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# ENG-737 Digital Spread Spectrum System Signal Dimensionality An arbitrary M-ary signal set m {si (t !

i%& "#t#\$

Lecture 3

'an be completely speci(ied by a linear combination o( ort)onormal basis (unctions* D {+, (t ! ,%& "#t#\$

\$)e signal set is said to be D-dimensional -)en D is t)e minimum number o( ort)onormal basis (unctions necessary to span t)e signal set* .t can be s)o-n t)at D / 0 1D \$ 2)ere3 \$ % signaling inter4al 1D % band-idt) o( t)e D-dimensional signal set No-3 -)ite noise )as in(inite po-er and constant energy in all dimensions* .ncreasing D yields no per(ormance in a -)ite noise en4ironment* A ,ammer or inter(erence source )as a (i5ed (inite po-er* .( -e increase t)e dimensionality o( our signal space in a manner un6no-n to t)e ,ammer3 t)e ,ammer must spread its (inite po-er o4er all t)e coordinates -e mig)t use*
&

2e can reco4er our signal using correlators or matc)ed (ilters -)ic) are designed -it) t)e 6no-n spreading process in mind* E5ample7 Suppose -e )a4e t)e (ollo-ing scenario7 Jammer J(t)

S(t) Tx Rx

r(t % s(t 8 9(t 3 neglecting noise r(t % m(t b(t 8 9(t -)ere3 m(t % message data and b(t % spreading code b(t is a binary -a4e(orm -it) 4alues o( 8& and -&* \$)en3 b(t b(t % b0(t % & 3 (or all t So at t)e recei4er3 r(t b(t % m(t b(t b(t 8 9(t b(t -)ere b(t is an embedded re(erence code at t)e recei4er* r(t b(t % m(t 8 9(t b(t 9(t ,ammer )as been spread and t)e message3 m(t 3 )as been despread*

Concept of Dimensionality

## Concept of Dimensionality (Cont.)

No- ponder t)e conse:uences )ere* & * More ,amming po-er lo-ers t)e signal-to-noise ratio at recei4er 0 * More spreading3 i*e* increasing dimensionality (more band-idt) -ill increase signal-to-noise ratio

;rocessing Gain A(ter processing3 t)e recei4ed spectrum consists o(7 & * \$)e desired in(ormation spectrum 0 * \$)e ,amming signal spread o4er 1s )<* 2e retrie4e our data signal -it) a (ilter o( band-idt) 1m )<* \$)ere(ore3 t)e portion o( t)e ,ammer po-er -)ic) can pass t)roug) t)e (ilter is7 1m = 1s \$)e data )as a po-er ad4antage o( 1s = 1m* \$)is ad4antage is called >processing gain?*

PROCESSING GAIN = PG
;rocessing gain is t)e impro4ement seen by a spread spectrum system in SN@3 -it)in t)e systemAs in(ormation band-idt)3 o4er t)e SN@ in t)e transmission c)annel* ;G % 1S = 1i % @S = @i \$ypical ;G % 0" to B" d1

De(inition7 ;rocessing Gain is t)e impro4ement seen by a spread spectrum system in SN@3 -it)in t)e systemsA in(ormation c)annel3 o4er t)e SN@ in t)e transmission c)annel* Denoted normally as Gp
C

;rocessing Gain (or a SS system is a (unction o( its time-band-idt) product and )ence its dimensionality* ;G % Gp % Dspread = Dunspread % 0 1s \$ = 0 1m \$ Gp % 1s = 1m % @s = @m \$ypically Gp % 0" to B" d1 Do not con(use t)e term processing gain -it) ot)er uses (or t)is term3 i*e* ;G % SN@ o = SN@i 9amming Margin Since Gp is really a measure o( impro4ement in SN@ in t)e presence o( a ,ammer or inter(erence3 possibly a better metric is ,amming margin*

JAMMING MARGIN = MG
9amming margin ta6es into account t)e re:uirement (or a use(ul system output SN@ and allo- (or internal losses* MG % G; D ELsys 8 (S=N 2)ere3 Lsys % system implementation losses (S=N out % SN@ at in(ormation3 despread3 output
out

F 3

d1

9amming margin ta6es into account t)e re:uirement (or a use(ul system output SN@ and allo-s (or internal losses* Mg % Gp D ELsys 8 SN@out F in d1 2)ere3

