, i.e., providing the correct answer. Precision is reproducibility.

Student 1 is high in accuracy (his average is 7.15, close to the correct value of 7.13), but low in
precision.
Student 2 is low in accuracy (his average is 7.06, not close to the correct value of 7.13), but very
high in precision. It appears that he was getting a systematic error.
Student 3 is low in accuracy (his average is 5.02, not close to the correct value of 7.13), and very
low in precision.
A. Student 3 was not the most accurate; student 1 was the most accurate.
B. Student 3 was not the most precise; student 2 was the most precise.
C. Student 3 was not accurate.
D. Student 3 was not precise.
E. Not a good answer, because we dont know what is wrong with student 3, but the best possible

42

## 3 Chem 161-2005 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Significant figures/Precision/Accuracy
When the following calculation is performed, how many significant figures will be in the final
( 2.7612 2.7609)
2.2046

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5
2.7612 - 2.7609 = 0.0003 (1 significant figure)
0.0003/2.2046 = 1.3608x10-4 = 1 (i.e., one significant figure since the division involved a number
containing only one significant figure).

1.

## Chem 161-2004 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Significant Figures
A student obtains the number 0.045006700 on a calculator, but the number should only
have 4 significant figures. How should it be written?
A.

0.4567

B.

0.04501
0.045
0.4501
0.04500

C.
D.
E.

The leading zeros are not significant figures. Four significant figures means: 0.04500.
The last number should be rounded. Hence, 0.04501.

43

## 3 Chem 161-2004 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Significant figures/Precision/Accuracy
When the following calculation is performed, how many significant figures will be in the final
( 2.7612 2.7609)
2.2046

A. 1
B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5
2.7612 - 2.7609 = 0.0003 (1 significant figure)
0.0003/2.2046 = 1.3608x10-4 = 1 (i.e., one significant figure since the division involved a number
containing only one significant figure).

44

## 6 Chem 161-2004 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Significant figures/Precision/Accuracy
Three students were measuring the density of a compound, whose actual density is 7.13g/cm3.
Each measured the density 4 times. From the data below, which statement best characterizes their
results?
Student
Density (g/cm3)
1
7.04, 7.28, 6.99, 7.27
2
7.09, 7.03, 7.04, 7.08
3
4.11, 4.02, 5.54, 6.41
A. Student 3 was most accurate; student 1 was most precise; student 2 was inaccurate and
imprecise.
B. Student 1 was most accurate; student 3 was most precise; student 2 was inaccurate and
imprecise.
C. Both students 1 and 3 were accurate, Student 1 was most precise; student 2 was inaccurate
and imprecise.
D. Both students 1 and 3 were precise, Student 1 was most sensitive; student 2 was inaccurate
and imprecise.

E.

## Accuracy is correctness, i.e., providing the correct answer. Precision is reproducibility.

Student 1 is high in accuracy (his average is 7.15, close to the correct value of 7.13), but low in
precision.
Student 2 is low in accuracy (his average is 7.06, not close to the correct value of 7.13), but very
high in precision. It appears that he was getting a systematic error.
Student 3 is low in accuracy (his average is 5.02, not close to the correct value of 7.13), and very
low in precision.
A. Student 3 was not the most accurate; student 1 was the most accurate.
B. Student 3 was not the most precise; student 2 was the most precise.
C. Student 3 was not accurate.
D. Student 3 was not precise.
E. Not a good answer, because we dont know what is wrong with student 3, but the best possible

45

## 10 Chem 161-2004 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Significant figures/Precision/Accuracy
The average atmospheric pressure at sea level is 101,325 Pa or 1 atm. What is the pressure in Pa
expressed in scientific notation if the pressure were 0.875 atm?
A. 88.7 103 Pa
B. 1.16 105 Pa

C.

8.87 104 Pa
D. 8.64 10-6 Pa
E. 8.75 10-1 Pa
0.875 atm x (101,325 Pa/atm) = 8.87 x 104 Pa
Although 88.7 x 103 Pa is exactly the same as 8.87 x 104 Pa, scientific notation requires only one
digit to the left of the decimal point.

