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CHEM 161-2007

CHAPTER 3A STOICHIOMETRY: CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS


PRACTICE PROBLEMS
DR. ED TAVSS

Atoms, ions, moles and molecular wts.


Empir. & molec. formulas and related stoichiometry

ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WTS.


Chem 161-2007 Exam I
Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 3A Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations
Atoms, ions, moles and molecular weights
22. How many sodium atoms are there in 6.0g of Na3N?
A. 3.6 x 1024 atoms

B.

1.3 x 1023 atoms


C. 0.22 atoms
D. 4.6 x 1022 atoms
E. 0.072 atoms
Na3N
6g
(3 x 22.990) + 14.01 = 82.98g = Molecular weight
6g Na3N/(82.98g Na3N/mol Na3N) x (3 mol Na/1 mol Na3N) x (6.022 x 1023 atom Na/mol Na)
= 1.31 x 1023 atom Na

Chem 161-2006 Exam I


Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations
Atoms, ions, moles and molecular weights

How many oxygen atoms are there in 2.25 moles of BaSO4?


A. 9.00
B. 2.41 1024

C.

5.42 1024
D. 1.35 1024
E. 3.39 1023
2.25 mol x (6.022 x 1023 molecules/mol) x (4 oxygen atoms/molecule) = 5.42 x 1024
atoms O.

7 Chem 161-2005 Exam I


Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 3A
Atoms, ions, moles and molecular weights
What is the % N (by mass) in ammonium nitrate?
A. 17.5%
B. 21.2%
C. 53.8%
D. 22.2%

E.

35.0%

NH4NO3 = 14.01 + (4 x 1.008) + 14.01 + (3 x 16.00) = 80.05


((2 x 14.01)/80.05) x 100 = 35.00%

3 Chem 161-2005 Final exam


Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Moles and molecular weights
A 0.0567 g sample of a compound contains 5.865 x 1019 molecules. What is the molar mass
of this compound?
g
mol
g
B. 256
mol
g
C. 384
mol
g
D. 452
mol
g
. 582 mol

A. 128

Compound
0.0567 g
5.865 x 1019 molecules
?MW
Plan: molecules moles MW
5.865 x 1019 molecules x (1 mol/(6.022 x 1023 molecules)) = 9.739 x 10-5 moles
0.0567 g/(9.739 x 10-5 moles) = 582 g/mol

27 Chem 161-2005 Final exam


Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Moles and molecular weights
Which one of the following is true regarding the mass of one molecule of H2O?
A.
B.
C.

D.
E.

Mass(amu)
18
18
1.1 x 1025
18

Mass(g)
18
1.0
1.1 x 10-23
3.0 x 10-23

3.0 x 10-23

18

MW H2O = 18.02 g/mol


(18.02 g/mol)/(6.022 x 1023 molecules/mol) = 2.99 x 10-23 g/molecule
The mass in amus is the same as the mass per mole, except that since it is the mass per
atom, it is described as amus rather than grams. Hence the mass of 1 atom of H2O is 18.02
amus (whereas the mass of 1 mol of H2O is 18.02 g).

46 Chem 161-2005 Final exam


Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Moles and molecular weights
How many molecules of H2 are required to make 0.44 g of propane, C3H8(g)?
A.

6.02 x 10-23 molecules

B.

2.4 x 1022 molecules


6.0 x 1021 molecules
2.4 x 1025 molecules
3.0 x 1022 molecules

C.
D.
E.

H2 + C C3H8
4H2 + 3C C3H8
0.44g
Plan: gC3H8 molC3H8 molH2 moleculesH2
0.44g x (1 mol/44.11g) x (4 mol H2/mol C3H8) x (6.022 x 1023 molecules H2/mol H2)
= 2.40 x 1022 molecules of H2

50 Chem 161-2005 Final exam


Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Moles and molecular weights
What mass of sodium sulfate will contain 5.00 x 1022 oxygen atoms?
A.
B.
C.
D.

12.5 g
16.2 g
8.39 g
3.26 g

E.

2.95 g

Na2SO4
1 mol Na2SO4 = 4 mol O
Plan: atomsO molesO molesNa2SO4 gNa2SO4
5.00 x 1022 O atoms x (1 mol O/6.022 x 1023 O atoms) x (1 mol Na2SO4/4 mol O atom)
x 142.05 g/mol = 2.95g Na2SO4

12 Chem 161-2005 Exam I


Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 3A
Atoms, ions, moles and molecular weights
How many sulfur atoms are there in 0.566g of Na2S2O3?
A. 1.20 1024 atoms
B. 2.16 1021 atoms

C.

4.31 1021 atoms


D. 0.00716 atoms
E. 2 atoms
MW Na2S2O3 = (2 x 22.99) + (2 x 32.06) + (3 x 16.00) = 158.1 g/mol
0.566 g x (1 mol/158.1 g) x (6.022 x 1023 molecules Na2S2O3/mol Na2S2O3)
x (2 atoms S/molecule Na2S2O3) = 4.31 x 1021 atoms of sulfur

21 Chem 161-2005 Exam I


Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 3
Atoms, ions, moles and molecular weights
The estimated population of the planet is currently about 6.5 109 people. How many moles of
people is that?
A. 3.9 1033 mol
B. 6.5 mol

C.

1.1 10-14 mol


D. 1.1 mol
E. 3.9 mol
6.5 x 109 people x (1 mole/6.022 x 1023 people) = 1.08 x 10-14 mol

22 Chem 161-2005 Exam I


Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 3
Atoms, ions, moles and molecular weights
A 0.0567g sample of a compound is found to contain 9.74 10-5 mols. What is the molar mass of
the compound?
A. 1.72 10-3 g/mol
B. 5.52 g/mol
C. 552 g/mol

D.

582 g/mol
E. 172 g/mol
mol = g/MW
MW = g/mol
0.0567g/(9.74 x 10-5 mol) = 5.82 x 102 g/mol = MW

12.

Chem 161-2004 Exam I


Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 3
Moles and Molar Masses
For which one of the compounds below does 0.256 mol have a mass of 12.9 g?
A.

C2H4O
7

B.
C.
D.
E.

CO2
C2H6
CH2Cl2
CH3Cl

Plan: mol g
A.
B.
C.
D.

MW
C2H4O 44.05
CO2
44.01
C2H6
30.07
CH2Cl2 84.93

E.

CH3Cl 50.48

Plan: g mol
C2H4O: 12.9 g x (1 mol/44.05 g) = 0.293 mol
CO2: 12.9 g x (1 mol/44.01 g) = 0.293 mol
C2H6: 12.9 g x (1 mol/30.07 g) = 0.429 mol
CH2Cl2: 12.9 g x (1 mol/84.93 g) = 0.152 mol
CH3Cl: 12.9 g x (1 mol/50.48 g) = 0.256 mol

19.

Chem 161-2004 Exam I


Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 3
Moles and Molar Masses
A given sample of a compound XeFn (where n is a whole number) has a mass of 0.311 g
and contains 9.03 x 1020 molecules. The value of n is
A.
B.

2
3

C.

4
5
1

D.
E.

XeFn
0.311 g
9.03 x 1020 molecules
We know the atomic weight of Xe and F from the periodic table. If we found the MW
of XeFn, then we could determine the value of n.
Plan: molecules moles MW
9.03 x 1020 molecules x (1 mol/6.022 x 1023 molecules) = 0.0014995 mol

0.311 g/0.0014995 mol = 207.40 g/mol = MW


Xe = 131.30 g/mol
207.40 - 131.30 = 76.1 g/mol = mass of F
76.1/19.00 = 4.01 mol of F
Therefore, XeFn = XeF4

24.