Lsys % system implementation losses SN@out % re:uired SN@ o( message (or necessary per(ormance E5ample7 A system needs to operate in an en4ironment in -)ic) t)e inter(erence signal is 0G" times t)e desired signal po-er* Ho- muc) processing gain is re:uiredI .nitially3 gi4en only t)is muc) in(ormation7 Gp % &" log (;. = ;s % &" log (0G" % 0C d1 No-3 i( t)e system re:uires a &" d1 SN@3 -)at is t)e minimum ,amming marginI Mg % Gp - ELsys 8 SN@out F Assuming no system losses Mg % 0C D &" % &C d1 Jinally3 i( -e are to o4er come a ,ammer at t)is le4el and still maintain a SN@ % &" d1 (,ammer % 0C d1 (0G" times * Gp % &" 8 0C % 3C d1 .( t)e in(ormation rate is B 6bps3 -)at is t)e minimum @J band-idt) re:uiredI 12s = 12. % 3C d1 K 12s % 3C 8 &" log B 5 &"3 % 7&*7L d1 % &G*"7 M)< . -ill )a4e more to say about Gp later on*

## Digital Modulation \$ec)ni:ues

DIGITAL MODULATION TECHNIQUES
Information signals (baseband signals) must be processed before transmission to be compatible it! t!e c!annel " baseband signal modulates a !ig! fre#uency carrier by \$arying t!e carrier%s p!ase& amplitude& or fre#uency In digital systems t!ere are ' basic modulation sc!emes(
) *!ase s!ift +eying (*S,) ) "mplitude s!ift +eying ("S,) ) -re#uency s!ift +eying (-S,)

In general modulated signal is of t!e form( S(t) . "(t) cos /0fo t 1 (t)2

.n(ormation signals (baseband signals must be processed be(ore transmission to be compatible -it) t)e c)annel* 1aseband modulation D Mses basis (unctions t)at )a4e t)eir energy at lo(re:uencies* ;assband modulation D Mses basis (unctions t)at )a4e energy centered at or near a carrier (re:uency* A baseband signal modulates a )ig) (re:uency carrier by 4arying t)e carrierAs p)ase3 amplitude3 or (re:uency* .n digital systems t)ere t)ree basic modulation sc)emes7 & * ;)ase-s)i(t 6eying (;SN 0 * Amplitude-s)i(t 6eying (ASN 3 * Jre:uency-s)i(t 6eying (JSN \$)e general e:uation o( a modulated signal is o( t)e (orm7 s(t % A(t cosE0O("t 8 P(t F

2)ere3 A(t is t)e amplitude term (" is t)e (re:uency term P(t is t)e p)ase term 1inary ;)ase S)i(t Neying (1;SN 'onsider t)e message signal m(t to be bipolar3 non-return-to-<er" (N@Q 3 binary signal*

## 3inary *!ase S!ift ,eying (3*S,)

\$)e transmitted 1;SN signal is7 s(t % A m(t cos (0O("t Since m(t % 8& or -&3 t-o symbols are possible7 s&(t % A cos (0O("t s0(t % - A cos (0O("t Since3 - cos (0O("t % cos (0O("t 8 O
L

## 3*S, Circuit Implementation

.( t)e message m(t is random3 t)e p)ase ( " or &L"" is random and s)o-n as a continuous ;SD in t)e s)ape o( a sinc (unction* Multiplying m(t by cos(0O("t translates t)e spectrum to t)e carrier (re:uency (" * \$)e band-idt) re:uired (or 1;SN is 0=\$ (null-to-null or 013 -)ere 1 is t)e band-idt) o( t)e message signal* All energy is distributed in t)e sidebands* 1;SN )as no carrier component i( message is random* 1inary Amplitude S)i(t Neying Assume m(t to be a unipolar3 N@Q3 signal* \$)e ASN signal is -ritten7 s(t % A m(t cos (0O("t or3 s(t % A cos (0O("t 3 m(t % & " 3 m(t % "

## 3inary "mplitude4S!ift ,eying (3"S,)

\$)e same circuit used (or 1;SN is used (or ASN* \$)e spectrum o( ASN is slig)tly di((erent* 2)yI

Spectrum of 3"S,

ASK differs from PSK in that ASK has carrier com onent d!e to DC "a#!e of m\$t%

ASN )as a carrier component due to t)e D' 4alue in m(t * \$)e band-idt) re:uired (or transmission o( 1ASN is 01 (same as (or ;SN * 1inary Jre:uency-S)i(t Neying (1JSN Again3 consider m(t to be a bipolar3 N@Q3 signal* \$)e transmitted 1JSN signal is -ritten7
&"

## \$)e spectrum o( a 1JSN signal is s)o-n belo-*

3-S, *o er Spectrum

12 % (0 D (& 8 0 1 \$)e c)oice o( )o- close to ma6e (& and (0 -ill depend on t)e rate o( m(t * \$)e recei4er must be able to distinguis) (& (rom (0 -it) minimum error*

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