## ZUMDAHL 5TH EDITION

CHEM 161-2002 RECITATION 2ND WEEK-2
CHAPTER 1 - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES/PRECISION/ACCURACY

1-25
How many signficant figures are in each of the following?
a. 12
2
b. 1098
4
c. 2001
4
3
d. 2.001 x 10
4
0.000101
3 (The four zeros are just space holders.)
-5
f. 1.01 x 10
3
g. 1000.
4 (If there was no decimal point there could be
anything between 1and 4 significant figures.
h. 22.04030
7 (The two internal zeros are captive zeros and are
therefore significant. The final zero wouldnt be there unless it was
significant.)
6

46

## ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS

SIGNIFICANT FIGURES/PRECISION/ACCURACY
What is the correct number of significant figures in the result of the following
calculation?
(0.014371 + 0.320) x (1.04 + 0.3)
0.014371
+ 0.320
0.334371 (Correct answer for this step alone is 0.334 because there are three numbers
after the decimal point in 0.320; hence correct answer = 0.334, three significant figures.)
1.04
+ 0.3
1.34 (Correct answer for this step alone is 1.3 since there is only one number after the
decimal point in 9.3; hence correct answer = 1.3, two significant figures.)
0.334371 x 1.34 = 0.448057. But since the acceptable answer involves three significant
figures times two significant figures, then the acceptable answer must contain only two
A. 1

B.

2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5

## CHEM 161-2001 EXAM I + ANSWERS

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES/PRECISION/ACCURACY
7. Which number is correctly expressed in scientific notation?

A. 1.244 x 10

-7

B. 10.445
C. 0.133 x 103
D. 102.667 x 106
E. 12.556 x 10-2
CHEM 161-2001-HOURLY EXAM I + ANSWERS
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES/PRECISION/ACCURACY
7.
Which has the most significant figures?

47

A.

B.

## the amount of money collected from 1137 students paying \$9 each

for a concert ticket.
C. the product of 6.0221 x 1023 and 3.111 moles.
D. the quotient of 2 cm and cm.
E.
the sum of 12 and 1.01, the atomic weights of C and H.

16.

## CHEM 161- 2002 EXAM I + ANSWERS

CHAPTER 1 - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES/PRECISION, ACCURACY
Which one of the following statements is true?
A.
High precision always indicates high accuracy
One can have very high precision, but if the instrument is not functioning correctly then
it might not provide the correct answer, therefore low accuracy.

B.

## Choose this choice if none of the others is true

C.
A measurement becomes more accurate the more it is repeated
If the instrument is not functioning correctly then it might not provide the correct answer
no matter how many times the measurement is repeated..
D.
We can always determine the accuracy of our measurements
Only if we know the correct answer.
E.
Use of expensive instrumentation guarantees high accuracy
An expensive instrument might be junk.

25.

## CHEM 161- 2002 EXAM I + ANSWERS

CHAPTER 1 - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES/PRECISION, ACCURACY
The best answer for the calculation 3 (5.5 x 10-3) is
A.
2.9945
B.
2.994
C.
2.99
D.
3.0

E.

## 3 (5.5 x 10-3) = 2.9945

Since 3 is not an exact number, then the addition/subtraction rules for significant figures
come into place. This rules limits the answer to the number of digits after the decimal
point. Since 3 has no digits after the decimal point, the final answer must be rounded to 3.

48

## CHEM 161-1998 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES/PRECISION/ACCURACY
1. The total number of significant figures in the following measurement of length l is:
0

|
0

|
0.050

|
0.100

A. 1

B. 2
C. 3
D. 4
E. 5

## CHEM 161-1999 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS

ZUMDAHL CHAPTER I - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES/PRECISION/ACCURACY
13. The answer for the following mathematical operation (10.003-0.57 ) should
be reported to how many significant figures?
A. 2

B.