Chem 161-2004 Exam I


Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 3
Moles and Molar Masses
Fluorine has only one stable isotope F-19 of relative atomic mass 19.0. The mass of a
fluorine atom is

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

3.16 x 10-23 g
19.0 g
6.02 x 10-23 g
38.0 g
1.14 x 10-21 g

Plan: AW mass of one atom


(19.0 g/mol) x (1 mol/6.022 x 1023 atoms) = 3.16 x 10-23 g

7 Chem 161-2004 Exam I


Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 3A
Atoms, ions, moles and molecular weights
What is the % N (by mass) in ammonium nitrate?
A. 17.5%
B. 21.2%
C. 53.8%
D. 22.2%

E.

35.0%

NH4NO3 = 14.01 + (4 x 1.008) + 14.01 + (3 x 16.00) = 80.05


((2 x 14.01)/80.05) x 100 = 35.00%

12 Chem 161-2004 Exam I


Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 3A
Atoms, ions, moles and molecular weights
How many sulfur atoms are there in 0.566g of Na2S2O3?
A. 1.20 1024 atoms
B. 2.16 1021 atoms

C.

4.31 1021 atoms


D. 0.00716 atoms
E. 2 atoms
MW Na2S2O3 = (2 x 22.99) + (2 x 32.06) + (3 x 16.00) = 158.1 g/mol
0.566 g x (1 mol/158.1 g) x (6.022 x 1023 molecules Na2S2O3/mol Na2S2O3)
x (2 atoms S/molecule Na2S2O3) = 4.31 x 1021 atoms of sulfur
12 Chem 161-2004 Exam I
Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 3A
Atoms, ions, moles and molecular weights
How many sulfur atoms are there in 0.566g of Na2S2O3?
A. 1.20 1024 atoms
B. 2.16 1021 atoms

C.

4.31 1021 atoms


D. 0.00716 atoms
E. 2 atoms
MW Na2S2O3 = (2 x 22.99) + (2 x 32.06) + (3 x 16.00) = 158.1 g/mol
0.566 g x (1 mol/158.1 g) x (6.022 x 1023 molecules Na2S2O3/mol Na2S2O3)
x (2 atoms S/molecule Na2S2O3) = 4.31 x 1021 atoms of sulfur

10

21 Chem 161-2004 Exam I


Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 3A
Atoms, ions, moles and molecular weights
The estimated population of the planet is currently about 6.5 109 people. How many moles of
people is that?
A. 3.9 1033 mol
B. 6.5 mol

C.

1.1 10-14 mol


D. 1.1 mol
E. 3.9 mol
6.5 x 109 people x (1 mole/6.022 x 1023 people) = 1.08 x 10-14 mol

22 Chem 161-2004 Exam I


Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 3A
Atoms, ions, moles and molecular weights
A 0.0567g sample of a compound is found to contain 9.74 10-5 mols. What is the molar mass of
the compound?
A. 1.72 10-3 g/mol
B. 5.52 g/mol
C. 552 g/mol

D.

582 g/mol
E. 172 g/mol
mol = g/MW
MW = g/mol
0.0567g/(9.74 x 10-5 mol) = 5.82 x 102 g/mol = MW
18.

CHEM 161- 2004 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS


CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
Calculate the mass of a sample of butane, C4H10, that contains 7.50 x 1022 carbon
atoms.
A.
B.
C.
D.

0.452 g
3.62 g
14.5 g
29.0 g
11

E.

1.81 g

MW C4H10 = (4 x 12.01) + (10 x 1.01) = 58.14 g


Since there are 4 carbon atoms per molecule, then 7.50 x 1022 carbon atoms would be in
(7.50 x 1022)/4 = 1.875 x 1022 C4H10 molecules
(1.875 x 1022molecules)/(6.022 x 1023 molecules/mol) = 0.03114 mol C4H10
0.03114 mol C4H10 x 58.14 g/mol = 1.81 g C4H10

23.

CHEM 161- 2004 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS


CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
Which statements are true about the mole?
X. A mole of any element contains exactly 6.022 x 1023 atoms.
Y. A mole of Carbon-12 has a mass of exactly 12 grams.
Z. A mole of water has a mass of approximately 18.0 amu.
A.
B.

X only
Y and Z only

C.

Y only
X, Y and Z
X and Y only

D.
E.

X. Whereas a mole of Na contains exactly 6.022 x 1023 atoms, a mole of O2 contains


12.044 x 1023 atoms. Therefore, A is not true.
Y. A mole of Carbon-12 having a mass of exactly 12 grams is the SI definition of a
mole. Therefore, this is true.
Z. A mole of water has a mass of approximately 18.0 grams. A molecule of water has a
mass of approximately 18.0 amus. Therefore, C is not true.

ZUMDAHL 5TH EDITION


CHEM 161-2002 RECITATION 3RD WEEK
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
12

ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS

3-29
Calculate the mass of 500. atoms of iron (Fe).
Fe = 55.85 g/mol
6.022 x 10^23 atoms/mol
500 atom x (1 mol/(6.022 x (10^23) atom)) x 55.85 g/mol = 4.64 x 1020
g Fe

13

ZUMDAHL 5TH EDITION


CHEM 161-2002 RECITATION 3RD WEEK
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS

3-35
Calculate the molar mass of the following substances.
a. NH3
N = 14.01
H = 1.01
3 H = 3 x 1.01
(14.01 + (3 x 1.01)) = 17.04

14

ZUMDAHL 5TH EDITION


CHEM 161-2002 RECITATION 3RD WEEK
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS

3-37 mod.
How many moles, molecules and atoms are present in 1.00 g of NH3?
17.04 g/mol
1 g x (1mol/17.04 g) = 0.0587 mol
6.022 x1023 molecules/mol
0.0587 mol x (6.022 x1023 molecules/mol) = 3.53 x 1022 molecules
4 atoms/molecule
3.53 x 1022 molecules x 4 atoms/molecule = 14.14 x 1022 atoms

15

CHEM 161-2001 SUMMER-EXAM I + ANSWERS


ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
13. How many oxygen atoms are there in 3.00 g of sodium dichromate, Na2Cr2O7?
A. 0.0801 atoms
B. 9.85 x 1020 atoms
C. 6.90 x 1021 atoms

D. 4.83 x 10

22

atoms
E. 4.21 x 10 atoms
24

Strategy: grams moles molecules atoms


MW Na2Cr2O7 = (2 x 22.99) + (2 x 52.00) + (7 x 16.00) = 261.98 g
3.00 g Na2Cr2O7 x (1 mol Na2Cr2O7/261.98 g Na2Cr2O7) x j(6.022 x 1023 molecules Na2Cr2O7/mol
Na2Cr2O7) x (7 oxygen atoms/1 molecule Na2Cr2O7) =
4.83 x 1022 oxygen atoms

12.

CHEM 161- 2002 EXAM I + ANSWERS


ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
If you bought 396 g of gold (atomic weight = 197) for $601, each atom of gold would
cost in dollars

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

$4.96 x 10-22
$1.01 x 10-21
$299
Choose this choice if none of the others is correct
$1.50

396 g x (1 mol Au/197 g Au) x (6.022 x 1023 atoms Au/mol Au) = 1.21 x 1024 atoms Au
$601/1.21 x 1024 atoms Au = $4.97 x 10-22/atom Au
CHEM 161-1999 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WTS.
9. What is the mass of a sample of sodium dichromate, Na2Cr2O7, that contains
2.6 x l020 atoms of oxygen?
A. 0.024 g.
16

B. 0.036 g.
C. 0.0 l0g.

D.

0.016 g.
E. 0.048 g.
14
CHEM 161-2000 EXAM I
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, MOLES AND MOLAR MASSES (MOLECULAR WEIGHTS)
How many oxygen atoms are contained in 2.74 g of Al2(SO4)3?
A. 12
B. 6.02 x 1023
C. 7.22 x 1024

D.

5.79 x 1022
E. 8.01 x 10-3
15
CHEM 161-2000 EXAM I
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, MOLES AND MOLAR MASSES (MOLECULAR WEIGHTS)
The percent oxygen by mass in borax, Na2B4O710 H2O, is
A. 42%

B.

71%
C. 17%
D. 40%
E. 29%

CHEM 161-2000 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS


CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
26.
The mass percent of H2O in the hydrate Na2SO4XH2O is 47.0 %. What is X?
(X is the number of moles of water for each mole of Na2S04)
A.
B.
C.
D.

3
4
5
6

E.

17

Na2SO4 XH2O
53g
47g
53/141.98 = 0.3733 moles Na2SO4
47/18.02 = 2.6082 moles H2O
0.3733 : 2.6082 = 1 : 7
24.
Chem 161-2003 Exam I
Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Atoms, ions, moles and molecular weights
The total number of atoms in 0.639 mol of C15H21NO2 is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

3.85
6.02
1.50
1.46
9.42

x
x
x
x
x

1023
1023
l025
l025
1023

mol molecules atoms


0.639 mol C15H21NO2 x 6.022 x 1023 molecules/mol x 39 atoms/molecule = 1.50 x 1025 atoms

CHEM 161-2001-HOURLY EXAM I + ANSWERS


ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
11.
Consider two elements X and Y. The compound XY2 has equal masses of X and Y.
What is the formula of a compound in which the mass of X is four times the mass of Y?
A. XY4

B.
C.
D.
E.

X2Y
X2Y8
XY
X4Y

Grams = moles x AW
Therefore, since AW is a constant for a give element, if the mass is increased by 4 then the moles
are increased by 4. Hence, increasing the mass of X four times results in X4Y2. Other
compounds in which the mass of X is four times the mass of Y are X2Y1 and X8Y4.

18

CHEM 161-2001-HOURLY EXAM I + ANSWERS


ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
12.
The mass of 0.00227 mol of the compound XOF3 is 0.236 g. The atomic weight of
element X is:

A.

31.0
B. 69.0
C. 177
D. 46.9
E.
59.0
Strategy:
Find MW XOF3.
Subtract AW of O and F from the MW to get AW of X
0.236 g of XOF3/0.00227 mol XOF3 = 103.96 g XOF3/mol XOF3 = MWXOF3
103.96 - (16 + (3 x 19)) = 30.96
CHEM 161-2001-HOURLY EXAM I + ANSWERS
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
15.
Chromium (element 24) and oxygen form the polyatomic ion, Cr2O72-. The total number
of electrons in this polyatomic ion is:
A. 16
B. 2
C. 58

D.
E.

106
162

The atomic number = the number of protons


The number of protons = the number of electrons, adjusted to charge, if any.
Cr atomic number = 24
O atomic number = 8
(2 x 24) + (7 x 8) +2 = 106 electrons.
CHEM 161-2001-HOURLY EXAM I + ANSWERS
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
19.
The number of sulfate ions in 43.1 g of aluminum sulfate is:
A. 5.54 x l023
B. 2.09 x l023
C. 7.57 x l022
D. 1.51 x l023
19

E.

2.28 x 1023

Al2(SO4)3 2 Al3+ + 3(SO4)2Strategy: gAS molesAS moleculesAS ionsS


MW Al2(SO4)3 = (26.98 x 2) + 3(32.07 + [4 x 16.00]) = 342.17 g
43.1 g AS x (1 mol AS/342.17 g AS) x (6.022 x 1023 molecules AS/mol AS) x (3 SO4 ions/molecule AS)
= 2.28 x 1028 S ions
3.
CHEM 161- 2002 EXAM I + ANSWERS
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
A given sample of xenon fluoride (Atomic Weights: xenon = 131.3, fluorine = 19.00) contains molecules
of the formula XeFn, where n is a whole number. Given that 9.03 x 1020 molecules of this compound have
a mass of 0.311 g, the value of n is
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

4
1
2
5
3

Strategy: Determine the moles of XeFn present, and then the MW of XeFn. Since we know the atomic
weight of Xe, then we can determine the value of n, so that X + Fn = the molecular weight.
9.03 x 1020 x (1 mole/6.022 x 1023 molecules) = 1.4995 x 10-3 moles of XeFn
0.311 g XeFn/1.4995 x 10-3 moles of XeFn = 207.40 = MW XeFn
AWXe = 131.3
131.3 + Fn = 207.40
Fn = 76.13
76.13/19 = 4.01 Therefore, n = 4, and the molecule is XeF4

CHEM 161-2001-HOURLY EXAM I + ANSWERS


ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
24.The mass of an average grape is 4.1 g. The mass of 1.0 mol grapes:
A.
B.

is 4.1 x l023 g
cannot be calculated from the data

20

C.
D.
E.

is 2.5 x l024 g
is 2.5 Gg
is 6.02 x l023 g

(6.022 x 1022 grapes/mol of grapes) x (4.1 g/grape) = 2.47 x 1024 g/mol of grapes
CHEM 161- 2002 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
18.
If you bought 396 g of gold (atomic weight = 197) for $601, each atom of gold would
cost in dollars

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

$4.96 x 10-22
$299
$1.01 x 10-21
$1.50
Choose this choice if none of the others is correct

Strategy: Convert g of gold to moles of gold to atoms of gold; then calculate cost per atom.
(396 g Au/197 gmol-1) x (6.022 x 1023 atommol-1) = 12.107 x 1023 atoms = 1.21 x 1024 atoms
$601/1.21 x 1024 atom = $497 x 10-24/atom = $4.97 x 10-22/atom

19.
CHEM 161- 2002 EXAM I + ANSWERS
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
Which one of the following statements is true
A.

If one ping pong ball has a mass of 5.0 g, one mole of ping pong balls has a mass of 3.0 x 1022 g

5.0 g/ball x (6.023 x 1023 balls/mole) = 3.01 x 1024 balls/mole


B.
The mass of one mole of 14C is approximately 14 amu
The mass of one atom of 14C is approximately14 amu

C.

A one mole sample of 14C does not have a mass of exactly 14 g.


This is true. One mole of 12C was arbitrarily assigned to have a mass of exactly 12 g. The difference
between 12C and 14C is two neutrons. One mole of neutrons weighs a little more than 1 g. Hence, the
mass of 14C is a little over 14 g.
D.
If 6.0 x 1023 ping pong balls have a mass of 3.0 x 1024 g, then one ping pong ball has a mass of 5
amu
If 6.0 x 1023 ping pong balls have a mass of 3.0 x 1024 g, then one ping pong ball has a mass of 3.0 x 1024
amu

21

E.
One mole of any substance contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms
One mole of any substance contains 6.02 x 1023 things. If the thing is a molecule than one mole contains
6.02 x 1023 molecules. If the thing is atoms than one mole contains 6.02 x 1023 atoms.

CHEM 161- 2002 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS


CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
ATOMS, IONS, MOLES AND MOLECULAR WEIGHTS
21.
The number of atoms in 1.000 mol of aluminum sulfate is
A.
B.
C.

6.022 x 1023
1.700xl024
3.011xl024

D.

1.024xl025
Choose this choice if none of the others is correct

E.