3
C. 4
D. 5
E. 1

49

## ZUMDAHL 5TH EDITION

CHEM 161-2002 RECITATION 2ND WEEK-2
CHAPTER 1 - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES/PRECISION/ACCURACY

1-27 mod.
Write the number below in standard exponential notation.
Standard exponential notation, also known as scientific notation, is a single
digit followed by a decimal point, followed by other digit(s) times ten to an
exponent. (Times ten to an exponent is frequently represented by Eexp.)
a. 312.54 = 3.1254 x 102 = 3.1254E2
b. 0.00031254 = 3.1254 x 10-4 = 3.1254E-4

50

## ZUMDAHL 5TH EDITION

CHEM 161-2002 RECITATION 2ND WEEK-2
CHAPTER 1 - CHEMICAL FOUNDATIONS
SIGNIFICANT FIGURES/PRECISION/ACCURACY

1-31
Perform the following mathematical operations, and express each result to the
correct number of significant figures.
First do the addition and subtraction to determine the number of significant
figures in that answer; then do multiplication or division:
c. (9.04 - 8.23 + 21.954 + 81.0)/3.1416
9.04
-8.23
+21.954
+81.0
103.764 = 103.8 (four significant figures based on
103.764/3.1416 = 33.029 = 33.03 (Based on multiplication-division significant
figure rules, four significant figures because the least number of significant
figures in this division is four.)
11.
Chem 161-2003 Exam I
Chapter 1 - Chemical Foundations
Significant figures
The result of the following calculation to the correct number of significant figures is
(4.6 x 10-2)(1.41 x 10-1) - 2.183 x 10-5
6.464 x 10-3
6.4642 x 10-3
C. 6.5 x 10-3
D. 6.46417 x 10-3
E. 6.46 x 10-3

A.
B.

(4.6 x 10-2)(1.41 x 10-1) = 6.486 x 10-3; two SFs because 4.6 has only 2 SFs.
0.00648600 This has 2 SFs, therefore 0.0065 = 4 places after the decimal point.

51

-0.00002183 This has 4 SFs, therefore 0.00002183 = 8 places after the dec point.
0.00646417 is limited by the four places after the decimal point in 0.0065, and therefore also has 4
places after the decimal point which results in 0.00646417 rounding off to 0.0065 = 6.5 x 10-3

11.

## Chem 161-2003 Final exam

Chapter 1 - Chemical Foundations
Significant figures
The solution with the correct number of significant figures to
(22.41+0.464) x 299/18.465 is
A.
B.
C.
D.

370.4
3.7 x 102
370.394
3.704 x 102

E.

3.70 x 102

22.41
+ 0.464
22.874 rounded to 22.87 (four significant figures based on addition/subtr SF rule).
22.874 x 299/18.465 = 370.39 rounded off to 370. (three significant figures based on
multiplication/division significant figures rule). 370. = 3.70 x 102

52

MISCELLANEOUS

## 23 Chem 161-2005 Exam I

Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 1
Miscellaneous
To test a hypothesis, we run a controlled experiment. We need to know what positive and
negative results mean. Which of the following would be an example of one of these controls?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Testing a soil sample with a pesticide added before attempting to measure pesticide levels
in samples from farms.
Reviewing results from other experimenters before planning an experiment.
Testing many samples for different locations to make sure the results are reproducible.
Measuring pesticide levels at different times of day, to determine if rain or dew changes
the concentration.
Comparing urban and rural samples to measure the effect of wind on pollutants..

A positive control is a cell in an experimental study which is set up to provide a reference point
for the desired results. A negative control is a cell in an experimental study which is set up to
provide a reference point for the absence of the desired effect.
A. This is a positive control. If a specified of pesticide is put into the soil sample, and then
analyzed acceptably, it will serve as a reference point.
B. A review is not an experimental cell. A control must be an experimental cell.
C. Reproducibility is important, but it doesnt serve as a positive or negative reference point.
D. This is an experimental cell, not a positive or negative control cell.
E. This also is an experimental cell, not a positive or negative control cell.

53