Al2(SO4)3 = 17 atoms/molecule
Strategy: Convert moles to molecules; then molecules to atoms.
1.000 mol x (6.022 x 1023 molecules/mol) x (17 atoms/molecule) = 1.02 x 1025 atoms
10.
Chem 161-2003 Exam I
Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Moles and molecular weights
Which of the following represents the greatest number of molecules?
A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

1.5 mol N2 + 1.5 mol Ne


66 g O2
3.5 mol of S2
1 mol of S8
1.5 x 1024 molecules of CO2

mol molecules
Ne is an atom, not a molecule.
1.5 mol N2 x (6.022 x 1023 molecules/mol) = 9.03 x 1023 molecu
g mol molecules
66 g O2/32 gmol-1 x (6.022 x 1023 molecules/mol) = 1.24 x 1024
mol molecules
3.5 mol S2 x (6.022 x 1023 molecules/mol) = 2.10 x 1024
mol molecules
1 mol S8 x (6.022 x 1023 molecules/mol) = 6.022 x 1023 = 0.60 x 1024
1.5 x 1024 molecules of CO2 = 1.5 x 1024 molecules of CO2

22

12.
Chem 161-2003 Exam I
Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Moles and molecular weights
The mass of one molecule of ClF3 is
A. 92.4 g
B. 1.54x10-22 g
C. 9.24x10-23 g
D. 5.57 x 1025 g
E. 5.44x10-22 g
molecules mol mass
1 molecule x (1 mol/6.023 x 1023 molecules) x (35.453 + (18.998 x 3)gmol-1)
= 1.53 x 10-22 g
161EXAMIV1
FALL 2003

18.

Chem 161-2003 Final exam


Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Moles and molecular weights
It is recommended that we drink 8 glasses of water a day. Each glass contains 240.0 g
of water. If the human body contains 1.00 x 1012 cells and each cell is to get an equal
amount of water, how many molecules of water does each cell get each day?
A.
B.

1.44 x 1024
6.40 x 1023

C.

6.42 x 1013
9.10 x 1016
3.00 x 1014

D.
E.

Plan: glasses of water mass of water mass of water per cell moles of water per
cell molecules of water per cell
8 glasses x 240.0 g water glass-1 = 1920 g water
1920 g water/(1.00 x 1012 cell) = 1.92 x 10-9 g water/cell
1.92 x 10-9 g watercell-1/18.02 g watermol-1 = 1.0655 x 10-10 mol water cell-1
1.0655 x 10-10 mol water cell-1 x (6.022 x 1023 molecules mol-1)
= 6.416 x 1013 molecules of water per cell

23

24

EMPIR. & MOLEC. FORMULAS

40.

Chem 161-2007 Final exam


Hill, Petrucci et al.
CHAPTER 3A STOICHIOMETRY: CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS
Empir. & molec. formulas and related stoichiometry

A compound contains only C, H, N and O. Combustion of 10.0 g of the


compound produces 11.7 g CO2, 6.00 g H2O and 1.87g N2. What is the empirical
formula of the compound?
A. C2H3NO

B. C H NO
2

C. C5H6N2O
D. C2H4N2O3
E. C3H3N3O2
CaHbNcOd + O2 CO2 +
10.0 g
11.7g

H2O +
6.00g

N2
+
1.87g

O2

11.7 g CO2/44.01gmol-1 x (1 mol C/1 mol CO2) x 12.01 gmol-1 = 3.19 g C


6.00 g H2O/18.02gmol-1 x (2 mol H/1mol H2O) x 1.01 gmol-1 = 0.67 g H
1.87 g N2/28.02 gmol-1 x (2 mol N/1 mol N2) x 14.01 gmol-1 = 1.87 g N
There is no quantitative analysis test for O, so O is determined by difference.
10.0 g (3.19 + 0.67 + 1.87) = 4.27 g O
3.19g C/12.01gmol-1 = 0.266 mol C
0.67gH/1.01gmol-1 = 0.66 mol H
1.87gN/14.01gmol-1 = 0.133 mol N
4.27gO/16.00gmol-1 = 0.267 mol O

C0.266H0.66N0.133O0.267 = C2H5N1O2

25

25.

Chem 161-2007 Final exam


Hill, Petrucci et al.
CHAPTER 3A STOICHIOMETRY: CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS
Empir. & molec. formulas and related stoichiometry

How many sulfate ions are in 43.1 g of aluminum sulfate?


A.
B.
C.
D.

5.54 x 1023
2.09 x 1023
7.57 x 1022
1.51 x 1023

E.

2.28 x 1023

Al2(SO4)3 2Al3+ + 3SO4243.1g


?ions
Plan: g Al2(SO4)3 molAl2(SO4)3 molSO42- ionsSO42Aluminum sulfate = Al2(SO4)2 = (2 x 26.98) + ((32.07 + 64.00) x 3) = 341.96 g/mol
43.1g Al2(SO4)2 x (1/341.96gmol-1) x (3 SO42-/mol Al2(SO4)2) x (6.022x1023 ion/mol) =
2.28 x 1023 sulfate ions

16.

Chem 161-2007 Final exam


Hill, Petrucci et al.
CHAPTER 3A STOICHIOMETRY: CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS
Empir. & molec. formulas and related stoichiometry
The element M forms the chloride MCl4. This chloride contains 75.0% chloride by mass. What is the atomic mass of M?
A. 35.5 u
B. 29.2 u
C. 38.6 u
D. 47.3 u
E. 55.8 u

MCl4 M+ + 4Cl25.0g 75.0g


Plan: gCl- molCl- molM+ AWM+
75g Cl/35.45gmol-1 x 1molM+/4molCl- = 0.529 mol M+
mol = g/AW
AWM = g/mol
AWM = 25 g/0.529 mol = 47.3 g/mol

26

Chem 161-2007 Final exam


Hill, Petrucci et al.
CHAPTER 3A STOICHIOMETRY: CHEMICAL CALCULATIONS
Empir. & molec. formulas and related stoichiometry

Benzene and acetylene are different substances with the same empirical
formulas. Which of the following is true?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Their molar masses will have a simple integer ratio.


Their molecular formulas are the same.
Their structural formulas are similar.
They have similar chemical properties.
They have similar physical properties.

Benzene is C6H6; its empirical formula is C1H1 or CH.


Acetylene is C2H2; its empirical formula is C1H1 or CH.
A. True. The molar mass of C6H6 is 78; the molar mass of C2H2 is 26. Their
molar masses have a simple integer ratio of 3:1. Even if the student didnt know
the molecular formulas of benzene and acetylene the student would still get A
as the answer. Lets say that the student thought that benzene was C6H6, but that
acetylene was C4H4. The molar masses would be 78 and 52, respectively, which
is 3:2, a simple integer ratio.
B. False. Their molecular formulas are different, C6H6 and C2H2.
C.
H
H
|
|
C C
HC
CH
C C
|
|
H
H

H C C H
False. Their structural formulas are different.
D. False. The molecules are completely different and therefore have different
reactions with varied reagents, e.g., bases.
E. False. The molecules are completely different and therefore have different
physical properties, e.g., boiling point and melting point.

Chem 161-2007 Exam I


27

Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition


Chapter 3A Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations
Empirical & molecular formulas
23. Which formula cannot be an empirical formula?
A. NaCl
B. CH2O

C.

C6H6O2
D. C10H14NO2
E. CO
An empirical formula is a molecular formula in which the subscripts are reduced to integers of the lowest
common denominator. C6H6O2 is not reduced to its lowest common denominator. Its lowest common
denominator is C3H3O1 = C3H3O.

Chem 161-2007 Exam I


Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 3A Stoichiometry
Empirical & molec. formulas
5. Why is the mass of oxygen in combustion analysis determined by subtraction rather than from the
moles of CO2 and H2O produced?
A.
B.
C.
D.

E.

It is more convenient. You could use the CO2 and H2O, but there is less math involved.
Because there are 2 oxygens in CO2 and only 1 in H2O
Because you need to find the mass % of O in the sample.
Because the moles of oxygen in the sample is equal to the moles of C the moles of H.
Because only some of the oxygen in the CO2 and H2O came from the sample.

In combustion analysis oxygen is always provided to the sample for combustion. Hence, it is not known
whether the oxygen in the product (e.g., CO2 and H2O) is from the oxygen in the sample or from the
oxygen provided for combustion. Therefore, the oxygen is not analyzed. It is determined by calculating
the mass of each of the other elements; then, if the sum of these masses is less than the mass of the
sample, this difference is assumed to be the oxygen content.
(A) False. Using the CO2 and H2O analysis for oxygen content is incorrect.
(B) False. Irrelevant.
(C) False. It is true that you need to find the mass % of oxygen in the sample, but you cannot find that
from the mass % of CO2 or H2O.
(D) False. The difference between the moles of C and the moles of H in the sample is irrelevant.
(E) True. Only some of the oxygen in the CO2 and H2O came from the sample. The rest came from the
oxygen that was used for the combustion.

28

Chem 161-2007 Exam I


Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 3A Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations
Empirical and molecular formulas
7. A compound is 57.19% S and 42.81% O. Its molar mass is 224 g/mol. What is its molecular formula?
A. S5O4
B. S3O
C. S2O3

D.

S4O6
E. S6O2
S
0.5719g
MW = 224 g/mol
S
0.5719g/(32.065gmol-1) = 0.017836 mol

O
0.4281g
O
0.4281g/(15.999gmol-1) = 0.02676 mol

Empirical Formula: S0.017836O0.02676 = S1.000O1.500 = S2O3


Empirical mass = 112
MW/EW = 224/112 = 2.0
2.0 x S2O3 = S4O6 = Molecular formula

Chem 161-2007 Exam I


Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 3A Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations
Empirical & molecular formulas
10. A 2.402g sample of an unknown compound produced 1.439g of H2O, 1.759g of CO2 and 1.121g of
N2 when subjected to combustion analysis. What is the empirical formula of the compound?
A.
B.
C.
D.

CH4NO
C2H7N4O2
CH4N2O2
C2H8NO

E.

CH4N2O

ClHmNn
+
O2

CO2 +
H2O +
N2
2.402g
1.759g
1.439g
1.121g
mass of C: (1.759gCO2 /(44.01gCO2/molCO2)) x (1 mol C/mol CO2) x (12.01gC/mol C) = 0.4800 g C
mass of H: (1.439gH2O/(18.02gH2O/molH2O)) x (2 mol H/mol H2O) x 1.01gH/mol H = 0.1613g H

29

mass of N: (1.121 g N2/(28.02gN2molN2)) x (2 mol N/mol N2) x 14.01 g N/mol N = 1.121g N


Total mass = 1.762g
Therefore, mass of oxygen = 2.402-1.762 = 0.64g
mol C: 0.4800g/12.01 = 0.03997 mol
mol H: 0.1613/1.01 = 0.1596 mol
mol N: 1.121/14.01 = 0.0800mol
mol O: 0.64/16.00 = 0.0400 mol
C0.03997H0.1596N0.0800O0.0400 = C1.00H3.99N2.00O1.00 = CH4N2O = E

Chem 161-2007 Exam I


Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 3A Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations
Empirical & molecular formulas and related stoichiometry
21. What is the mass of nitrogen in a 4.557g sample of nicotine, C10H14N2?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

0.788g
0.394g
0.602g
0.431g
0.989g
C10H14N2
4.557 g

(10 x 12.01) + (14 x 1.01) + (2 x 14.01) = 162.26 = MW


4.557g/(162.26g/mol) = 0.02808mol C10H14N2
0.02808 mol C10H14N2 x (2 mol N/1 mol C10H14N2) x 14.01g/mol N = 0.787 g N

30

14 Chem 161-2006 Final Exam


Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations
Empirical and molecular formulas

A compound of element X and chlorine has the formula XCl3. This compound is 67.2%
Cl by mass. Identify X.
A. Al

B.

Cr
C. N
D. Fe
E. Tb
XCl3
0.672 g Cl
0.328 g X
mol Cl = g/AW = 0.672g/35.45gmol-1 = 0.01896 mol Cl
0.01896 mol Cl x (1mol X/3 mol Cl) = 0.006319 mol X
mol = g/AW
AW = g/mol = 0.328g/0.006319 mol = 51.91 g/mol = Cr

31

2 Chem 161-2006 Final Exam


Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations
Empirical and molecular formulas

The combustion of a 5.000g sample of a hydrocarbon is burned in excess oxygen, yielding


15.0g of carbon dioxide. What is the empirical formula of the hydrocarbon?
A. C2H5

B.

C3H8
C. CH3
D. C3H9
E. C4H9
HC
5.000g

O2
XS

CO2
15.0 g

gCO2 molCO2 molCinCO2 gCinCO2 gCinHC gHinHC

molCinHC molHinHC
Empirical formula
The key concept is that the g of C in CO2 is the same as the grams of C in HC, by the law
of conservation of mass.
15.0 g CO2/44.01gmol-1 = 0.3408 mol CO2
0.3408 mol CO2 x (1 mol C/1mol CO2) = 0.3408 mol C in CO2
0.3408 mol C x 12.01g C/mol = 4.093 g C in CO2
By the law of conservation of mass, there must be 4.093 g C in the unknown HC.
Therefore, the g of H in HC = 5.000 4.093 = 0.907 g H
4.093g C/12.01gmol-1 = 0.3408 mol C
0.907g H/1.01 = 0.898 mol H
0.898 mol H/0.3408 mol C
= 2.635 mol H:1.000 mol C = 7.90 mol H:3 mol C = C3H7.90 = C3H8
Another way of looking at this is by examining the stability of the options. Alkanes are
CHn+2; alkenes are CHn; alkynes are CHn-2. Hence, all stable hydrocarbons have an even
number of hydrogens. Neither A, C, D or E fit into this category. Hence, they are all
unstable products. The only one that is stable is C3H8.

32

23

Chem 161-2006 Exam I


Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations
Empirical and molecular formulas

Combustion analysis of 2.456g of some compound produced 3.043g of CO2, 0.3115g


of H2O, and 0.4844g of N2. What is the empirical formula of this compound?
A. C4HNO2
B. CH2N2O
C. C2HN
D. C2HN2O

E.

C2HNO2

CkHmNnOp
2.456g

O2

CO2 + H2O + N2
3.043g
0.3115g
0.4844g

Plan: grams1 mol1 mol2 grams2


3.043gCO2/(44.01gCO2/molCO2) x (1molC/1molCO2) x 12.01gC/molC = 0.8304g C
0.3115gH2O/(18.02gH2O/molH2O) x (2molH/1molH2O) x 1.01gH/molH = 0.0349gH
0.4844gN2/(28.02gN2/moN2) x (2molN/1molN2) x 14.01gN/molN = 0.4844gN
Total analyzed mass of product = 0.8304 + 0.0349 + 0.4844 = 1.3537g
But there are 2.456g of sample.
Balance must be oxygen.
2.456g 1.3537g = 1.1023g O
Calculate moles:
moles = g/MW
0.8304gC/(12.01gC/molC) = 0.0691 mol C
0.0349gH/(1.01gH/molH) = 0.0346 mol H
0.4844gN/(14.01gN/molN) = 0.0346 mol N
1.1023gO/(16.00gO/molO) = 0.0689 mol O
C0.0691H0.0346N0.0346O0.0689 = C2H1N1O2 = C2HNO2 = E

33

14

Chem 161-2006 Exam I


Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations
Empirical and molecular formulas, and percent composition

What is the mass of sodium in 30.0 g of Na2HPO4?


A. 4.86 g
B. 0.423 g
C. 0.211 g

D.

9.72 g
E. 1.30 g
MWNa2HPO4 = (2 x 22.99) + (1 x 1.01) + (1 x 30.97) + (4 x 16.00) = 141.96g
Plan: gNa2HPO4 molNa2HPO4 mol Na g Na
30.0gNa2HPO4/(141.96gNa2HPO4/molNa2HPO4) x (2molNa/1mol Na2HPO4)
x (22.99gNa/molNa) = 9.72g Na

34

11

Chem 161-2006 Exam I


Hill, Petrucci et al., 4th edition
Chapter 3 Stoichiometry: Chemical Calculations
Empirical and molecular formulas

Which of the following statements best describes an empirical formula?


A. It is the experimentally measured number of each atom in a molecule.
B. The ratio of charges of ions in ionic compounds.
C. The ratio of compounds in a mixture.

D.

The simplest, whole number ratio of elements in a compound.


E. The smallest number needed to balance a chemical equation.
A. No. Although an empirical formula comes from an experimental measurement,
the mass, not the empirical formula numbers, is what is obtained from this
experimental measurement. The empirical formula numbers is then calculated from
the mass.
B. No. For example, in the formula Na2SO3 the ratio of charges of ions is 2:1, which
says nothing about the ratio of the atoms, which is 3:1:2.
C. No. We are interested in the ratio of atoms in a compound, not the ratio of
compounds in a mixture of compounds.
D. Yes, e.g., C2H3 is an empirical formula.
E. No. An empirical formula has nothing to do with balancing an equation.

35

Chem 161-2005 Hourly Exam II


Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Empirical and molecular formulas
Combustion of a hydrocarbon produces 3.000 g of CO2 and 1.637 g of H2O. What is the empirical
formula of the hydrocarbon?
A. CH2
B. CH3
C. C2H3
D. C3H4

E.

C3H8

CxHy + O2 CO2 + H2O


3.00g 1.637g
Strategy: gCO2 molCO2 molC
3.00 g CO2 x (1 mol CO2/44.01gCO2) x (1 mol C/1 mol CO2) = 0.0682 mol C
Strategy: gH2O molH2O molH
1.637 g H2O x (1 mol H2O/18.02 g H2O) x (2 molH/1molH2O) = 0.1817 mol H
Mol ratio of H:C = 2.66.
Mol ratio of H:C in C3H8 = 2.66.

17

Chem 161-2005 Hourly Exam II


Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Empirical and molecular formulas
Which one of the following could not be an empirical formula?
A. C3H4
B. C12H17NO
C. C4H8O
D. C55H72MgN4O5

E.

C12H15N3

An empirical formula is a formula containing the lowest common denominator of atoms,


expressed in integers.
A, B, C and D are possible empirical formulas, because the relative number of atoms cannot be
reduced any further and still be integers. However, E, C12H15N3, can be simplified further to
C4H5N, so E is not an empirical formula.

36

13 Chem 161-2005 Final exam


Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Empirical and molecular formulas
An oxide of iron weighing 6.752 g reacts with carbon monoxide to yield carbon dioxide and
4.72 g of elemental iron. What is the empirical formula of the iron oxide?
A.
B.
C.
D.

FeO
FeO2
Fe2O
Fe3O4

E.

Fe2O3

FexOy + CO CO2 + Fe
6.752g
4.72g
Due to the law of conservation of mass, the FexOy must contain 4.72 g of Fe. Therefore,
it also contains 2.032 oxygen
Fe
O
4.72g 2.032g
4.72 g Fe x (1 mol/55.85 g) = 0.0845 mol Fe
2.032 g O x (1 mol/16.00 g) = 0.127 mol O
0.127 mol O/0.0845 mol Fe = 1.50 O: 1.00 Fe = 3.00 O: 2.00 Fe = Fe2O3

37

30 Chem 161-2005 Final exam


Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Empirical and molecular formulas
A compound contains only C, H and O. Combustion of 10.0 g of the compound produces
14.7 g CO2 and 6.02 g H2O. What is the empirical formula of the compound?
A.
B.
C.
D.

C2H3O
CH2O2
C3H4O
C3H5O

E.

CH2O

CxHyOz + O2 CO2 + H2O


10.0 g
14.7g 6.02g
It is assumed that combustion is done with an excess of oxygen. Hence, determine quantity
of carbon and quantity of hydrogen, and then determine quantity of oxygen by difference.
Plan: gCO2 molCO2 molC gC
14.7 g CO2 x (1 molCO2/44.01 gCO2) x (1 mol C/1 mol CO2) x 12.01 gC/molC = 4.01 g C
Plan: gH2O molH2O molH gH
6.02 g H2O x (1 molH2O /18.02 gH2O) x (2 molH/1 mol H2O) x 1.01 gH/molH = 0.6748 g H
Plan: Determine g of oxygen by subtraction of grams of C and H from total.
10.0 g CxHyOz (4.01 + 0.6748) = 5.32 g O
C
H
O
4.01g
0.6748g 5.32g
C: 4.01g x (1mol/12.01g) = 0.334 mol C
H: 0.6748g x (1 mol/1.01g) = 0.668 mol H
O: 5.32g x (1 mol/16.00g) = 0.333 mol O
Therefore, C0.334H0.668O0.333 = C1H2O1 = CH2O

17.

Chem 161-2004 Exam I


Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 3
Empirical and Molecular Formulas
Vitamin C contains the elements C, H, and O. It is 40.9% C and 4.58% H by mass. Its
molar mass is about 180. The molecular formula for Vitamin C is
A.
B.

C2H3O2
C5H8O7

38

C.
D.

C7H4O6
C4H6O4

E.

C6H8O6

C = 40.9%

H = 4.58%

O = 100.00 - (40.9 + 4.58) = 54.52%

Plan: g mol
C: 40.9 g x (1 mol/12.01 g) = 3.41 mol
H: 4.58 g x (1 mol/1.01 g) = 4.53 mol
O: 54.52 g x (1 mol/16.00 g) = 3.408 mol
Empirical formula:
C3.41H4.53O3.408
Empirical formula in integers:
C1.00H1.329O1.000
C3.00H3.99O3.00
C3H4O3 Empirical weight: 88.1
Molecular formula:
180/88.1 = 2.04
Therefore: C6H8O6

22.

Chem 161-2004 Exam I


Zumdahl 6th edition
Chapter 3
Empirical and Molecular Formulas
A chloride of rhenium contains 63.6% rhenium by mass. The formula of this compound
is
A.
B.
C.

Re2Cl3
ReCl7
ReCl2

D.

ReCl3
ReCl

E.

RexCly
0.636 g Re
1.000 - 0.636 = 0.364 g Cl
Plan: g mol
Re: 0.636 g x (1 mol/186.21 g) = 0.00342 mol

39

Cl: 0.364 g x (1 mol/35.45 g) = 0.01027 mol


Empirical ratio of moles: 0.01027:0.00342 = 3.00 Cl:1.00 Re
ReCl3

13.

CHEM 161- 2004 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS


CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
A compound containing only the elements carbon and hydrogen is burned in air, forming
0.660 grams of CO2 and 0.270 grams of H2O. The empirical formula of the hydrocarbon
is:
A.
B.
C.

CH4
CH3
C2H3

D.

CH2
CH

E.

Plan: massCO2 molesCO2 molesC


massH2O molesH2O molesH
0.660 gCO2 x (1 molCO2/44.01 g) x (1 molC/1 molCO2) = 0.015 mol C
0.270 gH2O x (1 molH2O/18.02 g) x (2 molH/1 mol H2O) = 0.030 mol H
Empirical formula: C0.015H0.030 = CH2

ZUMDAHL 5TH EDITION


CHEM 161-2002 RECITATION 3RD WEEK
40

CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS

3-71
A compound that contains only nitrogen and oxygen is 30.4% N by
mass; the molar mass of the compound is 92 g/mol. What is the
empirical formula of the compound? What is the molecular formula
of the compound?
30.4% nitrogen
100.0% - 30.4% = 69.6% oxygen
N0.304 gO0.696 g
Molecular formulas are based on mole relationships, not mass
relationships. So mass must be converted into moles.
0.304 g x (1 mol/14.01 g) = 0.0217 mol N
0.696 g x (1 mol/16.00 g) = 0.0435 mol O
N0.0217molO0.0435mol
0.0435/0.0217 = 2.0046/1.0000
= N1O2 = NO2 = empirical formula
The molecular weight of N1O2 = 46.01. But the molar mass of the
stated compound is 92. Therefore, it is (92/46.01 =) 2.000 times the
mass of N1O2, or N2O4.
Molecular formula = N2O4
CHEM 161- 2002 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
12.
A compound consisting of only Mg, P, and O is found to contain 21.9% by mass Mg,
and 27.8% by mass P. The empirical formula of the compound is
A.

Mg3(PO4)2

B.

Mg2P2O7
41

C.
D.
E.

MgP2O4
Mg2P3O8
MgPO4

Find the % O by subtracting the % Mg and % P from 100%. Then convert all percentages to moles.
Then convert moles to integers.
100 - (21.9 + 27.8) = 50.3% O
Mg21.9P27.8O50.3
21.9 g Mg/24.305 g mol-1 = 0.90 mol Mg
27.8 g P/30.974 g mol-1 = 0.898 mol P
50.3 g O/16.00 gmol-1 = 3.14 mol O
Mg0.90P0.898O3.14
Divide all by the smallest amount, which is 0.898.
Mg1.002P1.000O3.50
We need integers.
Mg2P2O7
CHEM 161-1998 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
6. The bitter-tasting compound quinine is a component of tonic water and is used as a protection against
malaria. When a sample of mass 0.487 g was burned, 1.321 g of CO2, 0.325 g of H2O, and 0.0421 g of N2
were produced. What is the empirical formula of quinine?
A. C10H20N2O
B. C10H32NO2
C. C9H23N2O2

D. C

H12NO
E. C9H14N2O
10

Quinine
0.487 g

CO2
1.321 g

H2O
0.325 g

N2
0.0421 g

Plan:
g C in CO2: gCO2 molCO2 mol C gC
MWCO2 = 12.01 + (16.00 x 2) = 44.01
1.321 g CO2 x (1molCO2/44.01 g CO2) x (1 mol C/1mol CO2) x (12.01 g C/mol C) = 0.360 g C
g H in H2O: gH2O molH2O mol H gH
0.325 g H2O x (1 mol H2O/18.02 g H2O) x (2 mol H/1mol H2O) x (1.008 g H/1 mol H) = 0.0364 g H
g N in N2: gN2 mol N2 mol N g N
Its not necessary to calculate the mass of N because 0.0421 g N2 = 0.0421 g N, i.e., its not relevant what
the form of N is. However, if we want to follow the standard calculation procedure:
42

0.0421 g N2 x (1 mol N2/28.02 g N2) x (2 mol N/1 mol N2) x (14.01 g N/mol N) = 0.0421 g N
Oxygen not analyzed for. Calculate O by difference.
0.487 g - (0.360 + 0.0364 + 0.0421) = 0.0485 g O.
Determine moles of C, H, N and O
C: 0.360g x (1 mol/12.01 g) = 0.02998 mol
H: 0.0364 g x (1 mol/1.008 g) = 0.03611 mol
N: 0.0421 g x (1 mol/14.01 g) = 0.00301 mol
O: 0.0485 g x (1 mol/16.00 g) = 0.00303 mol
Empirical formula: Divide by the smallest moles, which is 0.00301
C9.96H12.00N1.00O1.01 = C10H12NO
CHEM 161-1999 FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
23. Iron of mass 2.00 grams reacts with sulfur to form 4.296 grams of
"fool's gold". What is the empirical formula of the "fool's gold"?
A. Fe3S4
B. Fe2S3
C. Fe2S
D. FeS

E.

FeS2

16.
CHEM 161-2000 EXAM I
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
If 0.600 mol of element X is found to react completely with 4.80 g of O2 gas, what is the empirical
formula of the resultant oxide?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

X2O
XO2
X4O
XO4
XO

43

17.
CHEM 161-2000 EXAM I
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
The products of the combustion in excess O2 gas of 3.42 g of a compound containing only nitrogen and
hydrogen are NO2 and H2O. If 9.82 g of NO2 are obtained, what is the empirical formula of the
compound?
A. NH

B.

NH2
C. N2H
D. NH3
E. N2H6
CHEM 161-2001 FINAL EXAM WITH ANSWERS
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
11. Phenol, a general disinfectant, has the mass percent composition: 76.57% C, 6.43% H and 17.00% 0.
What is its empirical formula?
A. C2H6O2
B. CH2O
C. C3H3O

D. C H O
6

E. C6H6O3
C76.57H6.42O17.00 is grams. We need moles.
76.57/12 = 6.38; 6.43/1.01 = 6.37
17.00/16.00 = 1.06
This is equal to 6:6:1
CHEM 161-2001 SUMMER FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
36. Combustion analysis of 1.244 g of an unknown compound produced
1.542g of CO2, 0.1578g ofH2O and 0.2452g of N2. What is the empirical formula of
the compound?
A. C4HO5N
B. C4H2O4N

C. C HO N
2

D. C2HO5N
E. C2HO2N2
44

CHEM 161-2001 SUMMER FINAL EXAM + ANSWERS


CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
37. Which of the following could not be an empirical formula?
A. Al2S3O9

B. C H
2

C. HBr
D. CH
E. Na2Cr2O7
CHEM 161-2001 SUMMER-EXAM I
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
Chem 161-Su01-Empirical and molecular formulas
6. What is the empirical formula of a compound that is 29.09% sodium, 40.56% sulfur and 30.35%
oxygen by mass?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Na2S2O3
Na3S4O3
Na3S3O2
Na2SO4
Na2SO3

Since only the ratio of the percentages is what is important, arbitrarily call the percentages grams. Hence,
29.09% sodium = 29.09 g sodium
AWNa = 22.99
AWS = 32.066
AWO = 16.00
moles of Na = 29.09g Na x (1 mol Na/22.99 g Na) = 1.265
moles of S = 40.56 g S x (1 mol S/32.066 g S) = 1.265
moles of O = 30.35 g O x (1 mol O/16.00 g O) = 1.897
Divide by the smallest number:
Na1.00S1.00O1.50
Multiply each set of numbers by 2
= Na2S2O3 = A

45

CHEM 161-2001 SUMMER-EXAM I


ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
20. A 1.500 g sample of compound containing only C, H, and O was burned completely. The only
combustion products were 1.738 g CO2 and 0.711 g H2O. What is the empirical formula of the
compound?
A. CH2O2

B.

C2H4O3
C. CH2O
D. CHO
E. CH4O
Strategy: gCO2 moles CO2 moles C g C
gH2O moles H2O moles H g H
Total g - (gC + gH) = gO
g C molesC
g H moles H
g O V moles O
MWCO2 = 12.01 + (2 x 16.00) = 44.01 g
MW H2O = (2 x 1.01) + 16.00 = 18.02 g
1.738 g CO2 x (1 mol CO2/44.01 g CO2) x (1 mol C/1 mol CO2) x (12.01 g C/mol C) = 0.4743 g C
0.711 g H2O x (1 mol H2O/18.02 g H2O) x (2 mol H/1 mol H2O) x (1.01 g H/mol H) = 0.0797 g H
g O = 1.500 g total - (0.4743 g C + 0.0797 g H) = 0.946 g O
moles C = 0.4743 g C x (1 mol C/12.01 g C) = 0.03949 moles C
moles H = 0.0797 g H x (1 mol H/1.01 g C) = 0.07891 moles H
moles O = 0.946 g O x (1 mol O/16.00 g O) = 0.0591 moles O
Divide all by the lowest number:
0.03949/0.03949 = 1.00 mol C
0.07891/0.03949 = 1.998 mol H
0.0591/0.03949 = 1.50 mol O
Multiply everything by 2
Empirical formula = C2H4O3

46

CHEM 161-2001-HOURLY EXAM I + ANSWERS


ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
17.

A 1.17-g sample of a binary compound of nitrogen and hydrogen is burned completely


in excess O2 to form NO2 and H2O. The mass of NO2 is found to be 3.17g.
The empirical formula of the compound is:
A. NH
B. NH2

C.
D.
E.

NH3
N2H5
N2H

NH + O2 NO2 + H2O
Strategy: massNO2 molNO2 molN massN massH molH
molN & molH empirical formula
MW NO2 = 46
AW N = 14
3.17 g NO2 x (1 mol NO2/46 g NO2) x (1 mol N/1 mol NO2) = 0.0689 mol N
0.0689 mol N x (14 g N/mol N) = 0.965 g N
1.17 g total - 0.965 g N = 0.205 g H
0.205 g H x (1 mol H/1.01 g H) = 0.203 mol H
Empirical Formula: 0.203 mol H/0.0689 mol N = 2.95 H : 1 N = H3N or NH3
CHEM 161-2001-HOURLY EXAM I + ANSWERS
ZUMDAHL CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
22.

A binary compound of bromine and oxygen has a molecular weight of 128. Which of
the following compounds has the same empirical formula as this compound?
A. Br2O8
MW = 144

B.
C.
D.
E.

Br2O6
Br2O5
Br2O2
Br2O4

MW = 128
MW = 240
MW = 192
MW = 112

47

The empirical formula must be one -- which when multiplied by an integer -- provides the MW.
Therefore, the empirical formula can only be 128, 64, 32, 16, etc. Answer: B
14.
CHEM 161- 2002 EXAM I + ANSWERS
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
The empirical formula of the compound putrescine is C2H6N and its molecular weight is 88.2. Its
molecular formula is

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Choose this choice if none of the others is correct


C2H6N2
C4H8N2
C4H12N
C4H10N2

C2H6N = empirical weight of 44


C4H12N2 = molecular weight of 88

23.
CHEM 161- 2002 EXAM I + ANSWERS
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS
A sample of a compound containing only C and H is burned completely to form 9.94 g CO2 and 3.05 g
H2O. (Atomic Weights: H = 1.008, C = 12.01, O = 16.00) The empirical formula of the compound is
A.
CH

B.
C.
D.
E.

C2H3
C2H2
C2H
C3H4

9.94 g CO2 x (1 mol CO2/44 g CO2) x (1 mol C/1 mol CO2) = 0.226 mol C
3.05 g H2O x (1 mol H2O/18 g H2O) x (2 mol H2 x 1 mol H2O) = 0.339 mol H
0.339 mol H : 0.226 mol C = 1.5 H : 1 C
Empirical formulas must contain integers, with carbon before hydrogen. Therefore, C 2H3.

48

ZUMDAHL 5TH EDITION


CHEM 161-2002 RECITATION 3RD WEEK
CHAPTER 3 - STOICHIOMETRY
EMPIRICAL AND MOLECULAR FORMULAS

3-121 mod.
A compound contains only carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen and oxygen.
Combustion of 0.157 g of the compound produced 0.213 g CO2 and
0.0310 g H2O. In another experiment, it is found that 0.157 g of the
compound produces 0.0351 g NH3. What is the empirical formula of
the compound?
CHNO + XS O2 CO2 + H2O + NH3
Plan:
(1) Find grams of C, H and N. Subtract this from total
get grams of O.
(2) Find moles of C, H, N and O.
(3) Find empirical formula.

grams to

Carbon:
0.213 g CO2 x (12.01 g C/44.01 g CO2) = 0.0581 g C
Hydrogen:
0.0310 g H2O x (2.02 g H/18.02 g H2O) = 0.003475 g H
Nitrogen:
0.03506 g NH3 x (14.01 g N/17.03 g NH3) = 0.02884 g N
Find oxygen by difference:
0.157 g CHNO - (0.0581 g C + 0.003475 g H + 0.02884 g N) =
0.06659 g O

49

Now convert each of these quantities into moles:


0.0581 g C x (1 mol/12.01 g) = 0.004838 mol C
0.003475 g H x (1 mol/1.01 g) = 0.003441 mol H
0.02884 g N x (1 mol/14.01 g) = 0.0020585 mol N
0.06659 g O x (1 mol/16.00 g) = mol 0.0041619 mol O
C0.004838H0.003441N0.002059O0.004162
Calculate ratio to the lowest number:
0.004838/0.0020585 = 2.3503 moles C
0.003441/0.0020585 = 1.6716 moles H
0.0020585 /0.0020585 = 1.0000 moles N
0.0041619 /0.0020585 = 2.0218 moles O
Find whole integers:
Try multiplying each by 2:
2.3503 C x 2 = 4.7006
1.6716 H x 2 = 3.3432
1.0000 N x 2 = 2.0000
2.0218 O x 2 = 4.0436
Still not integers.
Try multiplying each by 3:
2.3503 C x 3 = 7.0509
1.6716 H x 3 = 5.0148
1.0000 N x 3 = 3.0000
2.0218 O x 3 = 6.0654

50

These numbers are within the approximately 1% of whole integers,


and are therefore acceptable.
Empirical formula: C7H5
22.
Chem 161-2003 Exam I
Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Empirical and molecular formulas
The molecular weight of a compound whose empirical formula is B 2CH3 is measured to
be 184. The molecular formula of this compound is
A. choose this choice if none of the others is correct
B. B10C5H15
C. B8C5H15
D. B8C4H12
E. B10C5H17
B2CH3
Empirical weight = (10.81 x 2)+(12.01 x 1)+(1.01 x 3) = 36.66 g
184/36.66 = 5.02
B2CH3 x 5 = B10C5H15
3.
Chem 161-2003 Exam I
Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Empirical and molecular formulas
A compound contains 70.9 % Xe, 20.5 % F, and 8.6 % O, by mass. The empirical formula of the
compound is

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

XeOF2
Xe2O2F2
XeO2F
Choose this choice if none of the others is correct
Xe2OF

Plan: g moles
Xe
70.9
mol = g/AW
70.9/131.30=0.5400
Xe1F2O1

F
20.5

O
8.6

20.5/19.00 = 1.08

8.6/16.00=0.54

8.
Chem 161-2003 Final exam
51

Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Empir & molec. formulas
When 5.00 g of a compound containing only C and H was burned completely in excess oxygen, 15.0 g of
carbon dioxide was isolated. What is the empirical formula of the compound?
A.
B.

C3H6
C4H7

C.

C3H8
CH4
C2H5

D.
E.

CxHy + O2 CO2 +
5.00 g XS
15.0 g

H2O

Plan: gCO2 molCO2 mol C g C g H mol H


15.0 g/(44.01g/mol) = 0.34083 mol CO2 = 0.34083 mol C
0.34083 mol C x (12.01g/mol) = 4.093 g C
5.00 g total - 4.093 g C = 0.907g H
0.907 g H/(1.01 g/mol) = 0.898 mol H
0.34083 mol C: 0.898 mol H = C1H2.635
Multiply by 2 = C2H5.269
Multiply by 3 = C3H7.905
Multiply by 4 = C4H10.54
C3H7.905 is the closest to the options (i.e., C3H8)

24.

Chem 161-2003 Final exam


Chapter 3 - Stoichiometry
Empir & molec. formulas
What is the empirical formula of a compound that contains 15.8% Al, 28.1% S, and
56.1% O by mass?

A.
B.
C.
D.
E.

Al2(SO4) 3
AlSO2
Al2S9O12
Al2SO3
AlSO3

Al
S
O
0.158g 0.281g 0.561g
0.158g/26.982gmol-1 = 0.005856 mol Al

52

0.281g/32.066gmol-1 = 0.008763 mol S


0.561g/16.000gmol-1 = 0.035060 mol O
Al1S1.496O5.987 = Al2S3O12 = Al2(SO4)3

53